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🤖 | The second new series of "EDENS ZERO" will be broadcast in 2!Teaser visual also released

Photo "EDENS ZERO" 2nd teaser visual (C) Hiro Mashima / Kodansha / NTV

The second season of "EDENS ZERO" will be broadcast in 2!Teaser visual also released

If you write the contents roughly
It is a finish that makes you feel a big spectacle that has been more powerful than the first season of the TV anime.

A new series that will be the second season of the TV anime "EDENS ZERO" will be broadcast in 2. → Continue reading

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Television Animation

Television AnimationIt is,tv setProduced for broadcastア ニ メ ー シ ョ ンWorks andTV programPoint to. "TV setア ニ メ ー シ ョ ン"of略 語It is also abbreviated as "TV animation".Some elderly people refer to TV anime as manga.

In this article, unless otherwise noted, mainlyJapan OfTerrestrial waveTV station,BS/CS stationDescribes commercial anime works (programs) produced for television broadcasting in Japan.


As a standard case, in addition to being produced as a series of 1 minutes (TV broadcast time including commercials), short animation works of 30 to 5 minutes and long features of regular broadcast programsSpecial program, There is also a one-off special feature program.

Many works in the worldChildren・ For families, "Anime ischildren"The thing" is the world's first continuous commercial TV animation "Astro boy] (At that timeTV mangaAlthough there is basically no change from the time of broadcasting (called), the percentage of those who show a feeling of refusal to anime is declining.TV animation for high targetsthe 1970sIt has been on the increase since the end of the game, mainly in Japan.This is because the number of people who grew up watching anime increased, but "Anime isNerdThe recognition of "things" is also spreading[1][2].

Nomura Research InstituteOf the TV animeRecordingThe rate is remarkably high compared to other genre programs, and it has been announced that survey results show that BS broadcasts are particularly noticeable.[3].

インターネットEven now that the distribution has become widespread, after paying for the reason that "the results of TV broadcasting will be specially seen by overseas viewers", we will position it as "advertise for overseas strategy" and purchase the broadcasting slot of the TV station There are also cases of broadcasting[4].

Regarding the workList of Japanese TV anime worksSee.

Standard format

The composition of the 30-minute program is roughly as follows (here, "Marshmallow communication』Based on the main broadcast version), but depending on the work "Live actionMixed with part", and may differ from the format below.

Basically (about 24 minutes),CM(Approximately 6 minutes) will be 30 minutes in total. Since the CM is produced in 15-second units, the basic unit is 15 seconds for each part, the total of warning (enlightenment) and eye catch is 15 seconds, and the theme song is 90 seconds (60 seconds/150 seconds).

CM broadcastBroadcasting lawIt is forbidden by related laws such asPublic broadcasting OfNHKAndWOWOW-Anime channelEven for pay satellite broadcasting such asBroadcast rightTheSaleThe above format has been adopted for secondary use such as. In that case, the introduction time of the original CM time, such as illustrations sent by the viewer,music clip, Broadcast as a 25-30 minute frame with the addition of advertising such as programs.

  1. Warning (enlightenment): 5 seconds
    • Pokemon shockFrom then on, there will be a call from the characters to the viewer, such as "Let's make the room brighter and look away when watching TV". Subtitles will be displayed even when rebroadcasting programs before Pokemon Shock. Even now, many years after the incident, this is generally thorough at least in all-frame works. In addition, there are many works that do not have a warning part, insert with the subtitles at the beginning of this volume, there is no warning itself (especially late-night animation), and there are cases where CM also serves as a warning[Annotation 1].
    • Always connectedDue to the spread ofインターネットWhen illegal distribution became a problem on the top, "Unauthorized uploading to the InternetCopyright lawIt is forbidden by "Warning" is displayed mainly in the midnight animation (sometimes it is displayed at the beginning of Part A of this volume).
    • Depending on the work, "This work isfictionThere is also a telop saying "It has nothing to do with the actual person or case."
    • There are also cases where special warning cuts and captions are inserted depending on the genre of the work.
    • If a character's behavior includes discriminatory terms or other questionable expressions,Historical examinationOr a subtitle that includes some inappropriate expressions in consideration of the materiality of the work” is displayed.
  2. Avan title:10 seconds
    • Existence differs depending on the work. If there is a part of the main part A part for about a few minutes before the opening songintroductionIs inserted. The same video of the work description may be inserted each time.
  3. openingTheme song(Opening animation): 1 minute 30 seconds
    • Most of them use the same video repeatedly, but some scenes may be replaced when new characters and new mechas appear.Many works credit the main staff here.
    • If the work itself is a short animation of about 5 minutes, all the staff/cast credits may be aggregated in the opening animation (or ending animation) due to the circumstances of the broadcast frame.
    • In many works in recent years, there is a strong tendency to replace the theme song in 1-cool units. In some cases, it is replaced every time (the ending theme song is the same).
    • A production that inserts the introduction of the opening theme song so as to cover the last scene of the Aban title,Final episodeThere are also cases where the opening theme song is skipped and the main part is entered.
  4. Credit provided:10 seconds
    • Broadcasting stationannouncer(In the case of local sales programs, it is often different for each broadcasting station), but it is often read out, but in charge of the narration and main characters of the main partVoice actorIncreasingly, there are more announcements made byCredits provided # Announcements by performers and voice actorsSee also).
    • In the case of late-night anime on local stations, there are very few broadcasts by sponsored nets, and most areProgram salesThe credit provided is omitted because it is broadcast in the form of, and sometimes only the background is displayed.
    • Such as "This week's highlights" text and "Information from the station"telopThere is also an example of inserting.
    • Due to factors such as the broadcast time of the main part, the number of works that omit the provided credit part and insert a sponsor credit at the beginning of the A part is increasing.[Annotation 2].
  5. CM1: 1 minute 30 seconds
    • Depending on the work, after the opening ends, there is also one that enters the main part A part (in that case, the later CM part is often set longer by that amount).
  6. Main part A: 10 minutes
    • At the beginning of Part A, currently broadcastingNumber of stories(Classifier[Annotation 3])WhensubtitleIs displayed.
      • Depending on the work, only subtitles without the number of stories[Annotation 4] In some cases, part A eye catch[Annotation 5] Or the last of B part[Annotation 6] The subtitle may be displayed with.Some works whose subtitles are displayed multiple times[Annotation 7] There are also patterns that are changed only at specific times, and there are works in which the subtitle is not displayed at all.
    • The A part/B part is not a fixed time frame, but the total is about 20 minutes. Depending on the production of the work, the time allocation will be changed, such as allocating the CM so that it does not cover the main part. Also, increase or decrease with warnings (enlightenment) and eye catches.
    • Around 2010, the number of works that insert various advertising captions in the main volume is increasing rapidly.
  7. eye catching: 5 seconds
    • It varies greatly from work to work. There are various cases such as when it is not used at all, when inserting the program title logo in the A/B part, inserting it in any of the A/B parts, and inserting it in the scene change regardless of the CM for the purpose of production. Use the same video or several types of video prepared according to the content. It may be inserted even in the broadcast of NHK or AT-X without CM.
  8. CM2: 1 minute 30 seconds
  9. Eye catch: 5 seconds
  10. Main part B part: 10 minutes
  11. Ending theme song (Ending animation): 1 minute 30 seconds
    • In general, the general tendency is the same as the opening theme song, but the staff and cast credits that change each time are usually displayed here.
    • There is also an example in which the next notice is inserted in the ending animation.
    • In the final episode, there is a case where a new ending animation video is produced (usually a sequel or omnibus version of the work), or a special ending theme song is prepared.
  12. CM3: 1 minute 30 seconds
    • Depending on the work, it may be omitted to enter the next notice as it is, or may be sent after the next notice.
  13. Next notice: 30 seconds
    • Use the video that will be broadcast next time. However, in some works, due to the broadcast time of the main part, there are also those that show the next notice video or the next title in the ending animation as described above, and there are also works that do not have the next notice itself.
    • In recent years, mainly in the case of MBS production works, when the reorganization period is approaching, the time to broadcast the new program announcement CM is generated to shorten the broadcast time of the next notice, or in the main part each regular size without broadcasting There are an increasing number of cases where the next notice is published on the official website and video distribution site.
  14. Credit provided: 10 seconds
  15. End card: 5 seconds
    • Existence depends on the work. Even in the same work, the presence or absence of insertion differs depending on the station, and there are different examples for each station. In addition, there are rarely new works produced during rebroadcasting.
  16. CM4: 1 minute 20 seconds
    • Depending on the work, after the ending theme song is played, or before or after the next notice, a C-part (such as a short animation) or a mini corner is inserted.

Depending on the work and broadcasting station, there are many cases where the main part broadcast is started after the commercial is played for a while from the broadcast start time.

またre-airIn this regard, if the rebroadcast frame itself is slightly shorter than the usual 30 minutes, OP/ED or the next notice, and in some cases part of the main part will be cut in order to generate the CM broadcast time due to the circumstances of the broadcast frame There are cases. This is especially noticeable in works in which the main part is made longer than the normal format.

Production process

The basic flow isAnime # production processSee.
Production fundssponsorGathering (for commercial TV stations)
SubcontractorVariousAnime production companyOrder and make an animation.
Fuji TV production "Nobunaga Concerto』Employs an unusual production system that "produces directly in the department within the TV station"[5].

Japan's first 30-minute TV anime series[6]"Astro boy], the director of production productionOsamu TezukaAt the same time as the original author, the broadcasters also agreed that they were reluctant to sell the anime version copyright of their work to the broadcasters, and the same method was followed. Involved in the production of the broadcasting station by directly establishing an animation production company as a subsidiary, and there was an anime program that bought the copyright in the early days, but it does not currently exist because the copyright business is not established.

Hollowing out of production and its impact

Due to factors such as cost cuts and labor shortages, some of the actual production of animation has been around 40 years ago (especiallycellAnd background drawing)Chugoku, South KoreaIt is outsourced to production companies outside Japan,Content industryIs the underlying part that supports itHollowing outHas been pointed out. Also, as a result, the character and style will be known in the process of drawing, so it will be plagiarized in another work,Animation directorThe instructions to the product are not fully understood and the intended printing cannot be performed.CollapseIs also occurring.

In the 2000s, production troubles are on the rise as if the number of late-night anime is increasing, and there are many cases that even affect the broadcasting schedule.

Production Committee

the 1980sFrom aroundInfomation,Record company,Advertising agencyHave bought the broadcasting slots of television stations, and the number of works that are premised on package sales is increasing rapidly.

Subject matter

A wide variety of subjects are used.

For details, Category: Anime genreSee.

Characteristics by target age group

Depending on the work, there are also works that target multiple layers below.

Family/general animation
Regardless of age and gender家族A work that everyone can enjoy and enjoy.
Basically sound with no depiction of sexual or violence that causes disgustEntertainment work.Longevity programThere are many works that have been transformed into regular programs.
At the beginning, there were overwhelmingly many works that were converted from those for children and boys, and very few works that were converted from those for girls.
Anime for children
The audience is mainly planned and produced for junior high school students and younger, and the production cost is often borne by the sponsor company.
Since the child's mental growth progresses on a yearly basis, when planning the worktoyTarget ages such as are set, and the originalComic versionIn many cases, the target age is clearly set in published manga magazines.
When you reach a certain age (Big friendsIn many cases, the interest or interest in the work is lost and the viewing is stopped ("graduation").
The development of toys and story development of works are often linked, and many broadcasts are for one year.[Annotation 8].Drama for childrenWill be broadcast asSpecial effectsSince the work is also in charge of the same department as TV animation, it takes the same form.
For boys-Anime for girls
Gender physical characteristics begin to develop and change from a child to an adult bodypubertyThe main target audience is elementary and middle school students.
fundamentallyBoy cartoon[Annotation 9],Girl cartoonThe main work is based on.
combatMainly elements andlove,友情,School (school) life,Club activitiesFor example, the stage and subject of the work are often handled in the real life.
the 2000sUntilAll daySince it was broadcast on the obi and had more viewers for toddlers and lower grades of elementary school, it also served as a character for children's animation.Online deliveryViewing atthe 2010sSince then, the number of viewers up to the lower grades of elementary school has decreased because the number of people who are organized in all days has decreased, but the number of people who are broadcast as late-night anime has become mainstream.
Anime for men
Anime fans (aniota) in their late teens or older are often produced as late-night anime for men and women.the 1970sIt has been increasing with the aging of the audience of anime since the end of the game, and it is common for it to be produced in Japan.
Because it is a maniac content with a limited audienceYouth cartoon-Adult cartoon-Light novel-Computer gamesMainly works based on, until the mid-2000sAdult gameMost of the works were based on the anime.
It is organized in all daysthe 1980sUntil the first half, from the mid-1980sthe 1990sUntil the endOVAThe development as a late-night anime is mainly from the 2000s onwards.
Anime for women
It used to be thought that I didn't watch animeF1 layerTargeted at Fuji TV from 2005 in the late night anime bandNoitaminaBroadcast began in an anime frame called ".
In addition to the original shojo manga works similar to those for girls,Woman cartoon,Ladies comicsWorks based on are also added to this genre.
In addition, since 2006, there are also multiple anime broadcasting frames that are designed with the same layer in mind. Animated and live-action movies,TV dramaThere are cases where the conversion is performed at the same time.

Broadcast frame

All day (6:00-24:00)

For the sake of convenience, in this section, we will refer to the TV anime that will be mainly broadcast during this period.Full-frame animeWill be called.

  1. Prime time(19:00-23:00)・Prime time(19:00-22:00)
    • Broadcast works continue to decrease year by year at 19:XNUMX in the terrestrial key station series,2019In autumn reorganizationTV AsahiIt was broadcast in the series "Doraemon"When"Crayon Shin-chan』Has changed to Saturday evening, and the new animation at 19:XNUMX, which is being broadcast on commercial broadcasting key stations, has disappeared once.[7][Annotation 10],2020In autumn reorganizationTV Tokyo seriesBroadcast on "Pokemon (7th series)』Move from Sunday evening to Friday 19:XNUMX[Annotation 11], The 19:1 animation broadcast on commercial broadcasters has been revived for the first time in about a year.
      • NHK E TeleIn the past, multiple animations have been broadcast mainly on reruns at 19:XNUMX on weekdays and Sundays.Since the new animation is regularly broadcast in place of the disappearance of the animation frame at the commercial broadcasting key stations mentioned above, the "new TV animation of regular broadcasting broadcast at terrestrial key stations including NHK" itself It can be said that it is maintained without interruption (except for the time of reorganization).
      • Animecritic OfRyota Fujitsu"In the animeAudience ratingAre not earned and tend to be shunned by advertisers.”[8].
      • On the other handTOKYO MX,BS11Independent stations that do not belong to such networks have lower profit lines than key station series, so there are also new animations that are broadcast in the golden time zone.[9].
    • 1976 OfMBSProduction/TBSseries"Flower chief] Or1984 OfFuji Television Network, Incseries"Dotamba manners』(1986Until March),1987 OfTelevision Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.series"Introduction to manga Japanese economy],1989TBS series ofGimiaWas broadcast inLol],2000TV Tokyo series ofLove Hina], has been broadcast on the 22 o'clock. After that, at TV Tokyo and NHK at 22:XNUMX TaishueFlying startThere are some midnight animations that have been conducted.
    • TOKYO MX is new in the 2010sUHF anime,re-airThe frame and related information programs are broadcast at the same time (and continuously at 23:XNUMX). othersKBS Kyoto,Sun TVHowever, there are times when the prime band of new animations will be broadcast, centering on simultaneous internet programs from TOKYO MX.
    • Besides this, mainlythe 2000sFrom the latter halfNippon TVsystem"Friday Road SHOW!Frame and Fuji TV systemSaturday Premium] Single animation in 21 hours around 23:2-XNUMX:XNUMXSpecial programIs regularly broadcast once or twice a year.
  2. Non prime(6:00-19:00 / 23:00-24:00)
    • Early morning (around 5:00-6:00): For the reasons described below, many of the local stations have been working mainly in this time period on Saturdays and Sundays in recent years.Delay netare doing.
    • Weekday morning (6:00-8:00): TV Tokyo is in the first half of 7pmProgram for childrenIs being broadcast, and sometimes a short animation is broadcast in a form that includes it (it used to be).Weekday morning animation frameExisted, but "Charge 730!] With the start of regular broadcasting abolished). In the past, it was also broadcast on other affiliated key stations,Wide show programIt does not currently exist due to the expansion of.
    • Weekday morning (8:00-11:30): The evening band anime produced by NTVYomiuri Television(Ytv) In the evening zone from October 1988Entertainment shows"Well KANKAN!』, because the broadcast was delayed during this time difficult for students to watch (some works moved to early morning on weekdays). Reorganized in April 2016, even on NTVGo! Anpanman』Has moved to this time zone from Friday evening.In addition, NHK E-Tele broadcasts many short animations for the purpose of emotional education, including in the afternoon.
    • Weekday evening zone (16:00 --19:00): 17--At 18:1990, it existed in many key stations in Tokyo until the early 4s, but in the four major key stationsNews program,Information programIt does not exist because it has moved to, and the broadcasting frame has been gradually reduced and moved to the local sales frame in TV TOKYO.FridayIt is only broadcast.However, some local stations rarely broadcast regional short animations, which will be described later, following these programs.
      • In addition, of TV Tokyo affiliate stationTV OsakaTV AichiThen, since the 18:30 frame was the past animation rebroadcast frame, there are works where simultaneous net works were delayed in another time zone or the net itself was not done at other affiliated stations, so it is often due to organization reasons. The broadcast date and time were sometimes changed. In the TXN series, depending on the station, the local sales frame 17:25 --18:25 (Friday only --17:55) is rebroadcast, or the net frame for unbroadcast works and new UHF animations.
      • There were many local stations that broadcast anime around 16-17 o'clock, but they were produced in-house.Evening wide programThe rise ofNews programThe number has dropped drastically due to the expansion of the number of frames, and many are moving to the early morning and late night zones.
      • Independent stations are broadcast mainly on rebroadcast programs. In BS11, some programs may be broadcast around 18:XNUMX.
    • 23:2020 pm: A frame that belongs to both "all-day animation" and "late-night animation".In recent years, NHK E-Tele will be available on NHK E-Tele from April 4.Monday 22:50-at 23:15An animation frame for regular broadcasting was set.
      • In the past, it was broadcast sporadically on Saturdays at 23:2016 on the TV Tokyo network, and from October 10 to March 2018.NHK GeneralHowever, the new animation was also broadcast on Saturday at 23:4 (moved to Sunday at 24:2006 from April of the same year).As a similar case, in the past in XNUMX, on the Nippon Television network,NANA] To [Value Night] Have been broadcast in the frame.
      • TOKYO MX also broadcasts new UHF anime, rebroadcast slots, and related information programs at the same time. Some works are also online on BS11 at the same time, and othersGunma TV,Tochigi TVButAniplexNew animations and rebroadcast works are being broadcast on the simultaneous net from TOKYO MX, centering on the works produced by.
    • Saturday and Sunday morning (6:30-11:00): Broadcast period is often one year or more long-term works and series. In the late 1s, a toy company/publisher-sponsored "Children's" belt frame appeared on the Sunday morning,Compulsory education OfWeekly holiday 2 day systemHas also appeared on Saturday morning slots of TV Tokyo. In the April 2017 reorganization, one frame for each MBS and TBS was converted to a belt frame.Anime Saturday 630Will appear, but it will be abolished in June 2019 (MBS frame is midnight frame ``Super anime ismIt was virtually moved to.)
    • Sunday daytime zone (14:00-14:30): October 1982,Super Dimension Fortress MacrossWas broadcast during the relevant time period. The corresponding work targeted at the anime fan base, which is expected to be a number as a business aimed at doujinshi users, who strongly demands elements of anime fans and "mecha and beautiful girl" at the time, hit and later OVA It is the beginning of the flow following the anime,OcclusionIs the beginning of[10].
    • Saturday and Sunday evening (16: 30-19: 00): Currently, there are many slots that have moved from the golden time, such as "Doraemon" and "Crayon Shin-chan" mentioned above, but regular broadcasts have been broadcast since the start of the program. As of October 2019, the frame that is consistently broadcast at the same time is the Fuji TV series ``Chibi Maruko-chan"When"Sazae』\Only exist.
      • MBS production / TBS series nationwide networkSat 6(Delayed net in some areas) →Day 5There is also a frame. The "Day 5" frame was once abolished by moving to the aforementioned "Anime Saturday 630", but broadcasting will resume in April 2022 after rebroadcasting.

Midnight (23:00-5:00 the next day)

Generally between 23:00-5:00 the next dayMidnight programRefers to the anime work that will be broadcast as a main (23:00-24:00 overlaps with the above-mentioned all-day animation).

When the broadcast starts, the golden time is 22, 23-24 o'clock-until 5 o'clock the next day until just before the morning program startsLate nightIt is distinguished as an anime genre because it has characteristics such as being obi belt, there was no distinction of prime time / non-prime, and there are many works targeting a specific layer (minor genre compared to all day frames) It may be done.

Special case

In an irregular case due to program organization, all-day frame animation is in the late night zone at local stations and BS stations[Annotation 12]On the contrary, late-night anime will be broadcast on local stations and BS stations in all-day frame[Annotation 13] There are also cases. In addition, there are some cases where the all-day frame and the late-night frame are switched depending on the series.[Annotation 14].

Recently, mainly in the independent stations in the Kanto area, the advance of the midnight animation broadcasting time zone is advancing. EspeciallyTOKYO MXAt 22:XNUMX, which belongs to prime time, mainly on weekends, we broadcast related programs. AlsoelectionIn some cases, such as when broadcasting a special program, the broadcast time may be moved ahead of schedule and the midnight animation may be broadcast in the golden time zone.

Broadcast format/airing rights

As a general rule, the net form will be described as a commercial case.

In the case of network sales programs, as a general rule, the network will be on the "same affiliated station as the production station", but in areas where there are no affiliated stations, it will also be broadcast on the sponsored net (with sponsorship) or program sales (without sponsorship). ..

For children who are broadcast in all-day zone[Annotation 15] In the case of, a sponsored net[Annotation 16] However, in the late-night anime, the mainstream is broadcasting by purchasing a broadcasting frame by a production committee/sponsor limiting the broadcasting station or selling programs. This is not limited to the case of local sales programs, and in particular, there are cases in which the series varies from region to region for programs produced by local stations and programs of the production committee system.

After the broadcasting rights contract of the production station has expired, even if it is an affiliated station of the broadcast key stationre-airIt may be done.

Also, in the case of long-term series programs, there are rare cases where the broadcast is changed to a different series during the series or for each work.Other than the followingRemakeAt that time, the broadcasting station was changed,Gundam seriesAnd 'Digital monster] There are many series, such as the series, in which the series differs from one to several works.

An example

Broadcast cycle

The organization cycle of a TV station1 cool(3 months, 13 weeks) is the basic unit, and the basic unit is "3 cool" for a total of 12 to 13 broadcasts in 1 months.

If the production of the sequel is decided after the first one of the series has been broadcast, the sequel is commonly known as "the second period" (or "second series").

Until the 1990s, it was most common for one year (about 1 episodes), but due to changes in the situation after that, all-frame animation was 50 months (6 cool), late-night animation was 2 months to 3 months. Broadcast rights contracts, which have a monthly broadcast period, have become mainstream.

In the case of commercial broadcasting stations, the broadcasting period may be extended (including sequel and series) depending on the audience rating and sales of related products.[Annotation 18], Due to bankruptcy of sponsors and poor audience ratingsCensored[Annotation 19] There are also cases where the broadcasting frame is changed to early morning / late night frame etc.[Annotation 20]..Also, in the case of a work that has an original and the serialization of the original has not been completed, either insert an anime original episode in between.Sports broadcastBy making the organization of the original manga more than usual, it is possible to prevent catching up with the original manga and the original episode of the anime version.[Annotation 21]Or, close it in a form close to a censored cartoon[Annotation 22], There are also cases where the sequel is restarted after a certain period[Annotation 23].

In the midnight anime,2002From aroundTerrestrial digital TV broadcastingBroadcast suspension due to preparatory work, and temporary due to incidents, accidents, and disastersPress special program,Sports broadcastDue to the extension of the broadcast, the broadcasting frame became tight, and as a result, there were many cases where the final episode could not be broadcast.As a preventive measure, the number of episodes of the main story has been reduced by about 1-12 episodes from the usual 13 course (1 to 3 episodes) from the beginning of the project, and the number of works with a composition that ends in about 10 episodes is increasing.[Annotation 24].

Basic broadcast pattern

Basically terrestrial waves (here as a ruleWide area broadcastingincludingBroadcast target areaIt is treated as a unit and does not include simultaneous broadcasting by multiple independent stations within the same wide area) and BS has one broadcasting station per program (1 frame).SKY PerfecTV!In many repeat broadcasts more than three times a week).

The following is an example of broadcasting (or being broadcast) multiple times within a week from the first broadcast.
As mentioned above, SKY PerfecTV! Was excluded.In addition, the key stations describe repeat broadcasting on the nationwide network.

Broadcasting and distribution order of commercial broadcast animation

Basically hereRegarding broadcastingLocal salesIn case of a frame programExplained in.

Basically most works are in TokyoKey stationAndCapital Area OfIndependent stationBroadcast first on (TOKYO MX etc.), thenKinki-Chukyo areaIt will be broadcast by private broadcasters in major areas. In other local stations and BS broadcastingDelay netThere is a strong tendency to be unbroadcast, and there are still cases where you are asking for a paid anime channel in a terrestrial non-broadcast area.

However, in the case of the Fuji TV series midnight animation "Noitamina" frame, as of April 2015Saga tvExcept for, the terrestrial regular net stations are online on the same day (some stations areSimultaneous net.. Long time agoBS FujiBut it was discontinued though I was online. MBS midnight animation frame "Anime ism』, also became the net on the same day in April 2015 from the ground wave regular net station. Also,AT-XFor example, some of the programs that participate in the Anime Channel Production Committee will be the fastest broadcast at the investment station.

In the middle of the 2010s, TV Tokyo and BS TV Tokyo[Annotation 25], Or major independent stations such as TOKYO MX and BS11 or BS Fuji.[Annotation 26] By combining with BS stations such asTerrestrial waves (independent stations) in metropolitan areas, BS in rural areasIn the form of division of roles,At low cost全国Simultaneous netThe number of programs that are realizing this is gradually increasing, especially in the latter (11% of the viewers of the station were local residents in the survey of BS8)[14]).

In addition, although it is also a minority, "simultaneous net only with independent stations in the Kanto and Kansai areas" is TOKYO MX.KBS Kyoto-Sun TVAtEcstatic family(1st period only)Is the order a rabbit??''Love Live! Sunshine!!''That's about it!''BanG Dream!(1st period only)Card Fight! Vanguard(2018 version) ”, etc. (both are delayed nets when broadcast on BS stations, wide area stations, and other regional stations).

In the case of Internet distribution, even if it is a terrestrial nationwide simultaneous Internet program, there is also a trade-off of the audience rating, and it basically comes after the fastest TV broadcast (often called "missing distribution"). HoweverNippon TVProduction Midnight animation work and MBS productionTIGER & BUNNY, TOKYO MX/BS11/ABC joint productionALDNOAH.ZERO], [ReLIFE''Hinako, Etc., simultaneous delivery with the fastest broadcasting station, orAdvance delivery from the fastest broadcasting stations (although there is a charge)[4], More recentlyFree delivery even faster than the fastest broadcasting stationThere are also cases that do. Also,"Zamdo of Demise"SuchWeb animeThere are some cases in which the content distributed as is broadcasted on TV at a later date.


When broadcasting over commercial broadcasting, a sponsor who "provides" production costs, broadcasting costs, and commercial advertising fees is indispensable. The sponsor's request has a great influence on the work setting (this is for children.Special effectsThe same is true of the program), and it was a barometer that measures the ability of the animator in charge to reflect this in the work without any discomfort.

Since the beginning of commercial TV anime, many of themProgram for childrenTherefore, the main sponsors are products for children with low unit prices (toy,Food,Daily necessities,teaching materialThe company that manufactures and sells (for example) was the main sponsor. In addition, since it was a 30-minute broadcasting frame, it was disadvantageous in terms of operating revenue of the TV station, and it had a rating rate of more than 20% compared to animation with a high rating rate of 30% to 10% in the same period.Quiz show-Talk show-Documentary program-TV dramaEtc., the product unit price is high and the profit is largeConsumer electronics-Automobile-Chemical industryPrograms sponsored by major companies such as the above tended to be advantageous in terms of operating revenue. Also"World Masterpiece Theater] Series, etc.Provided by one companyThere were programs, but they decreased over time.

Furthermore, in the case of late-night anime, not only those related to the production committee but also "Spot CMSince it is also important to fill the frame, it is difficult to obtain enough sponsors to fill in the areas with low economic power and private satellite broadcasting (in the latter case, it is difficult to have local sponsors). Because I have it).

Changes in broadcasting technology and materials

Changes in broadcasting materials

the film
Film from the beginningphotographFor a long time, a master disc was produced, and a film to be delivered to the broadcasting station from the original plate was produced and broadcast. This method has problems of deterioration over time of the film and deterioration due to continuous use in rebroadcasting.
1990s,Multiplex audio broadcastingThe material delivered to the broadcasting station will switch from film to VTR at about the same time that it was generalized. this isCel animeからDigital animationDue to the transition of the production method to.telopThere is also an advantage that it can be easily inserted, and there were also animations that used many telops before and after the VTR transition.[Annotation 27].
Digital recording medium
High definitionCompatible (high resolution)liquid crystal television-BD player(BD recorder,PS3-PS4-PS5,Xbox One-Xbox Series X / S), the recording media for animeVHSFrom videotapes such asDVD,FurthermoreBlu-ray DiscHas been switched to (to optimize the older work for higher quality Blu-ray Discs)HD remasterThe number of cases that are subject to is increasing).

Changes in broadcasting technology

16:9 wide screen, The appearance of LCD TV models compatible with high-definition broadcastingBS digital broadcasting,Terrestrial digital broadcasting (terrestrial digital)When the high-definition environment became widespread due to the start of, the number of 16:9 size production works increased, but at the beginning of the production, high-definition production and broadcasting equipment etc. were very expensive,NHK BS hiOther than the broadcast work inSD image qualityTheUp-convertWhat was done was the mainstream.

the 2000sIn the latter half of the year, as broadcasting stations and production companies upgraded to high-definition production and broadcasting equipment, commercial broadcastHi-vision productionThe number of works of (Longevity programIn the case of going to the high-definition production on the way), after the end of the broadcasting of the local Anna, all new TV animation produced is 16:9 high-definition production. In terrestrial commercial broadcasting stations, works produced in 16:9 size are terrestrial digital broadcastingFrame broadcasting(In some cases, the screen is cut to the left and right in 4:3 size) There were also broadcasting stations,Terrestrial analog broadcastingAll transitioned to full-size broadcasting for the abolition (later than the key station and its affiliated stations at each independent station, but completed the correspondence).

In addition, until the end of September 2009TBSProduction work[Annotation 28] Also, in some of the work produced by TV Tokyo affiliated stations, even 16:9 HDTV masters had a side cut of 4:3 left and right including digital broadcasting.

Originally, some of the works that were produced and broadcast on "4:3 screens" were changed to broadcasts with side panels dedicated to the work on the left and right sides of the image in consideration of the complete shift to terrestrial digital broadcasting. There is also something[Annotation 29].

Audio broadcasting

Once the mainstream was monaural broadcasting, stereo broadcasting became the mainstream around the mid-1990s when the delivery of VTR materials became common. With the progress of digital broadcasting, programs that perform 5.1ch surround broadcasting have also appeared.[Annotation 30].

Subtitled broadcasting

For all-frame works, almost all new works for key stations support subtitle broadcasting (Simultaneous netStationDelay net OfLocal stationIn many stations are not supported).

In late-night animation, subtitles are being broadcast on TBS/MBS and Fuji TV productions.

Linked data broadcasting

In all-frame workMBS Saturday 18:00Sunday 17:00Frame works andYomiuri TelevisionThe linked data broadcasting was carried out from a relatively early stage of the production work.

From around 2009, maybe due to the influence of the complete terrestrial digital transition,Nichiasa Kids Time"TXN 19:00 frameThe number of works/broadcasting frames that carry out linked data broadcasting is also increasing.Simultaneous netThere are cases where mini quizzes and viewing points are set to promote real-time viewing by, and digital contents are distributed and gifts are drawn according to these, but due to the specifications of data broadcastingDelay netAlso, in BS/CS broadcasting, the production station is used as a measure to protect viewers when moving temporary frames on the Internet side.Back-feedIf you do[15] Also, with some exceptions, such as when the delayed net station side or satellite broadcasting side carries out its own linked data broadcasting, it cannot be handled.

On the other hand, in the midnight animeRomeo x Juliet"Last Exile -Fem of Silver Wings-"(CBC production),"Busou Shinki] AfterTBS production work,Valvrave The Liberator"series·"Demon Light"and"Devil's Riddle, "Super Animeism" frame each work (both produced by MBS).

It has not existed for a long time in UHF animation (except for those who participated in key station affiliated stations), but when it entered around 2014TOKYO MXA work that carries out linked data broadcasting has appeared in some animations that are involved in the production by himself.

Music/Anime songs

Apart from staff credits, there are also many cases where lyrics are inserted in the opening and ending in the case of full-frame animation (only a few in late-night animation).

Depending on the workrubySome have, and some do not use Kanji. However, the usage rate of lyrics subtitles has declined in recent years, and there are more works without lyrics subtitles since the 2000s.the 1960sWas few).

Changes in anime songs

From the beginning of commercial television animation broadcasting, titles and lyrics with the work name and character name inserted were used throughout the series.1970From the front and back,Anime songAn anime song singer who specializes in singing (abbreviated name "anison") has appeared.

the 1980sIt was broadcast in the first halfUrusei Yatsura] Made an attempt to change the opening ending song in the middle of the series. This isRecord companySince then, it has become a great business opportunity, and since then, for long-term series, works that change the theme song in 1-2 cools have become dominant.

Since the 1980sTie-upBy strategySony music group-Avex Group-BeingWhile becoming one of the important elements of new record sales of each record company,2016Appear in the work at the timeVoice actor(andVoice actor unit) The number of anime songs sung by themselves is on the rise, andCharacter songIt has been pointed out that the environment surrounding existing anime song singers has become severe due to the popularity of anime-derived two-dimensional idols.[16].

For one anime work from the 2000sendingThere are also works that use different songs or animations each time[Annotation 31]Or, (although the basic songs and lyrics are the same), directing voice actors of the singing will be changed every time, and the number of voice actors will gradually increase.[Annotation 32].

Multiple record companies in one work seriesMusic publisher-Entertainment productionMay be involved in the theme song production,JASRACAnd owned by each companyCopyrightAs a result of the adjustment with, the following examples will also be seen.

  • When producing the best CD, most of the theme songs will be released, or represented by the company that produces the soundtrack.[Annotation 33].
  • As a result of difficulty adjusting rights when releasing the video package version, the original theme song could not be used[Annotation 34]Or, the whole part that used the song was not recorded[Annotation 35]. This is because separate contracts are required for "TV broadcasting" and "video software", and the copyright payment system is different. For the same reason, existing songs are used as they are in the TV broadcast version of the play. In that case, (when the permission of the right holder is not given), the software may be replaced with another song.

Official Website

With the spread of the Internet environment, the production company or production station has opened the official program site. CurrentlyTwitterな どSocial MediaIn most cases, a dedicated account is opened.

Self-regulation of expression

Because it is viewed on a highly public television broadcast, stimulating expressions such as sexuality, violence, bloodshed,商標Pay the fees for (company name, product name, brand name), etc. to view and purchasemovies,ComicSuch asBookBy stricter standardsvoluntary restraintsIs being done. In addition,Anime movieFor TV broadcastingFilm Ethics Committee OfMovie rating systemIs applied.

Standards for self-regulation

BroadcasterIs voluntarily broadcast standard/program standard (Broadcast code) And operateRadio Act,Broadcasting lawStipulated by future,Video Content Ethics Liaison MeetingWill be installed.

Broadcast Ethics and Program Improvement Organization (BPO)

In Western countries and Australia, there is a clearRatingAlthough there is a public institution that carries out accreditation, there is no similar public institution in Japan.

Instead, "rather than watching and punishing programs, broadcasters voluntarily mediate between viewers and stations to solve problems."[17] Voluntary organization by NHK and commercial broadcasting affiliate member companiesBroadcast Ethics and Program Improvement Organization"(BPO) plays that role, and "the broadcaster agrees to adhere faithfully according to the judgment of Broadcast Ethics and Program Improvement Organization".[17] The program is produced above.

Broadcast Ethics and Program Improvement Organization (BPO) request for reply

It is important for broadcasters to request a reply from an organization that is the key to self-regulation.

2001: "Raimiro war kitan"
Due to the organizationAdult gameIn response to broadcasting an animation based onIndependent station OfSun TVIs receiving a response request.
2002: "Mobile Suit Gundam SEED"
MBS, the production bureau, has been asked to respond to the fact that a scene reminiscent of sexual activity was broadcast at 18:2005. In XNUMX, the sequel "Mobile Suit Gundam SEED DESTINY"But"Broadcast and Youth Commission, But it did not reach the request.
2014: "Recently, my sister looks a little strange."
High school girl OfMasturbationOr, the content that evokes that was broadcasted at prime time (22 o'clock), and TOKYO MX and Sun TV received a response request. Both stations changed the broadcast after the 5th episode to a midnight frame without waiting for an answer (BS11 broadcast from the beginning at 27 o'clock).
On the other hand, the Committee considers that the time zone of "considering the viewing of children and adolescents" stated in Article 18 of the Commercial Broadcasting Standards and Broadcasting Standards is "until 21:21", while the "XNUMX It doesn't mean that you need not worry about youth over time."[18].

Operation of self-regulation

As mentioned above, there is no uniform expression regulation standard for all broadcasting companies in Japan, and the current situation is that there are variations in production stations or Internet stations.

Since the 2000s, expression regulations have tended to be loose in general.Midnight programEven in the midnight anime, which is supposed to be, the regulation of expression tends to be tightened mainly in some broadcasting stations.

Contents of self-regulation

Broadcast problem terms

Basically, the terms and expressions that are problematic at the stage of the original work, the script, and the composition are deleted or changed to a non-obstructive expression. Also, for the same reason, when animating, the words and phrases of the problematic title may change.[Annotation 36].. On the other hand, using words that intentionally conflict with each other in productionSelf-regulating soundThere is also a work that directs with a metaphorical expression.

However, when re-broadcasting and packaging of "works that used words and expressions that were not subject to self-regulation" at the time of production, parts that were determined to be subject to self-regulation were cut, and conversations were interrupted. The problem occurred. Then is a kind of copyrightMoral rightsIn consideration of the above, after adding a cautionary message such as "respect the originality of the original author and broadcast the original version", "consider the era setting of the work", "there is no intention to promote discrimination", Sometimes the phrase is broadcast uncut.

Video production

Since the above one case, the expression of blinking is strictly regulated.[19], Scenes of shooting battles and dimming and afterimage processing are performed. Similar processes are often performed in rebroadcasting and packaging of past works.

Depiction of drinking and smoking

Almost all drinking and smoking scenes of underage characters will not be drawn, and even if it is drawn, a caution will be displayed (describe) that "underage drinking (smoking) is prohibited by law" Most of the time.

Sexual/violent depiction

Juvenile crimeAlthough there is no clear evidence to support the increase in1997Occurred in FebruaryKobe serial child killing caseDo not present a concrete basis clearlyMediaGroup by (key station, national newspaper)hysteria(Moral panic) Social criticism (Media effect theory(See also), spread all over the country, and it is considered to be a factor that "sexual and violent expressions in manga and anime promote crime", and it has developed into comprehensive self-regulation including regulations for describing violence.[20][21].

In the pastAmericaBut a similar uproar occurred,Comic codeThere are cases where strict self-regulation was implemented by the launching of the.

1980s:Prime timeA part of the work ofSilhouetteBroadcasting was performed after giving a directing effect to suppress cruel human fractures and explosions.[Annotation 37].. 『Kinnikuman]RamenmanIs BrockenmanCamel clutchThe scene of killing with two bodies in place has been replaced by a surreal gag scene where Ramenman kneads Brockenman like noodle dough and eats it as handmade noodles for ramen.
2000s: The bloodshed of a person being shot is regulated as a violent expression.
Sexual content
1980s:Prime timeIn some of the works ofNippleTo exposeSex appeal(Erotic) Including scenes[Annotation 38] Existed.
2000s: Devices that allow easy reservation recording (DVD,BD) Is popular at home, and late-night animation frames, which are rarely watched by children in real time, have been strengthened by self-regulation to attract childrenMoe-Loli・Manufacturing companies that want to use a lot of erotic (half-naked, underwear, etc.) tend to look for stations other than TV Tokyo, where expression regulations are strict.Independent station,BS/CS stationAnd so on.
2007Since thenSemi nude,underwearIs also reflected insteamAnd flashWhite blurIncreasingly, the number of people who hide their nipples and local areas is increasing, but with AT-X, by setting a target age limit,Prime-Non primeIt is being broadcast regardless of the day of the week (at the time of free broadcast[Annotation 39] Can not watch at all).
If you often use scenes with strong sexual stimulation from the setting of the work, there are cases where the contents as originally intended are premised on packaged sales such as "Director's Cut version" in anticipation of the self-regulation standards on the TV station side. is there.
In a part of the midnight animation, even if the female character's skirt is greatly rolled up, by not drawing underwear and showing the buttocks and bikini line, the self-regulation that ``it is not underwear so it is not subject to regulation'' is against There are also sex scenes taken.

Trademarks, copyrights, etc.

In most cases, the actual company name / product name (trademark) is modified so that it is not used, but in some cases, the actual name is used as part of the company's approval or tie-up (promotion). There are cases[Annotation 40].

In a similar case, in order to bring out reality in a work set in an actual city, the actual store name or signboard may be used in the background with the cooperation of each store.[Annotation 41].

Broadcast self-restraint/cancellation

Although not directly related to the work, it is decided by the broadcasting station due to incidents, accidents, natural disasters, etc.

Religious relationship

When touching real religions,Religious house,BelieversCare must be taken to ensure that there is no slander or insult toIslamRegulations are strict,Scripture OfQuranIt was discovered that the (Quran) and music were improperly quoted and forced to revise the scene in TV animation and OVA.

  • Example 1:"JoJo's Bizarre Adventure Stardust Crusaders(OVA version) In "Adventure 6 -Fog of Revenge-",GOD ArabicThere is a scene where the subordinates are ordered to kill the subordinate while reading the book, and the text of this book is a passage of the Quran.Lightning emblemWas found to be a quote[22].. The Muslims who watched this repulsed as "not acceptable because of insults to Islam". The production staffArabic scriptWhen I searched for the material, it was because I did not know that it was the Qur'an (the Qur'an was not drawn in the original work, and there is no intention to insult Islam). On the other hand, Shueisha and production companies (APPP) Apologized, "I will make an effort to deepen my understanding of Islam and its culture," and stopped shipping the DVD. Since February 2009, the revised edition that corrects the relevant parts of the original has been resumed.[23].
  • Example 2:"Noragami ARAGOTO(13 episodes), it was found that Islamic music was improperly used in the BGM in progress, so an apology comment was posted on the official website, and the sound containing the music was recorded. Tracks have been collected and the release of Blu-ray Disc/DVD has been postponed[24].. With this effectBS FujiWith 9 episodesCensored[Annotation 42], As an alternative, the remaining 2016 to 1 episodes in January 10BS11Was broadcast on.

Legal regulation of expression

History of TV animation

Detail is,"Anime history-Midnight anime history-UHF anime historySee.

Anime boom

The period of remarkable growth is called the "growth period of anime" or "anime boom". The abbreviations of related books referred to in the categories below are listed.

  • (I.e.: Hiromichi Masuda "Understanding the Anime Business"/Tsuken: Nobuyuki Tsuken "Introduction to Animation Studies"/Hikawa: Ryusuke Hikawa, "The End of Century Anime Enthusiasm"

For the sake of convenience, the anime boom is divided into three parts below, but some critics do not consider the anime boom mainly caused by "Astro Boy" to be the primary and secondary There are times when they are called up and called primary and secondary.

The first anime boom

Occurrence period
1963 to the end of the 1960s. 『Astro boyFrom the start of the broadcast to the anime establishment period. (Masuda)
1960s. (Tsuken).
The first impact from "Astro Boy" (Hikawa).
A hit of "Astro Boy". And in response to this, the number of new TV anime works by new business participants has increased. The establishment of anime among children. (Masuda)

Second anime boom

Occurrence period
1977-1991. 『Space Battleship Yamato』From the movie version releaseOVAUntil the release title peak. (Masuda)
The late 1970s to the late 1980s (Tsuken).
The second impact from "Yamato" and "Gundam" (Hikawa).
Before and after the release of "Farewell Space Battleship Yamato" was classified as the first anime boom (Bi Ogawa[25]).
1977-1985 was classified as the first anime boom (Ryota Fujitsu)[26]).
A hit of the movie version of "Space Battleship Yamato".And in response to this, market development for young people.Introducing a new business model due to the spread of video. (Masuda)

Third anime boom

Occurrence period
1995-present. 『Neon Genesis EVANGELION] From the broadcast to the present day when the number of TV animation productions is being updated. (Masuda)
Late 1990s (Tsuken).
The third shock from "Neon Genesis Evangelion" (Hikawa).
Before and after "Neon Genesis Evangelion" is classified as a secondary anime boom (Ogawa Bii[25]).
A hit of "Neon Genesis Evangelion". afterwards,"Pokemon''Princess Mononoke''Spirited Away) And other mega hits have caused further expansion of the anime audience. Diversification and increase of media. Diversification of finance system. Diversification of profit structure. Increase productivity with digital technology. (Masuda)

Major movements since the late 1990s

The decline in viewer ratings in the late 1990s had a great impact on the animation industry[27].. Fuji TV anime producer and executive officerKenji Shimizuaccording to,"YoungerBecause of this, and the increase in attendance at cram schools, the rate of children's staying at home from the evening to the 19:XNUMX's has declined significantly,'' he said. It is said that the movement to move to[9].

さ ら にNESWith the spread of home game consoles,GameBy moving to, the toy makers withdrew from sponsors due to the decline in animation-related toy sales,eveningIt was difficult to secure a broadcast slot from XNUMXst to Goldentime[27].

There are fears that the above movement will develop into the decline of the animation industry, and TV TOKYO (Public Relations / IR Director: Tsutomu Oki) said, "Anime is no longer the first choice for children."[28].

As a result, the number of golden-time broadcast works decreased sharply at each key station, and the total number of golden-time anime works, which had a maximum of 2000 frames in the early 6s in the TV Tokyo series, repeatedly increased and decreased, and on Thursday, September 2018. Two 9:19 broadcast slots have been completely withdrawn from the golden time zone due to the shift to the Sunday evening slot.[29],2 frames on Friday of TV Asahi seriesHowever, as of September 2019, it moved to the Saturday evening frame and withdrew from the golden time zone, so the golden time frame broadcast works will temporarily disappear from each key station.

After that, with the reorganization in October 2020, the TV Tokyo series "Pokemon』Move from Sunday evening to Friday 19:19, the animation of 1:5 broadcast on commercial broadcasting key stations has been revived for the first time in about a year, and now it is the same time (as a regular) among the 19 series of key stations Only the TV Tokyo series Friday XNUMX:XNUMX frame has an anime frame for the band.

On the other hand, since each independent station has a lower profit line than each key station, some animations are broadcast in the golden time zone.[9].

The late-night anime, which was expanding its influence, also occurred in 2008.Lehman shockDue to such factors as the impact of the decrease in the number around 2010[30][31].

Production cost recovery system by polarization of viewers and package sales (video software)

1995'sNeon Genesis EVANGELION』Commercial success has produced a large number of works for core fans, many production companies entered mainly in the evening broadcasting instead of golden time with a high broadcasting right fee, and if the broadcasting frame is insufficient, develop the midnight frame Has begun[27].. Suitable for mass productionDigital animationBecame popular,Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.,Independent station,BS station,Channel dedicated to CS animationAlthough the number of broadcast works also increased due to such reasons, due to the excessive number of works produced and the increase in burden,PaintIn addition, there were many cases where the broadcast schedule collapsed due to the delay in production schedule, the deterioration of the quality that caused the scenario to collapse, and even the work that could not even “complete” the one-cool broadcast slot.

On the other hand, it became possible to watch by introducing a two-day weekly holiday system for elementary and junior high schools.Sat-SundayToy companies and publishers in the morningsponsor"Children's" works and Aniota, which was born in the anime boom, are the midnight frame (mainly for the purpose of supplying profits by supplying a large number of works by package sales, software rental, etc. to the consumer-oriented layer)Three major metropolitan areasCommon name broadcast on independent stationsUHF anime(Including works broadcast on BS and BS/CS channels)Production Committee Methodworks[Annotation 43] Bipolarization is progressing.

It was one of the mainstreams of the "economy of TV animation" until the 2000s to sell packages in the form of "mediaization of TV animation broadcast works" and collect profits. There are many titles in which "purpose" and "means" are reversed from the planning stage of the sales plan compared to the work.[32].

Broadcasters with low sponsor fees and low viewership are targeted by otaku who have a strong interest in anime, and the nature of the promotion for package sales is also strong. Therefore, there are many cases in which each production committee company sponsors and buys program frames and broadcasts. Especially in the midnight frame broadcast works,DVDandBlu-ray DiscBecause the main profit was package sales such asAdded valueIt is necessary to enhance the purchase motivation to stimulate the purchasing will, and there are cases where revisions and supplements different from the main broadcast are made due to the following circumstances.

  1. Broadcast modification (Retake
    • This is often seen in works that have had a number of episodes that have broken production schedules or are in a state close to that. Correction of credits and telops is also included.
  2. Return expression restrictions to the production intent.
    • Expressions with strong stimuli such as sex appeal and bloodshed are added or replaced in order to restore the original state of what was regulated during TV broadcasting. Also"Self-regulating soundThere is also a work in which the part of "" is recorded as a separate voice ("Like Hayate!"Student council officers"Such).
      • On the contrary, there are few cases where restrictions are added when software is made due to copyright and copyright issues, and the contents are partially modified. As an example"Gintama] In the TV broadcast versionParodyThe original original song is often replaced with another song in the video software version.
  3. Screen frame (aspect ratio) Changes.
    • For some of TBS's productions until the end of September 2009 and some of TV Tokyo's previous productions, the screen size master of "9:16" was cut at both ends of the screen when broadcasting on terrestrial, and "9:4 Was broadcast in the size of "Digital terrestrial broadcastingIs in the process of spreading, and there were many areas that could not be received). When packaged, it will be sold as the original "16:9".
  4. Recording of all versions
    • Materials for broadcasting such as commercials are recorded as a privilege.
    • For the purpose of promoting the package version, a work that broadcasts another version of some scenes by broadcasting region (including satellite broadcasting)[Annotation 44], All versions are included.
  5. Recording of unbroadcast part
    • Although viewers are dissatisfied with the method of not broadcasting the part or ending of the main part and selling that part separately, the difficulty of late-night animation production, which relies heavily on package sales for production costs, has been highlighted. There is.
      • Do not broadcast part of the episode of the main part-it does not hinder the understanding of the entire content of the work, but the package version has a deeper understanding of the background and human relationships. Existence of unbroadcast times in advanceWebsiteIt is often announced.
      • Do not broadcast the ending of the main part-It is noticeable in Fuji TV and TV Asahi late night animation from 2003 to 2004,Terrestrial digital broadcastingBroadcast end time has been increased due to preparatory workSpecial programDue to broadcasting schedules such as sports broadcasts, etc., there were many works that could not be broadcast until the end, and I could only watch the ending on the package version or satellite broadcasting.
  6. Additional recording of new video
    • Extra edition・Most of the later stories and short animations feature a parody that is a little far from the main story. Sequels and extras of traditional popular worksOVA,Movie versionIt is an extension of the method of producing. Some will be released later or earlierSpecial programThere is also a case of TV broadcasting in the form of.
  7. Includes sound source CDs such as theme songs
    • Theme song,Insert song-soundtrack-Drama CDThere is an increasing number of cases in which such items are not sold separately but are included as a privilege for video software. Some may be released as a single album at a later date.
  8. Includes privileged video and audio from related parties
    • Apart from the main animation,Audio commentaryDepending on the voice actors, the talks of the voice actors and the production staff, the documentaries closely related to the behind-the-scenes production, videos of events, live performances, etc.Entertainment showsThere are many examples of additional recording of special contents as video benefits.
      • Related events and live videoProduced and sold as a single piece of softwareThere are a lot of cases of doing it.

In addition, as a part of sales promotion, product-related goods and variousEventsParticipation numbered tickets or application tickets (in addition, since the 2010s, the number of cases that include ticket priority sale application tickets is increasing) may be included (some stores orOnline ShoppingSome are limited).

In the 2020s, distribution fees from Internet distribution will be a pillar of revenue.[34], The package is a fan-friendly product that is combined with goods and benefits rather than profits.

Current status of various problems in broadcasting Japanese TV anime

Time zone competition

By simultaneously broadcasting different anime programs on two or more channels, both commercial and NHKConflictHas been seen for a long time,[Annotation 45], Even at the local stationSat-SundayAnime and special effects programs may be concentrated in the early morning/evening slots of and conflict with each other.[Annotation 46].

TV Tokyo affiliateIt is even more so in the case of Higashi-Meihan district, which has an independent station, and if you are particular about only main broadcasting, you can hardly watch unless you use multiple recording devices or recording devices that can record two or more programs simultaneously. And, including rebroadcasting, as of 2, there are many times when you can only watch at the recording device that can record three or more programs simultaneously. In BS digital broadcasting, BS-TBS[Annotation 47] Except for 4 BS commercial stations, BS 11 and other stations, 23-At 1 o'clock the duplication of multiple programs has become constant.[Annotation 48].

There is also an example of changing the day of the week to avoid time zone conflicts on terrestrial broadcasting.[Annotation 49].

The same for the fiscal year ending April 2015Weekly Shonen Sunday] There is also competition between serialized original animations[Annotation 50].

Rebroadcast decrease

  • In the late 1980s, the terrestrial key station seriesre-airIs on the decline overall. this isVideo deckIs also widely spread[35].

Problems of Regional Disparity in Terrestrial Commercial TV Programs

Commercial broadcastTV animation for mobile phones tends to be planned and produced on the premise of "terrestrial broadcasting"[Annotation 51].. This is because in the 2010s, the selling price to distributors in the Internet distribution business will be greatly affected by the presence or absence of "a track record of terrestrial broadcasting (especially in the Tokyo metropolitan area)" regardless of domestic or overseas. This is because the selling price of "programs that have never been broadcast on the ground wave" tends to be disadvantageous.[4].

On the other hand, at NHKBS broadcastingMany are planned and produced for

Since the 2000s, while the number of simultaneous internet broadcast programs at affiliated stations of the four major networks (Nippon TV, TV Asahi, TBS, and Fuji TV) has decreased, it has increased sharply for the core fans mentioned above. For local-sales-framed broadcast programs such as late-night animation, metropolitan areas (especiallyTomeisakaIt is not often broadcast outside of the area, and there are many programs with a wide delay network even if broadcast on local stations (cool unit orYearly= There are some cases that lead to more than 4 cool delays).

Also, due to changes in the main broadcasting time zone at the production station due to various circumstances or the extension of the broadcasting period, the organization was not agreed, and some local stations were in the middle of the series.CensoredI sometimes see examples[Annotation 52].

Incidentally,In many cases, it was not broadcast in the actual area (or model area) where the work will be performed for a long time, or in the local station where the original author was born.[Annotation 53][Source required].. But from the local side, which is the stageRegional revitalizationRequests as part of[Annotation 54] Or by the fanPilgrimage to sacred places (stage visit)A case where the production side has been keeping in mind the broadcasting on the stage local station from the beginning due to the establishment of culture[Annotation 55] Increased, andAomoriHirosakiSet inFlying Witch] InAomori Broadcasting [36],KagawaSet inGolden umari of udon country]Nishinippon broadcastingHave participated in each production committee.

TV Tokyo series

It is a subsidiary BS stationBS TV Tokyo(Formerly BS Japan) broadcasts all-frame animations of its parent company, TV TOKYO, reasonably, while midnight anime broadcasts were generally poor until the mid-2010s.[Annotation 56], InsideTamagotchi!』Series (Transition to BS Japan from the middle) ・"Gundam Build Fighters"series("Gundam Build Divers Re:RISE』From terrestrial wave to TOKYO MX) etc. is BS11, and special effects works are also mixedGaro -GARO-] The series (moving from the middle to TOKYO MX) was originally a movie specialtyStar channelIn many of the UHF animations that have been produced online and have been participating in AT-X production since the 2010s.BS11There are even cases such as broadcasting on BS Fuji.Furthermore, in the 2020s, there are an increasing number of cases where some of the late-night anime broadcast on TV Tokyo are broadcast on other BS stations such as BS11.

"Simultaneous network with TV Tokyo (affiliated station) and BS TV East"Pretty Rhythm Aurora Dream』Was carried out for the first time, but at present, only a small number of net form programs of this format.

At the moment, it was broadcast only on BS TV East (excluding CS channel)Artificial insect Kabuto Borg V×V"When"Nano InvadersHowever, it is also the result of the TV Tokyo side rejecting terrestrial broadcasting for the content of "Kabuto Borg".

Also, although it is not a story of TV animation itself, it is related to being broadcast on TV TokyoAnime/Game information program,Voice actor variety programPrograms such as[Annotation 57] There are many cases of local Kanto in TV broadcasting (there are also many similar cases in the independent TV stations below, but this may also be net at BS11 and BS Fuji commercial BS stations).

In the Internet distribution, many programs have been implemented regardless of the time zone since the 2010s, but there are cases where it is delayed by more than a week (based on the fastest TV TOKYO) or only paid distribution.

Independent TV station

Since the late 1990sThree major metropolitan areasIt is inIndependent stationA new TV anime with the broadcast in mind in mind, the so-calledUHF animeStarted broadcasting, and in the middle of the 2000s, it showed a rapidly increasing trend.

In the Kansai/Chukyo area, there are cases where some of the works are broadcast by wide area stations affiliated with key stations and some local stations, but this also contributes to widening the regional disparity due to terrestrial broadcasting. It was Even in the Kanto area, where we had an advantage for many years,TokyoTheBroadcast target areaToTOKYO MXThe transmitting stationTokyo Sky TreeAs a result of the accelerated concentration on the station after the relocation to, a large disparity was created in areas where the station could not receive. In a straightforward example, it is not uncommon for a work to be broadcast on a wide area station in the Kansai area, but only on TOKYO MX in the Kanto area.

Since the beginning of the 2010s, BS stations such as BS11 have started to perform delayed (or simultaneous) nets with many UHF animations, and now, if the receiving environment such as BS antenna is prepared, it can be generally viewed. I am Most of the works are also distributed on the Internet.

Current status and weak points of BS/CS broadcasting

  • At present, the network of terrestrial TV animations to BS stations remains incomplete, mainly for key station animations. This is partly because there is strong resistance from local bureaus that are directly linked to the life and death problem.[37].
  • Although there are cases where the added value is achieved by broadcasting the works that the anime channel participates in the production committee at the fastest speed, there are almost no such cases when participating in the production of key stations.
  • If the shared parabola antenna is not installed, it will be necessary to install it by yourself.[Annotation 58] Depending on the structure of the property and the property, such as corridors and handrailsCommon areaIn some cases, the parabolic antenna cannot be installed (is not allowed). Also, older models of parabolic antennas (including shared) do not support CS 110° broadcasts. In addition, in the case of AT-X, it was necessary to wait until autumn 110 for high definition of CS 2018° broadcast on the same channel.[38].

Cable television rebroadcast outside the area

  • Cable TVThe service area of市町村Since the unit is basic, it cannot be used in areas other than the target area. In some areas, rebroadcasting outside the area may not be performed without the consent of the local station. In addition, some apartments do not support cable TV.

NOTTV (Mobacas)

  • Broadcasting was started using the VHF band that floated after the termination of terrestrial analog broadcasting, but it did not cover the whole of Japan, supported terminals were limited, and some works were broadcast Stayed at. After all, the number of members was sluggish, so the service ended on June 2016, 6[39].

Internet distribution

Since the mid-2000s, the above-mentioned package sales market has been shrinking, and the production companies are shifting to a business model based on "Internet pay distribution" including overseas markets instead, which is more important than TV broadcasting. Became[34]..At that time, the presence or absence of "television broadcasting (terrestrial broadcasting) performance" in the Tokyo metropolitan area of ​​Japan greatly affects the selling price to Internet distributors.[4] From that, of pure meaningWeb animeIs a minority, and some form of TV broadcasting is done in parallel with online distribution.

Current status and weak points of Internet distribution

  • Depending on the intention of the right holder (the original author, the bereaved family, etc.), even paid distribution may not be permitted.[Annotation 59].
  • In many cases, it is delivered later than the fastest broadcasting station.
    • In the case of paid distribution, there are cases where it will be delivered earlier than some of the fastest broadcasting stations (such as late-night anime programs produced by Nippon Television), and in recent years, AbemaTV has also appeared to be free delivery at the same time as the fastest broadcasting station or earlier. ing.
  • Broadcast frames based on "paid distribution only" (such as Fuji TV's "Noitamina" frame and MBS "Animism" frame) and production companies (Toei[Annotation 60],KADOKAWA[Annotation 61] Production works, etc.), and in recent years, not only these, but also the "exclusive paid distribution" works of specific distribution sites are increasing.
  • In some cases, the distribution company joins the production committee or leads the project.Knights of Sidonia], the production companyNetflixWe contracted directly with the company and procured production costs under a contract to monopolize Internet distribution outside Japan. Also by the same production companyBLAME!Was produced as Netflix's original content (also aired in theaters in Japan).
  • Portrait rightDue to some reasons, special numbers and live-action parts where voice actors and staff appear may not be delivered.[Annotation 62].
  • Susceptible to the internet environment.Access sourceIP addressCountry/region/Internet providerIn some cases, due to IP restrictions, even paying distribution services may not be available.
  • For paid delivery, the payment method isCredit card,Web moneyLimited tobank OfAutomatic account transferIt is not convenient because it does not support.

Illegal upload and official video distribution

Against the background of the above situation, in order to watch with the smallest time difference (delay),Winny-ShareSuch asFile sharing softwareOr outside JapanVideo sharing serviceThe problem of illegally uploading works using[40].

In the case of video sharing service, it may be deleted if the request can be confirmed from the right holder,YouTubeIn the case of an overseas site whose name recognition is low compared to the above, the response tends to be sloppy, and even a legitimate request may be ignored. Once a work is uploaded on the Internet, it will be copied endlessly and it will be almost impossible to stop it completely, so it is becoming a life-and-death problem for production affiliates who are recovering production costs from the revenue of package sales.[40][41][42].

Therefore, a telop saying "It is illegal to upload to the Internet (without the permission of the right holder) is illegal" at the beginning of the program to call attention and to identify the broadcasting station (local station) that is the upload source.WatermarkIs taken, and the measures taken in October 2012Revised copyright lawBy enforcement,Penalties will be imposed on downloadsHowever, the reality is that it is not very effective.

Changes in official video distribution

"Mobile Suit Gundam SEEDAnd the sequelMobile Suit Gundam SEED DESTINY], in the program sponsorNTT East-West JapanHikari service provided by both companiesFLET'S Hikari] Dedicated site for subscribers "FLET'S SQUARE" was delivered immediately after the end of the broadcast (however, the delivery was reflected in the area delayed by one week).

GyaO opened in April 2005 (currently:GYAO!) Or BIGLOBE stream (laterAnime one.. (Service ended in 2013)B type H series(UHF animation) andLady x pigeon!』(AT-X monopoly broadcast) has become involved in the production of works, such as investing in the production committee, insert advertisements around the video screen, and start a series of free distribution services using advertising revenue As a result, even if the terrestrial broadcasting is not available, the chances of being able to watch it on the Internet will be greatly increased.

In this case, a certain period before and after TV broadcasting (3 days-up to 1 week) delivered free, then often delivered for a fee. Also,"Zamdo of DemiseSuch asWeb animeIn some cases, the work distributed as will be broadcast on television at a later date.

Broadcasted in 2007Sky GirlsIn the case of ”, an attempt was made to use the technology known as “area cast” to deliver online only within the “outside broadcasting area”.[43] However, this did not spread.

In July 2010, to double as a measure against illegal uploadsDwangoVideo distribution site operated byNico Nico DougaHas announced a full-scale entry into the official distribution business of anime programs. Gradually, the number of works that are distributed for free for a limited period of time has also increased, and the case where only the first episode is always distributed for free has become the mainstream (even after the DVD/BD is released). Also, according to the production announcement after the end of the main broadcast and the second termNico Nico Live BroadcastThe number of cases where all episodes are distributed live at once is increasing (see below.AbemaTVBut we are delivering the same one).

In response to this, the number of cases in which the production side actively uses online distribution such as Nico Nico Live Broadcasting is increasing, and there are more and more planned programs in which voice actors and creators appear. It is increasing its presence as an animation publishing medium that will change to broadcasting.

In the mid-2010sd anime storeWith the increase in distribution sites mainly for smartphones such as (participating in some TV animation production committees) and the advancement of major overseas distribution sites to Japan, the conventional video software business has reached a peaking level, and the overseas market is also growing. The paid Internet distribution business, which we have in mind, is becoming more active.

Optical fiber and various wireless access services are gradually expanding their coverage areas.

From July 2015, TOKYO MX is a smartphone application "EmcasHas started simultaneous distribution service to all over the country (However, some programs may not be distributed due to copyright etc.)[44].

AbemaTV opens "New TV Anime Channel", which offers the fastest free delivery of some new titles (some of which are free of charge at the same time as the fastest TV broadcast) from July 2016, and has entered the new television anime distribution business.[45].

From March 2020, NHK has been offering "Simultaneous/E-Television simultaneous delivery/missing delivery".NHK PlusStarted.

rental video

Once related to animerental videoThe market was also large.

However, rental video stores are closing one after another due to the spread of online distribution.[46].

Current status by broadcasting station/affiliation


NHKTV broadcasting inGeneral TVSince it is a nationwide broadcast excluding local slots, it can be viewed uniformly throughout the country. However, there are rare cases where local works are broadcast on local TV on general television.[Annotation 63].. Also, in the case of late-night slots, there are also cases in which the network is delayed compared to other regions due to prioritizing locally organized programs.

CurrentlyEducational TV (E-tele)andBS Premium(OldSatellite 2nd TV (BS2)) Has been broadcast a lot (in the pastSatellite HDTV (BS-hi)(There is also a work that was re-broadcast at the end of the analog broadcast).

There used to be a time when it was broadcast on general TV a lot, but gradually it shifted to broadcasting on E-television and BS2 (→ BS premium), and now it is a midnight animation broadcast on Monday 0:XNUMX (Sunday midnight) There is only a frame.

Also,"日常And 'lovelive!"[47] In some cases, the TV anime that was broadcast on commercial TV stations (substantially) will be rebroadcast.

Nippon TV

Nippon TVIs in OsakaQuasi-key station Of讀賣TV broadcasting With (ytv), we are competing for TV animation production, especiallySpace Battleship Yamato"series·"Lupin III』I was broadcasting such a seriesthe 1990sFrom the first half, the number of full-frame anime broadcasts was reduced, and in March 2009, it withdrew from the Golden Time zone. Currently in the local sales frame "Go! Anpanman] And two Yomiuri TV production national net animations that originated on Monday's golden time zone on Saturday evening5:30 frameand6 o'clock("Detective Conan]).

Late-night anime has produced many works in a style unique to Nippon Television.[48], From April 2021 to Sunday dawn (Saturday midnight) at 4:0, a nationwide network frame produced in-house[Annotation 64]is newly established.Also Yomiuri TVMANPAIt is produced and broadcast on its own line in the frame.

In addition, NTV has beenMad houseFollowed byTatsunoko Pro-huluWith the acquisition of (Japan Business), the company is currently working to strengthen and enhance the content and copyright business of the animation production company and on-demand video distribution business.[49].

TV Asahi

TV AsahiIs the only key station in Tokyo until September 2019Prime timeObiDoraemon"Crayon Shin-chanWas broadcasting a family-oriented in-house produced animation targeting young people, but the number of broadcast works during this time period has decreased compared to the one time period.[Annotation 65], Withdrew from the golden time zone with the move of both works to Saturday evening due to the reorganization in October 2019[Annotation 66][50].

Osaka stationAsahi Broadcasting TV(ABC TV, former Asahi Broadcasting) has also been focusing on TV animation production for a long time.

2017 year 9 month,Nagoya TV Broadcast(ME-TV/NBN) withdrew from the nationwide Internet frame that continued for 40 years while changing the time zone[51].

The TV Asahi midnight animation was an intermittent broadcast from April 2007 to September 4.[Annotation 67] However, broadcasting of late-night animation resumed from the reorganization in October 2019, and with the reorganization in April 10, it will be the first frame in the midnight zone of the station.NUM Animation”(Numanimation), and started broadcasting regular new animation.[Annotation 68]..Asahi Broadcasting Corporation, which started at the same time in October of the same year,ANiMAZiNG !!!Together with the frame, it will be expanded to the TV Asahi affiliated 24 stations nationwide, and will become a nationwide network frame.

On the other hand, since October 2012, Asahi Broadcasting TV has become active in late-night anime, and it has also started to participate as a UHF anime production committee.

TV AsahiFujikoAn animation production company that has a long-term business relationship centered on related animated worksShinei VideoBecame a consolidated subsidiary, and ABC also became a specialized subsidiary in July 2016.ABC animationHas been established.

TV Asahi invests in Internet distributionAbemaTVHas delivered anime programs regardless of old and new, and has adopted its own route among the key stations in Tokyo.


TBSIs a key station in OsakaEvery day broadcasting(MBS) is more aggressive than TBS, and MBS production "Saturday 18:6 frame (Sat XNUMX)Through the frameSunday 17:5 (Sun XNUMX)The frame was the main force. With the reorganization in April 2017, this frame will be described later in ``Anime Saturday 630』\ It was moved to the first half frame.

On the other hand, in TBSSaturday 17:30 frameWas being broadcast onLove Con"[Annotation 69] After the broadcast, the Kanto local broadcast in 2011Mini show"Suzy's ZooWas finally withdrawn from the full-frame anime, but with the reorganization in April 2016Saturday morning 7pmToKamiwaza Wanda”, the first time in 13 years, the "all-day frame and anime frame on the national network" will be restored.[52]Later, it was integrated into the latter half of the aforementioned "Anime Saturday 630", but due to the abolition of this frame in the July 2019 reorganization,Anime for childrenAnd for all age groupsFamily/general animationWithdrew from[Annotation 70].

After the abolition of "Anime Saturday 630", the only commercial broadcaster series that had no "national online anime frame for all days" continued to exist.2022With the revival of the anime frame on Sunday 4:17 (Sunday 5) in April, the broadcast of the all-day frame animation has resumed for the first time in about 2 years and 9 months.[53].

For late-night anime, the daily broadcast is "Anime showerThe number of works has been increasing since the frame was set up, and from July 2019, the late-night anime frame of all 7 TBS affiliated stations net ``Super anime ismStarted[Annotation 71].At the start, it was an unusual nationwide network frame for late-night animation, but as mentioned above, in October 2020, the TV Asahi series set up two late-night anime frames nationwide, and in April 10, the Nippon TV series will be a nationwide network. Since there is one late-night anime frame, it is becoming a regular frame.

またthe 2000sSince then, TBS and others have also participated in in-house produced midnight animation and UHF animation. Especially since Mainichi Broadcasting also broadcasts many UHF animations, it boasts the top-class late-night animation broadcast volume as a quasi-key station, and depending on the work, it is the fastest centering on late-night animation (prior to TBS/TOKYO MX). It may be broadcast. However, due to the tight midnight zone, TBS production is often broadcast in the Kansai region on Sun TV or in the Kansai region terrestrial broadcasting in many cases.

Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.

Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd. Thethe 1970sThe station has been focusing on TV animation since the latter half, and it has the most number of broadcasts among the key stations in Tokyo regardless of the broadcast time, accounting for more than half of them. Even if a serious incident or accident occurs, the broadcasting is rarely suspended (Reference article).

But since the late 1990sExpression regulation sectionHowever, as I mentioned, there was a movement by the production side to avoid broadcasting on the same station due to the radicalness of it, and moreover, with the rise of UHF animation broadcast mainly by independent stations, Such vitality is no longer seen, and animation program broadcasts in the golden time zone and weekday evening 6 o'clock, which had been actively broadcast for many years, have been gradually reduced since the 2010s.[Annotation 72].

As for late-night anime, after the rise of UHF anime, the number of broadcast slots tends to fluctuate and tend to be inconsistent.[Annotation 73].

Compared to other series, there are more works that flexibly change the broadcasting frame between the all-day frame and the midnight frame (詳細 記事).

All affiliated stationsHas a track record of making TV animation[Annotation 74].. Of whichTV Osaka (TVO) [Annotation 75]-TV set (TSC) has a national net regular slot (onceTV Aichi (TVA) also had a regular frame).Especially TSC is nowHigashimeisaka districtExcept for the only 30-minute regular frame, TV Tokyo production "Pokemon seriesLongevity seriesIs being produced (Shimajiro』Anime series).

TV Aichi, etc., is part of the UHF anime online, assuming the role of an independent station.

Fuji Television Network, Inc

Fuji Television Network, IncIs "Astro Boy (first work)"Dr. Slump Arale"Dragon ball series] And many popular works and longevity programsSeries workHowever, it gradually toned down from the latter half of the 1990s, and with the reorganization in October 2006, all the animation frames disappeared from the golden time zone.CurrentlySunday morning 9 o'clock18pmIs alive.

Unlike other series,FNSVery few works produced by affiliated stations (however, regarding Fuji TV production late-night animation, about three years have passed since the start of new work in the October 2014 period)Kansai TV broadcasting(Kantele / KTV) jointly participated in the production committee, and since the fiscal year ended April 2017, it has been intermittently producing the same station and producing a late-night anime on the TOKYO MX net).

The late-night anime was born from the lessons learned from a series of broadcasting problems in the early 2000s.Noitamina] The frame is a series of high-rated viewers as a late-night frame.

Quasi-key station (station in Osaka)

Osaka station : Animation has been produced on a daily basis or on Yomiuri TV as well as on key stations since ancient times, and Asahi TV has a production record that is not as high as the above two stations. However, there are 2 animes independently produced by Kansai TV.[Annotation 76](Excluding works that participated in the production committee), which is extremely small compared to other stations.TV Osaka has been in the market since its opening in 1982, but withdrew from the regular quota in March 2011, and resumed the regular quota in April 3 after a suspension of about nine years.Currently, four quasi-key stations other than Kansai TV continue to produce TV animations, and some of the UHF animations are online (especially the number of Mainichi Broadcasting System broadcasts is outstanding).

Mainichi Broadcasting Tokyo Branch TV Organizationproducer-Maruyama Hiroo"(We do not have a lot of responsibility for the national internet golden program, and it is difficult to compete with key stations for programs that require entertainers such as dramas and varieties. It is very great that you can compete at the key station under the same conditions as the key station."[54].

Named office

Named office : As of April 2022, there is no regular frame produced by a well-known station.However, TV Aichi had the only national net frame until September 4, and Me-Tele has experience in producing some late-night animations in addition to the above-mentioned national net frame (until September 2021).[Annotation 77].CBC TV(TBS series) is "Orange picture diaryAfter entering the animation production starting with ""Kotoura-sanWas temporarily cut off at the end of the term, but in the fiscal year ended April 2021,If you want a mugI made a late-night anime for the first time in a long time. In the fiscal year ending July 2009, in collaboration with Kansai TVTokai TV broadcasting(THK, Fuji TV series) also entered a short animation (later a midnight short animation by Chukyo localKayo! Chu studies』Also broadcast). In addition,Chukyo TV broadcasting(CTV, Nippon Television Network System) is the only key station and affiliated station in the three major metropolitan areas that has not produced "alone" for TV animation for many years.Infini-T Force』, Participated in the production jointly with major stations of the Nippon Television network, and participated in the production of" in the fiscal year ending April 2020.TsugumoIn addition to participating in the production of "", the station was the first to be the head of the production committee in the fiscal year ended October 2021.ShikizakuraWas broadcast.

Local bureau

TSC isShimajiro] Since the series, of the local company that is the publisher of this workBenesseMaintain a relationship with[Annotation 78].. In addition, TVh and TVQ have production results in the form of co-production with TV Tokyo.[Annotation 79].

RKB Mainichi Broadcasting System-Hokkaido Broadcasting (HBC) orTohoku Broadcasting (TBC)China broadcasting (RCC) major TBS affiliates also have production participation records in the form of late-night anime co-produced with CBC.Shizuoka broadcasting(SBS, TBS series) is "Secret society hawk claw countdown] And short animation “Pampaka pants] Participating in the series.Hokkaido Bunka Broadcasting System(Uhb, Fuji TV series) is a joint production of KTV and THKComing cat] From the second season of the same seriesTV ShizuokaIn addition to participating in production with (SUT, Fuji TV series)HokkaidoLocal midnight animationFrancesca』I participate in the production.Other than that, it is not a major station in the seriesAomori Broadcasting(RAB, Nippon Television Network System) is a late-night anime with the key station Nippon Television.Flying Witch], And took the position of the animation production bureau for the first time.

There are some cases in which local stations participate in the production of short films.

Independent station

Three major metropolitan areasLocated inIndependent stationNew TV animation at (UHF anime) Is loosely regulated in terms of expression compared to key stations, and the number of broadcasts has increased sharply since the mid-2000s because the broadcasting charges are cheap.

Most of these are broadcast late at night and on the production committee system,TOKYO MXThere are cases where some broadcasts of some works are broadcast on all-day frames (such as prime time frames centered around 22:XNUMX). Also, as the production participation record, TOKYO MX is by far the most,Gifuhoso(GBS),Biwako Broadcasting(BBC),Nara TV Broadcasting(TVN),TV WakayamaExcept for (WTV), each station has some form of entry record.

In particularCapital AreaOut ofSouth KantoEach station (TOKYO MXtvk-Tele ball-Chiba TV) Has been broadcast a lot[Annotation 80] on the other hand,North KantoIndependent station of (Gunma TV-Tochigi TV) Has a lot of broadcasting performance compared to South Kanto 4 stations[Annotation 81].IbarakiHowever, there is still no prefectural TV station in Japan.

In the Kanto area, there are many cases where late-night anime produced by local stations such as the Osaka station are broadcast on independent stations rather than key stations, and there are works that BS stations or anime specialized channels join the production committee (especially BS11 and BS Fuji, BS Nippon Television, AT-X are many).

At present, most of the works are nationwide broadcast (distributed) in combination with commercial BS stations such as BS11 and various Internet distributions, as described above, "at a lower cost than terrestrial nationwide networks." In addition, as mentioned above, TOKYO MX uses the smartphone app "Mcas" to distribute some programs nationwide.

The net form of these works is much more complicated than that produced by the key station or its affiliated stations, but the details are omitted here.

Commercial BS station SKY PerfecTV!

Until the 2000s, there was a certain number of TV animations exclusively broadcasted by each station.BS SKY PerfecTV!of"Grazeni)), occupy a lot of programs that sometime sometime terrestrial and simultaneous deployment.

A long-established commercial BS stationWOWOWIs the same station's monopoly, yet freeNon-scramble frameso"WOWOW animeWas broadcast a lot of anime works called "," but since 2008 has been almost dormant. Joint investment in terrestrial broadcasting work in 2016 (Production CommitteeBy participating in), a new "Animation Premier" frame, which will be premiered at the fastest speed, has been established and the company has returned to the animation business.

Meanwhile, it opened in 2007BS11Has been active in broadcasting anime and participating in production committees since the beginning, and since the beginning of the 2010s, the anime frame has been gradually expanded (Detailed item). In the mid-2010sBS Nippon Television,BS FujiAlso, the anime frame is expanding year by year, and BS Fuji will be in the midnight frame from April 2017.Anime guild] label, BS NTV will also be in the late-night frame from October 2019.Anime nimuchu] has been set as a label.Also, BS Asahi will also be in the late-night frame from April 2020.Anime A] was set up as a label.

In addition, NHK BS channel and major free broadcasting BS stations have also started audience rating survey from April 2015.[55].

Currently holding the Japanese CS channelSKY PerfecTV! OfAnime channel(AT-X,Kids station,AnimaxEtc.), but there are a few cases in which unbroadcasting TV animation is produced and broadcast. In the past, it was only CS broadcasting, but BS broadcasting has also started on some channels such as Animax since 2012 (however, BS broadcasting anime specialized channels are also treated as "SKY PerfecTV! channels").

Anomalous cases

Reverse internet situation of local station production work etc.

The local station production animation is not reverse net in the Tokyo key station series,Capital Area(mainlySouth Kanto) There are still some cases where each station is an independent station.

A straightforward example:

On the contrary, there are key stations in Tokyo and affiliated stationsKansai areaMay become an independent station net[Annotation 83]. this isOsaka station(Quasi-key station) MadeLocal showThere is a large number of people, and the situation that the late-night frame is tight is also affecting[Annotation 84].

A straightforward example:

Irregular internet circumstances of TV animation

Some animation works are not bound by the network sales frame, works that are broadcast in the midnight frame that becomes local sales, and are not restricted by the framework of the seriesProduction Committee MethodFocusing on the works ofThere are affiliated stations in the broadcasting areaNevertheless, there are some cases in which the network is out of affiliated except for independent stations.


Local limited animation

There are some that are produced as community-based programs from the beginning (mainly short animation).

OVA TV series broadcast

OVASome of the anime works produced as, will be broadcast later as special numbers and short-term series, or TV series. Inside isMobile Suit Gundam UC RE:0096], such as re-editing and adding new cuts according to TV broadcasting, and some new theme songs.

Broadcast trouble

Expression restrictions and production problems can be seen mainly in midnight animation and UHF animation, but they are also frequently occurring in all-frame animation due to the influence of the new coronavirus.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Wakasa lifeProvided by TOKYO MX/KBS Kyoto/TV OsakaFull-frame broadcast work of.
  2. ^ mainlyEvery day broadcasting(MBS) Production works etc.
  3. ^ "Episode ○," "that," "EPISODE ○." and so on (numbers inside the circle).
  4. ^ Dozens of episodes-If you expect to be protracted to hundreds of episodes, you may not write the number of episodes from the beginning. Also"SazaeIn each case, "Work No." is also shown on the subtitle screen, but the "broadcast order" and the "order of work No." do not necessarily match.
  5. ^ "A Certain Scientific RailgunSeries andIrregular at Magic High School"series,"86-XNUMX-Eighty Six-"Such.
  6. ^ Since around 2010, the number of works using this technique has increased rapidly. mainly"Fate / ZeroAnd 'Re: CREATORS"Such.
  7. ^ "decadence"Such.
  8. ^ "Pretty Cure for Two → Pretty Cure for Two, Etc., even the work in which the same characters appear for multiple years may be commercialized as a separate work by changing the title every year.
  9. ^ questionnaireActively organize unpopular works inWeekly Shonen JumpThere are many published works.
  10. ^ From April 2020,BS Asahi"Doraemon" and "Crayon Shin-chan" are being broadcast at the same time as the terrestrial broadcasting until September 2019 (among the 9 BS private broadcasting stations, the animation is being broadcast only in golden prime time). , Because it is a terrestrial delay net broadcast, the sponsor composition is different and it is linkedData broadcastingHas not been implemented (TeletextHas been implemented).Also,BushiroadAre both offered, and the latter program is moving from terrestrial broadcasting at the same time as the start of broadcasting on BS.Therefore, immediately after the program "World pro wrestlingReturns ”Bushiroad GroupIs a subsidiary新 日本 プ ロ レ ス OfProvided by one companyBecause it is a program, it is supposed to be provided by Bushiroad Group companies for three consecutive programs from 7 o'clock on Friday of BS Asahi.
  11. ^ Strangely, as mentioned above, it is the time zone when "Doraemon" was broadcast on TV Asahi until September 2019.In addition, the broadcast at 9:19 is "Anipoke"Previous series"Sun & Moon』(Thursday early 19:2) for the first time in two years.
  12. ^ As an example,"HUNTER x HUNTER (NTV version)], was a late net late at night in many net stations until September 2013 (then all stations late night broadcast including NTV). Also, "Recently, my sister looks a little strange. Was initially in TOKYO MX and Sun TV prime time zone, BS9 was in the midnight zone.
  13. ^ As an example, TBS/MBS joint production “Wear big(Phase 1)," MBS was the only broadcast station on Saturday at 17:30 on the full-frame broadcast. In addition, Fuji TV series "Assassination Classroom"in the case of,BS FujiThen it was Saturday morning broadcast.
  14. ^ It stands out on programs on MBS and TV Tokyo.
  15. ^ "Pokemon series"Such.
  16. ^ There are cases where there is a fully sponsored net and a main sponsor only net (a separate local sponsor may be provided).
  17. ^ Before the third broadcast, the previous series was broadcast on BS Premium, and the movie version of TV was broadcast on NHK General TV.
  18. ^ "Precure series"Such
  19. ^ "Osamu Tezuka's Don Dracula』The advertising agencybankruptcyIt was discontinued without having 1 cool because of. Also"Cyborg Guro-chan] Of the production companyPublic & BasicWas bankrupted and was aborted unfinished. As a special example,Magical Princess Minky MomoIn the case of the first series (1), the censorship was withdrawn after the censorship was decided.
  20. ^ As an example of the 2010s,HUNTER x HUNTER (NTV version)] Was changed to midnight frame at all broadcasting stations during the broadcast. Also, in local stations, non-affiliated net programs may be in a similar situation.
  21. ^ "ド ラ ゴ ン ボ ー ルOf the series, "The original manga is the theme of"ド ラ ゴ ン ボ ー ル"When"Dragon ball z] Is mainly applicable and has been around for a long timeプロ野球中継In addition to the late Z1993FromJ League broadcastHas also joined.
  22. ^ "Fullmetal Alchemist (first work)"Such
  23. ^ "Gintama] Series etc.In recent years, after 1-2 cool broadcasts, many broadcasts of the next series have appeared regardless of the broadcasting station or time zone.
  24. ^ Fuji TV series midnight animationNoitaminaFrame,KADOKAWAProduction (especially oldKadokawa Shoten) Works etc.
  25. ^ "Pripara"(Up to the middle of the series)"Card Fight! Vanguard(From the second edition of 2011 to the G series, until March 2) and so on.
  26. ^ From Tuesday, April 2017 to March 4, at 2019:3 (midnight on Monday).
  27. ^ "Shinobi Penmanmaru''Bobobo-bo Bo-bobo''Sgt. Frog"Such.
  28. ^ "Detective school Q (late)"Card school』Mini animation "Weiss Surviv"andMBSOn-air minutesBinchotan"except for
  29. ^ "Gintama(From the 1st to 4th season and the masterpiece selection "Yorukiki Gintama)) orSgt. Frog"(6th season and "Sergeant Sergeant Keroro" from the masterpiece selection),"Transformers animated"Such.
  30. ^ "Rage of Bahamut] Series etc.
  31. ^ "Lucky ☆ Star''My sister can't be so cute''THE IDOLM @ STER"Such
  32. ^ "TARI TARI''lovelive!"Such
  33. ^ Example:Mobile Suit Gundam SEED"series
  34. ^ Example:Little Red Riding Hood], [Doraemon Nobita's Makai Great Adventure"
  35. ^ Example:High school!] DVD-BOX "early" version. Completely recorded in the "COMPLETE" version released from the end of 2007 to the beginning of 2008
  36. ^ Example:GraveyardKitaro→ Anime "GegegeKitaro] (The title of the original has also been changed according to the animation). 『FailureNinja Rantaro→ Anime "Nintama Rantaro], [As a "common people sample" I went to a girls' schoolKidnappedPiece→ Anime "I'm a princess school as a "common people sample"Gotz”,”FoolSiblings→ → "Sister and brother story" etc.
  37. ^ "Fist of the North Star"Such
  38. ^ "Time Bokan Series''Urusei Yatsura''Ranma 1 / 2"Such.
  39. ^ SKY PerfecTV!Then, most of the channels will be broadcast free of charge only for 1 hours from "Around 1 am to 4 a.m. on the following Monday" on the 4st 24st Sunday of every month, but "animations with age restrictions", "animated movies" and " You can't watch a broadcast that summarizes several episodes (one-shot broadcast).
  40. ^ "Suraj The Rising Star''TIGER & BUNNY"Such.
  41. ^ AkihabaraSet inAKIBA'S TRIP -THE ANIMATION-],OsakaSet inHand shaker"Such.
  42. ^ TOKYO MX,MBS,Kumamoto Broadcasting (RKK),AT-XIn each station, all 13 episodes were broadcast as scheduled.
  43. ^ TV Tokyo animeThere are quite a few cases in which the production committee system is adopted even for "children" works.
  44. ^ "Green green''Happy Seven-The TV Manga-''Frenzy Family Diary"Such.
  45. ^ In the 1970s,Space Battleship Yamato"When"Alpine girl Heidi],Special effectsAlthough it is a program,SF drama The army of monkeysWas being broadcast at the same time.
  46. ^ Example: TV Asahi series Sunday morning anime/special effects frames and Fuji TV series Sunday morning anime frames
  47. ^ Formerly, BS0 (in the frame of Sunday midnight → 1 o'clock (Saturday midnight, MBS animation animation frame))ANIME +Although it was competing with the quota, it was resolved by moving the quota in the April 2020 period. In addition, since April 4, BS2020 is the only BS commercial station to compete with BS4 for broadcasting.
  48. ^ As an example, BS Nippon Television (in the frame of Sunday midnight (Saturday midnight)Anime nimuchuThere is a competition between two stations, (frame) and BS11 (ANIME+frame). In the frame of Monday 2:2016 (Sunday midnight) of the July 7 period,Active Raid -Mobile Assault Room Eighth Section-2nd"(BS Nippon Television),"Beautiful High School Earth Defense Club LOVE!LOVE!(BS Japan, now BS TV East),Regalia The Three Sacred Stars(BS Fuji), "Orange』(BS11)の4作品が同時に放送されたことで、BS4局の競合まで発生した。2019年10月期以降、同じ4局で火曜・水曜0時30分(月曜・火曜深夜)枠において、4作品が同時に放送されていることで、再びBS4局の競合が発生している。
  49. ^ For example, there is a case where the "Animism" frame on MBS moved from Friday dawn (Thursday midnight) to Saturday dawn (Friday midnight) to avoid conflict with the "Noitamina" frame on Kansai TV. In this case, there is also a reason to realize the Higashi-Meihan same day difference net by matching the broadcast dates with TBS and CBC that were originally broadcast on Saturday dawn (Friday midnight). However, after the frame was moved, despite the fact that MBS was the production bureau, until the end of April 2019, the time when TBS broadcasted ahead of MBS was also noticeable due to the organization.
  50. ^ Saturday night evening 5:30, ytv production, NTV series "Radio teacher"WhenNHK E Tele"Boundary RINNE』.
  51. ^ In the 2000s, there were several anime programs that were broadcast exclusively on anime channels such as AT-X, Kids Station, Animax, and commercial BS stations such as WOWOW. Most of the programs use the method of preceding broadcasting instead of broadcasting.
  52. ^ "Kekkaishi''D.Gray-man"Such
  53. ^ The main examples are:ToyamaTakaokaSet in the surrounding areaYuruyuri]. Original authorNamoriIs from the same city, but it was not broadcast on OVA produced after the end of the second phase of TV animation and "Yuruyuri-san☆High!"
  54. ^ The main example is "Toyama Prefecture"true tears]. Initially, I could only watch it locally via BS11 or online distribution, but after the request of the prefectural assembly members, although it was delayed,Toyama TV BroadcastIt was also broadcast on (BBT, Fuji TV series), and was later involved in the production.Anime production company-PA WorksMost of the original works are also broadcast on local commercial TV stations at the same time.
  55. ^ In particularIshikawaSet inHanasaki Iroha』If is a local stationTV Kanazawa(KTK/NTV affiliated station)Kanazawa OfYuwaku OnsenAt the festival that was reproduced inYuwaku Bonbori Festival] Has been held every year since 2011, and the theater version was screened in Ishikawa Prefecture and a stage greeting was held at a local movie theater.
  56. ^ However, from the mid-2010s, except for some, 1-3 cools are being broadcast.
  57. ^ As of April 2019Any Reco TV』Broadcast. Some programs are distributed free of charge for a limited time.
  58. ^ In the case of Japan, it is necessary to point the parabolic antenna in the direction from the southwest to the west-southwest, and if the veranda faces the east-south-southeast side, reception becomes impossible.
  59. ^ Formerly “Sazae"Such. "Sazae-san" has been banned from internet distribution of early works since 2018.
  60. ^ Strictly speaking, the video distributed in "Toei special effects Niko Niko official" of Nico Nico Douga (if viewed from the production method) isSpecial effects, But it was divided into the category of "animation" for convenience (then, it was separated as the category of "special effects").
  61. ^ Old before mergerKadokawa Shoten,ASCII Media Works,EnterbrainAnime based on manga and light novels published by each brand is basically paid, but there are exceptionally free works for a short period (up to 1 week) (Nico Nico DougaIs the founder ofDwangoSince the business integration was planned with, distribution has increased).
  62. ^ "Bishoujo game unit Crane Gale], [Attack on Titan Junior High School"Such
  63. ^ Hiroshima stationAt “Tamayura"series,Tottori BureauAt “Free!"series[47]
  64. ^ However, it will be described later.NUM AnimationANiMAZiNG !!!(Both are TV Asahi series),Super anime ismUnlike (TBS series), the time zone differs depending on the region because it is a local frame.
  65. ^ It will be the first time in about 2009 years in the fiscal year ending October 10.19:XNUMX on TuesdayWas revived, but withdrew in a year and a half.
  66. ^ As a result, in the fiscal year ending October 2020,Pokemon』(TV Tokyo series) moved from 18 o'clock on Sunday to 18:55 on Friday, the golden time frame broadcast work temporarily disappeared at all 1 commercial broadcasting stations. ..
  67. ^ During this period, from the period ending October 2012, for 10 coursesFrom the New World』, but in the year ending October 2016Tiger mask w"When"Yuri!!! on ICE』Was broadcast respectively.
  68. ^ The new anime has already resumed since January of the same year without a frame name.
  69. ^ Broadcasting in the late-night zone on affiliated stations MBS and CBC.
  70. ^ TBS is not limited to anime for programs targeting children under elementary schoolDrama for children-It has already withdrawn from special effects, cultural programs, and variety programs.
  71. ^ For this reason, each affiliated station has been reviewing the organization such as delayed nets that were previously organized and moving and discontinuing frames for variety programs and TV shopping programs produced in-house, and with the mail-order company that bought the broadcast frame for TV shopping. Adjustments and other measures were taken.
  72. ^ In the golden time zone, the two Thursday 2018:9 broadcast slots that remained until September 19 were withdrawn due to the reorganization in October 2, so the new animation was temporarily not broadcast in the same time zone.After that, in the October 2018 reorganization, "Pokemon] moved from Sunday 18:18 to Friday 55:2, restarting the same time frame for the first time in two years.Also, in the weekday evening frame, the four major stations from the late 90sNews program,Information programWhile it gradually shifted to , the main series continued to maintain the animation frame after that, but from October 2019, the main series also moved forward the broadcasting time of each variety program and moved to the local sales frame. , and now only Friday slots remain.
  73. ^ During the April 2015 and October 4 periods, the new midnight anime was not broadcast temporarily. Also,BS TeleBut until the latter half of the 2010s, there was a long tendency for the number of works posted on the internet to be less than the full-day slots.
  74. ^ However,TVQ Kyushu BroadcastingHas never been produced alone, the animation itself produced is "Salad ten hero tomato manWas only produced in collaboration with TV TOKYO at the time TXN Kyushu.TV Hokkaido (TVh) The national internet program produced byKenyu Densetsu YAIBA] Was only produced in collaboration with TV TOKYO, the only program produced by the station is the only work that was broadcast locally at the time of the main broadcast.
  75. ^ However, there was a period of suspension from April 2011 to March 4.
  76. ^ The first productionWansa-kun, And then the program'sZero tester], which was produced for the first time in 29 yearsGilgamesh] Is applicable.
  77. ^ Nagoya TV1969, The first ever-produced local station late-night animeRokuho and BurekunIs being produced. Back thenCross netIt was broadcast on the Nippon Television series. After the January 2018 period, although it is intermittent, late-night animation in collaboration with ABC Animation etc. ("Darling in the franxx, Etc.) participated in the production committee.
  78. ^ Currently on Saturday morningShimajiro no wow!Is produced. At the beginning of the entry, I was in charge of 18:00 on Monday for a while and then 7:30 on Monday for a long time.
  79. ^ As for TVh, there are some local production works (seeHey! Hey! Shroom"Or later).
  80. ^ As mentioned above, TOKYO MX'sTransmitting stationAs well as NHK/Kyoto key stationsTokyo TowerFrom higherTokyo Sky TreeAfter the move to October 2012, the UHF animation in the Kanto region was accelerated by "concentration on TOKYO MX".Metropolitan area triangleBroadcasting results at 3 stations have decreased dramatically.
  81. ^ However, since April 2 in these two stationsAniplexThe number of broadcasts is increasing from before, such as the simultaneous start of the Saturday midnight frame involved in production. In addition, Tochigi TV has its own website specializing in anime.
  82. ^ "Taiban" was not yet online in the Chukyo area at the time of the main broadcast, and was delayed a year later on Mie TV. In addition, the television broadcast of the movie version "The Beginning" is CBC television of a wide area station.
  83. ^ Especially in the case of daily broadcast and Yomiuri TV, there is a tendency to give priority to independent station anime over key station production midnight animation.
  84. ^ Especially in the case of daily broadcasting, TBS production works will be broadcast on independent TV Sun TV (some are also in KBS Kyoto), or there are many cases where the Kansai area has not been broadcast.
  85. ^ This work itself1989Although it was produced in,Kagoshima Yosuke TVIt was broadcast in 1996 after the opening of (KYT).
  86. ^ Until the Kansai area net change on March 1975, 3, it was in the same relationship because Mainichi Broadcasting was a NET TV (currently TV Asahi) affiliated station, and even after the Kansai area net changeMBS Media HoldingsAnd the capital relationship with Seto Inland Sea Broadcasting remains. The headquarters of Seto Inland Sea Broadcasting is located in Kagawa Prefecture where the work was set, while it is the original TBS affiliate station of the broadcasting area.RSK Sanyo BroadcastingAnd of the holding companyRSK HoldingsHeadquarters of the opposite bankOkayamaLocated in Okayama PrefectureSanyo ShimbunLocal capital such as is strong, RSK HoldingsTBS HoldingsOn the other hand, the relationship with Mainichi Newspapers, Mainichi Broadcasting Co., Ltd. and MBS Media Holdings is weaker than that of Setonaikai Broadcasting Co., Ltd. in terms of capital and management.
  87. ^ Private TV station in HiroshimaTV New HiroshimaNET TV programs (TSS / Fuji TV series) that were out of the organization of Hiroshima Home TV before becoming 4 stations and full-net with the opening of (TSS / Fuji TV series)Bowel torsionA considerable number of broadcasts (including the production of Asahi Broadcasting after the elimination of intestinal twist) and the capital relationship between China Broadcasting and Hiroshima Home Television (including the daily broadcasting of the times)Chinese newspaper-Asahi Shimbun-Mainichi Shimbun-Hiroshima Bank) Is a common remnant. It should be noted that Hiroshima Home TV was broadcast in 1983 as a substantial rebroadcast.


  1. ^ "10 Years of Otaku Culture" in which industry officials revealed the truth PD (Meiji University Aniken Symposium Part 1) Akiba Research Institute
  2. ^ "10 Years of Otaku Culture" where we walked with not only the rear but also the illness (Meiji UniversityAni Ken Shinpo Part XNUMX) Akiba Research Institute [1]
  3. ^ Animated programs recorded on BS broadcasting are 2.5 times more recorded and viewed than No. XNUMX research by Nomura Research Institute Anime! Anime! Viewed May 2014, 5, April 6, 2015.
  4. ^ a b c d NHN comico, animation pay precedent delivery Spread emphasis rather than audience rating Nihon Keizai Shimbun Retrieved August 2016, 8, the same day 17.
  5. ^ Anime "Nobunaga Concerto" DVD-BOX release decision Fuji TV's production topic Anime! Anime! Viewed December 2014, 12, the same day 1.
  6. ^ Before that, as a TV animation,Mole Aventure''Three new videos''Instant history''Fairy manga calendar] Is broadcast.
  7. ^ "Doraemon" "Shin-chan" To Saturday evening Commercial broadcasting key station G band animation frame disappeared? Mynavi News Read on September 2019th, 9th, 13.
  8. ^ "Era of Ryota Fujitsu's TV and anime 25th era when anime is not broadcast at prime time". Ryota Fujitsu (Anime! Anime!). (June 2011, 6). http://www.animeanime.biz/archives/9040 April 2015, 4Browse. 
  9. ^ a b c Fuji 19:XNUMX The reason why the animation disappeared, the key man of the organization talks about "frame movement". Narinari Dotcom. Viewed August 2015, 8 and September 16, 9.
  10. ^ "Super Dimension Fortress Macross".vol3, (DVD version),Bandai visual, Macross's voyage-3rd-Ryusuke Hikawa.
  11. ^ "My Hero Academia" will be broadcast on MBS/TBS system "Sun 5" A special stage will be held at AJ2016 OKMusic Retrieved January 2016, 1, January 11, 2018.
  12. ^ My Hero Academia: TV Anime 3rd Season Starts in April 18 Visual Release Mantan Web(Mainichi Newspapers) Retrieved November 2017, 11 and January 26, 2018.
  13. ^ Broadcasting station is NHK in the 3rd term of "Attack on Titan"! In addition to being surprised on the Internet, there is also a voice saying, "Is the regulation okay?" Anime! Anime! Viewed December 2018, 1, the same day 24.
  14. ^ No professional baseball broadcast! BS11, Acquisition of viewers by generation due to program reorganization in April Nikkei Trendy Retrieved February 2012, 2, April 14, 2015.
  15. ^ In special effects works,Asahi Broadcasting TV National high school baseball championship broadcastIn "Heisei / ReiwaKamen Rider seriesThere is an example in which linked data broadcasting was carried out by backtracking from TV Asahi when the temporary frame was moved.Also"Precure seriesBecause it is produced by Asahi Television Broadcasting Co., Ltd.Leading netTherefore, linked data broadcasting is compatible with each.
  16. ^ Anison's annual ranking Carason & 2D idol prime, anison singer in the winter era? Mainichi Newspapers Retrieved February 2016, 12, April 24, 2017.
  17. ^ a b Broadcast ethics and program improvement mechanism #Purpose and positionMore excerpts and summaries.
  18. ^ "155th Broadcast and Youth Committee". Broadcast Ethics and Program Improvement Organization (September 2014, 3). April 2014, 3Browse.
  19. ^ TV TOKYO Production guidelines for video effects such as anime programs
  20. ^ "Horror pokemon check"TV anime museum] October 2002, 10.
  21. ^ "What is TV Tokyo's ethical regulations?"TV Anime Museum" January 2001, 1.
  22. ^ APPP official website About expression in animation "JoJo's Bizarre Adventure"
  23. ^ "JoJo's Bizarre Adventure" Part 3 Release Notice
  24. ^ Apology for Noragami ARAGOTO
  25. ^ a b http://www.style.fm/as/05_column/animesama24.shtml
  26. ^ "Animated Out-of-Place Brawl Edition" VOL.7 Extremely private anime boom theory. Starring: Ryota Fujitsu (Anime Critic), Bii Ogawa (Writer), Mr.T (Former Writer). Ryota Fujitsu's event report Thank you for "The Century of the Universe" and events And, the content of the event linked from that page is reported. Personal blog Than.
  27. ^ a b c Yumiko Watanabe "Animation Production, Each Thought" ""Micro Magazine Company, October 1999, 2, pp. 9-10.
  28. ^ 20074/11Attached "Tokyo Newspaper"Than.
  29. ^ TV Tokyo "BORUTO" "Pokemon" Thursday animation frame, move from October to Sunday evening Oricon Retrieved August 2018, 8 and August 30, 31.
  30. ^ Anime! Anime! Biz "Sotsu 2Q Q Gundam 30th Anniversary Strong Animation Planning Struggle"
  31. ^ Business Media Makoto "People's tastes become analog in a digitized world: Learning from "Eden of the East" Single-screen screening business"
  32. ^ “The age of Ryota Fujitsu's television and anime The 24th 00s TV animation broadcast to the highest ever”. Ryota Fujitsu (Anime! Anime!). (June 2011, 5). http://www.animeanime.biz/archives/8445 April 2015, 4Browse. 
  33. ^ Kazuyuki Yamazaki "The ending is on a DVD... Is "Anne commercial law" popular in TV animation?"INTERNET Watch] April 2006, 4,Impress.
  34. ^ a b "A huge bomb held by Japanese animation in "Customer China" | Game Entertainment”(Japanese). 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン (September 2021, 6). April 2021, 6Browse.
  35. ^ "Era of Ryota Fujitsu's TV and Anime 17th Decreasing Rebroadcasting Frames in the Second Half of the 80s". Ryota Fujitsu (Anime! Anime!). (June 2010, 7). http://www.animeanime.biz/archives/4398 April 2015, 4Browse. 
  36. ^ 2016 report Anime! Anime! Viewed March 2016, 3 and April 3, 4.
  37. ^ <Secret hidden in TV remote control> Why is the terrestrial button only given priority? Hideki Takahashi BLOGOS Retrieved February 2015, 2 and April 26, 4.
  38. ^ "Certification of satellite backbone broadcasting related to 110 degree east longitude CS broadcasting". Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. April 2018, 6Browse.
  39. ^ "Termination of "NOTTV" service". NTT DoCoMo. April 2015, 11Browse.
  40. ^ a b http://www.dotbook.jp/magazine-k/2010/01/21/illegal_distribution_of_japanese_manga_and_anime/
  41. ^ http://www.itmedia.co.jp/news/articles/0901/28/news115.html
  42. ^ "Slump in overseas exports”(Japanese). April 2013, 6Browse.
  43. ^ "Sky Girls" TV distribution outside the TV broadcasting area Anime! Anime! Viewed May 2007, 10, April 12, 2015.
  44. ^ “Commentary” on both smartphones for anime and news – the reason why TOKYO MX “Mcas” sticks to real-time delivery (1/3) ITmedia Retrieved February 2015, 09 and April 10, 11.
  45. ^ "Abema TV", "New TV Anime Channel" and "Love Live! Sunshine!!" ITmedia June 2016, 6.
  46. ^ One after another closed TSUTAYA stores pushed by online distribution Nihon Keizai Shimbun October 2017, 10, June 17, 2018.
  47. ^ a b Perhaps NHK will re-broadcast another station anime "Love Live!"... "μ's" will also appear in Kohaku. Sankei News December 2015, 12.
  48. ^ “Spring 11th Animation: Original Work Revisited, Invisible Story Fascinates Fans”. MANTANWEB (Mainichi Newspaper Digital). (January 2011, 4). originalArchived as of October 2013, 1.. https://archive.is/20130111181848/http://mantan-web.jp/2011/04/23/20110422dog00m200023000c.html April 2015, 4Browse. 
  49. ^ Nippon Television talks with Masafumi Funakoshi, Director of Contents Business Division, "Video Revolution" set up by the acquisition of Hulu (1) 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン Retrieved February 2014, 3, April 14, 2015.
  50. ^ The commercial frame finally disappears from the commercial key station G-band. Livedoor News Retrieved on September 2019th and 9th, 13.
  51. ^ ""Gundam" born Nagoya TV animation frame ends in September". Asahi Shimbun digital (September 2017, 8). April 2018, 1Browse.
  52. ^ TBS, new animation frame for kids on Saturday morning Toy manufacturer and tag Oricon Retrieved January 2016, 1, January 19, 2018.
  53. ^ ""Mobile Suit Gundam: The Witch of Mercury" will be broadcast from October!Commemorative PV in the resurrected MBS / TBS "Day 10" frame". Comic Natalie. Natasha (September 2022, 1). April 2022, 1Browse.
  54. ^ Yumiko Watanabe's "Who makes an anime for"-The background of the hit from the 24th "Madomagi" and "Taibanani" TV stations [Part XNUMX] ascii.jp Retrieved March 2012, 3.
  55. ^ BS: Automatically collect viewer ratings from April 4 households nationwide Mainichi Newspapers Retrieved February 2015, 3 and April 15, 4.

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Years(Thank you,British: year) IsTime OfunitIs one of theSpring:-Summer: -Fall:-Winter:Or(I.e.-(I.e.To say(I.e.It's been a year[1].. OriginallySpring equinoxBased on(I.e. Celestial sphereGo aroundcycleAnd on average about 365.242 189Day(As of 2015) (Sun year).

One year longcalendarHow to define byCalendarAnd now世界Used in each countryGregorian calendar[2]In the (current calendar), one year is 1 days, but one year is 365 days.leap yearBy setting 400 times in 97 years, the average number of days in a year will be 1 days.[3].

Incidentally,astronomyAt the time ofMeasurement OfunitAs usual in the "year",Julian yearIs used.Julian year is exactly 31 557 600second= 365.25 d (d = 86 400second) (Described later).

Year isTimes of DayIs a category that displays, and also serves as a unit that represents the number of years.[4]. this isEnglish The same applies to the year of "4 years old" (4 years old) and "per year" (per year), as well as "year 1" (1950) and "the years of" (-year of-). It is also used to indicate a specific time, such as (-era).[5].. According to the calendar system, the method of expressing the "year" of time isChronologyAndChrist era (AD)Is used in most countries,International Standards Organization OfISO 8601Then.Arabic numeralsSpecified to be written in 4 digits[2].

In addition, the Christian era and the original calendar era may be written together.[6],News (Chinese)Take, for example,JapanThen AD2020AgainstEraUsingReiwa2 years"[7].. In other Asian countries, in the Republic of China (Taiwan), "Dr. 109" (Union News), Democratic People's Republic of Korea (north korea)main body109 years" (Korean News)[8],South Korea(Korea)Dan4353 AD” (Chosun Ilbo),Islamic countryButEgypt(Al Ahram) AndEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euTaking (Britable Ney) as an example,Hijra lunar calendar1442 years"[9]Is also written.


"Year" isastronomyInJulian yearexcept,MeasurementNot familiar with typical uses[10]..The reason is, for example, the currentGregorian calendarThen,leap yearBecause there are 1 days or 365 days in a year, the number of days (or seconds) is not constant.[Annotation 1]..Furthermore, to match the time with the rotation of the earthLeap secondIs also corrected by[11]Because.

Used in astronomyJulian yearExactly 365.25 days (Julian calendarThe number of days in a year) and therefore exactly 1 31 557 second(= 3600 seconds x 24 hours x 365.25 days).

The year is generally accepted as a rough unit of time. this isA humanSurroundingEnvironment,LifeBringPeriodicityPrioritize and then receivesenseComes from respecting. Such coexistence of cumulative time (seconds) and repeating time (years) is an example of unit flexibility and diversity.[10].


JapaneseSo "toshi" means "Rice"穀物TheEtymologyAnd every yearRice cultivationIt is said that it came to be used in the meaning of "year" because it was doing. By the way,漢字"Year" adds the symbol of the person who has the meaning of tenacity to the grain and expresses the cycle until the grain matures.[12].

Astronomical year


地球What is the length of one year in living above?Spring Summer Autumn WinterRefers to the period during which the season goes around. And this is the height of the sun as seen from the groundDaylight hoursIs brought about by the change of. The sunCelestial equatorFrom about 23.44Every timeInclinedeclipticIs passing through.spring equinoxAutumn equinoxThe celestial equator and ecliptic overlap, butSummer: The sun passes through a position that is up to about 23.44 degrees higher than the celestial equator,Winter:On the contrary, it goes up to about 23.44 degrees lower. Along with this, the sunshine hours also change, day and night are almost the same in spring equinox and autumn equinox, daytime is long in summer and short in winter. The height of the sunsunlight OfAngle of incidenceDecided to be higher in the summerSurfaceUnit ofareaPer hitEnergyThe amount increases. In addition, longer sunshine hours in summer also increases energy. In winter these work in reverse, resulting in a season[13].

Astronomically, one cycle of this season is from the equinox to the next equinox.Sun year[14](Return year[13]) Called. This apparent sun operationrevolutionOf the earthAxis of rotationIt occurs because the (ground axis) is inclined about 23.44 degrees with respect to the revolution surface. this isEquatorial tilt angleIs said. From the position where the earth is at the equinox of the sunOrbit around the sunIf you go around the (revolution orbit) almost once, this tilted axis with respect to the sun will be in the same position.[15], The sun again reaches the equinox. This is one season.

However, the rotation axis and revolution time of the earth are not constant. The tilted axis of rotation of the earth isTopTo touch thatdirectionTherefore, the vernal equinox is about 1 per year.secondEachto East MalaysiaHave moved to. this isPrecessionと 呼 ば れ る[16][17]..Therefore, in fact, the position of the earth on the revolution is not fixed in the solar year based on the return to the vernal equinox, and the angle is about 1 seconds opposite to the direction of the earth's revolution in one year (revolution time is about minus 50).Minute)[18].. This is the spring equinox that shifts year by year, andstarMake星座Is observed as a phenomenon in which the position of[16].. The “year” when the earth orbits the orbit accurately 360 degrees isInertial system) As the time when the position regressed, which isStellar yearと 呼 ば れ る[19].

Effects of perturbations

The revolution of the earth that determines the year in basic astronomyKepler's lawFollowElliptical orbit, And if the precession is also constant, it seems that there will be no change in the solar and stellar years. However, Kepler's law describes the motion of two celestial bodies.Newtonian mechanicsAnd the third celestial body is added here, the calculation becomes very complicated.approximationYou will only be asked for it. The disturbance of the orbit due to the influence of other celestial bodiesperturbationCalled.Simon NewcombDescribed the effects of these perturbations as short periods (short period terms) and slow periods (more specifically long period terms and long term terms), and they intermittently affect the initial value of Kepler motion.[20].. And the orbit of the earth is gradually changed by this perturbation.EccentricityIt was explained that[21].. Furthermore, the perturbation isNutationAnd cause a disturbance in the revolution speed and affect the stellar year[18].

Also, the orbit itself is not constant. The orbit of the ellipse also rotates due to perturbations from other planets,PerihelionWill shift to the earth's revolution direction by about 1 seconds (revolution time about 11 minutes) in one year.The time from passing the perihelion to the next arrival of the earth at the perihelion position is the "perigee year" (average about 4 days). [22]), but this year is about 4 minutes longer than a star year[18].

Changes in rotation

On the other hand, when the “year” is defined by the “day” determined by the rotation of the earth, it is known that the rotation itself is gradually decelerating. Perturbations andtidalIt is believed that the influence ofeclipseRecord orCoral組織It has been found that the day about 5 million years ago was short, and it is thought that the year at that time was about 1 days.[23].

Artificially defined year

It is thought that the idea of ​​the season was the basis of the early human being's perception of time. this isHunting and gathering societyIt has had a great influence on the factors that influence the prey and harvest. However, it is not clear how exact the concept of "year" was at that time.[24].United KingdomIt is in新石器時代Ruins ofStonehengeIs a kind of astronomical observatory,summer solstice,winter solsticeKnow whenカレンダーIt is thought that it had the function of[25][26]

Lunar Calendar and Lunar Solar Calendar

When recognizing daily,Month Phase (phase)It was convenient to wake up. From thereNew moonIs the period from to the new moon 1SakumotsukiIt is a calendar based on (about 29.53 days)Lunar calendarDeveloped[27].. In this calendar, the average moon (about 29.53059 days)[28]) To 1 or 29 days per month, 30 times that (Lunar year = about 12 days)[28])calendar yearHowever, there is a gap of about 10 days each year from the seasonal circulation. This calendar isNomadic people,FishingSuitable for central societies, in the regionAncient mesopotamia,Egypt,Greek,ChugokuDeveloped in[29].. Used in Islam even todayHijra calendarIs the lunar calendar, with 1 or 354 days in a year[29].

However, the lunar calendar has a great gap with the seasons,climateThere is a big sense of discomfort with the sense of time rooted in change[29]Difficult to use. Ancient greek mathematicianMetonFound almost matching 19 solar years and 235 lunar months, 19 times in 7 years of the lunar calendarAdditional month (leap month)InsertMeton cycleInvented[29]..According to this, the average year is 1 days.This cycle isBabylonia[Annotation 2]And also found in China independently, the solar year and lunar calendarOkabo methodAdjust to make a specific year 13 monthsLunar solar calendarDeveloped[30].

solar calendar

Based on the revolution of the earthsolar calendarEgypt is an ancient civilization that developed. Occurs in the root developed in this land for a certain period of timeNile RiverThere was a flood of. Based on this, the seasons were divided into three periods, called Aketo (flood), Peroeget (budding), and Shom (deficiency).[31].. The lunar calendar was also used in Egypt at the beginning, because this period is almost the same as the 4th moon[31].. However, in the summer when floods begin to occur in the eastern sky just before the sun rises.SiriusIs said to shineAstronomical phenomenonI noticed. The EgyptiansSopdetと崇め、夏至を基準とする暦法を作り出した。当初、これは朔望月を基準に3年に1度閏月を加える1年を354日とする「太陰星暦」とも呼べる暦法だったが、紀元前2700年ごろに1か月を30日とし別に5日の祭日を設けた1年を365日とするSirius calendarWas changed to[31]..Ancient Ethiopia has a calendar system in which 30 days, which is 12 times more than 5 days, is set as one year.[32],Ancient indiaPersian[33]Was also used. In ancient Egypt, it was recognized that there was a slight difference in the operation of Sirius and the sun.Ptolemy IIIDuring the reign, a leap day was added once every four years, and a calendar system was enacted with an average of 4 days per year.[34].

Republic RomeSeized the real power ofGaius Julius CaesarIntroduced the Egyptian solar calendar in 46 BC, with an average of 1 days per year[Annotation 3]..After his death, he was temporarily confused and operated for an average of 3 days with a leap year once every three years, but in 1 AD.AugustusCorrected and averaged back to 365.25 days[34].Roman EmpireWith the expansion of the Julian calendar, the Julian calendar was used almost all over Europe and in a wide area from northern Africa to the Middle East.[34]..Even in this Julian calendar, it was about 1 minutes and 11 seconds longer per year, so the error from the vernal equinox became noticeable. 14,PopeGregory XIII400 times in 97 yearsleap yearTo provideGregorian calendarThe calendar was changed to 1 days in one year.This yearly unit is initiallyCatholicIt was only adopted by countries. However, the superiority of the calendar is gradually recognizedProtestantSince the 18th century,Greek Orthodox ChristianityCountries also in the 19th century, in non-Christian countries 1873Japan [Annotation 4]Adopted by most countries around the world during the 20th centuryADIt came to be used as (World Standard Calendar)[35].

Mayan calendar

MesoamericaIn civilization, the solar calendar was established independently of Egypt. In Mesoamerica, the calendar of which the 20th month consists of 18 and 5 extra days is 365 days, and the 1-day numerical cycle and the 13-day day name cycle move separately. A religious calendar was used[36].

Julian year

In astronomyMeasurement OfunitExactly as the "year" as one year is 1DayToJulian yearTo use. Therefore, 1Julian yearIt is,International unit systemAt 31 557 600secondIs defined as (exactly)[37].

Julius all day

Date (year, month, day) and number of daysChange of calendarThe standards devised for various defects resulting from the fact that they are not unified by the time period and each regionJulius all day(Or "Julian day")[38].. Julius all day long,4713 BCJanuary 1 (or January 1, 4712)noonIt is a whole day starting from. Carried out in 1582Julian calendarからGregorian calendarToChange of calendarFear that it will cause various confusion,(English edition) (1540-1609) Devised.

Derivation unit

10The year"Decade''(decade)[39],1000The year is "Millennium" (Millennium). Also,100The year"century, But this is the Christian eraFirst yearRefers to the time division in 100-year increments[40].

1 yearsHalf6 months is called "half year (Hantoshi, Hannen)"[41]. Also,fiscal yearAnd so on年度Is divided into six months each, and the first half (first half) is called "first half (kamihanki)".[42], The second half of the year (the second half) is "the second half of the year"[43]Also called.Furthermore, the one that divides one year into quarters of three months is "QuarterPeriod" (Quarter, English: quarter)[44], Called the first quarter, second quarter, third quarter, and fourth quarter in order from the beginning of the year or year.English-speaking countriesIs abbreviated as "Q1,Q2,Q3,Q4".

SI prefixの 使用

astronomy-Geology-PaleontologyFor example, the following units are used.

1000 years ka (short for kilo annum, annum isLatinMeans year), ky, kyr
100 millionYear Ma, My, Myr,
10 billionYear Ga, Gy, Gyr

These are "KiloYear""MegaYear""GigaIt means "year", but in JapaneseprefixWill also be translated.

Crustal movementTo represent a very slow speed,Mm“Every year” (mm/y, mm/yr), “Centimeter“Every year” (cm/y, cm/yr) is used.resourceThe amount of output such as "TEvery year" (t/y, t/yr) etc. are used, but it is often regarded as an obvious thing and the term "ton" etc. Various other quantities are calculated per year, but are often omitted each year.

Light years

Julian yearIs defined usingLength Ofunit"Light yearsThere is (ly). this isSpeed ​​of lightJulian yearIs equal to the product of One light year is exactly 1 9 460 730 472 580 m.

Beginning of the year

The beginning of the current year[45]) IsNew Year(January 1), but it has no astronomical or religious/ideological meaning. Became the basis of the Gregorian calendarRoman calendarSo, when it started in 735 BC, the beginning of the year is now3 (Martius) I put it on the first day[46].. laterGaius Julius Caesar(Julius Caesar)EgyptIntroduced fromsolar calendarIn 47 BC, when I switched towinter solsticeWas close to 1 The fact that the first day of (Januarius) was changed to the beginning of the year has been carried over to the present.[47]..In Japanese, calendar month names are counted in ordinal numbers such as January and February.Western calendar month nameIs not.The 12 unique names that go around, "which is the beginning of the year," are not always self-evident, and there is freedom in whether Martius is the first calendar month or Januarius is the first calendar month of the year (this is the day of the week). In a language that does not countIt is similar to that there is a discussion about whether "starts from Sunday or Monday").

However, the beginning of the year varied depending on the culture and ethnic groups.TemperateIn the region, the winter solstice and spring equinox, or the summer solstice (Egypt and Greece), autumn equinox, which correspond to the miles of solar operation (Jewish calendar) Was set as the beginning of the year.SumerHowever, since the calendars were not unified for each city, there were many spring equinox at the beginning of the year, but there are also cities with the summer solstice and autumn equinox at the beginning of the year.[48], Was unified into the calendar with the beginning of the spring equinoxBabylon 1st DynastyWas the era of[49].. In agriculture-centered societies, spring was often regarded as the beginning of the year, as in the Roman calendar.[29][50].. In other solar calendars, the current Ethiopian calendar begins September 9-11.[32], Persian calendar that started on August 8[33], The current September 9-22 was the beginning of the yearFrench Revolutionary Calendar(November 1793, 11 to December 24, 1805, the day corresponding to New Year's Day was Vendemiere (Grape Moon) 12st).

In medieval Europe, the Julian calendar was basically used, but at the beginning of the year, it was scattered depending on the region. They are mainlyキ リ ス ト 教Choose a day that is important toJesus ChristBirthdayIsChristmas Of12/25,Annunciation Of3/25, And most important in Christianity, could not be fixed in the solar calendarEaster[45].. January 1Lord's Circumcision FestivalWas set at the beginning of the year, but it was not common[29].

In 1564France OfCharles VIHowever, the beginning of the year is close to the winter solstice[45]Fixed to January 1[29].. Initially there was a domestic backlash, but three years later it was adopted by the Parliament and officially issued, and this was again set when the Gregorian calendar was adopted in 3.[29].. However, this provision did not immediately spread to the Christian sphere, for exampleUnited KingdomFirst started January 1st in 1[45].

Other years

Long time

In history and astronomy, for a long time based on some conceptProper nounIs sometimes referred to as "what year".The Ancient Greek OfphilosopherPlatoHistoryI thought that it would circulate, and in "Theaetetus", I calculated the cycle as 36,000 years. 36,000 is called the "perfect number", which is called "magnus Platonicus annus", "great year", "Platonic Year", "Platonic Revolution". Called[51], The time it takes for eight celestial bodies (the sun and seven planets) orbiting the earth to return to their original positions, and was thought to be the holy cycle of the renewal of the universe.

In modern times, the name "great year" is given to the approximately 26,000 years when the vernal equinox moves around due to the precession movement.[52]. further,Solar system per secondAt a speed of 200kmGalaxyFor about 2 million years, which is a period ofGalactic year Called (Galactic year)[53][54].

Revolution of other planets

Since the year is based on the earth's revolution cycle,惑星The notation "year" is also used for the revolution cycle of. For example, "MercuryYear"[55],火星One year"[5][56]And so on.When using these terms, the year of the earth is also called the "earth year" to avoid confusion.[55][57].

Astronomical unit standards

(English edition : 2π / k = About 365.256 898 days.k TheGaussian attraction constantk = 0.017 202 098 95 (defined value). Long time agoAstronomical unitUsed to convert[58].. Now (after August 2012)Astronomical unit TheGaussian attraction constantExactly 149 597 870 700 m.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Used before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar in JapanTemporary calendarIsLunar solar calendarBecause one year is 1 months or (Leap month(Including) It is not constant at 13 months.
  2. ^ In ancient Babylonia, six months was set as one year.Therefore of the personageWas counted more than twice the present.BibleThere is a theory that this habit reflects that the characters in the are very long-lived. (Okada et al. (1994), pp.300-301, lunar solar calendar, Babylonian calendar
  3. ^ For this calendar reform, 90 leap days were set, and one year became 1 days.This year was called Anus Confusionis (meaning "turbulent year"). (2005 History / International Friendship Association
  4. ^ In JapanMeijiDecember 5rd, 12th is designated as January 3st, 6 of the new year, and this isMeiji eraCalled.Ohte ShigenobuAccording to his memoirs, this was aimed at saving the tight financial situation at the time by reducing the monthly salary of officials by a calendar reform. (Sato (2009), pp.55-56In addition, since the 6th year of the Meiji era in the lunar calendar was a leap year of 13 months, "the amount for December of the 2th year of the Meiji era, which was broken because there were only two days, and the 5th year of the Meiji era, which improved without preparation.Leap monthA total of two months' worth (salary) was floated. " (Blue Bucks "Science of the Calendar" Akira Yamazaki, Yoshio Kubo (2)) The description of the calendar reform method with the 1984th year of the Meiji era as 6 is not the Gregorian calendar, which was already widespread in the West at that time, but the Julius calendar. In 1873, two years before 4, when there was a discrepancy between the two, the Meiji government changed the calendar again and adopted the Gregorian calendar. Revised (Blue Bucks "Science of the Calendar" Akira Yamazaki, Yoshio Kubo (1)).Therefore, Japan adopted the Gregorian calendar in 1900.


  1. ^ What is a year? National Astronomical Observatory of Japan> Calendar Calculation Room> Calendar Wiki> Elements
  2. ^ a b Sato (2009), pp.77-81, Trial of World Unified Calendar
  3. ^ Masato Koyama. “Accumulation of deviations in the orbits of the earth (seasonal deviations) in the Julian calendar and the Gregorian calendar (current calendar) that improves it". Shizuoka UniversityDisaster Prevention Center. April 2011, 5Browse.
  4. ^ "【Year】”. Weblio Encyclopedia /SanseidoDaijirin. April 2011, 5Browse.
  5. ^ a b "[Year]”. Webio English-Japanese-Japanese-English Encyclopedia /Research society, JST Science and Technology Terminology Japanese-English Bilingual Dictionary, Life Science Dictionary, Japanese WordNet, etc. April 2011, 5Browse.
  6. ^ Sato (2009), pp.33-36, A universal era due to its own era
  7. ^ Sato (2009), pp.31-33, Japan date display
  8. ^ Sato (2009), pp.29-31, Korean date display
  9. ^ Sato (2009), pp.23-26, Date display of Islamic countries
  10. ^ a b Hiroshi Yano "Exploring the World of Units" (1st printing)Kodansha, 1997.ISBN 4-06-257183-8. 
  11. ^ "Business introduction of Japan Standard Time Project”(Japanese). National Institute of Information and Communications Technology Japan Standard Time Project. April 2010, 11Browse.
  12. ^ "[Year/year]”. Etymological dictionary. April 2011, 5Browse.
  13. ^ a b Aoki (1982), Chapter 4, Units and Ephemeris, pp.156-157, length of the year XNUMX Season
  14. ^ "Question 3-2 Why does the equinox day vary from year to year?". National Observatory. April 2011, 5Browse.
  15. ^ Shigeharu Takeno. “About the equinox". Niigata Institute of TechnologyDepartment of Computer Science. April 2011, 5Browse.
  16. ^ a b Kazuhiro Oyamatsu. “History of the calendar as a science of space-time (PDF)". Aichi Shukutoku University. April 2011, 5Browse.
  17. ^ Susumu Yamaga. “Part 2-XNUMX-Science of the Universe". April 2011, 5Browse.
  18. ^ a b c Takao Iijima. “The mystery of the perihelion passage day (PDF)". Gakushuin University. April 2011, 5Browse.
  19. ^ Koji Takahashi. “Space Science (Chapter 4) (PDF)". Saitama Institute of TechnologyFaculty of Human and Social Studies. April 2011, 5Browse.
  20. ^ Aoki (1982), Chapter 4, Units and Ephemeris, pp.159-161, length of the year XNUMX Perturbations
  21. ^ Aoki (1982), Chapter 4, Units and Ephemeris, pp. 161-162, XNUMX Years of Newcome, Sun Table
  22. ^ Gentoshi Majima "A Study of the Calendar Law, Especially the Okiko Law"Research Bulletin, Nara Women's University Faculty of Literature, Junior and Senior High School, 2010,April 2011, 5Browse.
  23. ^ Aoki (1982), Chapter 4, Units and Ephemeris, p.165, XNUMX Length of year Number of days in year
  24. ^ Aoki (1982), Chapter 2, Lunar Calendar and Solar Calendar, pp.51-53, Astronomy of the Ancient Mankind and Astronomy
  25. ^ Shinpei Shibata. “summer solstice". Yamagata UniversityFaculty of Science, Department of Physics. April 2011, 11Browse.
  26. ^ Shinpei Shibata and others "Become a starry sky guide", Technical Review
  27. ^ Aoki (1982), Preface Month and Hour, pp.1-2, Monthly Spectacle
  28. ^ a b Hiroshi Kodama. “Time units and calendar". Kobe UniversityGraduate School of Natural Science and Technology. April 2011, 5Browse.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g h Takuto Asako. “Part 4 calendar (PDF)". Fujimioka Junior High School/High School. April 2011, 5Browse.
  30. ^ Aoki (1982), Preface Month and Hour, pp.3-4, Lunar Solar Calendar
  31. ^ a b c Okada et al. (1994), pp.309-310, solar calendar, Egyptian calendar (Sirius calendar)
  32. ^ a b Okada et al. (1994), pp.310-311, solar calendar, Ethiopian calendar
  33. ^ a b Okada et al. (1994), p. 311, solar calendar, Persian calendar
  34. ^ a b c Okada et al. (1994), pp. 311-312, solar calendar, Julian calendar
  35. ^ Okada et al. (1994), pp.312-315, solar calendar, Gregorian calendar
  36. ^ Okada et al. (1994), pp.315-317, solar calendar, Mayan calendar
  37. ^ International Astronomical Union "SI unitsaccessed 18 February 2010. (See Table 5 and section 5.15.) Reprinted from George A. Wilkins & IAU Commission 5, "The IAU Style Manual (1989)" (PDF file) in IAU Transactions Vol.XXB
  38. ^ Aoki (1982), Chapter 2, Lunar Calendar and Solar Calendar, pp.97-98, Four Solar Calendars (Part 2) Julian Day
  39. ^ Kenjiro Miyano. “New Year Greetings". Tokyo UniversityResearch Center for Advanced Science and Technology. April 2011, 11Browse.
  40. ^ "[Century]" "Nihongo Daijiten" (1989st printing) Kodansha, 1063, p. XNUMX.ISBN 4-06-121057-2. 
  41. ^ "[Half Year]" "Nihongo Daijiten" (1989st printing) Kodansha, 1613, p. XNUMX.ISBN 4-06-121057-2. 
  42. ^ "[First Half]" "Nihongo Daijiten" (1989st printing) Kodansha, 388, p. XNUMX.ISBN 4-06-121057-2. 
  43. ^ "[Second Half]" "Nihongo Daijiten" (1989st printing) Kodansha, 883, p. XNUMX.ISBN 4-06-121057-2. 
  44. ^ "[Quarter]" "Nihongo Daijiten" (1989st printing) Kodansha, 872, p. XNUMX.ISBN 4-06-121057-2. 
  45. ^ a b c d Sato (2009), pp.052-056, fixing the beginning of the year
  46. ^ Ikeuchi (1999), 3 I'm immobile like the North Star, pp.42-43, Roman calendar
  47. ^ Ikeuchi (1999), 3. I am immobile like the North Star, pp.44-47, history of the calendar revision
  48. ^ "Birth of civilization" p66-67 Toshiko Kobayashi Chuko Shinsho Published June 2015, 6
  49. ^ "Birth of civilization" p71-72 Toshiko Kobayashi Chuko Shinsho Published June 2015, 6
  50. ^ Okada et al. (1994), pp.296-298, primitive calendar
  51. ^ Katsuyo Okazaki "World History and Europe"KodanshaHyundai Shinsho, 2003, pages 218-219.ISBN 4-06-149687-5. 
  52. ^ "[Great year]”. Webio English-Japanese-Japanese-English Encyclopedia /Research society, JST Science and Technology Terminology Japanese-English Bilingual Dictionary, Life Science Dictionary, Japanese WordNet, etc. April 2011, 5Browse.
  53. ^ Emiko Matsuyama. “Constellation of the four seasons and myths". Shutoku UniversityFaculty of Comprehensive Welfare. April 2011, 5Browse.
  54. ^ "[Galactic year]”. Webio English-Japanese-Japanese-English Encyclopedia /Research society, JST Science and Technology Terminology Japanese-English Bilingual Dictionary, Life Science Dictionary, Japanese WordNet, etc. April 2011, 5Browse.
  55. ^ a b "Science and Technology Trends March Issue Topics, [3] US probe to resume Mercury observations for the first time in 6 years". National Institute of Science and Technology Policy. April 2011, 5Browse.
  56. ^ Motomaro Shirao. “Mars Surveyor 98 Plan Begins (PDF)”. Planetary geological news. April 2011, 5Browse.
  57. ^ "[Earth year]”. Webio English-Japanese-Japanese-English Encyclopedia /Research society, JST Science and Technology Terminology Japanese-English Bilingual Dictionary, Life Science Dictionary, Japanese WordNet, etc. April 2011, 5Browse.
  58. ^ "[Astronomical unit (AU)]”. Union Astronomique Internationale. April 2011, 10Browse.


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