Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🎥 | Too dangerous and full of bruises ... "Jurassic World" heroine, Tom Cruise-class transcendence in the final version ...


Bryce Dallas Howard – (c) 2022 Universal Studios and Amblin Entertainment. All Rights Reserved.

It's too dangerous and full of bruises ... "Jurassic World" heroine, Tom Cruise-class transcendence in the final version ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
It would be great if I could get involved in some way, and I don't mind if I watch it in a movie theater as an audience, "he said, hoping for the birth of a new" Jurassic "series.
 

Bryce Dallas Howard, who plays the heroine Claire in the movie "Jurassic World" series, is the latest work ... → Continue reading

 Cinema Today


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Movie theater

Movie theater(Eikan,British: movies, Rice: movie theater) Is an unspecified numberaudienceAgainstmoviesTo be screened professionallyFacility.

Overview

Big in front of the audience seats in the cinemascreenTo (projection screen)projectorThe work is projected by.

In 1899PhiladelphiaWill screen a movie at the exposition held inParthenonKaze-no-Kazeno was opened for a limited time. This is also the world's first movie theater. From about 1905, there was a fashionable movie theater in the US for 5 cents. These cinemasSilent movieWas being screened. →#history

A movie theater is characterized by its large screen, so the works and movie theaters shown in the movie theater are symbolically called big screens in English.also,tv setIs called a small screen and is used in contrast.In the past, the screen used was slightly silvery, so it is called silver screen in English and "silver screen" in Japanese.

Entering the 2020s, movie theaters that project images on 4K LED screens instead of projection curtains have also appeared.[1]

Name

In English, it is called "cinema", in American English, it is called "movie theater" or simply "theater". In Japan, it is sometimes called "theater", but "theater" is a generic term for a movie theater and a theater (for theater). Is a word to do. In French, it is also called "salle de cinéma sal de cinema" (= movie hall) or abbreviated as "cinéma", so in Japan, the shorter one is adopted and is also called "cinema" in a French style.

History

Previous movie period

In 1889Thomas edisonInvented (actual developersWilliam KL DixonKinetoscopeIs a non-projection type movie device in which one person can look into the peep window through a small window, and the contents are also a littleControl,skitIt’s aboutDepartment store,Drug storeIt was placed in various places such as. Spring 1894,BroadwayThe former shoe store was renovated, but it opened, and a round-screen screening was held in which the spectators successively peek at the kinetoscopes lined up.

A screening device of the type "(definition of a movie by) in which an unspecified number of people visually share the image projected on the screen in the same place"Lumiere brothersDeveloped byCinematograph LumiereFirst published in 1895 by.This type of screeningVaudville TheaterAnd localOpera HouseIt was limited to showings in a temporary theater called as an adjunct screening at.

1900 yearsParis World ExpositionThen the Lumiere brothersIMAX theaterWe performed a screening at a huge screen and a huge venue that made us feel the appearance of.Also in 1899PhiladelphiaAt the exposition inPicture PalaceReminiscent ofParthenonIt is open to the public. It's the world's first movie theater, though it's only for a limited time.

Inventor in 1904St. Louis World's FairThe pseudo-train travel device, which was announced in 1905 and allows you to enjoy the images projected on the screen inside the tunnel while riding a train-type ride, was improved in XNUMX and installed in amusement parks in major cities. did.The spectators enjoyed the train shaking, whistling, and the artificial wind blowing in time with the shot while watching the image of the "moving scenery" called in the train-shaped hall.

Nickel Odeon

Around 1905,Nickel coinIf you can enter with one piece,AmericaBecame popular. This is said to be the first permanent cinema.screenIt was only 3.5 meters long and 4.5 meters wide, and had equipment for accompaniment. There is only one projector, and while changing filmsIllusion machineThe slide was screened by. The content of the slide was a message such as "Please refrain from acts that bother other customers," and lyrics for the audience to sing.Silent movieIt was around 1910 that the orchestra began to accompaniment.The form of the box office is (1) slide (2) 15-minute movie screening (3) color slide screening with lyrics and illustrations and chorus in the hall (4) between the curtains (5) returning to the slide and ending with the third movie screening, Was common.The screening of silent films, which even non-English-speaking immigrants can understand, is said to have played an important role in assimilating them into American culture.On the other hand, there were also discriminatory treatments such as black-only movie theaters and black-only seats isolated from whites.However, with the lengthening of the movie, Nickelodeon, which was extremely prosperous, also had inadequate fire control measures, screens were difficult to see, the capacity was small (about 3 to 100 people), poor hygiene environment, ventilation and air conditioning. It declined around 300 due to problems such as inadequate equipment.

Air dome

From the mid-1900s, outdoor screening facilities began to be constructed as a measure against the heat inside the building in the summer. In 1917, general movie theaters were equipped with air conditioners, and in the 1930s, they were also used as outdoor screening facilities.Drive-in theaterDisappeared by this time. However, the screening at an outdoor cinemaLocarno Film FestivalAs such, it is still held as an event, and some old movie theaters in Southern Europe have a retractable roof.

Art house

In the 1920s, the artistic side of cinema began to attract attention, and was aspiring by avant-garde artists and amateur filmmakers.Experimental movie,Pure movieBut artists gatherCaféIt began to be screened at a specialty movie theater called Ya.

Picture Palace

From around 1915, the gorgeous movie theater Picture Palace, reminiscent of a palace, began to appear.Palace of VersaillesThe movie theater, which was ornately decorated with reference to the above, had a capacity of 1000 to 3000 people, and the admission fee was 5 to 40 times higher than that of Nickelodeon.The form of the box office is (1) welcomed by the doorman (2) guided to the seat by the usher (3) overture by the orchestra (4) the overture is over and the lights are turned off (5)News movieScreening (6) Short or screening (7) Live performances by vocalists, pianists, etc. (8) About 30 minutesComedy movieOr short storyAnimated movieScreening (9)prologue (10) Screening of the main story (11) Exit with organ performance. There was a construction boom in the late 1910s and 20s,Talkie moviesAppearance and 1929Economic depressionManagement was squeezed by. There are few movie theaters of this type nowadays,Los AngelesNono continues to screen for cultural purposes rather than for-profit purposes.

1930s cinema

From around 1932, by a medium-sized movie theaterB-grade movieThe two-featured box office started. At that time, movie theaters were not particularly required to be quiet, and they were free to enter and leave during the screening. At the beginning, the stars appearingClose-upIntroduced in, the audience applauded their favorite stars, and movie companies used the audience's reaction as a measure of their popularity.This form of entertainment was in 1948.Paramount Antitrust lawIt was gradually abolished after receiving a judgment of violation.

In the early 30sNews movieA special museum appeared and was useful as a source of information during the war. This form of cinematv setIt survived until the 50s when it became popular.

Drive-in theater

In the early summer of 1933New JerseyAppeared in. What was really popular in America wasSecond World WarLater. There were only about 100 buildings right after the end of the war, but the arrival of the car society,Baby boomIn the early 1950s, the number of buildings increased to about 3000 due to factors such as the suburbanization of residential areas. It was opened in 1948, also in New Jersey, where passengers and pilots can watch movies on the plane.Other movie theaters with unusual ideas, such as the 1973 amphitheater drive-in theater and the ability for guests to watch movies through the windows of the room, have disappeared.Drive-in theaters also declined after being pushed by television after the peak in the mid-50s, and most of them were forced to close by the 1970s.

Adult cinema

In the early 1970s,PornographyWith the lifting of the ban, many small-scale movie theaters have become movie theaters designated as adult-designated movies, which has created an explosion.

Cinema complex

the 1980sSince then, large-scale movie theaters with multiple screens called cinema complexes (cinecoms) have been increasing.Shopping mallAnd so onSuburbThere are many cases where it is built in, and today it is the mainstream form of movie theaters.

Community cinema

With the aim of correcting regional disparities in the viewing environment, improving media literacy, and contributing to urban development,Local governmentRefers to an organization that mainly conducts screenings, or a movie theater based on those organizations.In Germany, the name "Cominal Kino" has spread as a highly public movie theater since the 1970s, mainly with the support of local governments.In the UKBritish Film InstituteA public cinema certified by the company is showing a variety of works under the name "Regional Film Theater".[2].. In Japan, such activities have become popular due to the hollowing out of the downtown area that has occurred since the 1990s and the disappearance of mini theater productions in rural areas due to the rise of cinema complexes. The concept is based on German Kominal Kino.

Japan

History of Japanese cinema

August 1903, 10,TokyoAsakusaElectric buildingHas opened.This is said to be the beginning of the permanent movie hall in Japan[3].

The oldest existing Japanese movie theater as a permanent building that is open isNiigataJoetsu CityFounded in 1911 (Meiji 44)Takada World MuseumTo be[Note 1]The building currently in use is also the one at the time of its founding.also,NaganoNagano cityIt is inNagano Shochiku AioizaThe building has been in use since 1892 (Meiji 25) and is also the oldest.

In the past, the names of movie theaters were often "○○ Theater" and "○○ -za", and the movie theater itself is called "theater" (example: "inside the theater" in the hall.Non smokingで す[Note 2]”Notes, etc.) Customs remain.This is because there was an example of a playhouse turning into a movie theater, and it was demonstrated as an attraction in some large-scale movie theaters between movie performances (singerThe song show ofPerformanceEtc.) was held (such a movie theater had a dressing room).theater OftheaterIn order to distinguish it from, the number of examples used is decreasing.

Form of Japanese movie theater

Japanese movie theaters are classified as follows according to size and type of entertainment.

  • Opening hall (road show hall) that screens new movies all at once on a nationwide scale
  • Mini theater ――Screening movies that are supposed to be released on a small scale, such as new movies produced and imported by independent film companies
  • Masterpiece --Mainly screen old movies

In addition, Eirin(Eirin) determinesRatingAccording to this, movie theaters that mainly screen movies designated by R-18 may be classified as "adult movie theaters" (described later), and those that mainly show other movies may be classified as "general movie theaters".

Henrikan has a nationwide network (chain) built by a major movie company,tv set OfnetworkSimilarly, in principle, it is a movie theater that screens movies selected by the original movie company on the Internet.In this case, some hits are expected.In the metropolitan area, the center of the chain is set up (this is called the "chain master", and a large movie theater plays that role).The mainstream of modern Japanese opening halls has been around the 1990s and 2000s.Cinema complexThe transition to (cinex) is underway, and the grading of distribution forms (described later) classified according to scale and location conditions has almost disappeared.Cinecons also have theaters that introduce new technologies not found in traditional cinemas (with huge screens).IMAX theater,Omnimax TheaterSuch).

The origin of the Revival House is the existence of a box office format in which a new movie is screened later after the opening, which was held in a movie theater for areas inferior to the opening.The ones that screen new works one to two weeks after the opening are called "Second Building", and the ones that are screened further later are called "Third Building" and "Fourth Building".These delayed distributions were called "lower line", and the movie theaters of the lower line series were collectively called "lower line theater" and "lower line building".[4]..In these lower-track theaters, double-barreled and triple-barreled performances were common, and in many cases, the production and distribution works of multiple companies were mixed together instead of one specific company.As mentioned above, this "lower line" form is fading with the advent of cinema multiplexes.Also, the masterpiece isrental video,DVDIs decreasing due to the spread of.

General business format

Generally a movie theater management company (EntertainmentCompany), etc.チケットThe company takes the form of buying tickets, showing them a movie, and making money by selling the tickets.

On the other hand, it became the distributor of the film for screening.distributionA fixed amount or a fixed percentage of the ticket sales amount (varies depending on the movie) is paid to the company as a "film rental fee".This accounts for most of the cost of the movie theater.

in Japan,Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareIs the supervisory authority and is directly established by the prefecture or city where it is located.Health centerUnder the supervision of. Also, for each prefecture,Act on the optimization and promotion of management of life hygiene-related businessBased on the box office life hygiene trade association (which is also affiliated with theaters and rental halls in addition to movie theaters). This union is a voluntary member. For example,Cinema complexIn some cases, when the (multiplex) opens, it conflicts with an existing local movie theater, and as a result, the multiplex remains unaffiliated in some cases.

When setting up a movie theater,Box office lawBased onPrefectural governorPermission is required. Also,Building Standards LawDue to the use restrictions imposed by the movie theater, if the seating area of ​​the movie theater is 200 square meters or more and less thanNeighborhood commercial area,Commercial area,Quasi-industrial zoneCan be installed only in. Less than 200 square metersSemi-residential areaBut it can be installed. Depending on the size of the movie theater, there are generally about 1 to 80 seats per screen inside the theater. Many theaters have less than 600 seats, with an average number of seats per screen.

Admission tickets for watching movies are sold in advance or on the day. Advance tickets often come with some discounts and other special features such as not-for-sale souvenirs.Cash voucher shopYou can buy what you bring to the store, but it's not without trouble, so be careful when purchasing admission tickets at such stores. Also, during the night screening, etc.Student discount-Ladies' day・'Movie day(As an original anniversary12/1However, it is now being expanded as "Movie Service Day" on the first day of every month in many prefectures), senior discounts, etc.discountThe system is implemented (for details, please seeMovie price discountSee section).Physical disability certificate,Nursing notebook(Intellectually Handicapped IndividualForDisability certificate),Mental disability certificatePersons with disabilities who have the "Handbook for the Disabled" written on the cover of the notebook will submit the certificate to the counter, and depending on the movie theater, the admission fee for the disabled and accompanying caregivers will be discounted.

In the reception lobby of the movie theater, posters, screening dates, time zones, etc. of the works being screened and the works scheduled to be screened next time are shown.Based on these information, newspaper advertisements, TV commercials, etc., the audience knows the schedule of the work they want to watch, and will be set up to visit the movie theater at a later date.Also, depending on the movie theater, it may be possible to check the sales status of the screening work on the electric bulletin board at the reception desk or on the Internet website, etc., whether there are vacant seats or full seats.

Since the latter half of the 1960s, when the Japanese movie population began to decline, many movie theaters have adopted a pouring system (once you enter, you can watch as many times as you like until the end of the final screening unless you leave halfway). ..However, the cinema complex and mini theater, which have become mainstream in recent years, have adopted a replacement system, and the audience must leave the theater promptly after the screening of the times specified in the ticket is over.

In either method, re-entry after exiting the entrance is basically not permitted (if it is a pouring system, an admission fee is required again),WC,vending machine-StandDue to reasons such as the fact that the stubs are not installed in the hall, there are some halls that show a stub at the time of admission and allow a system within the screening time stated on the stub.

Pamphlets and sometimes related goods are sometimes sold in the aisles outside the audience seats.

On the first day of the release, performers and directors may stand on the stage and give a "stage greeting" to the audience.

Both the cinema complex and the mini theater will be screened only in the morning (Morning show) And night screening (Late show) Etc. are trying to increase the number of published works.

Classification of screening system

The classification of the following screening system (movie viewing system)Mikio KatoBy the book "Cinema and the Cultural History of the Audience"[5].

  • Pour-in system-Also known as a crammed full standing system.Audiences can enter and leave the theater at their favorite time (even in the middle of the movie).Audiences that exceed the capacity are forced to stand.
  • Capacity exchange system-admitting and leaving the audience on the way, but not allow more than the capacity of the theater, so the chairs of all the audience are guaranteed. A compromise between a pouring system and a capacity replacement system every time.
  • Reserved seat replacement system-By paying a slightly more expensive entrance fee, you can always sit in a reserved seat. It was well received when there was a companion.
  • Capacity change every time-A method that allows all spectators to sit on a chair and watch a movie.

Japanese adult movie theater

It has been a unique genre in Japan since the early 1960s.Pink movieMovie theaters have begun to appear.Pink movie,Nikkatsu romantic porn, For gaysGay pornAdult movies unique to Japan are being produced. Also, until around 1990, a movie called "Yo-pin", which was a modification of overseas pornographic movies to Japanese standards, was also released. Adult movies and Western pins made in JapanEirinDesignated by all adults (currentR18The movie theaters that show these are often called "adult movie theaters" (shortened as "adult movie theaters"). afterwards,rental videoAs the store flourished, these adult movie theaters became obsolete. However, for the sexual video marketAdult videos,DVD,インターネットEven today, when movie distribution by the mainstream has become mainstream, adult movie theaters still exist in the corners of urban areas. Another characteristic is that live performances such as dance shows are actively interacting with the audience.

Japanese movie box office

Below is a list of companies that entertain cinemas[6].

List of major Japanese movie companies

It is affiliated with a movie distribution company, or an independent entertainment company operating nationwide and its affiliates.

List of major independent film theaters in Japan

Hokkaido region

Tohoku region

Kanto region

Chubu region

Kinki

Chugoku

Shikoku region

Kyushu region

Services other than movies

Public viewing
Public viewing(Or live viewing), watching sports, theater, etc.[8][9].
Game screen
2021 years,New coronavirus infectionAt movie theaters that were required to refrain from doing so, they provided a charter service for gamers.[10].

Major incidents and fires that occurred in movie theaters

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ Takada Nikki closed its business at the end of March 2009, and the NPO corporation changed its name to Takada Sekaikan.
  2. ^ In many cases such as cinema multiplexes, "screen" is used as a synonymous word.

Source

  1. ^ ""Theater Guild Daikanyama" opens.The world's first cozy movie theater to enjoy with headphones | [GINZA] The latest fashion and culture information from Tokyo | CULTURE”(Japanese). [GINZA] The latest fashion and culture information from Tokyo (September 2021, 6). 2022/4/10Browse.
  2. ^ "Overseas community cinema”. General Incorporated Association Community Cinema Center. As of September 2009, 9original[Broken link]More archives.2013/5/12Browse.
  3. ^ Junichiro Tanaka "Japanese movie development historyChuokoron-sha, 1957-1976
  4. ^ Film Exhibition Yearbook | 2020 V Terms related to screening General Incorporated Association Community Cinema Center
  5. ^ Kato 2006, pp. 266–269.
  6. ^ Japan Filmmakers Federation Distribution Subcommittee Movie Theater 2013 Edition.Jiji Movie News Agency 
  7. ^ "Shioyama Cinema". Kinema Street, Minatomachi (June 2009). 2022/6/30Browse.
  8. ^ Takarazuka Revue Snow Troupe Tokyo Takarazuka Theater performance Chiakiraku "Nozomi Futo Last Day" live broadcast will be held!
  9. ^ [Valley / V League] The first public viewing will be held in the hottest battle for the first place (2/7)
  10. ^ The cinemas now hiring out their screens to gamerswith the BBC

References


 

Back to Top
Fermer