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🎥 | Marvel signs new contract for portrait rights of Stan Lee, which can be used in future movies and dramas

Photo Stan Lee is back at the MCU! – Axelle / Bauer-Griffin / FilmMagic / Getty Images

Marvel signs new contract for portrait rights of Stan Lee, which can be used in future movies and dramas

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According to the site, Marvel Studios will be able to use Lee's name, voice and portrait in feature films, TV shows and Disney theme parks for the next 20 years under a new contract (VR and video games are not contracted).

Marvel Studios, which develops the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU), is the late Stan Lee's Xiao ... → Continue reading

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Video games

Video gamesIs mainly for general consumerstv setgame machine"byComputer gamesTerm to refer to[1].TV receiverThedisplayWas able to be used asJapanglish[Annotation 1]In English, it is commonly referred to as a video game.

Also, as a hypernymConsumer gamesandConsumer game console[3]There are, these areHandheld gamesandPortable game consoleとHome gamesandHome game consoleSubdivided into, home video game consoles are video game consoles[4][Annotation 2], Also known as video game consoles and stationary game consoles[6].


A bird's-eye view of the technology system

From a technically bird's-eye view, games in the early days were computers from the 1950s to the 1960s.Large computer,Mini computerThe genealogy of software-powered games written for (kind) and (others, oscilloscopes and simpleElectronic circuit(There is also a one-shot, experimental game) that combines the 1970s digitalIC,LSIGenealogy of game consoles by, then full-scale that appeared after 1977CPUSchemeMicroprocessorIt is also possible to classify into the genealogy of game machines that run on software.

Since the development of IC / LSI type game machines and CPU type game machines, it has become widespread in the home.

Outside the home (prehistory)

To understand the context, let's start with a little touch on the games outside the home that preceded them: tube computers in the 1950s.EDSACTo use"OXOWas created, and in 1957oscilloscopePlaying tennis at the bright spot of "Tennis for TwoThere is an example such as.Both are cathode ray tubes (CRT) As a display deviceVector scanCeremony and modernRaster scanThe taste is different from.Tennis for Two isAnalog computerとrelay,CapacitorEtc.Electronic partsIt was made with a combination of. At MIT in 1962PDP-1To use"Space War!The software was written.

Incidentally,arcade gameThe use of CPU (microprocessor) inWestern gunThe 1977 American version of "" is said to be the first ( en: Gun Fight See).

History of game consoles in the home

To explain the beginning of the history of game consoles that can be played at home, electronic game consoles that use home TVs as display devices were announced in 1971.4004Such,LSI(Large scaleIntegrated circuit) Has become feasible due to the improvement in the degree of integration. In September 1972, Magnavox announced thatOdysseyReleased (approximately 1975 units sold by the end of production in 35). In November 1972AtariThe company saidPongReleased.Similar products and kits were released by other companies (it is estimated that about 1 genuine "pons" were sold and about 20 counterfeit machines were sold worldwide).In each case, one fixed type or at most XNUMX types of games can be played by switching simple circuits, and the controller etc. were directly connected.

(After 1977-1978Personal computerFor exampleApple II,PET Commodore,TK-80BS,MZ-80KMany game software have been produced, and the owners enjoyed the game at home, and it will develop greatly as a PC game there. aboutGame software,Pc gamesI will explain in the article)

Atari, Inc. of the United States in 1977Atari VCSReleased,MOS6507To say8bitCPUThe game software was sold in the ROM cartridge format, which became a hit and became popular in homes (about 2004 million units sold by 3000).[7]). In 1981, Epoch Co., Ltd. of JapanCassette visionWas released, and this was a method in which an LSI (1-chip microcomputer) was built in the cassette and the cassette was replaced so that multiple games could be played (1983 to 9 units were sold by September 40). In 45, NintendoNESLaunched (the first NES) and sold it worldwide under the name NES, called Ricoh RP2A03.MOS6502It uses a compatible 8bit CPU, and the software isRom cassette(Same principle as ROM cartridge) was sold.This became a huge hit worldwide, and video game consoles became more widespread in earnest (sales continued until 2003, and cumulative worldwide sales reached approximately 6,291 million units).

As a user interface, there are many types that a general-purpose controller is included, and unless there is a special reason, the platform maker should make it so that the game production company can always play with the general-purpose controller included in the main body. Although it is often requested, it has become expandable, such as being able to externally attach a controller and other peripheral devices specialized for specific game software.

The software for home video game consoles is initially a cartridge system (cassette system), and thenCD-ROM,Otheroptical diskThe types supplied by have also increased.

Of home video game consolesア ー キ テ ク チ ャTo explain, if you explain with an example of a SONY game machine, it was released in 2000.PlayStation 2And was released in 2006PlayStation 3Until the mid-2000s, we adopted a special architecture that was completely different from PCs, aiming for higher performance than high-end PCs of the same era. Since it became difficult to exceed, it was released in 2013PlayStation 4In a way that customizes the PC architecture for games from[8], It has come to be designed with an emphasis on cost performance.Similar changes have occurred in home video game consoles from other manufacturers, albeit at a slightly different time.

Today'sHome game console[9]Regions with particularly large marketsJapan,North America(AmericaとCanada),Europe(EspeciallyGermany,United Kingdom,France), And these regions are the center of the world market[10][11].Game software TheBoxed editionからDigital distributionThe shift is progressing to[12].Download contents (DLC) and the mainstreaming from sold-out type to operational type are accelerating[13][14].

Rise of network platforms[15],Smartphone-Tablet such asSmart deviceGames for games increased[16][17][18].User generated content(UGC) ande sports[19][20],Indies[21][22][23][24],Crowdfunding[25][26][27], "Gameplay with as little gameplay as possible"[28], Of the gap timesocial gameAnd "game with zero play time" (Gamification-Game commentary) Also became a hot topic[29].

Connection method with TV

In early video games, to show the image on the TVRF connectionWas used.This was when video games first appearedVideo terminalThis is because TV receivers with external video / audio input terminals such as these have not been widely used.Especially when Famicom is widespread, the lineup of color TVs released by home appliance manufacturers is very rich, and it is said that it is an inexpensive TV with a 14-inch screen.InfraredThere were many low-priced machines that did not have a video terminal even if a remote control was installed, and RF connection was common until the latter half of the 1980s.The connection was made using a switching box with the intention of preventing signal interference with the antenna wire.The voice was also on the VHF signal.

Since the signal level of this RF output is not very high, bleeding, flickering, and interference are likely to occur. As TVs with video input terminals became widespread from the 1990s, video games gradually came to have video output terminals, so RF output gradually became obsolete, and RCA terminals that were easy to connect and could achieve high image quality and high sound quality. Became the mainstream.However, models that support RF output depending on peripheral devices have existed since the 2000s.

After that, in the latter half of the 2000s, TVs became high-resolution digital TVs and at the same time digitally connected.HDMI terminalHas become widespread, and video games are now equipped with an HDMI terminal.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In the English-speaking world, TV games are TV gamesQuiz showPoint to[2].
  2. ^ video games(British: video game) Refers to the use of general video displays more widely than televisions.arcade gameIncluding a part of.note that,NESHas the notation on the package that it is a home cassette video game.[5].


  1. ^ "Video games』- Koto bank
  2. ^ "Video Game Culture Theory" Hiroshi Masuyama ISBN-4 06-149573-9
  3. ^ "Consumer game console』- Koto bank
  4. ^ "video game』- Koto bank
  5. ^ NESFrom the package of
  6. ^ "Home game console』- Koto bank
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ "Hiroshige Goto's Weekly Overseas News This "next-generation game console war" is different here". 2014/10/24Browse.
  10. ^ "Attendance report of "JETRO Game Business Overseas Expansion Seminar: Current Status of Major Overseas Game Markets and Expansion Examples of Japanese Companies" posted". 2014/10/24Browse.
  11. ^ "Top 100 Countries by Game Revenues". 2014/10/24Browse.
  12. ^ "Approximately 7% of the world market is digitally distributed ── "Famitsu Game White Paper 2014", which surveys domestic and overseas game market trends, is published". 2014/10/24Browse.
  13. ^ "[Hirabra vol.38] "When will you do it?" → "Now!"". 2014/10/24Browse.
  14. ^ "KADOKAWA / DWANGO Famitsu Group Representative Hirokazu Hamamura Lecture "Current Situation and Prospects of the Game Industry <Autumn 2014>" Detailed Report (1/5)". 2014/10/24Browse.
  15. ^ "What is the point of making a hit in the era of the Hyakuhana Ryoran? Lecture by Famitsu Group Representative Hirokazu Hamamura "Current Situation and Prospects of the Game Industry <Spring 2014>" Detailed Report". 2014/10/24Browse.
  16. ^ "Enterbrain's Hirokazu Hamamura gave a lecture "Current Situation and Prospects of the Game Industry <Spring 2013>". Famitsu. KADOKAWA/Enterbrain (September 2013, 4). 2013/8/3Browse.
  17. ^ "Nintendo's Shigeru Miyamoto makes a surprise appearance at an Apple event! "Mario" Appears on iOS [Breaking News]". 2016/11/7Browse.
  18. ^ "Five to six titles of games for smartphones that make use of the IP and experience cultivated on PlayStation will appear in FY2017. Ask SIE's new company, Forward Works, about its aim". 2016/11/7Browse.
  19. ^ "[Series] Ando and Iwano's "This is going to happen!" --11th "I tried my best to think about what kind of games will sell in the future."". 2016/11/7Browse.
  20. ^ "SCE WWS Shuhei Yoshida and others talk about future games and users [gamescom 2014]". 2014/10/24Browse.
  21. ^ "Norifumi Ono's game review: "Indies" that holds the key to next-generation games". Mainichi Shimbun (September 2013, 2). 2013/8/3Browse.
  22. ^ "An exciting self-produced game ... We asked about the future prospects at a joint roundtable discussion by the people concerned.”. Eid (October 2013, 10). 2013/10/27Browse.
  23. ^ ""Japanese indie games should attract the attention of Europe and the United States" Directly hit the organizer of the "BitSummit" that introduces Japanese indie games to the world!". Famitsu. KADOKAWA/Enterbrain (September 2013, 3). 2013/8/3Browse.
  24. ^ ""Branching Paths" preview report, how did the French director perceive the Japanese indie game scene?". 2016/11/7Browse.
  25. ^ "[Complete illustration] Recommended for Kickstarter.Why Crowdfunding Expands the Future of Games". 4Gamer.net. Aetas (November 2013, 12). 2013/12/28Browse.
  26. ^ "Crowdfunding is the hope of the Japanese game industry.We asked Keiji Inafune about his thoughts on the development of "Mighty No. 9" and the development of young creators.". 2014/10/24Browse.
  27. ^ "Access Accepted No. 515: New crowdfunding "Fig" where investment can be profitable". 2016/11/7Browse.
  28. ^ "Access Accepted 406th: 2013 titles of 10 that gamers of "overseas game enthusiasts" want to play". 4Gamer.net. Aetas (November 2013, 12). 2013/12/28Browse.
  29. ^ "What was "Minecraft" after all?The past and future of the game, as pointed out by monster titles that have broken many common senses". 4Gamer.net. Aetas (November 2013, 12). 2013/12/28Browse.

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