Photo "Chimudondon" from the 90st – (C) NHK
Synopsis for Nobuko's 90th episode of "Chimu Dondon"
If you write the contents roughly
At a pig farm in Chiba, Kenhide (Ryusei Ryo) falls into an unexpected situation and is in danger of attending the wedding reception.
The 106th work of the NHK serial TV novel "Chimu Dondon" where Yuna Kuroshima plays the heroine.Week 18 "Anne of Happiness... → Continue reading
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Agriculture of each country|
It is not clear when pig farming began.this isRelicof pigs found asboneis of a wild species in captivity, orRearingThis is because it is difficult to distinguish between species.On the other hand, the regional distribution is easy to understand.The oldest bones are presentChugokufound in the southB.C.It is from around the year 8000.ThenMesopotamia4000 BC,EgyptThe bones of around 3000 BC are old.EuropeThe history of pig farming inBritish Isles4000 BC bones have also been found inIndiaEastern,Southeast Asia,Central AsiaPig farming also spread to the south.No evidence of pig farming has been found elsewhere.for exampleAfrican continentHowever, pig farming did not spread outside of Egypt.in chinaAgriculturePig farming is thought to have started around the same time as the beginning of the 5000th century, but in Mesopotamia there is a time lag of XNUMX years after the start of agriculture.
in Japan1871(Meiji4), pig farming became popular nationwide for about two years.this is kind ofSpeculationbecome a phenomenon,bankruptcyThere were also many people who came out.However1873(Meiji 6), a law was enacted to prohibit the breeding of pigs in densely populated areas.ParasiteThe pig farming industry declined at once, coupled with the rumor that there are.2014(Heisei26 years)養豚農業振興法（平成26年6月27日法律第101号）がAnnounceWas done.
United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization According to FAO Production Yearbook 2002, the number of pigs raised in the world as of 2002 was 9 million, of which halfPeople's Republic of Chinareared inChina's population has also grown remarkably, increasing by 2002 million in the ten years up to 10.
- China 4 million (6470%)
- America 5907 million (6.3%)
- Brazil 3000 million (3.2%)
- Germany 2596 million (2.8%)
- Spain 2386 million (2.5%)
Islamthen pork dietCommandment(Halal).For this reason,feedIn a natural environment suitable for livestock, such as securing ofLabor force-consumerIspopulationPig farming is almost non-existent in Muslim countries, even in areas where there are many pigs.
Although pigskin is also useful, it can be said that almost all pigs are raised for meat production. According to FAO statistics, worldwide in 2002豚 肉(pork) production is 9419 million tons.China, where the demand for pork has increased along with economic development, accounts for half of the population.
- China 4460 million tons (47.4%)
- America 894 million tons (9.5%)
- Germany 412 million tons (4.4%)
- Spain 299 million tons (3.2%)
- France 235 million tons (2.5%)
then Brazil,Canada,Denmark, Poland and Vietnam.Of the world's pork production, the top 10 countries above also account for3⁄4occupyComparing the number of pigs and the production volume, the number of live pigsTradecan read the influence ofIn other words, BrazilOutputcountry, France is an importing country.
Comparison with other meats
The world's leading meat source is牛,Dream Pork, including goatssheepis. As of 2002, pork production was 9419 million tons, far ahead of beef's 5788 million tons and mutton's 1155 million tons.About 6% of the meat consumed is pork.
There are also differences in the distribution of production areas.The bias increases in the order of beef, mutton and pork.Beef is produced almost equally in all states except Africa and Oceania (each state has a share of 2% to over 2%).Asia (4%) and Africa (a little over 2%) are dominant in mutton production, but the rest of the states produce almost evenly.On the other hand, pork production is heavily biased in Asia (approximately 6%), and the production volume is small outside Europe (approximately 2%).
Domestic production and consumption in Japan
Domesticated pigs are mainly used for meat.The breeding period is about 6 months, and the weight is about 110 kg.BSEandbird-fluPartly due to豚 肉consumption is increasing.On the other hand, domestic production is on the decline,200488.4 tons per year.輸入Pork is on the rise,200486.2 tons per year, almost on par with domestic production.
In 2018, for the first time in 26 years in JapanPig fever(former name: swine fever) occurred, and as of September 2021Pig feverNumber of animals affected by (SlaughterApproximately 14 in 71 prefectures (25 cases)has risen, and has a great impact on the pig farming industry.On September 2020, 9, the OIE (International Bureau of Animal Health) for the first time in 13 years.
There are 6 breeds in Japan that are used for pig farming.There are three characteristics that are emphasized in pig farming: meat production ability, strength, and reproductive ability.In pig farming, piglets for meat are obtained by crossbreeding a breed with high reproductive ability and a breed with high robustness, and further combining with a breed with high meat-producing ability.Large White Pig(W) male andLandrace pigto a hybrid sow (LW) produced between females of (L)Duroc species"LWD" obtained by crossing the males of (D) is common.
- Large White Pig - The oldest breed among the 6 breeds.It has excellent reproductive ability next to Landrace.Body coloris white.It is a large breed along with Duroc and Landrace, and weighs around 1 kg in one year of life, and reaches 180 kg in adult pigs.Abbreviated by alphabet "W".
- Duroc species - The breed with the highest meat yield.It has high strength and reproductive ability.Body color is reddish brown.Duroc and Landrace have sleeping ears.Abbreviated as "D".Also known as red pig.
- Landrace pig - The breed with the highest fertility.It has a long body and high meat yield.The largest number in Japan.Body color is white.Abbreviated as "L"
- Berkshire pig - Body color is black.Abdomen reddish brown.They are easy to identify because they have white spots on their heads and limbs.Relatively small breed along with Hampshire and Yorkshire.1 kg at 150 year old and 250 to 300 kg in adult pigs.Black pigis a purebred cross between Berkshires.Abbreviated as "B".
- Hampshire pig - It has the second highest meat yield after Duroc.The body color is black, but there is a white band from the shoulder to the front legs.Abbreviated as "H".Currently a rare species.
- Yorkshire species - Also known as 'Middle Yorkshire' as opposed to Greater Yorkshire.Unlike other breeds, the face is flat.Body color is white.Abbreviated as "Y".Currently a rare species.
- Iberian pig - Whole body black hair.Rare species.
- British Saddleback - Similar to Hampshire but with floppy ears.Rare species.
- Tamworth - brown hair.Rare species.
- Large Black - Whole body black hair.Rare species.
- Meishan pig - Made in China.The belly hangs down to the ground.It is extremely prolific.Rare species.
- Jinhua Pig - A rare breed native to China,Jinhua hamIt becomes a raw material of.
Centralization of management
In Japan, formerlyRuralDepartmentSuburb OfCountrysideThe area was once dotted with small-scale pig farms called "pig huts," but these days they're all but gone.Environment issuesNot only were they forced to move out, but the number of domestic pig farmers themselves is decreasing.The biggest factor isStenchThere are environmental problems such as these and the difficulty of finding a successor.1991from 4 units per degree2010By that time, the number had decreased to 6.On the other hand, the number of pigs being raised has decreased by only 2%, indicating the concentration on large-scale pig farmers.More than 27% of all pig farms are already large-scale businesses with over XNUMX pigs (2004Every time).Many of the large-scale traders not only produce their own breeding pigs, but also have a dedicatedVeterinarianTheemploymentdo it,治療,vaccinationI often do it myself.Pig farms that specialize in the production of breeding pigs are called breeding farms.
In addition, in this wayPaddy fieldBy geographically separating the zone and the pig farm,Japanese encephalitisIt should be noted that the number of patients withJapanese encephalitis breeds in paddy fieldsCulex tritaenioris mediated.I like Culex pipiensVampireThe animal that causes Japanese encephalitis is pigs.ウ イ ル スis highly susceptible to swine and subclinicalinfectionThe virus grows well in pigs without causing disease.In the past, the coexistence of rice paddies and pig farms in the suburbs of cities was a major factor in the repeated epidemics of Japanese encephalitis.
The type of feed used for pig farming is closely related to the local culture.
For example, in modern Japanese pig farming,輸入穀物We use feed mainly composed ofSince ancient times, the feed traditionally used for pig farming isEast Asiathen peopleshit,EuropeThen.Acornis the main subject, and thisLeftover foodwas used as a supplement.West AsiaThen afterIslamPig farming has been abolished in most areas due to the spread of pig farming, so there are many unknown points about what kind of ancient pig farming feed was.
Challenges of modern pig farming
in modern pig farmingcornMainly,soydregswheatAddedfeedis used.many of these輸入relies onSecurityis the problem above.In addition, imported feed protein,amino acidDerived fromnitrogenThe compound is partly pighuman wasteand some others in the form of manure and garbage from people who eat livestock products, and are at risk of overaccumulating in the soil.These are landEcosystemagainst the water cycle caused by precipitation andsewageThroughRiverand coastal waters are oversupplied, causing river ecosystems andoceanIt has a significant impact on ecosystems.in short,The United States of Americaindustrial production in feed crop producing countries such asNitrogen fixationNitrogen compounds generated by this process unilaterally accumulate in the land and surrounding seas of Japan, which is a feed importing country, and cause an abnormality in the material cycle that causes an abnormality in the ecosystem in the form of eutrophication.the same thingphosphoric acidSuch asRinThe same can be said for compounds.
In addition, in order to complete material circulation within the country and prevent excessive eutrophication of the country and the resulting destruction of the ecosystem, one of the solutions is to use food waste such as garbage as feed. Naru (Until the 1970s, leftover food was often given as food in small-scale cases),Food wasteAsScrap meatis used as feed,Trichinellainfection(Trichinosis) becomes a problem.In recent years, there has been research into using raw garbage and food waste as raw materials for feed.Self-sufficiency rateWe are trying to improve and re-approach.
In addition, research is underway to reduce the amount and use of pig farming by-products.Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technologyin pig urineRicestrawMixfermentationLetfuelusemethane gasdeveloped a technology to efficiently generate.
traditional pig farming in east asia
in East Asia“Vertical Use of Mountains in the Livelihoods of Mountain Residents and Their Changes” (Dai Nishitani (National Museum of Japanese History))As described in , the traditional pig farming method used raw garbage and human excrement generated from human living areas as they are for pig farming.
The view that pigs are unclean animals may be due to this point.but,CoprophagyPigs aren't the only ones doing this.Although humans are omnivores,(I.e.As you seeCecum-colonfermentationByDietary fiberinto an energy sourceHerbivorehave the character ofThe large number of resident colonicAnaerobic bacteriawas not digested and absorbed in the small intestinecellulose,HemicelluloseSuch asPolysaccharidefermented to become an energy sourceButyric acid,Propionic acidshort chains such asfatty acidare producing.Fermentation sites such as cows and sheepRuminationin animals thatstomachIt is located just before the , and not only absorbs short-chain fatty acids but also flushes proliferated bacteria and protozoa into the stomach.digestion·absorption.proteinetc. are collected.However, the digestive organs of animals such as humans and horses that ferment the cecum and large intestine proliferated.Intestinal bacteriacannot be digested and absorbed, and must be discarded as feces.Therefore, human feces are mainly composed of bacterial cells, and are rich in nutrients such as proteins in this form.
Pig farming in East Asia feeds pigs with these protein-rich manures, thereby maintaining sanitation of the settlement and providing protein and protein in the form of live pigs.fatand as neededSlaughter, developed as a system to collect as human food.JapaneseHonshu,Shikoku,Kyusyuand in the surrounding islandsEdo PerioduntilBuddhismThe culture of raising livestock for food declined under the influence ofFor this reason, human feces are fermented and used for farmland.fertilizerThe culture of using human feces as feed developed, and pig farming using human feces as feed was not performed (or stopped).On the other hand, the influence of Chinese culture is strong, and there is a large cultural difference from Kyushu and the north.Ryukyu KingdomWas under the control ofNansei IslandsIn the East Asian region, pig farming using human feces was practiced, and a culture of eating pork developed.
Human manure pig farming is excellent as described above.RecyclingSystem, but dangerousParasiteIsPork tapewormThere was also the problem of forming an infection cycle ofIn the Nansei Islands, after the war, the danger of this risk,Higher educationA campaign to abolish human feces pig farming was held due to the prejudice that the people who received it were unclean and eccentric customs originating from China.Japanese archipelagoHuman manure pig farming has disappeared.In the process,Yaeyama IslandsIt is recorded that violent conflicts occurred in the home of a woman who had received a higher education and who spearheaded this movement, such as human feces being thrown as harassment.
European traditional pig farming
In northwestern Europe, where agricultural productivity is poor and there is no culture of pig farming on human feces, it was difficult to secure enough feed (and crops for human consumption) to maintain pig herds throughout the year.Piglets born in summer, in autumnOakThey are released into forests and fed with acorns to grow and fatten.Only the individual pigs that will be used for breeding next year are left and slaughtered in bulk at the beginning of winter.Ham,sausage,bacon,lardThere was a pig farming system in which pigs were processed into preserved food and survived until the end of the fall of the following year (only pork was eaten until the spring when crops could be harvested).However16st centuryToNew worldfrom USApotato,cornCrops that can yield large harvests even in cold, infertile lands have been introduced.As these became more and more popular, it became possible to secure a surplus harvest beyond what humans could eat, which was used to feed pigs, providing a stock of animal protein and fat in the form of live pigs all year round. It became possible.Thus symbolized by "potato and sausage"german foodThe combination of new crops from the New World and processed pork products, as typified by
Animal Welfare Issues
In Japan, the number of pigs raised per household increased from 35 in 2 to 29 in 2001..Intensification of livestockis in EuropeIndustrial revolutionWith the expansion of factory-type livestock farming where animals are kept in large quantities in one place, mainly in EuropeAnimal welfareThe issue of
In the pig farming industry, facilities where sows are restrained during pregnancyGestation crate, cutting tails and teeth of piglets without anesthesia, castration without anesthesia, etc. are being discussed as animal welfare issues..High-density, large-scale production in pursuit of productivityFactory livestocktherefore prone to injury and illness.Piglet mortality is high, averaging 15% to 20%.,slaughterAt times, more than 8% of pigs are said to have pneumonia..To prevent these diseases,Antibioticsetc. are added to the feed as appropriate.
Used to help manage pregnant sowsGestation crateseverely restricts the behavior of sows and leads to the development of abnormal behavior. for that reasonEuropean Unionhas banned pregnancy stalls from 2008 January 120 in the COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 18/2008/EC of 2013 December 1 - laying down minimum standards for the protection of pigs.In the United States, Florida, Maine, Rhode Island, Oregon, Arizona, California, Colorado, and Michigan have decided to abolish pregnancy stalls.in JapanGestation crateThere are no restrictions on the use of , and the usage rate is 2018% as of 91.6.
During gestation, sowsGestation crateAnd from shortly before delivery to around 21 days after birth when the piglet is weaned, it is housed in a "delivery stall".The calving stall restricts the behavior of the sow and, like the gestation crate, cannot turn.The calving stall is a cage with a calving fence attached to both sides to prevent the piglet from being crushed to death, and the piglet drinks the milk of the mother pig through this calving fence.
pigs are originallybirthHowever, since there are no branches or grass in the calving stall, it is known to scratch the ground with its feet and mimic nest building.Repeated nesting attempts can result in injuries and increased stress levels.
There are moves in other countries to abolish maternity stalls, and Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland have banned them.Denmark aims to reduce birthing stalls, also discussed in Australia and the United States.There are no restrictions on the use of delivery stalls in Japan.
Tail and tooth amputation, ear notching without anesthesia
The amputation of tails and teeth without anesthesia is performed within the first week of life to prevent stress from hurting each other.Denmark, Sweden, Norway, Finland and Lithuania have banned or regulated tail amputation without anesthesia because it is painful.and in Canada from 2016 July 7, it must be done with an analgesic to control pain regardless of ageIt is said thatFor tooth cutting,European Unionbans routine practice, and Denmark and Norway ban tooth cutting itself..
In Japan, there are no restrictions on tail and tooth amputation, and as of 2018, the rate of tail amputation was 82.2% and the rate of tooth amputation was 63.6%..
またIndividual identificationSometimes ear-notching is done forBy combining numbers and places assigned to 5 places in one ear, 10 places in total,Date of Birthand comparison with sows, used for entry numbers at the time of death, etc.Even when carving ear marksBleedingThere is.
castration without anesthesia
Boars are castrated within the first week of life to prevent boar taint.Castration is performed by making an incision in the fuguri (scrotum) with a sharp razor, taking out the testicles, pulling them out, and cutting them off.Castration without anesthesia is regulated in many countries because it causes pain during and after the treatment.European UnionSo, from 2018, we decided to voluntarily end surgical castration "in principle"...Castration of pigs without anesthesia is banned in Canada after 2016From January 2019, Germany will ban the castration of domestic and foreign piglets without anesthesia... From January 2022, 1, it was decided to ban unanesthetized castration in France as well..There are also countries where castration is rarely practiced (castration rate: 2% in the UK, 12.5% in Portugal, 15% in Spain, 20% in the Netherlands).).In Australia, before sexual maturity and the smellAnd killOr, immunological castration with a preparation such as Improvac (two vaccinations can produce antibodies that inhibit testis function and delay sexual maturation) is common, and from the viewpoint of animal welfare. Surgical castration is rarely done.
On the other hand, in Japan, there are no legal restrictions on castration without anesthesia, and as of 2018, nearly 100% of pigs were castrated without anesthesia.Has been done.
drinking water at the slaughterhouse
JapaneseSlaughterhouseAccording to a 2011 survey by the Hokkaido Obihiro Meat Hygiene Inspection Station, 86.4% of pig slaughterhouses do not have drinking water facilities..Regarding installation of drinking water facilitiesMinistry of Health, Labor and Welfare"Guidelines for slaughterhouse facilities and equipment" from to prefecturesnotificationIf new construction or remodeling is carried out, drinking water equipment for livestock must be set up.Although there is a description, the achievement time isUndecided.
- There have been several reports of accidents around the world in which pig farmers who manage their barns collapse for some reason in their barns and are eaten by pigs..
- ^ Murakami YonobuPig farming new book” Hirano Moroo, 1888 (Meiji 21), pp. 8-9.
- ^ 養豚農業振興法 --Japanese Law Index
- ^ "Correspondence to epidemic prevention measures for classical swine fever (overview)". April 2021, 9Browse.
- ^ "Japan, swine fever ``non-clean country'' for 2 years, hindering pork exports: current affairs dot com”(Japanese). Current affairs dot com. April 2020, 9Browse.
- ^ “Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Fermentation with methane gas mixed with rice straw from pig urine”. Nikkei newspaper electronic version(July 2017, 8) April 2019, 8Browse.
- ^ Livestock Statistics Survey 29 Livestock Statistics 2017 Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Annual Statistical Table
- ^ a b Shusuke Sato, Animal Welfare: The Science and Logic of Animal Happiness, 2005.
- ^ "Tips to lower piglet mortality". 20220730Browse.
- ^ Gary L. Francion, "Introduction to Animal Rights," Ryokufu Shuppan, 2018, p. 65.
- ^ a b c "30 Pig Farming Survey Report (National Aggregation Results)". 20220309Browse.
- ^ "Danish Crown Group Animal Welfare Policy". April 2020, 10Browse.
- ^ "Opinion on Free Farrowing Systems". April 2020, 10Browse.
- ^ “The risks associated with tail biting in pigs and possible means to reduce the need for tail docking considering the different housing and husbandry systems - Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare”. EFSA Journal 5 (12): 611. (2007). two:10.2903 / j.efsa.2007.611.
- ^ Code of Practice for the Care and Handling of Pigs Canadian Pork Council, National Farm Animal Care Council, ISBN 978-0-9936189-3-2 .
- ^ Danish Agriculture & Food Council Danish pig production in a European context., and, Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research InstituteNorwegian pig producers'view on animal welfare, 2007.
- ^ "All pigs look the same, but can you tell them apart?". zookan.lin.gr.jp. April 2020, 9Browse.
- ^ EC to consider additional laws on animal welfare(2014-2, Grobal Meat)
- ^ Researchers Examine Pig Behavior to Assess Pain, The Pig Site, 19 May 2014.
- ^ See the July 2017 issue of the magazine "Pig Farming Information"
- ^ "SPACE: Castration headache for French pig farmers”. Pig Progress. 20210924Browse.
- ^ EU pig farming and pork industry-Diverse production areas and management bodies-"Livestock Information" August 2017 issue
- ^ "December 2021 Overview of the Australian Pig Farming Industry and Recent Initiatives". 20211202Browse.
- ^ "Installation status of drinking water facilities for livestock at slaughterhouse moorings". April 2020, 10Browse.
- ^ "Guidelines for slaughterhouse facilities and equipment". April 2020, 10Browse.
- ^ "Only bone fragments left”. Courier Japon (April 2020, 2). April 2020, 2Browse.