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Following Japanese rule during World War II, the Chinese Kuomintang government's reign of terror lasted for 40 years.
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Fear politicsWhat is (Kyoufu Seiji)?
- Imprisonment,MurderBy violent means such asCrackdownDoPoliticsThat.. (French: terreur)
- French RevolutionSometimesRobespierreCentered onJacobin school(Mountains) Governed(Buddha: La Terreur,British: Reign of Terror).
Reign of terror is something that a person in power opposes.ImprisonmentOrMurderUsing violent and violent means such asCrackdownBy doing so, the people are scared and forcibly their ownpowerIt is all about politics that keeps you going. "DarknessAlso called "politics".
Reign of terror is FrenchCommon nounIt is "terreur", and the original meaning is"恐怖'Was,French RevolutionSometimes Robespierre and others adopted a political method that caused people to fear (created a political situation), people at that time described it as "terreur", and after that, powerful people who used the same political method appeared. And it came to be called as well.
In frenchMetaphorDue to the development of (analog) techniques and poetic expressions, "terreur" is sufficient for French speakers, but it is difficult to understand with "fear" alone in Japanese, so "politics" is added behind. By adding and clarifying it, it is translated as "reign of terror."This "terreur" is "terrorism (=)terrorism)"ofEtymologyBut also.
Especially when referring only to terror during the French Revolution (that is,Proper noun(When used as a), before in Frenchdefinite articleWith lauppercase letterIt starts with and is expressed as "la Terreur".
In this section, we will explain the reign of terror during the French Revolution, and then explain the reign of terror after the French Revolution in general.
Reign of terror in the French Revolution
The Robespierre factionOne after another, opposition groups such as revolutionary opposition, moderate, and extremistsExecutiondid.The person who was executedGeorges Danton,Camille Desmoulin,Jacques Rene Eberle,Antoine Lavoisier,Lucile DesmoulinAnd so on.
During the reign of terror, about 1,400 people were executed in Paris alone and about 2 in France as a whole.For the execution methodShootingThere were many sentences, butguillotine(Guillotine) Is well known.However,Prairial 22-day methodThe enactment of the law greatly simplified the judicial procedure, resulting in many death sentences and prison deaths without a legitimate trial, and the number of casualties is estimated to exceed 4 including these.[Source required].
Jean-Jacques RousseauIt is also known to have aimed at the society described in his book.Initially, the MountainsSun culottesIt was supported by the citizens, and it was recognized under the reign of terror, but when the general public was arrested and relatively peaceful, the reign of terror lost its support.This form of politics17947/27Made inThermidor coupSo, it continued until the Robespierre faction was deposed.
17933/10,Revolutionary Court (Revolutionary Court)Was installed.The Revolutionary Court had no appeal and was a dangerous institution with simple and powerful decision-making power.To the prosecutorQuentinvilleWas appointed.same year3/21から4/2Parliament has set up a surveillance committee in each commune to crack down on counter-revolutionaries, consisting of nine members.Public Safety CommissionDecided to install.And on April 4, the first court of the Revolutionary Court was held, and the Public Safety Commission was inaugurated, paving the way for reign of terror.
These daysJacobin schoolThen,GirondinsとMountainsBroke,Jean-Paul MaratAnd Robespierre attacked the Girondins as traitors.At that time, people's demonstrations were frequent in various places due to food shortages and economic turmoil, and Robespierre planned to use the people and participated in the rally.Sun culottesMoney was paid to and measures were taken to incite the people.
5/25, Robespierre made a speech calling for the uprising of the people.5/31, The Girondins have begun to be overthrown based on Robespierre's plan. Representatives of 33 sections were gathered and cooperated with the commune, and the command of the People's Army was taken off.6/1, GirondinsMadame RolandWas arrested and Girondin newspapers were banned.The next day, Anrio leads an armed crowdNational ConventionSiege and demand the proceedings of the members trying to escape, and the expulsion and arrest of 29 Girondin members and two ministers were voted on.Twenty of the 2 later fled to rural areas, some of whom were executed and two committed suicide.thus6/2The Jacobin dictatorship begins from.
Even after the start of the Mountain dictatorship, resistance from the Girondins was initially seen, and there was strong opposition to the June 6 incident in rural areas.Inspired by Girondin propagandaCharlotte Cordee 7/13Killed Muller.However, such resistance is also empty, and many humans will disappear with the dew of the decapitation stand.
6/23To1793 Constitution(Commonly known as the "Jacobin Constitution") is enacted."Representing requests outside the parliament such as the people and Sans-culottes"Enragés"ofJacques RouxThe claim gives greater authority to the Public Safety Commission.The Public Safety Commission has been reorganized over and over again in JulyGeorges DantonThey were eliminated and a final 9 members were decided in September.As a result, Robespierre took control of the leadership.Georges CouthonとLouis Antoine de Saint-JustThe structure that assists it has been completed.Revolutionary courtThen the prosecutor'sQuentinvilleBecame the executor of the crackdown without provisional debt.
In June, the Mountains enacted a law permitting the sale of state-owned land in small lots and the division of common lands, and on July 6, the sovereignty was abolished free of charge. decide.Furthermore, on the 7th, a capital punishment was stipulated for monopolizing and concealing wheat.
The Mountains and the National Convention have skillfully realized their policies in response to demands.
Around this time, a request was submitted to Congress as an opinion of the section that emphasized direct action that the people should be armed and stand up as a group.The National Convention, chaired by Robespierre, adopted it on August 8, with the intervention of Danton.However, unlike the image of the section, this was a kind of national mobilization law to rebuild the army.As a result, nearly 23 troops were procured from the fall of 93 to the spring of 94.
Public Safety Commission9/5He arrested Jacques Roux and Valle on September 9th. "EnragésClubs and publications were also banned. Food price controls were established in response to public demonstrations in September, and were enacted at the end of the same month to implement economic controls.10/10, Saint-Just addressed on behalf of the Public Safety Commission, and the National Convention declared that "the caretaker government of France will continue to be revolutionary until peace arrives" (Revolutionary Government Declaration).
10/16To the queenMarie AntoinetteWas executed.Dressed poorly and with her hands tied behind her, she was sent to prison in the crowd and disappeared with dew on the decapitation.Then, the Girondins were purged.The National Convention gave only three days to argue, and all 3 Girondins were sentenced to death.One of them committed suicide,Brisso,Pierre Victurno20 people10/30He was executed with a guillotine, but the execution took only 38 minutes.11/8ToMadame RolandWas executed.She shouted, "Oh freedom, how many sins have been committed in your name!"The husband who knew the deathJean-Marie RolandSuicided.
He was also an astronomer and mayor of Paris.Feuillant OfJean Sylvain BaillyIs the leader ofBarnaveWas also executed.On the runCondorcetSuicide by poisoning.Was a concubine of King Louis XVMrs. Du BarryWas executed just because he was rich.Also famousChemist OfAntoine LavoisierWas executed on the grounds that "the republic does not need scholars" before the hearing was over because he was also working as a tax collector.Of the royal family who voted for the death penalty of Louis XVIDuke of Orleans(Public Equality) was executed on November 1793, 11.
On December 12, government details will be enacted by law.As a result, the Public Safety Commission will be in charge of diplomacy, military and general administration, and the Security Commission will be in charge of maintaining security.
In 1794,Louis XVIIs the younger sister ofElisabethThe princess defended Louis XVI, (La RochefoucaultGrandson), of the poetAndré ChénierWas also executed.Later the emperorNapoleon IIIBecome the empress ofJosephineViscount Alexander de Beauharnais was executed on July 4, just four days before the Thermidor coup.
The number of death sentences sentenced by the Revolutionary Court is17939月中旬から10月中旬までに15、次の1ヶ月間には65、翌年の2月中旬から3月中旬には116、3月中旬の1ヶ月では155、4月中旬からの1ヶ月では354にという風に漸次増加していき、それに合わせて裁判手続きは簡素化された。
Situation in rural areas
Even after the Jacobins took the initiative in central Paris, in rural areasRoyal partyThere was a place where the Girondins remained.Revolutionary governments from central Paris to those areasReprésentantWas sent to try to purge the counter-revolutionary faction.Counter-revolutionary resistance to this puts the whole of France into a state of civil war.
Due to the civil warVendée,Lyon,ToulonThere was a massacre by the Revolutionary Army.By the end of 1793, the War in the Vendée had been nearly subdued, with only 8 survivors of the 4 peasants crossing the Loire to Brittany.In Lyon, the congressmanJoseph Fouché,Jean-Marie Collot del BoisUnder the guidance of the church, the looting of the church was ordered, the execution of the rebels continued for four months without interruption, and the number of victims exceeded 4.In Toulon, after the fallPaul BarrasとLouis-Marie Stanisla FreronBy the end of January 1794, more than a thousand people had been executed under the command of.
Jacobin schoolWithinMaximilian RobespierreOrSaint JustとGeorges CouthonTo "Three-headed politician"Georges DantonWith the faction (tolerant faction)Jacques Rene EberleA sectarian struggle occurs in the form of a sectarian battle.
On January 1794, 1, Robespierre gives a speech at the Jacobin Club, blaming both factions.
The spearhead was first directed at the Danton faction.Embezzlement in liquidation due to dissolution of Indian company was discovered (),17941/13, The poet was arrested and revealed the name of a lawmaker who was bridging from a foreigner.This resulted in the arrest of lawmakers, bankers and speculators.
In February, Robespierre said, "The driving force of the revolutionary government of the people is virtue and fear.Fear without virtue is harmful, virtue without fear is powerlessDefend the revolutionary government by giving a famous speech.
From late February to early March, Saint-Just proposes the Ventôse Decree, which confiscates counter-revolutionary land and allocates it to the poor free of charge.This was aimed at putting the popular movement on its side.
The Hébertists called on the people to take a revolutionary movement against the Public Safety Commission.3/13The Hébertist leader was arrested after Saint-Just shouted "Fight against vices" at the National Convention. On March 3, militants such as Eberle were executed for conspiring with foreigners and planning to corrupt their citizens.
Robespierre then decided to eliminate his ally Danton and handed Saint-Just a note of Danton's corruption.Danton's arrest was decided by the National Convention,3/30To DantonCamille DesmoulinArrested with them.Danton screamed in court and pushed back the prosecutor's statement, but his remarks were stopped and the debate continued with him absent.4/4Was sentenced to death and executed the next day.Danton told the decapitation official, "Show me my neck to the people. It's worth it."The decapitation stand became a sea of blood due to the execution of the Danton faction,Decapitation officer (executioner)Raised Danton's neck at the highest as he was told and showed it to the crowd.
From April 1793 to June 4, 94, when the Revolutionary Court was established in Paris,1251Was executed, but in just 6 days from June 11th to July 7th (Thermidor 27th), summary judgment was allowed without trial.The decapitation stand in Paris sucked the blood of 1376 people.
About 50 people were arrested and detained on charges of counter-revolutionary due to the reign of terror, about 1 were sentenced to death and executed, and the number of people killed without trial in the civil war area. It is estimated that there will be about 6 people including[Source required].
Reign of terror creates a vicious circle of suspicion, isolating Robespierre and others,Thermidor recoilTo provoke.
Reign of terror after the French Revolution
Here, I will explain the reign of terror after the French Revolution.
Reign of terror is a person in powerImprisonment-Murder Opponents by violent means such asCrackdownIt ’s about politics...Specifically, cracking down on peopleIntimidationBy doing so, they are made to have fear, and by making it impossible for those in power to express their dissenting opinions, they maintain their own power and try to stick to their policies.As Kojien says, "fierce means of imprisonment, murder, etc.", those in power arrested people.ImprisonmentIt may be made to kill or killed.
In general, those in power do not go directly to arrest themselves and take them to prison with their own hands.secret police""authorities""Public security police”, Etc., create an organization that acts as a minion of a person in power to execute arrest and imprisonment, and let those who belong to it execute it.Arrests and imprisonment are sometimes non-legal.Those who seem to disobey the will of those in power are excluded.Immediately after being arrested, there are many cases in which they are killed by violence while calling them "interrogation."Even if you didn't kill immediately after your arrestImprisonmentLater, he kills them so that people don't know.From the perspective of the arrested person's family, the family returned with a wounded body, and a police officer said, "I committed suicide during interrogation."MythWill be heard, or the whereabouts will not be known at all.
Powerful people who practice terrorism are oftenSneak noticeEncourage people and put people into a state of mutual surveillance.Even if you are dissatisfied with the current system, you will not be able to speak or even act because of fear.Coup d'etatActions aimed at destroying the current system will be thoroughly suppressed.
Explaining the reign of terror in the 20th century Russian RevolutionAfterSoviet UnionでJoseph StalinIs the reign of terrorGreat terror) Was often pointed out.If Stalin shows any opposition to himself, he considers it a counter-revolutionary.purgedid(Stalin system）..However,Vladimir LeninHowever, many royal families, aristocrats, capitalists, etc. have been executed without trial, and Stalin is believed to have inherited and expanded Lenin's method.
Germany OfAdolf HitlerIs considered to be a dictator along with Stalin, etc.GestapoWe also used methods such as monitoring and imprisoning people using.However, in the case of Hitler, the main political method is not so much the reign of terror, but the emphasis is on making the people enthusiastic and euphoric by skillful speech, intonation of words, gestures, etc., and Hitler's actions at that time There were many aspects that seemed to meet the expectations of the German people..
JapanBut,Tojo Hideki military policePeople usingMonitoring-threat-ImprisonmentAtsushi Koketsu pointed out that by taking the dictatorial and terrorist method of doing things, the general public was monitored and threatened, and there was no way to say what they wanted to say or courage.(However, most of the term of office of Hideki TojoPacific WarDuplicate withTotal warUnderWartime regimeIt should be noted that is generally prone to power).
In addition, Developing countries,Socialist countryIn political stability and socialModernizationPrioritize orPlanned economyIt is easy to fall into the rule of power to promote the rule, and tends to be accompanied by more or less reign of terror (Development dictatorship-One-party dictatorship).
- ^ a b c Kojien XNUMXth edition
- ^ For reference, the definition of French is [terreur] "peur collective qu'on fait régner dans une population pour briser sa résistance; régime politique fondé sur cette peur, sur l'emploi des mesures d'exception" (Little Robert, 1993)
- ^ Linton, Marisa (August 2006). "Robespierre and the terror: Marisa Linton reviews the life and career of one of the most vilified men in history". History Today. 8 (56): 23.
- ^ Ken Kajiyama "Words of the End of the World" PHP Institute
- ^ Takashi Okada "Personality Disorders: How to Contact and Overcome" PHP Institute
- ^ Takeshi Tomita, Stalin's Great Terror: Mechanisms of Reign of Terror and Aspects of Resistance, 1998
- ^ Kiryu Misao "The World's Bad Men, Tyrant, and Authorizers You Should Know" 2008
- ^ "Gendarmerie Politics: The Age of Surveillance and Blackmail" 2008
- ^ Michiki Yoshidome, "The Real Face of the Park Administration: The Realities of Terrorism and Corruption Politics," 1974
Reign of terror under the French Revolution
- Committee of Public Safety (French Revolution)
- Security Committee
- Law of Suspects
- Prairial 22-day method
- Jacobin school
- Maximilian Robespierre
Reign of terror in general
- secret police,Special higher police,Public security police
- Sneak notice
- Right wing,Left wing
- Absoluteism,Absolute monarchy,Absolute monarchy
- Sultanist regime
- People's trial