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🎥 | Haley Bennett's enthusiastic performance, "Swallow" delivered on dTV


Haley Bennett's enthusiastic performance, "Swallow" delivered on dTV

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The new director Carlo Mirabella-Davis said he came up with this film because his grandmother began to wash his hands repeatedly due to obsessive-compulsive disorder.

The movie "Swallow" (19), in which Haley Bennett concurrently served as executive producer and starring, is now available on video. → Continue reading

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    New director Carlo Mirabella-Davis

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder(Today's disability,British: obsessive–compulsive disorder, OCD) Repeats irrational acts and thoughts against his willMental disorderIs a type of[1].. Before 1994Obsessive-compulsive disorderIt was the diagnosis name of.Repeat the same actionIt consists of "compulsive behavior" that ends up and "obsession" that repeats the same thoughts.Many spend more than an hour a day doing that[2], WHO lists as one of the 10 major illnesses that cause life dysfunction[3].American Psychiatric AssociationIssuedDSM-IV(Mental disorder diagnosis and statistics manual)Anxiety disorderAlthough it was classified as 2013DSM-5It was positioned as one of the "obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disease groups" as an independent disease concept.[3][4]..It is included in the category of "neurotic disorders, stress-related disorders and somatic symptom disorders" in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) of the World Health Organization (WHO).[3].

    The cause is unknown.Focus on the continuity that underlies multiple diseases that produce similar symptomsObsessive-compulsive spectrum disorder As (OCSD), its peculiar related research is being conducted.In this spectrumautism,Asperger's syndrome,Tick,Tourette's disorder,Trichotillomania,Excoriation disorder,Self-harm,Body dysmorphic fear,Eating disorder,DependenceEtc. are included.

    About 2.3% of the population experience obsessive-compulsive disorder at some point in their lives[5]..The annual number of patients is about 1.2% worldwide.[2].. It rarely develops after the age of 35, and half of the patients develop it before the age of 20.[6][2]..Men and women develop almost equally[6].

    Treatment is mainlyPsychotherapyByCognitive behavioral therapy(CBT)Exposure Reaction Interference Act(ERP) etc. are used, and sometimes drug therapy (SSRI) etc. are performed ("Obsessive-compulsive disorder #treatment(See)[7][1]..With such treatment, the symptoms disappear[8]..If untreated, the symptoms can last for decades[2].


    It is a type of psychiatric disorder.


    Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder and consist of obsession and compulsive behavior.If both are not present, obsessive-compulsive disorder is not diagnosed.Obsessive-compulsive symptomsstressTends to get worse ("Stress managementSee also).

    • 強迫 観 念(Today's Obsessions) refers to the idea that causes discomfort and anxiety that comes to mind regardless of the person's intention (Obsessions).Invasion thinking).The content of the obsession never becomes a reality, nor is it a fact[9][10]..Much of the content of obsessive-compulsive thoughts is also found in the average person, but while the average person does not care much about it, in the case of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients, this is felt strongly or lasts for a long time. I'm feeling a lot of pain because of it.However, there are times when things that are not very meaningful in themselves, such as words and numbers, come to mind relentlessly.
    • Compulsive behavior(Kyohakukoui, Compulsions) is an act to counteract or shake off an unpleasant obsession, which is as irrational as an obsession, but when it is stopped.不安It is difficult to stop because of discomfort.The behavior differs depending on the patient and the case, but it can be classified into several categories, and even behavior that is completely incomprehensible to the surroundings often has some meaning to the patient himself.The main problem with obsessive-compulsive disorder patients is that one-third of the patients are obsessive-compulsive and the other two-thirds are compulsive.[11].

    Most patients are aware that their obsessive-compulsive symptoms are strange or absurd, so they are often unknowingly anxious or shameful.[12]..Also, depending on the content of the obsession, you may feel guilty.Therefore, as a secret only for me, I sometimes perform compulsive acts in secret around my family and try to cheat with unreasonable reasons.On the other hand, they may try to help their families with compulsions in order to dispel anxiety that they cannot handle by themselves.This is called "entanglement".As a general rule, the subject of obsession or compulsion is directed at oneself, even if the patient becomes non-social, for example.crimeIt does not lead to antisocial behavior such as.

    There are individual differences in the content of obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and all kinds of human anxieties can be a factor.However, there are some characteristic symptoms that are relatively common and are described below.Patients themselves have different ways of dealing with these symptoms (compulsive behavior), and one patient may have multiple obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Acts / ideas

    Fear of filth and compulsion to wash
    It is also known as mysophobia.I'm worried about the dirt on my hands, and I'm sorry if I don't wash my hands and body many times.Because I'm worried about the dirt on my bodyShower,bathSymptoms such as getting into the body many times (however, touching something that is unclean for the person is a strong pain, so on the contrary, it is not possible to touch or clean the body or living room, and it is rather unsanitary. It may develop. From washing your hands too muchHand eczemaMay develop.Some patients feel uncomfortable touching the straps of the train and wear gloves to touch them, and sometimes they go out and wash their money and cards because they feel dirty and dirty every time they go home. ).
    Confirmation act
    Also called confirmation compulsion.When going out or going to bed, at homekey,gasI was worried about the main plug of the door, whether the window was closed, etc., so I relentlessly check when I come back many times.For example, I turned off the electric appliances or I was overwhelmed.
    Fear of harm
    Abnormally afraid of harming others due to one's carelessness.For example, while driving a car, I was worried that I might have run over a person without realizing it, and I returned to the confirmation.It also includes the fear of seeing a woman holding a baby and suddenly grabbing the child, throwing it, or dropping it.
    Fear of damage
    Abnormally afraid that you will harm yourself or that you will be harmed by something other than yourself.For example, yourselfEyeI was worried that I might hurt my body, and I kept sharp things away from me.There are also suspicions that it may have been damaged in the past.
    Suicide fear
    IsuicideI am afraid that I will do it.
    Or nosophobia.Those who are afraid that they may or may not have a serious illness or a so-called incurable illness.HIV virusToinfectionWorried aboutbloodIt also includes things that are unusually afraid of such things.
    Auspicious fear
    Also known as auspicious compulsion.Those who are afraid that they may or have done religiously or socially immoral acts.Being afraid of thinking or saying blasphemous things to the object of faith, he has a sense of shame and guilt.for example,ShrineBuddhist temple,(I.e.You might think of unbelief inScriptureIt may damage such things.You may be overwhelmed by the obsession that bad things such as illness and misery will occur if you do not do certain things, such as when you put on your shoes from your right foot.JinxSome of them have extreme ideas such as behavior like this and bad things happening when XX is done.
    Incomplete fear
    Also known as incomplete compulsion.Things that make you feel uneasy if things don't go well, such as arranging things in order, keeping symmetry, and keeping things in the right position for the person.For example, if the furniture or the object on the desk does not have the specific shape that you have decided, you will be anxious and will always try to check or fix it.In doing things, if you don't follow a certain order, you'll be anxious, and if things go wrong, you may have to start over and over again.In some cases, the address when sending mail and whether there are any mistakes in the documents may be obstinately obsessed, and as a result, the confirmation act may be repeated.
    Preservation compulsion (Compulsive hoarding
    Those who store unnecessary items at home because they fear that they may accidentally throw away important items.Most of the time, the person knows that he / she is unnecessary, so he / she may be worried about the contradiction of his / her behavior.Garbage mansionreference.
    Obsessive-compulsive number
    There are ominous numbers and discerning numbers, and we avoid those numbers or repeat the number of times.Since the number 4 is associated with "death", it is an act of avoiding things related to this number in daily life.
    Fear compulsion
    I can't say a certain fear or word about the incident.I can't say that because I think it's going to be scary.
    Sexual obsession
    Images of sexuality, such as homosexuality and incest, that the person does not really want to think about emerge as an obsession.Homosexual obsessive-compulsive disorder is also known as HOCD.

    In addition, even if you are in a state of admitting trivial, trivial, or unavoidable things, you will be obsessed with this (obsession) and it will hinder your life to avoid the pain. Excessive confirmation and snooping (compulsive behavior).


    Obsessions and compulsions exhaust the patient, and patients may narrow their lives in an attempt to avoid situations that cause obsessive-compulsive symptoms.This is called avoidance.In severe cases, they may stay home or live only in a very small area.Avoidance, like compulsion, interferes with the patient's social life and makes it difficult to continue working or studying.
    In some cases, compulsions do not fit into your own actions and you may beg or coerce your family or close friends.This is called entanglement or entanglement type.As a result, not only the patient but also the surroundings may become tired of dealing with obsessive-compulsive symptoms.It is clear that helping the patient with compulsive behavior (such as washing something on behalf of the patient or checking for mistakes), such as involvement, maintains or worsens the patient's condition. Because it is, you should avoid it as much as possible[13]..However, suddenly stopping this is very painful for the patient, and the symptoms may worsen temporarily, so it is necessary for the patient, the therapist, and the family to discuss the need and then gradually stop the involvement. There is.
    Infection (contagion)
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder is a mental illness that is not physically caused by pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.However, there can be psychological infections that are affected by other obsessive-compulsive disorder patients and develop other symptoms that they did not originally have.


    Race,Citizenship,SexTends to develop regardless of[1]..According to the survey, it is estimated that about 2-3% of the total population has obsessive-compulsive disorder.[14].

    It is said that it often develops in adolescence around the age of 20, but it cannot be said to be a disease peculiar to adolescence because it may occur in childhood and middle age.Also, in animalsDog,catEtc. also developGroomingIs repeated frequently.

    Also, as a celebrity with these disabilitiesDavid BeckhamIn some cases, there are no significant effects on daily life from the outside.Generally, if there is no problem, it is not a "disability".

    The characteristic of patients with this illness is that they are aware of the illness, unlike other mental illnesses.I know the person himself, but it can be said that this disease cannot be cured.Except for severely ill patients, patients at a level that does not interfere with social life do not put up with rituals in public so that others do not notice that they are ill, and hide the illness.And, in a house where there is no worry of being seen by others, it seems that there are many cases where the symptoms are not hidden and the ritualistic behavior is performed until the person is satisfied.


    Although it is a type of neurosis, it transmits disorders of the basal ganglia, limbic system, specific parts of the brain, serotonin and dopamine rather than the psychological and environmental causes that are the cause of neurosis. The dysfunction of the nervous system, which is a substance, is presumed and is considered to be a promising mechanism of onset.It may develop after a stressful event, but most develop gradually without any special trigger.

    In addition, there is a tendency for many people to have a serious personality (obsessive-compulsive personality).

    Biological factor

    Basal ganglia theory

    It has been reported that basal ganglia disorder may be involved in the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder.[15].

    Temporal lobe / limbic theory

    It has been reported that the cerebrum suppresses what humans do not need to do many times, but when it stops functioning, obsessive-compulsive disorder appears and the serotonin system is greatly involved.[16].

    Frontal lobe theory

    A model has been proposed in which obsessive-compulsive symptoms appear when the control function of the orbitofrontal cortex declines.[17].

    Psychological factors

    Leon SalzmanObsessive personalityPoints out that it is the most common personality today and is characterized by a universal self-image of trying to control everything and being able to do so.[18]..Obsessive-compulsive is forced to repeat the same thoughts強迫 観 念I have no choice but to repeat the same actCompulsive behaviorHowever, the feeling of self-deficiency of obsessive-compulsive disorder is involved in the background of these symptoms.Obsessive-compulsive repetition of actions and thoughts to achieve perfection protects against the underlying anxiety of self-doubt and helps maintain self-integrity.Psychopathologist Kasahara sees obsessive-compulsive disorder as "defense against uncertainty, unpredictability, and ambiguity in life" and sets "simple and clear lifestyles and narrowed lifestyles" for such anxiety. I have a fantasy all-around feeling that I can build a reliable and predictable world. "[19]..It is thought that the reason why schizophrenic patients exhibit not a little obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the crisis of personal dismantling is that the steadily increasing internal uncertainty is protected by "obsessive-compulsive", and this mechanism is a variety of mental illnesses. May be seen in.Obsessive-compulsive behavior patterns from a psychological point of view can be seen as an attempt to overcome feelings of helplessness and self-uncertainty.


    It is harmless to confirm that it has been locked several times, or if two hours of prayer is a religious practice that is also found in people around you, it is not considered a deviation and is normal.[20]..About 5%Schizophrenic personality disorderIt is difficult to treat without the insight that compulsive behavior is irrational.[20].Obsessive-compulsive personality disorderHave similar names, but rarely coexist with few compulsions[20].

    For other conditions that are excluded from obsessive-compulsive disorder.depressionBeing caught inTic disorderRepetitive movement,Eating disorderRepeated overeating and vomiting inAutism spectrum disorderRitual ritual,Drug addiction,Generalized anxiety disorderExcessive and "realistic" anxiety, etc.[20].

    Diagnostic Criteria E for DSM-IV and Diagnostic Criteria C for DSM-5 require that obsessive-compulsive symptoms are not the effects of drugs or physical illness.Substance- and drug-induced obsessive-compulsive disorder (DSM-5) occurs after the use of a drug, and when the drug is discontinued, the symptoms stop according to its half-life, and cocaine-containing psychostimulantsPoisoningAlso include heavy metals and toxins.Obsessive-compulsive disorder (DSM-5) due to other medical disorders has been identified as having a physiologically obsessive-compulsive disorder, a symptom that can be identified in existing literature, such as striatum injury. When symptoms are confirmed in cases other than delirium.


    UK National Institute of Medical Technology(NICE) is a low-intensity initial intervention for adult OCDPsychotherapyMust be proposed, citing individual CBT / ERP self-help, individual CBT / ERP by phone, and group CBT / ERP for 10 hours or more.[1]..It also states that SSRIs or stronger CBT / ERP should be proposed for moderate OCD in adults.[1]..SSRIs and CBT / ERP should be combined for serious adult OCD[1].

    As an initial intervention for OCD in child and adolescents, NICE should suggest guided self-help for mild cases and CBT / ERP for moderate to severe cases.[1]..SSRIs are an option if these psychotherapies are ineffective, but side effects should be carefully monitored as they have been noted to increase suicide risk.[1].


    Exposure Reaction Interference Act

    Behavior therapy combines exposure and ritual obstruction,Exposure Reaction Interference Act (ERP) is used.Exposure is a method of intentionally exposing oneself to situations where anxiety or discomfort occurs, and ritual obstruction is a method of not taking compulsive behavior to reduce anxiety or discomfort even if it occurs. Is.These are performed according to the stage of anxiety and discomfort of the patient.By doing so, "as time goes by after exposure, anxiety and discomfort naturally decrease" and "without compulsion, there is no real fear". Patients learn that obsessions really didn't have to be a concern. "[21]..When performing exposure / ritual obstruction, modeling techniques that allow the patient to refer to the thoughts and behaviors of others (therapists, etc.) in the same situation are also very useful.[22]..Such an exposure response obstruction method can be used alone, but if the obsession is strong, it is easier to obtain a successful experience if it is performed after the introduction of drug therapy.

    Behavioral experiment

    In addition, behavioral experiments may be conducted to understand that the content of obsessions cannot occur in reality, and to lead to the smooth introduction of exposure response obstruction methods, their effectiveness and necessity. Has been pointed out[9]..In the case of the previous research, if you had the obsession that "If A, then / If A, then B will occur / B will occur", then "Even if you actually try A, / A will be reproduced. Even if you try / A, it does not become B / B does not occur ”, which led to the introduction of a smooth exposure reaction obstruction method.[9].


    In addition, modeling is a technique often used as an adjunct when performing exposure response obstruction methods.[23]..Specifically, after a thorough explanation of the treatment mechanism and treatment challenges, the therapist will actually demonstrate the treatment challenges of exposure and ritual disturbance prior to the implementation of the exposure response obstruction method (hand wash for a reasonable amount of time). Show it or check the key at once)[23]..This gives the patient a clear understanding of what to do with the exposure response obstruction method, as well as "actually afraid of anything in the non-compulsive healer's way. It is also possible to strengthen the idea that "does not occur", so it is possible to work on the exposure reaction obstruction method with a little relief of anxiety.[23].

    In addition, it is possible to support the improvement of self-affirmation by giving positive words such as approval and praise when the person is not compulsive or is living alive.[24].

    In addition, since it is difficult to perform behavior therapy only in the case of obsessive-compulsive thoughts (mentioned above) in which unpleasant words are repeated, it is more difficult to treat than in the case of compulsive behavior.It has been known that treatment methods such as reinterpreting the content of obsessions realistically and leaving obsessions as they are without avoiding or blocking them are effective.[25].

    Drug therapy

    Acts on the serotonin system as a drug therapyAntidepressantIs known to suppress obsessions, and in Japan today,Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) Hydrochloric acidParoxetine, Maleic acidFluvoxamine,hydrochloric acidSertralineOrTricyclic antidepressantHydrochloric acidClomipramineEtc. are used.

    If NICE provides medication for adult OCD,Fluoxetine,Fluvoxamine,Paroxetine,Sertraline,EscitalopramShould choose one from the five SSRIs[1].

    Since reports outside Japan suggest that the highest dose should be administered as a single agent, the dose may be increased to 225 mg for clomipramine hydrochloride, 60 mg for paroxetine hydrochloride, and 300 mg for fluvoxamine maleate.These are covered by insurance if there is a written reason from the attending physician, but since these conditions are not always satisfied by the physique and constitution of the Japanese, there are individual differences in the types and doses of the prescribed drugs.

    Herbal medicine

    Herbal medicineAsSaiko Karyu Oyster,,,,Yokukansan,Kamiyo Harukasan,Goreisan,RikkunshitoChinese herbal medicine may be effective.Use properly according to the symptoms.[26]

    Neurosurgery treatment

    Approximately 10 percent of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder worsen after treatment.in this case,NeurosurgeryTreatment orDeep brain stimulation(DBS) is applied. ((Electroconvulsive therapyTranscranial magnetic stimulationHas not been proven to be effective)

    Neurosurgery is a small area of ​​brain resection.Its main content is anterior capsule incision,Limbic systemRobotmy,GyrusExcision,Gamma knifeTreatment.Studies show improvement in symptoms in 35% -50% of obsessive-compulsive disorder patients treated with neurosurgery.As a risk of neurosurgery treatmentEpilepsySeizures, personality changes, etc.[14].

    Deep brain stimulation

    On February 2009, 2, for severe obsessive-compulsive disorderDeep brain stimulation The use of (DBS)US Food and Drug AdministrationApproved by the (FDA).It was also approved in Europe on July 7, the same year.MedtronicIt is a device called Reclaim of the company.

    Research case

    University of ArizonaPsychiatrist, Francisco A. Moreno et al., As a result of a small clinical trial, hallucination-induced mushroomsMagic mushroomIs a component ofPsilocybin (psilocybin) has been suggested to be useful for severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).Taking psilocybin completely eliminated obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms in the 9 patients who participated in the study for approximately 4-24 hours.Psilocybin is a banned drug, but it can be used in medical research.

    In recent studies, obsessive-compulsive disorderNMDA-type glutamate receptorFound to be associated with this receptorAntagonistIt is expected that (antagonists) will have therapeutic effects (especially for intractable obsessive-compulsive disorder).[27].. As an NMDA-type glutamate receptor antagonist,Alzheimer's dementiaIs an improving drugMemantineAnd used as an anestheticKetamineIt has been known.Currently, it is only a pharmacological prediction for which there is no evidence, but clinical trials have already begun in the United States.[28].

    In the August 2016 report, SSRI fluvoxamine and antibioticsMinocyclineIn a 100-week clinical trial with 10 mg (Y-BOCSThe minocycline group showed a significantly better response.There was no significant difference in the frequency of side effects[29].

    InositolIt is,panic disorderIt has been reported that when taken by patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder, it has the effect of alleviating the symptoms, and it is said to have the effect of significantly reducing the frequency and degree of anxiety.again,InositolThere is also a paper report that high dose intake of fluvoxamine was more effective in reducing symptoms than fluvoxamine.[30][31]

    Celebrities with obsessive-compulsive disorder

    • "Parasitic in love" (Sugaru Miaki): The main character and the heroine have obsessive-compulsive disorder.The protagonist is addictive and the heroine is scopophobic.
    • "Federation of Bizarre Diseases" (Morio Kita): The main character is obsessive-compulsive disorder.
    • "As Good As It Gets(As Good as It Gets):Jack NicholsonThe main character who plays is obsessive-compulsive disorder.
    • "Matchstick men(Matchstick Men):Nicholas CageThe main character who plays is obsessive-compulsive disorder (mysophobia).
    • "Detective monk(Monk): The main character played by Tony Shalhoub is obsessive-compulsive disorder.
    • "Meteor Wagon"
    • "I want to clean my hands and brush my hair" (): Japanese modern poetry.Poetry collection "End of the Century Orgasm" (Shichosha, 1983).
    • Movie "memo": ActorJiro SatoA movie based on the experience of his obsession[36].


    [How to use footnotes]
    1. ^ a b c d e f g h i UK National Institute of Medical Technology 2005.
    2. ^ a b c d Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5 (5 ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing. (2013). Pp. 237–242. ISBN 9780890425558 
    3. ^ a b c "Obsessive-compulsive disorder”. Encyclopedia Nipponica. 2021/8/24Browse.
    4. ^ "DSM-IV to DSM-5 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Comparison”. National Center for Biotechnology Information, US National Library of Medicine. 201-08-24Browse.
    5. ^ Goodman, WK; Grice, DE; Lapidus, KA; Coffey, BJ (September 2014). “Obsessive-compulsive disorder.”. The Psychiatric clinics of North America 37 (3): 257–67. two:10.1016 / j.psc.2014.06.004. PMID 25150561. 
    6. ^ a b "What is Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)?". 2015/5/27Browse.
    7. ^ Grant JE (2014-08-14). “Clinical practice: Obsessive-compulsive disorder.”. The New England Journal of Medicine 371 (7): 646–53. two:10.1056 / NEJMcp1402176. PMID 25119610. 
    8. ^ Yoshihiro Narita (2002). Obsessive-compulsive disorder-pathology and treatment-Igaku-Shoin 
    9. ^ a b c Ryotaro Ishikawa, Osamu Kobori, Akiko Nakagawa, Eiji Shimizu (2013). Cognitive behavioral therapy using behavioral experiments for obsessive-compulsive disorderAnxiety Disorder Research, 5, 54-60, two:10.14389 / adr.5.54
    10. ^ Akiko Goto (2005).Behavioral Analysis and Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders Yasuro Iikura (eds.) Behavioral Therapy for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders (p.50) Kongo Publishing
    11. ^ Stanley Luckman, "Treatment of Obsessions, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Science and Practice," translated by Tsutomu Sakuta, Koron Jihosha, February 2007, "Introduction", etc.ISBN 9784915340604.
    12. ^ Gavin Andrews et al., "Cognitive Therapy for Anxiety Disorders (3) Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders and PTSD" Translated by Toshiaki Furukawa, Seiwa Shoten, April 2005, p. 4.ISBN-4 7911-0569-9
    13. ^ Jeffrey M. Schwartz, To those who are uneasy and irresistible, translated by Toshiko Yoshida, Soshisha, 1998, p. 194.
    14. ^ a b "Treating obsessive-compulsive disorder". 2017/10/19Browse.
    15. ^ Laplane D, Boulliat J, Baron JC, et al. Comportement compulsif d'allure obsessionnelle par lésion bilatérale des noyaux lenticulaires. Un nouveau cas. Encephale. 1988 Jan-Feb; 14 (1): 27–32.
    16. ^ Teruo Nakajima (1995): Obsessive-compulsive disorder. Yoshihiro Narita ed .: OCD. P.113. Life Sciences, Tokyo.
    17. ^ Insel TR. Toward a Neuroanatomy of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1992; 49 (9): 739-744.
    18. ^ L. Salzman (1998) pp. 3 --12, 73 --76.
    19. ^ Yomishi Kasahara "On the Premorbid Character of Depression" "Yomishi Kasahara (eds.): Psychopathology of Manic Depression 1", Koubundou Publishers, 1976, pp. 1-29.
    20. ^ a b c d Allen Frances 2014, pp. 98–103.
    21. ^ Lee, D. Takemoto Takemoto (Translation) (2016). Introduction to Cognitive Behavior Therapy in 10 Minutes Nikkei BP, pp. 200-201.
    22. ^ Hoffman, SG Masaya Ito, Masaru Horikoshi (Translation) (2012). Modern Cognitive Behavioral Therapy-Clinical Practice of CBT Model-Diagnosis and Treatment Company, p. 103.
    23. ^ a b c Akiko Goto (2005). Basics of behavioral analysis and treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder Yasuro Iikura (eds.) Behavioral therapy for obsessive-compulsive disorder (p.71) Kongo Publishing
    24. ^ Ritsuko Tsugawa, Yoshie Yamaguchi, Seto Kitamura, "Chapter 4 Mental Disorders Mainly from Adolescence to Adults," "Educational Counseling," Koubundou Publishers, 2015, p. 40. 
    25. ^ Stanley Luckman, Treatment of Obsessions, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: Science and Practice, translated by Tsutomu Sakuta, Koron Jihosha, February 2007. 2, 5-42, 43, 83 pages.ISBN 9784915340604.
    26. ^ Chinese herbal medicine effective for mental illness and developmental disorders-From the practice of "second opinion of psychiatry" (second opinion of psychiatry) Satoru Utsumi (Author)
    27. ^ Papapetropoulos, S. (November 2005). “Tardive Dystonia Associated With Ziprasidone”. American Journal of Psychiatry 162 (11): 2191–2191. two:10.1176 / appi.ajp.162.11.2191. PMID 16263868. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/article.aspx?articleid=177887. 
    28. ^ Aboujaoude, Elias; Barry, John J .; Gamel, Nona (February 2009). “Memantine Augmentation in Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder”. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 29 (1): 51–55. two:10.1097 / JCP.0b013e318192e9a4. PMID 19142108. 
    29. ^ Esalatmanesh S, Abrishami Z, Zeinoddini A, Rahiminejad F, Sadeghi M, Najarzadegan MR, Shalbafan MR, Akhondzadeh S. (2016-08-04). “Minocycline combination therapy with fluvoxamine in moderate-to-severe obsessive-compulsive disorder: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. ”. en: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences.. two:10.1111 / pcn.12430. PMID 27488081. 
    30. ^ Fux M, Levine J, Aviv A, Belmaker RH (1996). “Inositol treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder”. American Journal of Psychiatry 153 (9): 1219–21. PMID 8780431. 
    31. ^ Palatnik A, Frolov K, Fux M, Benjamin J (2001). “Double-blind, controlled, crossover trial of inositol versus fluvoxamine for the treatment of panic disorder”. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology 21 (3): 335–339. two:10.1097 / 00004714-200106000-00014. PMID 11386498. 
    32. ^ https://www.ocduk.org/ocd/history-of-ocd/howard-hughes/
    33. ^ a b c d https://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/mental-health/translations/japanese/obsessive-compulsive-disorder
    34. ^ "End of the World / SEKAI NO OWARI, Fukase's Next Stage | HIGHSNOBIETY.JP”(Japanese). highsnobiety.jp (September 2020, 3). 2021/3/16Browse.
    35. ^ https://www.additudemag.com/howie-mandel-ocd/
    36. ^ "Piipuru: Jiro Sato The strangeness of instability”. ZAKZAK (October 2008, 4). 2014/1/30Browse.


    • L. Salzman (Author) Yoshihiro Narita, Yomishi Kasahara (Translation) "Compulsive Personality New Edition" Misuzu Shobo, 1998 (Original 1973).ISBN 9784622049609. 
    • Yoshihiro Narita, "Compulsive Disorders-Pathology and Treatment," Igaku-Shoin, 2002.ISBN 9784260118651. 

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