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Robot anime(Japanglish : robot anime)Mech robotWas the main subjectア ニ メ ー シ ョ ンThat.storyIf it is a work that has a natureheroIt means the one set in the case. Many"MechaAnimeThe higher order calledCategoryAre included in and form a central discipline within the category[Note 1].
It is in the second half of the second half of the 20th century that we should distinguish this from others.Japan OfAnimeBorn from (animation made in Japan)conceptIs. Although it is mainly used in Japanese animation, it is clearDefinitionNot been done.
Media mixThis concept is also used in related fields where many works are developed, and in that sense, the term "robot animation" should be regarded as the narrowest sense of the concept. As a broad term based on this,Robot stuffThere is.English-speaking countries(English-speakingFansAnd between the parties[Note 2]) Then, "mecha anime and mangaIt is "robot anime" as a subcategory of "mecha anime" included in the genre of ".
Robot animation is divided into several types according to the type of robot that appears. Generally speaking of robot animation, "Human capitalThere are many examples that refer to animations of "autonomous robots that do not imitate", "remote control robots", and "boarding robots", as described in this section.android(Gynoid"Also includes)" and "wearable robots" fall under this category in a broad sense.
Here, we will explain the types of robots that appear as the main characters in robot animation, focusing on how to capture them in Japan, but also capturing them in foreign countries as much as possible.
- Autonomous(British : Sentient）
- A robot with autonomous performance. From the technical sideArtificial intelligenceIn addition to the on-board type, there are also those with over-technology beyond human knowledge and those that deviate from the existing principles of life.It can be roughly divided into those that imitate humans and those that do not, and can be roughly divided into life-sized (human-sized) and others (large and small).There are many works whose theme is interaction and coexistence with human beings, as well as swashbucklers.The masterpiece in which a giant robot appears is "Astro Ganga』.
- Life-size autonomous humanoid
- Life-size (human-sized) autonomy simulating a humanUpright bipedalType robot. That is,androidThat. Of course, the main theme is live action, interaction with human beings, and ultimately, love. Representative work "Astro boy』Is the first robot anime work, the firstTelevision AnimationIt is also a work.
- Life-size autonomous humanoid
- Although it is an autonomous, upright bipedal robot imitating a human, it is a non-life-size robot. The representative work of the smaller one is "Little giant microman』.
- The first color robot anime work, "Astro Ganga"Is a unique work in which the human protagonist fuses with an autonomous robot created using "living metal" to bring out further power.
- Autonomous type that does not imitate humans
- A capability-enhancing robot worn by humans.
- Remote control type(English:Remote controlled）
- A robot that is remotely operated by humans. The first giant robot work "Tetsujin 28After that, it is a type that is not often seen as a giant robot,Plares SanshiroAnd 'Gundam Build Fighters』, such as less than human size,simulationAs typeCard gamesIn some cases, remote-controlled robots will appear in anime.
- Boarding type(English:piloted）
- A robot that humans board and operate. It is the largest genre with the largest number of works in Japanese robot anime. In general, there are many examples of this category when it comes to robot animation.
- The work in which the first boarding giant robot appeared was in 1950FranceAnnounced inYabunami Tyrant, AndMazinger Z] Was established as a genre. Although rare, "ZoidsThere are also non-human types such as.
In addition, "Mazinger Z, Etc., like the main character (boarding type), different type of robot, the enemy (voice remote control type) is often used.
There are various standards and grounds on the viewer side to decide what to call a robot anime, or whether or not the anime is a robot anime, and fans often disagree with each other. "androidIn the narrow sense, "wearable robots" are not included in robot anime, so they are the subject of discussion. The following is a specific example.
- Even if a robot appears, it is not the center of the story
- "Kiss Dam -ENGAGE planet-''Heroic Age] Is applicable. The work as a whole does not have much weight in battle with robots, and it is only described as one of the many stage devices. In addition, even if there is a point of view of the robot to some extent (or every time), if the other elements are more prominent, the aspect as a robot animation is easily suspected. Here is "Kannazuki no Miko] Is applicable.
- Powered suitIs the subject
- "Breeding armored guy bar''IS <Infinite Stratos>] Is applicable. There are also works that are more difficult to distinguish by wearing and wearing a robot from the top of a powered suit (style of wearable robot), or the style built into the robot. Here is "Bubble gum crisis''Get Ride! Am Driver] Is applicable.
- Special robot settings and depiction
- "Neon Genesis EVANGELION] Is applicable. Humanoid weapons that appear in thisEvangelionIs far from traditional robots in terms of settings and depictionArtificial humanTherefore, there are some opinions that the current situation of being treated as a robot animation is still difficult.
- Super Robot War seriesParticipated in
- "Space Knight Tekkaman Blade''Gale! Iron Leaguer] Is applicable. The former is a work on a powered suit, and both have the above-mentioned issues as they also have elements built into the robot. ExperienceCircumstantial evidenceIn some cases, the above works may be cited as hopes for participation in the Super Robot Wars series, and the above works may be the basis for applying to robot anime. about thisTakanobu Terada"Animals with robots are different from robot animations. It is not just OK if robots are out.".
The first half of 1970 is nowSuper RobotIt was an era when TV animation of a genre called "kei" was born (the first work wasMazinger Z).Assuming the existence of a giant humanoid combat robot that has attractive and unique modeling and has a powerful combat power that conventional weapons cannot match.Moral disciplineA lot of works with many fans were born while being based on a huge mechanical battle. Almost all of the works are sold as toys, and among them are "Steel JeegEven though the audience rating is not good, there was a work that continued to be broadcast supported by the excellent sales performance of toys.
In 1974, it was positioned as the originator of the "Coupling/transformation robot" workGetter RoboIs produced. Since then, numerous coalescing/transforming robot animations have been produced.
In 1976Nagahama Roman Robot SeriesIs the first work ofSuper Electromagnetic Robot Con Butler VWas produced. To escape from the good and bad punishment seen in robot animation up to that point, strongly depict the reason why the enemy side invades the earth and relativize good and evil, while at the same time pursuing various drama and acquiring old fans become.
1979of"Mobile Suit GundamTo the world viewPolitics-Military-組織A story that is complicated by the theory ("Sun Fang Douglam』Is drawn from the perspective of liberation and independence, contrary to Gundam),physics-Mechanical engineering-SF theoryThe mechanical design, settings, and battle depictions have been made with a reality that conforms toReal robotA group of anime, collectively called "kei," creates a movement for the first generation. And this real robot work is also "Super Dimension Fortress Macross''Armored cavalry bottoms, Etc. Differentiated into various directions, and through the works that can be called the top of each, the sweeping continued in the mid-1980s.
Thisthe 1970sからthe 1980sIn the meantime, so many robot anime works were produced that it was called the robot anime boom.Audience ratingIs also high on average, and the main broadcast time is from 7:9 to XNUMX:XNUMXPrime timeMet.Sales of toys for children, which make up the majority of the audience (such as plastic models of robots appearing in anime), were also strong, and toy makers selling them became sponsors of TV animation.
However, after the peak, the feeling of blockage in the tie-up toy market began to appear and disappear due to the quantitative saturation of the work, the feeling of a deadlock toward excessive realism, and the fashion of battle objects by human characters. As if to react to them, while incorporating a homage to the super robot series works of the 1970sBeautiful girl,Supernatural powerOVA works with such elements have been produced in quick succession since around 1987, and this trend continued until the early 1990s.In addition, everyday robot animation, "Doraemon''Dr. Slump Arale]'S hit is also in this era.
Since the 1990s
Even in the 1990s, works that ordinarily inherited the characteristics of robot animation by the tie-up of the toy industry continued to be produced,Brave series''Edran seriesA series of works for children called "Heisei Gundam" was born. In addition, the video gameDragon questIn response to a boom such asGenie Hero Den WataruMany appeared with fantasy elements such as.
Under these circumstances,Neon Genesis EVANGELIONWas announced.It incorporates abundant homages of past works such as anime, manga, special effects, science fiction, and other literary works, and it has become a work that gives off individuality that can not be classified as real or supermarket.
However, in the latter half of the 1990s, the shadows began to appear due to the discontinuation of the "Brave Series" and "Heisei Gundam" due to a decline in viewer ratings and circumstances on the TV station side.the 2000sWhen entering, the work of Post Eva loses momentum, and the successor to it is not born, and the robot animation is generally declining. EspeciallyAll dayRobot animation in frame animation is in a state of destruction,Midnight animeBroadcasting became the de facto standard. Among the programs that giant robots appear, the ones that are still broadcasting in all day framesSpecial effectsof"Super squadron series] Only.
This is due to the increase in choices due to the diversification of hobbies such as the spread of home games and trading card games.toyWithdrawal of sponsors due to slump in the entire industry, conflict between TV station and production company / toy company, etc.Declining proportion of children in Japan's total populationThe main factors were the decrease in the percentage of customers that can be gained from this, and the obsolescence of conventional staples due to the development of actual technology and changes in circumstances. Life-sized robots will appear as the main characters at the end of these times and situationsComputer games(Visual novel) 『To HeartThe series was animated multiple times as a result of the hit, and achieved some commercial success, but these are rarely included in robot anime.
Since the 2000s
Under such circumstances, the business model of robot anime that will be broadcast on TV has changed significantly. Eliminate young people and toy companies from the planning stage, three-dimensional products are limited in addition to those designed for the elderlyCopyrightLaunched as a licensed businessGarage kitAnd so on. On the other handDVDVideo to sellLabel,Media mixsystemInfomationDistributors such as this will be the core of the plan, and works based on a new business model will be created, which will be produced as animation for older people already familiar with robot animation and software sales will be the main source of income It was Of past hits according to those customersRemakeAnd sequel works and so on are being made.
Today, even though some of the original series have made some hits, the work structure is due to the aging and immobilization of the main customer segment due to the mainstreaming of the adult segment as described above, and the continued use of standard structures. However, the scarcity of new customers such as children and young people is becoming a more serious problem. Even now, although many works are still being produced, the genre is in the process of being diffused, such as creating works that keep only one component without setting the robot as a single main, and each company is new robot animation Continues to seek the mainstream.
Production company/Broadcasting station
Produced "Mobile Suit Gundam" as a production company that can be said to be the leading person of giant robotsSunriseCan be mentioned. Beginning with "Brave Raiden" in 1975, he produced many series works and single-shot works such as "Roman Robo (manufactured by Toei)" "Gundam" "Brave", consistently from the late 1970s when the robot animation was at its peak.Speaking of robot anime, sunriseWe are continuing to build such a track record. However, since the end of the "Brave" series, the number of robot anime productions has decreased slightly. It can be said that this is an indication that Sunrise itself is starting to turn in directions other than robot animation.
Other robot animation production companies such as "Mazinger Z" (Toei animation), (Studio Nue) of ``Macross'' and sequel production (Satellite) and ``Evangelion'' was produced (Gainax) And an external collaborating company (Tatsunoko Production) and a copyright successor company (color) for the same work.
Speaking of robot animation production companies in the old days, there are other companies such as "J9 series", "Acrobunch" and "Slangle".International movie company, "Dunkooga" "Goshogun" "Machine Robot"Reed productionHowever, the former has not gone bankrupt in the middle of the 80s, and the latter has not made much robot animation recently (however, in 2007, I made a robot animation "Beast Machine Attack Duncouga Nova" after a long time. ing). Recently, of "Glavion" "Transformers Galaxy Force"Gonzo, Former sunrise producerMasahiko MinamiBonds of "Rahsfone" and "Eureka Seven", which were founded by the authors, are producing a relatively large number of robot animations.
In terrestrial commercial broadcasting, broadcast examples can be seen at each station. However, like Fuji TV, it is a historically epoch-making work.Astro boy''Tetsujin 28''Time Bokan Series''Mazinger Z''Getter Robo] Has been broadcast, but since the latter half of the 1980s there are also cases where a giant robot anime is not broadcast as a regular frame.5:30pm Saturday evening on Nagoya TVIs 1977Invincible Superman Zambot 3』, 1990 years to move in 13, sent a lot of robot animation to the world.NHKThen, as an example of broadcasting a huge robot animation,Goddess candidate''Time and Space Adventure Zentrix"and so on.
Main production company
- Sunrise -"Brave Raideen''Gundam series''Armored cavalry bottoms''Brave series''Code Geass Lelouch of the Rebellion"Such. A production company that is said to be the leader of giant robots. The first terrestrial HD digital work, "Zega Pain] Is also produced.
- Tatsunoko Pro -"Warrior Gordian''Gold lightan] "Golden Genesis Mospida" etc.
- Toei -"Nagahama Roman Robot Series''Space Emperor God Sigma''Beast King Golion"Such.
- Toei animation -"Mazinger Z], [Getter Robo], [Sky Demon Dragon''Magnero Robot Series"Such.
- Thoms Entertainment -"Emissary of the Sun Tetsujin 28''Six God Union God Mars''Magic Knight Rayearth"Such.
- International movie company -"J9 series''Makyo Legend Acrobunch''Aku Daisakusen Slangle"Such. Due to bankruptcy, currently only copyright management.
- Reed production -"Space Warrior Bardios(Co-production with Kokusai Eigasha)" "Super Beast Machine God Dancouga''Sengoku Genie Go Shogun''Machine robo"Such. I haven't made much robot anime these days, but in 2007, I made a robot anime "Beast Machine Attack Dancouga Nova] Is being produced.
- AIC -"Fight!! Iksar 1''Broken Star Dungai O''Hades Project Zeorymer"Such.
- Gainax -"Aim for the top!''Neon Genesis EVANGELION(Co-produced with Tatsunoko Production)" "Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann"Such.
- Bonds -"Rathfone''Gorgeous Dance Festival The Mars Daybreak''Symphonic Psalm Eureka Seven''STAR DRIVER Shining Tact''Ten Kyanite"Such. Former sunrise producerMasahiko MinamiEt al.
- Gonzo -"Super Heavy God Gravion''Fullmetal panic!''GAD GUARD''Kiddy Grade"Such. ExGainaxProducer ofMurahama ShojiEt al.
- XEBEC -"Mobile battleship Nadesico''Zoids -ZOIDS-''Earth Defense Company Dai Guard''Cosmic stevia''Fafner in the Azure"Such.
- satellite -"Genesis of Aquarion''Macross F"Such.
World robot anime
Robot anime produced in Japan is exported to foreign countries, and some of them have been broadcast around the world. Depending on the region, some anime have become more popular than in Japan, and were exported in the 1970s and 80s.UFO Robo Grendizer] (Which has been renamed to "Gordrak" and "Atlas" in Europe) has a record that maintains a high audience rating in Europe. In 1979フィリピンWas exported toSuper electromagnetic machine Voltes V] At the timeMarcosIt was also reported in Japan that it has become a national animation with 100% recognition in the Philippines for contributing to the overthrow of the government.
AmericaBut "Fight! Super Robot Life Transformers(1984),Iron giant(1999),Shin Bionic Titan (English version)(2010),Bay Max] (2014) and other robot animations were produced.CGOne of the features is that there are many works that make heavy use of. There are many collaborations with Japan, of which "Robotech(1985) isSuper Dimension Fortress Macross''Super Dimension Knight Southern Cross''Armor Genesis Mospida,,Boltron(1984) isBeast King Golion"When"Armored Fleet Dailager XVWas linked to one work and exported.Voltron] (2016) was also published in Japan.
South KoreaInTaekwon V] (1976), a number of robot animations were produced starting with a super robot animation. inside that"Phantom Fighter Bust Fremon(2001), in collaboration with JapanMugen Senki Potris] (2003) was also broadcast in Japan. There are also transformation car Tobot and Hello Kabot.
Chugoku,TaiwanAlso inHoshihara Senki Astro Plan (Chinese Version)(2010),Combat Armor Steel Feather (Chinese Version)(2011),Ultra-Limited Honor Guard (Chinese Version)(2013),Heavy Armored God Baryon (Chinese Version)] (2018) and many robot animations have been produced. Among them, a collaboration between Japan and ChinaHeavy God Pandora(2018), ChinaHong Kong-Macau・Collaborated by TaiwanMeiyuki Reimugami (Chinese Version)There are also works like (2014).
In the 1980s, we didn't make original robot anime in EuropeHannah Barbera ProductionsProduced byMachine robo], such as the North American version of the anime, has broadcast robot animations other than Japanese production.
A series of prominent robot anime
- Tetsujin 28
- Mazinger series
- Getter Robo
- Nagahama Roman Robot Series
- Gundam series
- Super spacetime series
- Armored cavalry bottoms
- Brave series
- Edran series
- Eureka Seven
- Code Geass
- Evangelion series
- Sakura Ishiwata[Note 3]"Children's Program Research: Transformation of Conflict Structure in Robot Anime"The Bulletin of Nihon University College of Art, Vol. 45,Nihon University, 2007, pp. 73-83, ISSN 0385 – 5910, OCLC 835669893.NOT 110007055784,NCID AN00194345 .National Diet Library Bibliographic ID:000000029567.
- Atsushi Ohara "The top of the first page is robot animation-Atsushi Ohara's Animage bowl"Nippon Hyoronsha, February 2012.OCLC 840075879. ISBN-4 535-56316-0,ISBN 978-4-535-56316-2 .NCID BB11514929.National Diet Library Bibliographic ID:024118267.
- Tatori Natori[Note 4][Note 5]"Ningyo Joruri and Robot Anime: From the Viewpoint of Physicality and Projection"Human Studies, Volume 7,Kyoto Bunkyo University, 2006, pp. 103-114.NOT 110006484872,NCID AA11469829.
- ^ Mechanical animations other than robot animations, for example,warshipType ofSpace shipWas made into the main characterSpace Battleship Yamato] Corresponds to this. others,machineThePersonificationThe animations that form one area have become the resulting mechanical and robot animes. "Beautiful girlThis is what is called "mechanical animation" or "bishoujo robot anime". However, this is because the weight of expression is placed on the beautiful girl "Mecha GirlIt is a category called "," although it may be classified as a mechanical animation, it is not subject to mainstream treatment.
- ^ It is not universally accepted.
- ^ "Sakura Ishiwata". research map. Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). 2020/6/27Browse.
- ^ "Takuji Natori". KAKEN. Ministry of education,Japan Society for the Promotion of Science. 2020/6/27Browse.
- ^ "Tatori Natori". Japanese studies.comBio Impact Co., Ltd. 2020/6/27Browse.
- ^ Kato Reizuna(Interview, composition, text). “Kato's Live coverage Vol.3 Interview with Takanobu Terada producer of "Super Robot War" series Super Robot Spirits -Soul of Steel-". Web magazine Tougensha.. As of March 2016, 3originalMore archives.2016/3/29Browse.
- Military robot
- Super Robot
- Real robot
- Super Robot War series
- Powered suit
- Special effects