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🎥 | Suzu Hirose A fierce weight loss ramen in a movie shoot 4 months off After shooting, Suzu Hirose "tears" sobbing


Photo Suzu Hirose

Suzu Hirose A fierce weight loss ramen in a movie shoot 4 months off After shooting, Suzu Hirose "tears" sobbing

 
If you write the contents roughly
In the program, after shooting the movie, the scene of eating ramen at a Chinese restaurant was also shown, and Hirose who sipped the noodles said, "I'm going to tear.
 

Actress Suzu Hirose will appear on TBS's "Sunday's First Ear Study" broadcast on the 15th.A spectacular diet to make a movie role ... → Continue reading

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Chinese cuisine

ChineseDishLogo.png
Chinese cuisine
Mother cooking
Eight major cooking systems
一 Shandong cuisine
Beijing food
Court cuisine
two Sichuan cuisine
Yunnan cuisine
Guizhou cuisine
three Hunan cuisine
four Jiangsu cuisine
Shanghai cuisine
五 Zhejiang food
六 Anhui cuisine
Seven Fujian cuisine
Taiwanese cuisine
Eight Cantonese cuisine
Chaozhou cuisine
Hakka cuisine
Shunde cuisine
Other systems
Pure cuisine
Hubei cuisine
Jiangxi cuisine
Macau food
Super system food
Yakuzen cuisine
Vegetarian food
Taiwanese food
noodles
点心

Chinese cuisine(Chinese food,Simplified Chinese: 中国 菜,pinyin: Zhōng guó cài<John Guo Tsai>,Traditional Chinese: Chinese cuisine,Cantonese: Chinese food and drink) IsChugokuHas been eaten inCuisineOr the techniqueSeasoningsMade usingCuisine.Chinese foodAlso called[1][2]..With a variety of techniques and flavors,The world's three major dishesIt is listed in one of.

Overview

In China, which has a relatively large land area, the climate, geography, history, and history of each regionFoodstuff・ There are uniquely formed cooking methods and seasoned dishes due to differences in eating habits.Widely spread worldwide including Japan, andLocalizationIs also progressing.

Excluding RussiaEuropeIt has a vast land area comparable to the total area of ​​all the countries in Japan.GeographyTargetclimateIn China, where the characteristics of each region are different, such as the conditions, the ingredients are different in each region, andHan peopleAssimilated into, or once dominated the Han ChinesePeopleBecause it is based on, there are large regional differences in its cooking method and seasoning (Regional classificationSee).Strongly influenced by the Chinese civilizationJapan-Korea-VietnamEven in neighboring countries such as, it has a great influence on the cooking method of that country.Also, since modern times, he has traveled all over the world as an immigrant.OverseasThey brought it to the country of immigration, so it was transmitted to many countries.Among them, "Chinese style" that has evolved not seen in mainland China, fused with the cuisine of the country brought in, using ingredients that do not exist in mainland China, and devised by local cooks. There is also Chinese food that should be called.

For this reason, it is difficult to mention the character common to Chinese food,Former generationSince then, in China, it has been emphasized to eat hot cooked meals, soWokUsingJapanese cuisine,Western cuisineUses stronger firepower thanStir fryIs conspicuousoil(lard-Sesame OilEtc.) tend to be used a lot.vice versaRaw vegetablesUse less and cold dishes[3]..In Chinese culture, cold water is not preferred even in drinking water[4]Served in the form of tea, plain hot water or room temperature[Annotation 1]..As for seafood, overall except for the Cantonese region near the sea and the Guangdong region.Freshwater fishIs more likely to be used.

Also in ChinaReligiousTypicaltabooByBuddhismSword (Tibetan BuddhismExcept),TaoismFor believersVegetarian foodAsVegetarian dishAndIslamFor people豚 肉And its processed products, do not use lardChinese Islamic(Pure cuisine), But there are similarities in cooking utensils, techniques, unavoidable ingredients, and seasonings.

History

Ancient timesChinese food was quite different from what it is today.Stewed, grilled on an open fireCaneThere are many (hot things), and today they are goneDeafness(sashimiRaw meat and fish dishes like this) are also often eaten, and "discipline and blow the roasting" and "roast the population" ("roasting" is grilled on an open fire).Grilled meat) ”, Etc. from ancient Chinaこ と わ ざ-慣用 句You can also see.For ancient Chinese food, see "General civil arts] Is detailed.

The stir-fry technique that requires strong heat, which is often used in current Chinese cuisine, isNorthern Song DynastyOriginally in the age ofcoalProcessedCoke(Coke)But磁器Used in the production of, it is for cookingFurnace,Furnace,Iron potIt was created by being diverted to[5][6]..After thatSouthern Song DynastyからyuanStir-fried foods became popular over the generations.From around the same timeWoodblock printingDue to the development ofRecipesMany collections (recipe)PublicationCame to be[7][Annotation 2].

Since then, it has evolved by actively incorporating ingredients and seasonings from all over the world, digesting and applying them, and creating original dishes.Mabo tofu OfRed peppersAndBlue crab meat Ofgreen pepperEtc. are indispensable ingredients for Chinese food, but what was introduced to China16st centurySince then, it is an ingredient introduced in the early modern period from the historical background.Also,Cantonese cuisineIndispensable forOyster sauce The19st centuryDeveloped at the end20st centuryIt became popular after enteringFujian cuisineOften used in Cantonese cuisineSatayThe source isIndonesia,MalaysiaIt incorporates the seasonings that came from.

In addition, while Chinese food has a great influence on foreign countries, the method of Chinese food is alsoJapanese cuisineIt is not uncommon to be greatly influenced by foreign cuisine, including, and to achieve its own development.From the style of separating the dishes served on the platterFrench cuisineThe dishes served for each person are served in the order of the course, and the ingredients and cooking methods are modernly refined.Nouvelle ShinovaIs an example.

Greater ChinaNot only by the World Chinese Food Association, which gathers Chinese food related organizations from all over the world including Japan1992/The world championship of Chinese food is also held from[10][11].

Chinese food from each country

Chugoku

In ChinaEight cuisinesThe most commonly used regional classification is (eight major Chinese dishes).In addition, there are many ways to divide the food, such as the rough four major vegetables and the detailed classification method.

Chinese food in Japan

In Japan, Chinese food has become established as one of the daily and / or hare day meal options, not only for Chinese and overseas Chinese cooks in Japan, but also for so-calledTown chineseThere are also many local Japanese cooks, as evidenced by the fact that is located all over Japan.Japan OfChinatownMost of them are said to be of Cantonese origin, and onlyNagasaki Shinchi ChinatownOnly Fujian has been considered, but in recent yearsNortheastern ChinaThe number of immigrants from various places is increasing.Former ManchuriafromRepatriatorA dish derived from northeastern China (partly due to the influence ofGrilled dumplingsEtc.) are also quite pervasive.Also in JapanSichuan ProvinceNative chefChen Jian NHK"Today's dishes”, And the recipe was released.Shrimp chili,Mabo tofu,Dantan noodlesSuch asSichuan cuisineIs widespread.Arranged according to the tastes of Japanese people, it is widely used not only for eating out but also for home cooking.RamenAnd shrimp chili,sweet and sour pork,Babao, Mapo tofu, etc. are often different from those in China.Okinawan cuisineEven inOkinawa regionDeeply related to China from the historical background ofRafute(Dongpo porkPork dishes like (Dongpo pork) is the originator)ChamplooSuch as popular tofu and stir-fried vegetables, "OkinawaThere are many Chinese dishes that have been made.

To give the image of an authentic Chinese restaurantChinese food(Or give it a region name and say "Cantonese cuisine","Shanghai cuisine","Beijing food","Sichuan cuisineThere is also a restaurant called ")[1].

Since 1973 (the year after the normalization of diplomatic relations between Japan and China), NHK's Broadcasting Terminology Committee has been using "Chinese food" in principle.[Annotation 3]Therefore, it also shows the possibility of allowing the use of "Chinese food".[2].

Four major Chinese dishes in Japan

In Japan, "Cantonese cuisine","Shanghai cuisine","Beijing food","Sichuan cuisine"ofFour major Chinese dishesIs generally classified as.

Types of Chinese food[13]
系統Concrete exampleIngredientsFeature
Northern system

(Beijing foodSuch)

Peking duck,Zhajiangmian,boiled gyozaWheat, pig, sheepStrong and salty
Western system

(Sichuan cuisineSuch)

Mabo tofu,Inui-yaki Etsuhito,Hot and sour soupRice, pork, chicken, soybeansSpicesThere are many spicy dishes using
Southern Department

(Cantonese cuisineSuch)

(Chinese version,English edition,Fried rice,Kashaki,Wonton,ShrimpRice, pork, seafood, rock pasteMake the best use of the taste of ingredients with a light taste
Touhou

(Shanghai cuisineSuch)

Babao,Steamed Shanghai crab,Small basket parcel,Shengjian mantou,WontonRice, pork, seafoodStrong sweetness

Chinese food popular in Japan

Chinese food in the world

Mainly by Guangdong Chinese, Western and Japanese,Southeast AsiaIt has become widespread in such countries and is being localized."Original" Chinese food that does not exist in China also exists in each country, for example, Japanchilled Chinese noodles,America OfChapsui,IndonesiaEtc.Nasi goreng, South Korea OfChajangmyungAnd so on.In Southeast AsiaGuangdongに 加 え てFujian ProvinceMany immigrants fromFujian cuisineIs also popular.Shabu shabuIs "rinseLamb(Schwann Yang Roh, pinyin: Shuàn yáng ròu) ”is said to have been devised in Japan with a hint of a lamb pot.AlsoTaiwanOriginatedMongolian barbecue(Mongolian barbecue) is based on teppanyaki of lamb called torture lamb, and is a popular dish in the United States.Both of these have their roots in the best way to eat lamb in Mongolia (later China).Do not keep the original shape[Original research?]..In addition, there are many chefs around the world, including Japan, who are aiming for new creative Chinese cuisine that incorporates ingredients and cooking methods of other genres.

Korean Chinese food

Indian Chinese food

Chinese food in Peru

Western Chinese food

WesternEven in countries such asChinatownChinese food is popular, but Western Chinese residentsGuangdongImmigrants fromOverseas,Chinese) Was also a backgroundCantonese cuisineThere are many.In some cases, the seasoning is changed according to the tastes of the locals.For exampleAmericaThen.ketchupIt is much sweeter and deeper than in China, with plenty of it added.Since these dishes do not fit the Chinese tongue, there are cases where the same dish is prepared in two types, one for Americans and one for Chinese.[14]..Due to such localization, the taste of the same store has long been changed within a few months after opening.[15]There are also factors such as the purpose of matching the taste and the difficulty in obtaining authentic seasonings.

Cooking method

As it is commonly said, "Cantonese people eat anything other than their parents if they have two legs, desks and chairs if they have four legs, cars other than cars if they run, submarines if they swim, and airplanes if they fly in the sky." The ingredients are diverse and diverse.For this reason, there are an extremely large number of types.The same applies to the cooking method.How to fryThere are nearly 10 types of stir-fry, depending on the technique and the length of time, such as "stir-fry, stir-fry, stir-fry, stir-fry, raw stir-fry, and stir-fry."Furthermore, if the seasoning used for this is changed, more than 100 kinds of dishes can be made with the stir-fried green vegetables alone.As a result, the number of dishes that one Chinese chef can cook is tens of thousands.

how to cut

List of how to cut Chinese foodSee also.

segment(Duan)
Cut off with long and thin ingredients.There are a wide variety of sizes, such as small cuts, round slices, and bite-sized pieces.
mass(Kui)
Chopped.
Piece(Pien)
Sliced ​​and sliced.It has the characteristic of cutting along the fiber.
article(Tiao)
Strip cutting and clapping wood cutting.
(Sue)
Shredded.
Ding(Din)
Dicing, diced. When carved into 5mm squares, it is called a "small chopstick".In particular, the technique of first cutting the grid-like lines and then cutting them in order is called "Kikuhanacho".[16].
(fan)
Similar to "Shikishi cutting", cut the ingredients into small square slices.Basically, the ingredients are first cut out as square pillars so that the bottom is square, and then sliced.When the bottom of the square pillar is first made into a rhombus, it becomes a technique called "inlay".[17].
A void(Soon)
Slightly coarsely chopped[18].
End(Meaux)
Chopped.
Crest(Wen)
"Kanoko cutting", "Matsukasa cutting" to make diagonal cuts, and to dye the tasteHidden knifeRefers to.
Fan(Shanu's)
Ginkgo cut.
Buddha hand(Foreo)
A cooking method in which four cuts are made from the same direction in a bite-sized ingredient, leaving the root.When heated, the notch widensBuddhaIt is called this because it resembles the palm of a person.It has the advantage of improving not only auspiciousness but also the passage of fire and the taste stain.Japan alsoTanmen,BabaoSquid,点心 OfManjuOften used for[19].
(Ron)
..Insert a knife diagonally into the cucumber, radish, carrot, etc. used for garnish, and then insert the same knife from the back side, and then soak it in salt water to improve the spread.
flower(Hoa)
A decorative cut for serving as a single item.mainlyGinseng,Winter melonElephants such as dragons and phoenixes and flowering trees are modeled using hard vegetables such as.
Oil-based
fry(Chao)
Fry with a small amount of oil.
One of the standards of Chinese food.
A cooking method that cooks in a short time.
burst(Bao)
"fryA method of frying at once over high heat.
Fried(Ja, Zah)
How to cook fried food.With Chinese cai.Basically fry at high temperature.
Cut the ingredients to the same size and shape so that they are cooked evenly and fried evenly.
"Ganjaa" for deep-fried foods, "Kiyo" for deep-fried seasoned ingredients, and "Lowanjaa" for deep-fried unwhipped eggs and flour. When the ingredients are cooked for the purpose of softening and shortening the frying time, and then deep-fried with clothes, it is called "Sujaa".In particularmeringueToCornstarch,potato starchThe cooking method of adding the above to the garment and frying it at a relatively low temperature for a long time has a special name of "Gaori".[20].
Fry(Jen)
A cooking method that bake both sides well.
(Hui)
Ankake..Thicken and finish.
Ming oil(Minyou)
A cooking method in which a small amount of oil is sprinkled on the finish to increase the flavor, aroma, and shine of the dish and maintain the temperature.Chicken oil is mainly used as cooking oil.[21].
Water system
cook(Ju)
Boil.
(Dun)
Stew (on a simmering fire), simmer.
cooking(Poun)
Boil the fried ingredients quickly.
(Moon)
Stew the fried ingredients.
(Tuan)
Boil quickly.Hot water.
steam(John)
Steam.Let the steam through.puff."Steaming" is performed for the purpose of heating, and at the same time, the ingredients are sometimes seasoned with raw water (Yuantan).The cooking method used to sprinkle flour and put on a fluffy thin batter is called "powder steaming".Chawan steamedWhen used for the main cooking purpose, it is called "steaming".[22].
rinse(Shuan)
Lightly boil the sliced ​​ingredients.
Make it shabu-shabu.
Water and oil mixture system
burn(Xiao)
One of the standards of Chinese food.Stewed or grilled aburi.
Ganshao is a technique of frying until the water is gone.
In Harayu (Yuantan)Soy sauceRed-cooking (Hong Xiao) is boiled with seasonings and spices.ShanghaiIt is a typical cooking method of, and it is diversified to the extent that it can be further divided into five by the method of preparation in advance.[23].
(Way)
Add seasoning and simmer over low heat for a long time.It may also indicate baking over low heat.
(Roux)
Boil the ingredients that have been soaked in salty sauce in advance.
Grill(Par)
Cooked food.
Fire Department
grilled(Khao)
Grilled.
A cooking method that is grilled over an open flame.
(Shun)
Warm smoke.Various flavorstea,Medicinal herb,vanillaMay be added.
Soy sauce(Gien)
Pickled
(Yen)
Salt it. (Widely) Put it on miso, soy sauce, etc.
slip(Ryo)
AnkakeTo
More informations
mix(Van)
Stir, mix.Dare.
Hanging(Geuer)
mud(Nii)
Crush and grate.
It is also used across disciplines as an expression for "thickening cooking method" and "simmering cooking method".[24].
(Ron)
Make the ingredients (possibly multiple) into a paste.
(pie)
Beat the ingredients and crush them roughly.You can use the back of a kitchen knife to squeeze it lightly to the left and right, make a light cut in the vegetables, and cut the meat in the same way as the crest (Wen).[25].

Etiquette

Cantonese cuisineone ofDim sumIn the case of, when you make tea, tap the table with your index finger.This is a thank you to the person who pours it.this is,点心When you eat, you usually enjoy talking and eating, so if you thank the person who pours the tea, you will break the conversation with other people, so this is to prevent it.

When eating Chinese food in many, do not hold the plate by hand.For soupsLotus flowerThat's why it comes with (dust).Also, when eating soups and noodles, do not make a noise.[26]..Rice and soup are spoon spoons, side disheschopsticksuse.Basically, there are no chopsticks on the platter, and each one uses their own chopsticks directly, so the chopsticks are thick and long.[27].

When visiting as a guest, there are many dishes that cannot be eaten.In addition, because there is a culture of taking leftover food home, there are many stores in China where you can "take away" leftover food.

When ordering in the course, the noodles and rice come out last in the order of appetizer, soup, main dish, and other dishes.

drink

tea

liqueur

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ There is a similar tendency in Taiwan.This is not the case for Chinese restaurants outside of China.
  2. ^ Examples of recipes include the Tang dynasty's "Shokuishinkan", the Song dynasty's "Nakashiroku" and "Yamake Kiyoto", the Yuan dynasty's "Drinking set Masayoshi" and "House Necessary Items", and the Kiyoyo's "Suiyuan Shidan』There is.The recipe is "dailyLeishuOverlaps with[8]..Some are translated into Japanese[9].
  3. ^ According to the 2018 poll, 82% said "Chinese food" (not "Chinese food"), and 11% said "Chinese food". The faction is overwhelming[12].

Source

  1. ^ a b Yomiuri Shimbun Osaka Editorial Bureau, "Miscellaneous Newspaper" <PHP Bunko> 2000, 60 pages. 
  2. ^ a b "The 1428th Broadcasting Terminology Committee (Tokyo) October 2018, 10 Decision and report of terms- "Aquarium" "Washing machine" "Advance school" "Demi-glace sauce / Demi-glace sauce" etc.-"Broadcasting Research and Survey," Vol. 69, No. 1, NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, January 2019.
  3. ^ In traditional dishes, cold noodles, powdered skin,Apricot tofuIt is a degree.
  4. ^ "Differences in lifestyle between Japan and China "Japanese who like cold water and Chinese who like hot water" = Chinese media (March 2019, 3)”(Japanese). Excite News. 2020/6/1Browse.
  5. ^ Ishige Naochi"Cultural Geography of Food in the World" Kodansha Academic Bunko, 2013.ISBN-978 4062921718.. 65 pages.
  6. ^ Miyazaki city fixed Written by "Coal and Iron in the Song Dynasty",Mamoru Tonami Hen "Chinese Civilization Theory" Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Bunko>, 1995.ISBN 9784003313312. 
  7. ^ Kazuhiro Iwama "World History of Chinese Cuisine Beyond the Nationalism of Gastronomy"Keio University Press, 2021.ISBN 9784766427646. Pages 37-39.
  8. ^ Sakade, Yoshinobu"About Daily Leishu" "Introduction to Chinese Classic Literature for Beginners" Chikuma Shobo <Chikuma Gakugei Bunko>, 2018 (Original 2008).ISBN 978-4480098696. 
  9. ^ Takashi Nakamura Translation "Chinese recipe"Heibonsha Toyo Bunko, 1995.ISBN-978 4582805949
  10. ^ "The 5th Chinese Cuisine World Competition held in Guangzhou, China". Japan Chinese Cuisine Association. 2017/10/31Browse.
  11. ^ "World Chinese Cooking Association". Baidu. 2017/11/6Browse.
  12. ^ Takehiro Shioda "What to do about the problem of" should "-From the 2018" Survey on Japanese Fluctuations "-" Broadcasting Research and Survey, Vol. 68, No. 12, NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, 2018.
  13. ^ Imperial ShoinEditorial department (Misao Moriya) "New edition, junior high school social studies map (first edition), Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology certified textbook 46 (empire) map-704 for junior high school social studies" Teikoku Shoin editorial department, 2008/1/25, 21 From the bottom of the page.
  14. ^ "" Inquisitive NY Chinatown "one dollar higher in the same menu" delivered on March 2007, 3 Sankei iza
  15. ^ Masatoshi Okouchi, "Mika", p118, 1947, Tokyo, Yujosha
  16. ^ https://www.cookdoor.jp/useful/glossary/chinese-food/2248101/
  17. ^ https://www.cookdoor.jp/useful/glossary/chinese-food/2253001/
  18. ^ https://www.cookdoor.jp/chinese-food/dictionary/21225_china_025/
  19. ^ https://www.cookdoor.jp/useful/glossary/chinese-food/2254301/
  20. ^ https://www.cookdoor.jp/useful/glossary/chinese-food/2234501/
  21. ^ https://www.cookdoor.jp/useful/glossary/chinese-food/2258001/
  22. ^ https://www.cookdoor.jp/useful/glossary/chinese-food/2246401/
  23. ^ https://www.cookdoor.jp/useful/glossary/chinese-food/2256301/
  24. ^ https://www.cookdoor.jp/useful/glossary/chinese-food/2250001/
  25. ^ https://www.cookdoor.jp/useful/glossary/chinese-food/2250801/
  26. ^ Tourism Business Division, General Policy Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism; Japan Transportation Corporation (public interest incorporated foundation) (June 2008). Manual for foreign customers with diverse food cultures and customs (Report). Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. P. 108. https://www.mlit.go.jp/common/000059429.pdf 2016/8/25Browse.. 
  27. ^ June 2020, 4 Chunichi Shimbun morning edition Sunday edition 12 page

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