The movie "I am the worst. The "worst" humanity that makes excuses for "unrestrained" and "honesty" is exciting.
If you write the contents roughly
Moreover, unlike Machiko, an alien who does not have common sense, Yulia is an earthling.
Before talking about the movie "Sensha Yoshida", a slightly longer introduction. "It's contagious. "Puri Puri Prefecture" "Beat ... → Continue reading
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alien(Uchujin) is,Extraterrestrial lifeOut ofIntellectualIt is a general term for those with.In this item, aliens in general, and among themParanormalIn magazines and TV programs that deal with地球Explain the aliens reportedly visiting.On the other hand, the details of scientific researchExtraterrestrial intelligent life explorationchecking ...
Before modern times
The idea that there are many worlds inhabited by life other than the world in which humans live (multiverse theory) has existed since before the early modern period.HeliocentrismOlder than, common to myths around the world. 2nd centurysatire作家LucianWritten byThe real story], The story of Lucian, who was on a ship, being rolled up by a tornado and going to the moon is depicted.People live on the moon, with the inhabitants of the sunLuciferIt is said that he was at war over the colonization of.Jin Dong OfGan BaoWritten bySearch Shinki]MartianThere is an anecdote that a boy appears and makes a prophecy[Note 2].
Also, in Japan, it is believed that it was established by the middle of the 10th century.Taketori storyIs a story that the main character, Princess Kaguya, is a resident of the moon.Thousand and One Nights"Adventure of Burukiya" is also a kind of different world tan..
The early modern period
The more scientific hypothesis of the existence of extraterrestrial life is the sun-centeredSolar systemIt was developed by deepening the understanding of the interstellar space and further the understanding of the interstellar space.The early modern periodThat is.Then, literary works on that subject appeared in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Henry MoreIs ancient GreekDemocritusHe wrote "Democritus Platonissans, or an Essay Upon the Infinity of Worlds" (1647) on the theme of the idea that there is a world inhabited by life other than the earth...In it, he presented the relative value that "the sun in our world will be a star for the rest", and Moa pondered even planets outside the solar system.
In the 17th century, the possibility of extraterrestrial life was common knowledge for educated people in Europe.Paradise"In (1667)John MiltonCarefully uses the subjunctive mood when the angel tells Adam the possibility of life on the moon.
Bernard Le Bovier"Dialogue on the Multiplicity of the World" also describes extraterrestrial life, which is an extension of the Creator's creation rather than denying it.This book was translated into English in 1686.. In his "The Excursion" (1728), David Mallet vocally describes "1 worlds are on fire..VoltaireIn "Micro Megas" (1752)SaturnとSiriusTwo giant aliens from Japan have appeared.
Aliens in science fiction
H.G. WellsIsSpace war(1898) depicts the story of the Martians coming to invade the Earth.From here, simply draw the first encounter with extraterrestrial lifeFirst contactThings and things depicting alien invasion were derived.
First of all, works in which various Martians appeared were written one after another.Edgar Rice Burroughs OfMars series Starting with (1912 --41)Stanley G. Weinboumof"Martian Odyssey(1934),Raymond Z. Gallun"Martian No. 774" (1934) and so on.moreoverEE Smithof"Lensman》 Series (1937-60) etc.Space operaThen, aliens outside the solar system have also appeared.A. E. van VogtIn "The Adventures of the Spacecraft Beagle" (1950), a number of vicious space creatures are introduced.
After World War II, the way aliens are drawn will diversify.Ray Bradburyof"Mars Chronicle(1950) lyrically portrays a story from the encounter between Martians and Earthlings.Robert A. HeinleinIn "Ningyo Tsukai" (1951), an invasion by a parasitic alien is depicted.Arthur C. Clarkof"The end of childhood』(1953), the earth is conquered without resistance by an alien who does not show up easily.Harry ClementIn "20 Billion Needles" (1950), a fluid-type alien that digs into the body of other creatures and acts, and in "Mission of Gravity" (1954), a centipede-type alien adapted to high gravity was introduced. ..Jack finneyIn "The Stolen City" (1955), an alien who disguises himself as a human and gradually invades appears.Fred Wheel"Dark Nebula" (1957) tells us that the dark nebula that suddenly appeared in the solar system was an intelligent life form.James BlishIn "The Devil's Star" (1958), an intelligent creature with a strange appearance on the planet Lithia appears.Heinlein's "Space warrior』(1959) wages a war with insect-type aliens who cannot communicate.Stanislaw RemAre three works with the theme of first contact "Eden" (3), "Under the sun of Solaris(1961), "Desert planet(1964), I described the difficulty of communicating with extraterrestrial life forms.
after that,Future history,Space operaVarious aliens were drawn in the form of.Strugatsky brothers OfFuture history Noon Universe (1961-87),Larry Nivenof"Known space》 Series (1964-),Ursula K. Le-Gwyn Of Hainish Cycle (1964-2000),Frank Herbertof"Dune》 Series (1965 --85) and 《Jump Door》 series (1970 --77),CJ Cherryi,Anne McCaffreyWorks ofBrian StablefordThere is the "Adventure of Astronaut Granger" series (1972-75).
Fred Saberhagenof"BerserkerThe series (1967 --2005) depicts the battle against mechanical lifeforms whose mission is to exterminate organic lifeforms, with a similar theme.Gregory BenfordIt can also be seen in the Galactic Center Saga series (1976 --1995).
John VarleyThe Eight Worlds series (1977-98) depicts the world after humanity was almost extinct by a mysterious extraterrestrial life form.Frederik PohlIn "Chronicle of Hee Chi" (1977 --90), Hee Chi people who have developed advanced science and technology and mysterious energy creatures appear.Douglas Adamsof"Galaxy Hitchhiking GuideIn the series (1979 --92) that begins with 』, various aliens appear and are drawn comically.David Brin OfUplift Universe (1980-) is a setting that the intellectual life form of the galaxy has a history of being "intelligent" by another intelligent life form, and only the earth human beings have evolved independently.Jerry ParnellとLarry Nivenof"Footfall ritual(1985) is a work that deals head-on with the invasion of the earth by aliens.Stephen Baxterof"GeelyIn the series (1991: 02), the earth has been conquered by aliens several times, and a huge living spaceship appears.
The question of whether intelligent life exists in this universe is a physicist.Enrico Fermiby"Fermi paradoxIs well known.in short,Drake equationAssuming that the parameters of are scientifically rational to some extent, it can be expected that there are extraterrestrial intelligent life forms that can come into contact with earthlings, but in reality, earthlings are such extraterrestrial intelligent life forms. There is a contradiction that they are not in contact with.If there are aliens, there are also races with science and technology that are tens of thousands or hundreds of millions of years ahead of humankind in the 137 billion year history of the universe, and they have the time and opportunity to find and visit the earth. Should have been enough.However, no definitive evidence of intelligent life from outer space has been found on Earth.
Various interpretations and opinions have been raised regarding this contradiction.One of them is an estimate of the parameters of the Drake equation.Reliable estimation is very difficult andMass extinctionAccording to recent studies on the evolutionary history of Earth's organisms, the estimates used so far may have been too high compared to reality.The advanced evolution of living things on earth, especially the emergence of humankind, is a rare accumulation of good luck in the history of the earth, and even if living things occur, it is almost impossible to evolve into intelligent living things.In that sense, the evolution of living things on Earth, including us human beings, is considered to be an extremely rare example.The idea is that although there are relatively many life forms in the universe, they are at the level of primitive bacteria, and the races that have reached high civilizations that can come into contact with humanity are not within reach of civilized contact.
Human beings have never officially encountered aliens, so there is no way to classify them.but,ParanormalSome patterns can be observed in magazines that handle.Aliens who are said to have been witnessed or imagined so far are roughly classified into the following six types.
- Humanoid (humanoid)
- Those with traits similar to humankind on earth.In a word, the human type is a stereotype of an alien because it has almost the same appearance and physique as an earthling.GrayThings with greatly different physiques such as, fantasy worksAlien,Beast manThere are various variations such as.movie"Star wars series], Etc., which makes it easy to shoot in the studio.Convergent evolutionThere are many of this race in fiction because of the idea of the above and the fact that it can be treated in the same way as the earthlings in the production of fiction works.
- Animalian (animal type)
- It looks like a higher animal on Earth, but it doesn't look like a human.In a broad sense, "MartianSuch,Octopus"Aliens like" are also included in this.Humanoids often include humanoids, which are humanoids with non-human animal characteristics such as tails, horns, and thick fur.As a realistic method and recognition of biological distinction, the earth'smammalianIt can be mentioned that it has something in common with.昆虫Aliens of a type close to the type are often confused with aliens of the animalian type, but in recent yearsPanspermia theoryFrom the perspective of science fiction writers who claim that the insects themselves originate from other planets outside the earth.Conspiracy theoryIs appearing and causing controversy.
- Robot exotic (metals)
- Of "Star Trek"BorgA life form in which most of the body is replaced with a mechanical device and the machine is the main component (cyborgIn addition to (a type of), machines and computers that are highly developed and have obtained ego and self-proliferation means may be regarded as aliens.Also,"Transformers]Robot with the same nameThere is also the concept of "a life form that looks like an artificial object at first glance, but whose main constituents are metals and inorganic substances", and some of the fictitious aliens composed of silicon are exotic (exotic). Aliens who do not have the appearance of higher creatures on the earth called atypical) are also imagined by many science fiction writers.Those that do not fit the concept or definition of "life" on the earth and have a body composed of clear substances unlike organic substances have appeared in science fiction movies, etc., and the former is a fluid organism of "Star Trek".・FounderBut the latter isSilicon-based lifeAmong the organisms composed of inorganic substances, those that are intelligent but have a solid appearance (minerals) themselves fall under this category.The names in Japanese fiction include "mechanical life forms", "metal life forms", and "inorganic life forms".
- Microorganisms / bacteria (viruses)
- Currently, space-related research institutes around the world are undertaking research and exploration on whether or not microorganisms exist outside the earth, and the governments of each country are also drawing attention in the real world, such as making budgets for the projects of each research institute. Theme. In the science fiction novel, "Andromeda pathogenWas published, and space microorganisms appeared there, and the rough content is a story in which bacteria existing in space are brought to the earth and have a serious impact on the earth's native organisms and ecosystems. And laterUniversal PicturesFrom the science fiction movie "Andromeda...It has also been released as.
- Aparative (ghost)
- Consciousness,精神Life without substance, consisting only of spiritual beings or energy signals such as electricity. Of "Star Trek"High-dimensional life formAnd "Stargate SG-1There are also cases where highly civilized races, such as the ancient races and ancients of 』, have undergone" evolution "in the spirit rather than as biological species, abandoning their bodies and transforming into spiritual beings.
- Mazone (plant)
- Sci-fi movie "Object X from the planet] InplantSystematicExtraterrestrial life 地球It is finished with the story of invading, and in the real world, in the past, botanistsHidehiro InagakiMr. is a gramineous familycornExplained the nature of corn with a joke that it came from outside the earth and became a hot topic.AmericaSci-fi novel writerEdgar Rice BurroughsBased on the originalMars series], A three-legged plant human has appeared.
The form of life on Earth is the result of evolution that has evolved to adapt to the Earth's environment (1G gravity, 1 atmosphere atmosphere, the temperature at which water exists as a liquid, etc.).From this, it can be considered that the aliens who have evolved in an alien environment completely different from the earth have a foreign form beyond our imagination.On the contrary, it may even be a non-life entity that we know, and from this point of view, by now.火星It can be said that the life exploration conducted in the above is insufficient and is within the current technology, knowledge and common sense.There is even exploration on the premise that other life forms need water and oxygen.
movies"2001 Space Journey』, The original authorArthur C. ClarkAnd directorStanley KubrickWas initiallyMonolithI was thinking of making the alien who is the master of the movie appear in the movie, and for the above reason, I tried to make it a form far from any creature on the earth.movie"Cocoon], An alien as an energy body without molecules or atomic structures was introduced, and it was an image of an alien passing through matter like a radio wave.Analysis of the chemical composition of life on earth revealed that it was centered on carbon.For these life forms of the earth (carbon-based life forms)Silicon-based lifeWas imagined.Silicon, that is, silicon is the basis of living organisms (however, since the rate of chemical change that can be made is extremely low compared to carbon-based compounds, the probability that silicon-based organisms will actually occur is low).Also, a physicist who specializes in gravityRobert L. ForwardIn the science fiction novel "Dragon's Egg" written byNeutron starI drew an alien who lives in.This is an environment extremely far from the global environment, a living organism that lives in an environment exceeding 8000 degrees Celsius, and the structure as a living organism is also composed of neutrons, and the image of an alien that exists in an extremely different environment It is an imagination of.
On the other hand, it is said that higher organisms including intelligent life forms are more likely to occur in an environment similar to the earth, and that organisms with similar abilities will have similar appearances.Convergent evolutionFrom this point of view, aliens who look very similar to humans are also imagined.These are settings that allow aliens derived in an environment similar to the earth to live at the same temperature, air composition, atmospheric pressure, etc.Active discussions are being held based on this theory.Panspermia theoryIs.If there are planets that share the same material environment of the earth, it will lead to the discovery of the origin of living things on the earth today, and in addition.Extraterrestrial lifeIt is a study that challenges the discovery and proof of. 2017NASAby,"EnceladusThe fountain contained hydrogen. "The main subject of the research on "the possibility of the existence of extraterrestrial life" conducted by some scholars and research institutes is to question the significance of the existence of living things and the direction of space exploration. It can be said that the times have entered.
Also someConspiracy theoryWhoLife on TitanAnd Trappist 1 planetary system, CentaurusProxima blike地球I brought up the contents of a research paper on a planet that is said to be very similar toUFOThese planets are sometimes taken up as the origin stars of extraterrestrial advanced intelligent life forms that are said to have come to Earth.And these planets, which are often touted as the second earth, have their central star as a red dwarf about one tenth the size of the Sun, and their orbits are fixed by tidal forces (tidal lock). On the side that always faces the central starWedIt is also claimed that there is.Also for those reasons, in a short-range orbitHabitable zoneAlthough some claim to exist, it is a harsh environment exposed to coronal mass ejections and constant radiation.lifeThe majority of the opinion is that further research and investigation is needed to prove the possibility of the existence of.
in this wayOn SFThere is a wide range of expressions from the expression "alien" in the above to the expression "extraterrestrial life" used by public institutions, and the perception of unknown beings does not match from the individual to the organizational level. Nowadays, various extraterrestrial highly intelligent life forms are imagined and proposed by those who claim the existence of aliens and SF writers.
List of typical highly intelligent life forms that appear as aliens in science fiction novels and conspiracy theories
(Commentary required, appearance works, etc.)
reptilesA humanoid "alien" with a vicious personality that looks like this.He seems to have the ability to transform into a human being and has already pretended to be a government official or celebrity.Its appearance is the American TV drama "VIt is said that it is very similar to the alien "visitor" that appears in the work.
Unlike Gray, it looks so similar to humans that it can be mistaken for humans.He is said to look like a white man on the Scandinavian Peninsula (references).
Black Eye Kids
It is a mysterious creature in the shape of a human that suddenly appears in big cities around the world.Part ofAncient astronaut theoryThe theorists had the purpose of harming humankind on earth.Extraterrestrial lifePoint out that..There is also a theory that gray-type aliens cover human skin and are active, but there are many unclear points about the basis and reality of the existence of this mysterious life form.
There are many other witnesses and testimonies of contact with aliens.also,BasharlikeChannelingThere is also an example of contact (argued) with a spiritual space lifeform.moreoverUMAThe theory that some of them are also aliens (ChupacabraAnd so on).However, none of them have been firmly supported, and it has not been proved that aliens have come to Earth.
Also, before modern timesApparition,幽 霊Although their existence was seriously believed, they became almost unbelievable due to the development of science and the spread of scientific knowledge, while phenomena such as the sighting of aliens as "youkai based on scientific knowledge" There is also a view that it has occurred (required literature).[Note 3].
Taketori story"Nayo Bamboo Kaguya Hime" that appears in the last sceneMonthIt can be interpreted as an alien to return to the city of.The story of Taketori was written10st centuryIt is said to be the oldest extant story that mentions aliens because it is said to be around.This opinion isthe 1960sIt was published in the weekly Shonen manga magazine with illustrations, but the details such as who's opinion was not disclosed.
Cocoon, The alien in this movie is played by an actress with special make-up wearing a spandex full-body suit with the concept of "human and distinctly different from humans". There is.When in her alien form, she is always glowing, her substance is not clearly visible and is not affected by gravity.When she acts in human form, she is set to wear a finely crafted humanoid outer skin suit.
Noboribetsu Administrative document disclosure request procedureBased on the existence of "Crisis Management Manual when there is a contact or attack from an alien"Cabinet SecretariatとMinistry of DefenseWhen I contacted, there was a formal answer with the sentence "There is no similar manual" (February 2012).
- ^ British: extra-terrestrial biological entities, Extraterrestrial life.
- ^ In the modern Japanese translation of "Shinshinki", there is a book translated as "Martian", but when the original Chinese boy's line "I am non-Hinin, Nori Planetya." Is translated literally, "I am not a human being. In fact, it is Mars. "It is closer to the original text that it is not the so-called "Martian" but the incarnation of the planet itself called "Mars".
- ^ In the fiction about aliens, "Transformer galaxy force』, There is something that takes this in the wrong direction and describes that" some youkai folklore is based on the experience of encountering aliens. "
- ^ Shogakukan"DigitalDaijisen』.“alien". Koto bank. 2020/3/30Browse.
- ^ Sanseido"Daijirin3rd edition. “alien”. Kotobank. 2020/3/30Browse.
- ^ Hiromitsu Yokoo, Shogakukan "Complete Encyclopedia of Japan(Nipponica) ”.“alien”. Kotobank. 2020/3/30Browse.
- ^ Hitachi Digital Heibonsha"World Encyclopedia2rd edition. “alien”. Kotobank. 2020/3/30Browse.
- ^ "エ イ リ ア ン”. Kotobank. 2020/3/30Browse.
- ^ Chinese-Japanese Dictionary 3rd Edition. “Alien". Koto bankDIGITALIO Co., Ltd. 2022/5/19Browse.
- ^ "alien”. Kotobank. 2020/3/30Browse.
- ^ Irwin, Robert (2003). The Arabian Nights: A Companion. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 204 & 209. ISBN 1860649831.
- ^ Democritus (1647). Democritus Platonissans, or an Essay Upon the Infinity of Worlds
- ^ Milton, John (1667). Paradise Lost. ISBN 0841422222
- ^ Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovierde (1686). Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds. ISBN 0520071719
- ^ Mallet, David (1728). The Excursion
- ^ (日本語) ① There was an insect-type alien !? --Ancient alien "insect-type alien" 1/2 2021/12/30Browse.
- ^ (日本語) ② There was an insect-type alien !? --Ancient alien "insect-type alien" 2/2 2021/12/30Browse.
- ^ https://www.itmedia.co.jp/news/articles/1704/14/news079.html
- ^ (日本語) ① Is a child with special abilities an incarnation of an alien? ?? "Star Child" Ancient Aliens 1/2 2021/12/30Browse.
- ^ (日本語) ② Is a child with special abilities an incarnation of an alien? ?? "Star Child" Ancient Aliens 2/2 2021/12/30Browse.
- ^ When I requested the Cabinet Secretariat and the Ministry of Defense to disclose the "manual assuming attacks from aliens", it became like this
- Yazawa Science Office, "Latest Extraterrestrial Life: Searching for [Intelligent Life] in the Milky Way" (Gakken, published March 1993, 3)
- Roth, Christopher F., "Ufology as Anthropology: Race, Extraterrestrials, and the Occult." In ET Culture: Anthropology in Outerspaces, ed. by Debbora Battaglia. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2005.
- Sagan, Carl 1996. The Demon-Haunted World: Science as a Candle in the Dark: chapter 4: "Aliens"
- Flying saucer - UFO
- Raelian movement
- Martian - Venus
- Little green man
- Men in Black
- Mantell UFO incident
- Alien language
- Supernatural power
- monster - monster
- Unidentified organism
- Extraterrestrial intelligent life exploration
- Extraterrestrial life
- Japan Society for Space Biological Sciences
- North American Aerospace Defense Command
- Area 51
- Invasion of the earth
- Roswell case
- Project Serpo
- エ イ リ ア ン
- Doctor Who
- Virtual boat
- Take me to your leader
- Space shooter Hauchu Jinda
- Shin Ultraman --The 2022 movie.In the work, aliens are called "aliens".