Hair-dressing clay figurines, standing on their own feet Completed restoration in two years Yamagata begins to open to the public at the museum
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"It is very valuable to see the figure made in the Jomon period again in this way.
In the museum of Yamagata University, the legs of a clay figurine that had been stored without legs for 90 years were found quietly, and restoration work has been done recently ... → Continue reading
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|Category: History of Japanese themes|
Jomon Period(Jomonjidai) isJapanese archipelagoInTimeIt is one of the categoriesWorld historyThen.Middle Stone AgeOr新石器時代It is an era equivalent to.PaleolithicAnd the difference between the Jomon period andEarthenwareとBow and arrowInvention, settlement andPit dwellingThe spread ofShell moundAnd the like.
There is much debate about the beginning and the end, but the beginning is generally thought to be 16,000 ± 100 years ago.[*1].. The final stage is said to be about 3,000 years ago (there are various theories).
Geological ageThen.PleistoceneFrom the endHoloceneOverJapanese archipelagoAlthough there are large regional differences in the final stage, it is a typical paddy rice cultivationMetalwareCharacterized by the use ofYayoi cultureIs triggered by the appearance of. For that ageB.C.From the centuries to the 10th century BC, there is much debate.
Japanese prehistoric research that began in the Meiji era was initiallyStone ageThe concept captures the prehistoric period, and it was stated that there were times when Jomon pottery was used and times when Yayoi pottery was used. Also, during the 19th century, the prehistoric inhabitants of the Japanese archipelagoAinu,KoropokuruTheories that think that it is also influential, and these theories were rejected in the 1920s. But at this timeMythologyIt was after World War II that the prehistoric image of the Japanese archipelago began to be formed beyond academia based on archaeological knowledge..
History textbooks compiled after the war showed the existence of two cultures, Yayoi culture and Jomon culture, in the prehistoric period of the Japanese archipelago.Toro archeological site,Iwajuku ruinsDue to the continuation of major archaeological events such as the excavation of The division of "Yayoi period" was established.
The Jomon period was a name used to indicate the time when Jomon pottery was used, but gradually the characteristics of life were explained, and the technique of making stoneware, the use of pottery, and farming, hunting and gathering It has come to be regarded as an economy and a settled society.
The name "Jomon" isEdward S. Morse(Edward S. Morse 1838 - 1925)But1877(Meiji10 years)Omori KaizukaIt is derived from reporting the pottery excavated from Japan as Cord Marked Pottery. This term isRyokichi YatabeTranslated as "Kumon-doki", but laterMitsutaro ShiraiChanged to "Nawamon pottery".. continue,"Jomon potteryThe notation has come to be used. It was after the war that the name of the era settled in the "Jomon period". It should be noted thatMakoto SaharaUses the name "nawamon" with the original meaning of this word in mind..
The diversity of Jomon pottery is an effective criterion for distinguishing between different times and regions. The Jomon period can be divided into six periods: early stage, early stage, early stage, middle stage, late stage, and late stage, based on the classification of pottery type... At the beginning of the research, there were three stages, front, middle, and back, but due to the increase in materials and the progress of research, early and late stages were added, and finally the early stage was added. Since it is a period division that reflects the background of such earthenware research, the middle period is not the middle of the Jomon period, and although there is room for reconsideration as a period division from the viewpoint of livelihood and cultural content, it is a routine period division. It is well established.
This period division,AMS methodMeasured withAge corrected to calendar yearIndicated by, early stage (about 1-6,000 years ago), early stage (about 1-2,000 years ago), prometaphase (about 1-2,000 years ago), middle stage (about 7,000-7,000 years ago) , Late (about 5,500-5,500 years ago) and late (about 4,500-4,500 years ago).[Source required]
In addition to the above-mentioned classification by pottery chronology, there is also a method of classifying the Jomon period into several periods from the aspect of cultural form. There are several methods by researchers for the cultural history division of the Jomon period, and no established theory has been established in academia at present.
- Classification of Michio Okamura
- Archaeologist Okamura categorizes the period according to the degree of settlement.Early daysからEarly midUntil around that time, housing and garbage dumps will be set up, but it is assumed that they are in the semi-settlement stage, such as having no housing or living a mobile life depending on the season. This stage corresponds to about half the time of the Jomon period. ThenEarly endから Early termSettlement is established, shell mounds are formed around the village, and a large-scale dumping ground is formed.Late mid-termIn eastern Japan, the regional color becomes prominent, and large-scale settlements appear and the number of archaeological sites reaches its peak. On the other hand, in western Japan, the number of archaeological sites is small, and it is possible that the settlement life has already receded in the previous term.LateFrom TohokuCentral mountainous areaThe ruins of are small and small and dispersed. Kanto runs a large-scale shell mound, and western Japan gradually regains its sedentary life.Late lateSettlement villages will be scattered from Kinki to Kyushu. This tendency isFirst half of lateIn the latter half, the settlement progressed further,Setouchi regionからKyusyuNorthPaddy rice farmingAfter introducingYayoi PeriodMoving to early.
- Classification by Komei Sasaki
- Sasaki, a cultural anthropologist, said that the early Jomon period of the Jomon pottery edition was the transition period from the old stone period to the new stone period, the Jomon period I, and the early Jomon period of the pottery period was the Jomon period II. , The period from the early to late Jomon period of the pottery edition was classified into the Jomon period III as the period when the completed Jomon culture was retained..
- Classification by Takura Izumi
- Izumi is also close to the classification by Sasaki, and the early Jomon period is the "exploration period", the early Jomon period is the "experimental period", and the early to late Jomon period is the "stable period".
From Paleolithic to Jomon
Last glacial periodAfter the heyday of about 2 years ago, it headed for global warming. The climate of about 1 to 3000 years ago, called the late glacial period, which is the last glacial period, is such that the cold and warm periods alternate in hundreds of years, and sudden and severe environmental changes occur in a short period of time. Happened in.
Until then,ConiferA forest covered the archipelago, but from southwest JapanThe Pacific OceanAlong the coastFallen leavesHardwoodForests are increasing and expanding, and most of the archipelago except Hokkaido is deciduous broad-leaved forest.Laurel forestCovered with.QuercusSubgenusBeechGenus,ChestnutNuts such as the genus have come to flourish. In Hokkaido, the tundra has retreated to the mountains in the central part of the inland, and subarctic coniferous forests have advanced. A mixed forest of conifers and broad-leaved trees will coexist on the Sea of Japan side and the Oshima Peninsula in the south. In addition, changes in vegetation due to climate changeMammoth,reindeerOrNaumann Elephant,Big boar deerThe habitat of large mammals such as these has deteriorated, and by about 1 years ago, these large mammals were almost extinct from the Japanese archipelago.
The characteristics of this early stage are pointed out as follows.
- Many new tools have appeared in a short period of time
- A group of stone tools that are no longer being used and a group of stone tools that are newly appearing have been replaced at a dizzying pace.
- In the first half of the early days, the combination of stone tools differs depending on the archaeological site.
- Tools were devised one after another in response to changes in the environment such as vegetation, fauna, and movement of the coastline due to rapid climate changes.
- The productivity has been dramatically developed based on the three new livelihood systems of hunting, plant collecting, plant cultivation, and fishing.
Early Jomon period
The Paleolithic people of the Japanese archipelago are large mammals (Elk,Bovini,Aurochs, Naumann elephant, Irish elk, etc. ) And small and medium-sized mammals (Sika deer,boar, Badgers, hares, etc. ) Was targeted for hunting. Large mammals move extensively depending on the season, so Paleolithic people follow suit.キャンプWhile living his life, he frequently moved.キル・サイトKill site[*2]And blocks[*3], Pebble group[*4]Thousands of places where charcoal grains are concentrated have been found in the Japanese archipelago, but few ruins with facilities such as pit dwellings have been found.
Paleolithic peoplePleistoceneUntil the end ofキャンプFrequently while living a life / floating lifeMobile lifeHas been repeated.旧石器時代から縄文時代への移行期である草創期には一時的に特定の場所で生活するTemporarily live in a specific place during the early days of the transition from the Paleolithic to the Jomon periodSemi-settlement lifeWas supposed to be sent.縄文早期になるとIn the early Jomon periodSettlement lifeAppears.KagoshimaIn (early early Jomon period), 16 pit dwellings, 33 flue-equipped furnace holes, and 17 stone collections have been detected.この遺跡は草創期のThis ruin is in the early daysCleaning mountain ruinsUnlike the case of the Maeda site and the Maeda site, the number of pit dwellings has increased significantly, the number of dwellings has expanded, duplicate dwellings have been duplicated, and these dwellings and other remains are arranged so as to surround the central square.
About the same time as the Kakuriyama ruinsKagoshimaKirishimaIt is inUenohara archeological siteMany remains have been detected, including 46 pit dwellings.Of these, 13 areSakurajimaVolcanic ash of originP-13Since it is covered with, it can be estimated that it existed at the same time.この13棟は半環状に配置されていることから、早期初頭には、既に相当な規模の定住集落を形成していたと推定されるSince these XNUMX buildings are arranged in a semi-circular shape, it is estimated that they had already formed a large settlement in the early stages.[By whom?].
In the first half of the early Jomon period,Kanto region[*5]The pit dwellings are most prominent.To date, there are 65 archaeological sites where pit dwellings have been detected, and the number exceeds 300.そのうちで最も規模の大きなThe largest of themTokyoFuchu-shiMusashidai RuinsTwenty-four pit dwellings and numerous pits have been detected in a semi-annular arrangement.
At the archaeological sites in the early early half of southern Kanto and southern Kyushu, the pottery of stone plates, stones, eolith, and heat treatment tools, which are vegetable food cooking utensils, will become larger and the number of excavated individuals will increase.It is envisioned that plant foods, especially nuts, were the main food sources for sedentary life.南関東の定住集落の形成には、植物採集活動だけでなく、漁労活動も重要な役割を果たしていたと考えられているIt is believed that not only plant collecting activities but also fishing activities played an important role in the formation of settlements in the southern Kanto region.[By whom?].
On the other hand, if you turn your eyes to the north, HokkaidoHakodateFrom the early to mid-Jomon period, more than 500 pit dwellings, numerous pit dwellings,Earthen grave, Pitfalls, numerous earthenware, stone plates,Polished stone, Eolith, weight[*6]Has been excavated, and the number has reached 40.Tsugaru StraitIt is probable that the archaeological site, which is located on the plateau facing the river, was able to live a long-term settlement due to active fishing activities.Also,Tokai regionEarly settlement,ShizuokaFujinomiya cityAlong with a large number of remains, including 28 pit dwellings, about 18,000 earthenware and stone tools have been excavated.What sets this site apart from other early sites is the excavation of 2,168 stones used for hunting.At this site at the foot of Mt. Fuji, many small valleys are formed,Tongue plateauThe continuous terrain was a suitable place for mammals to live.つまり、若宮遺跡では、環境に恵まれ、獲物にも恵まれて定住生活を営む上での条件が揃っていたと推定されるIn other words, it is presumed that the Wakamiya site was blessed with an environment and prey, and the conditions for living a sedentary life were met.[By whom?].
The change from a mobile life to a sedentary life has brought about another major change.その変化はThe change isPlant opalanalysis[*7]It turned out from the result of.一時的に居住する半定住的な生活の仕方では、周辺地域の開拓までに至らなかったが、定住的な生活をするようになった縄文時代人は居住する周辺の照葉樹林や落葉樹林を切り開いたことにより、そこにThe semi-settlement way of living temporarily did not lead to the development of the surrounding area, but the Jomon period people who came to live a sedentary life carved out the laurel forest and deciduous forest in the surrounding area. By that, thereChestnut,WalnutSuch asSecondary forestIt was decided to provide an environment for (secondary vegetation).By settlingJomon peopleAlso affected the so-called undergrowth, called forest floor plants, around the village.Bracken,Mainspring,Fluffy,Scraps,Yam,NobileA secondary forest environment where useful plants that have become the main and stable food resources of the Jomon people tend to grow, that is,Wooded areaIt means that we have created a new environment.縄文時代の建築材や燃料材はクリが大半であることは遺跡出土の遺物から分かっているIt is known from the relics excavated from the ruins that most of the building materials and fuel materials of the Jomon period are chestnuts... 2013年、福井県XNUMX, Fukui PrefectureTorihama shell moundThe world's oldest cooking pottery (about 11000 to 15000 years ago) was discovered in Japan.これにより、サケなどの魚を調理していた可能性が判明したThis revealed that it was possible that they were cooking fish such as salmon.[Broken link].
Historical transition of Jomon culture
Distribution range of Jomon culture
Since the definition of Jomon culture is not uniform, it is not possible to unambiguously determine the geographical extent to which the Jomon culture was distributed.縄文土器の分布を目安とした場合、北はIf you use the distribution of Jomon pottery as a guide, the north isKarafutoWith the southKuril Islands, SouthOkinawa main islandIs the limit,Miyakojima,Yaeyama IslandsNot distributed in (Yaeyama IslandsTaiwan IslandThe same type of earthenware).すなわち、現在のThat is, the currentJapanThe area slightly deviated from the border line is the distribution area of Jomon pottery.
Climate variability and development of Jomon culture
The Jomon period was a large scale for a long period of 1 years.Climate changeHave also experienced. AlsoJapanese archipelagoIs extremely long from north to south, and the topography is also varied, and there were large regional differences in climate and vegetation even in the Jomon period as it is today. As a result, the cultural forms of the Jomon period were not uniform historically or regionally, and had various forms..
About 2 years agoLast glacial periodFrom the end of the period to about 6000 years ago, the temperature of the earth was gradually warming. During this time, the Japanese archipelago has experienced a sea level rise of more than 100 m. In the Jomon pottery chronology, this corresponds to the early Jomon period from the early Jomon period (13000 years ago-6000 years ago). Also, about 6000 years ago, the sea level was 4m to 5m higher than it is now.Jomon KaishinIt is called, and it will be helpful when considering the distribution of archaeological sites along the coast.
The vegetation of the Japanese archipelago at the beginning of the Jomon period was cool and dry.PrairieWas the center,Deciduous treeForests have also appeared in some areas. Also, from a geological point of view, HokkaidoKarafutoAre connected,Tsugaru StraitFreezes in winter in Hokkaido and nowHonshuWas connected.Seto Inland SeaDoes not exist yet, Honshu,Shikoku,Kyushu,Tanegashima,Yakushima, Tsushima was one big island. With this big islandKorean PeninsulaThe waterway was about 15 kilometers wide. After that, as a result of the sea level rising due to climate change, as mentioned aboveTsushima-Korean PeninsulaThe width of the waterway between them widened and became the Korea Strait.Tsushima warm currentWill flow into the Sea of Japan. As a result, the Japanese archipelagoSea of JapanOn the sideHeavy snowfallAppeared, and due to its abundant thaw water, on the Sea of Japan sideBeechForests have come to be formed.
In addition to the emergence of settlements in the early Jomon period, new cultural elements were added, such as the start of full-scale fishing and the start of ocean navigation in the Kanto region. The oldest settlement has been found in southern KyushuUenohara archeological site,Kinpune TownIt is estimated that seasonal settlement began about 1 years ago, and year-round settlement began about 1000 years ago. The reason why the settlement was started is that the Jomon people had avoided settling until then, that is, food security, waste problems, and requests for life and death could be solved by settling. Can be seen.. The pottery of this period is Northeast Asian, North China, and Chinese.[*8], South China[*9]From the distribution point of view, Northeast Asians are excavated from Hokkaido to eastern Japan, North China and China are excavated from western Japan, and South China are excavated from southern Japan. From the viewpoint of vegetation, the laurel forest zone was limited to the coastal areas of Kyushu and Shikoku and the Pacific coastal area west of Kanto in the first half of the early Jomon period, and deciduous trees were predominant in other areas.
The most typical Jomon culture prospered from the early to middle Jomon period, and is nowSannai Maruyama SiteIt is mainly the cultural form of this period that the Jomon people who settled in the place called were held. It is believed that nine cultural regions were established in the Japanese archipelago during this period (described later). The sea level was about 9 m higher than it is now in the middle of the early Jomon period, and the climate was still warmer than it is now. The so-called Holocene glacial retreat during this period increased the number of good fishing grounds along the coast, making it easier to obtain marine products.Kensaku HayashiPoints out. On the vegetation sideSekigaharaTo the west, it became a laurel forest zone.
In the latter part of the Jomon period, the temperature is getting colder again, and the sea level drops. In the Kanto region, the tidal flats, which used to be a good fishing ground for shellfish, have shrunk at once, and the shell mounds have disappeared. On the other hand, in western Japan and Tohoku, new lowlands have increased, and cultural forms suitable for lowlands have developed. In central and Kanto, nuts that can be mainly obtained are from chestnutsHorse chestnutIt changed suddenly. Besides,Aomori OfKamegaoka Stone Age RuinsThen.pollenFrom Tochinoki by analysis ofBuckwheatToCultivationIt is clear that the center of the has changed. As a result, food production will decline and the Jomon population will stagnate or decline. Cultural areas have been consolidated from nine to four, and the framework of these four cultural areas has been inherited during the Yayoi period.East Japan"・" Excluding KyushuWest Japan"Kyusyu"OkinawaIt forms the basis of the regional framework of Japanese culture up to the present day.
Locality of Jomon culture
It has been pointed out that the Jomon culture was not of the same quality in every region of the Japanese archipelago, but was a cultural group with diverse regional characteristics.
Regional characteristics in the distribution of clay figurines
Made by Jomon peopleClay figurineWas not used evenly throughout the Japanese archipelago throughout the Jomon period, but was limited in terms of both time and region. That is, after being used intensively in the eastern part of the Kanto region in the first half of the early Jomon period, the use of clay figurines disappeared once in the middle of the Jomon period. After that, clay figurines will be used again in eastern Japan in the first half of the latter half of the Jomon period. On the other hand, in Kyushu, where the use of clay figurines had not been seen until then, clay figurines appeared in northern and central Kyushu in the late Jomon period.
Regarding the regional characteristics of the use of these clay figures, Fujio has deciduous nuts such as beech, oak, chestnut, and horse chestnut as his staple food (that is, areas covered with these deciduous forests) and laurel forests centered on western Japan. The explanation is related to the difference in the form of livelihood with the belt. Deciduous nuts, namely chestnuts and so-called acorns, are harvested intensively during the fall and require labor-intensive work in relatively large settlements.Clay figurineThe idea is that the social groups may have been integrated by performing rituals using.
Jomon period cultural region
As mentioned above, it is believed that nine cultural regions were established in the Japanese archipelago in the early Jomon period.
- Hokkaido east of the Ishikari lowlands
- Spruce,TodomatsuAreas where conifers are predominant.Horse chestnutThe fact that chestnuts and chestnuts are not distributed is also a big difference from other areas.Sea lion,seal,fur sealThere are abundant cold current marine mammals, and a revolver harpoon has been developed to capture them.
- Southwestern Hokkaido and northern Tohoku
- Unlike the eastern part of the Ishikari Lowland, the vegetation is a deciduous forest zone.Mizunara,Quercus, Walnuts, chestnuts, horse chestnuts and other nuts were actively collected. Sea animals were also captured by a revolver harpoon,AntelopeIt differs from Ishikari east in that it also hunted mammals on land such as wild boars and wild boars.
- Tohoku South
- As animal food, sika deer and wild boar on land, and from the seaSkipjack,Tuna,shark,DolphinWas mainly used. Unlike the former two, warm currents prevail off the coast of this cultural region, so cold current hunting for marine animals was not carried out.
- Plant food in the Teruha forest zone and inland fishery are the characteristics of this cultural region. Especially for shell mounds, about 6% of the shell mounds in the entire Japanese archipelago belong to this cultural region. Deer and wild boar are the main animal foods on land. From the seaClam,ClamsIn addition to collectingJapanese sea bass,BlackfishI ate a lot. These marine products were caught in the inner bay and were fished by nets with earthenware as weights.
- Deer, wild boar,Asiatic black bearWas the main hunting target. The vegetation is deciduous broad-leaved trees (Aesculus turbinata, oak), and the houses have become large due to the heavy snowfall area.
- Tokai / Koshin
- The hunting targets are deer and wild boar, and the vegetation is deciduous broad-leaved trees.Yamano yam,YuriThe roots of the sardines were also edible. One of the features is the use of a hammered stone ax.
- Hokuriku, Kinki, Ise Bay coast, Chugoku, Shikoku, Buzen, Bungo
- The hunting targets are deer and wild boar, and the vegetation is deciduous broad-leaved trees and laurel forests (Shii,Oak) Is also added. In terms of fisheries, it is characterized by the use of cut stone weights (weights for nets made by processing stones), which is thought to have emerged as a result of the spread of weight technology using earthenware pieces from the Kanto region.
- Kyushu (excluding Buzen and Bungo)
- The hunting targets are deer and wild boar. The vegetation is the laurel forest zone. The biggest feature spreads between Kyushu Island and the Korean PeninsulaTeshikai Kitakyushu (Western Kitakyushu)Kitamatsuura Peninsula) Type-coupled fishing hooks and stone saws are characteristic fishing gear.A combined hook is a large hook that binds multiple members together, and the one with the same idea is ancient.PolynesiaHowever, it was used in this cultural area, but it partially overlaps with the Osanri-type hooked hook on the east coast of the Korean Peninsula.
- Southern Kyushu at the end of the early Jomon periodOnikai CalderaThere was a large eruption, and it suffered catastrophic damage, which is considered to be almost annihilated.
- Tokara IslandsSouth
- The vegetation is the laurel forest zone. As an animal proteinウ ミ ガ メ,dugongIs edible. Fishing in coral reefs is also a feature, and as a fishing gearGiant clam,Takara GuySeashells such as these were used as net fishing weights. There was also exchange with the Kyushu cultural area.
Is one of.
Makoto Watanabe points out that the relationship between these nine cultural regions should be viewed as "a separate regional culture with the same direction of development" rather than a difference within one cultural region called the Jomon culture. There is. That is, not all of these cultural regions held a set of cultural elements that were common, but slightly different in detail, but rather several cultural elements that were adapted to the environmental conditions of each region. Of course, there are cultural elements that existed in one cultural region but not in another.
In the latter half of Jomon, five of these nine cultural regions, "Southwestern Hokkaido and Northern Tohoku," "Southeast Tohoku," "Kanto," "Hokuriku," and "Tokai / Koshin," were grouped together into a single cultural region (Teruha Forest). "Nara forest culture" in cultural theory), and "Hokuriku / Isewan coast / Chugoku / Shikoku / Bungen / Bungo" and "Kyushu (excluding Bungen / Bungo)" are collectively a single cultural area. (Teruha forest culture in the theory of Teruha forest culture) will be composed. As a result, the number of cultural regions will decrease to four in the late and late Jomon period.
Regional exchange seen from the magatama
At the latest around the middle of the Jomon period (5,000 BC)Jade magatamaIt is known that was made, especially in Itoigawa, Niigata PrefectureChojagahara RuinsA jade workshop has been discovered along with jade-made magatama. According to X-ray fluorescence analysis, it was excavated at "Sannai Maruyama Site" in Aomori Prefecture and in southern Hokkaido.Jade TheItoigawaIt is known to be a product, and it is believed that the Jomon people traded with each other in a wide range. In later years, Japanese-made magatama spread to the Korean Peninsula..
The Jomon farming theory has a long history of research since the Meiji era, and the controversy over the existence of farming continues to this day. It is believed that it is certain that plants were cultivated during the Jomon period. Fukui prefectureTorihama shell moundCultivated plants from the early layers ofAzuki,Perilla,Cucumber,Gourd,Burdockな ど[*10]), But from the early layersGourd[*11]Has been detected. On the other hand, it is a relic of the late and late ruins of northern Kyushu.Slash-and-burn agricultureIs believed to have been done[Source invalid].. Pollen analysis of late and late archaeological sites in Fukuoka Prefecture[Source invalid], At the ruins of Kumamoto cityRice,Barley, Rice, etc. have been detected at archaeological sites in Oita prefecture, and also from eastern Japan, from more than 10 archaeological sites in the latter and late stages.BuckwheatPollen has been detected. These are also presumed to be cultivated by shifting cultivation..
The beginning of rice cultivation
Currently, due to research on plant opal, from the late Jomon period to the late Jomon periodTropical japonicaIt turns out that was done.
Rice(Oryza sativa), Such as Japonica (Japanese type) and Indica (Indian type)SubspeciesJaponica is further divided into temperate japonica and tropical japonica (Japonica rice). Temperate JaponicaChugoku OfYangtze RiverFrom the north side, it is distributed in a very limited area of the Japanese archipelago, closely linked to paddy rice farming.Yayoi PeriodSubsequent paddy rice is also considered to be temperate japonica.
To the archipelago, first tropical japonicaNansei IslandsPropagated to the archipelago through. Carbonized rice in the latter half of the latter half of the Jomon period riceKumamoto,Kagoshima OfUenohara archeological siteThe rice plant opal, which was detected in the womb of paddy earthenware, is a site of various parts of western Japan in the latter half of the latter half of the period.[*12]Has been found in. Rice plant opal was found in the soil and earthenware womb at the Kaminabe site in Kumamoto prefecture.OkayamaGeneral corporationRice plant opal was found in 6 of the 4 pottery excavated by the Okayama Prefectural Ancient Kibi Cultural Property Center at the Minamimizote site in Japan. Two of them belong to the middle of the late Jomon period, about 2 years ago (carbon-3500 dating). The center discovered stone tools that are presumed to have been used for picking ears (ear picking tools) and stone tools that are thought to be digging tools..
For this reason, there is no doubt that rice was cultivated in the Japanese archipelago in the latter half of the latter half of the year. However, rice was not cultivated alone,Barley,Hie,Millet,Millet,BuckwheatCultivation of minor grains such asAzuki,soyEtc. were also mixed.
Main events of the Jomon period
About 1 years ago
About 1 years ago[*13]
|At the beginning of this periodJapanese archipelagoIt is speculated that was just before leaving the continent. The climate during the late glacial period was severely changed due to cold and warm weather in a short period of time. As climate change progressed, glaciers melted, sea levels rose, and the sea entered land. It is called "sea transgression".|
|Shellfish and fish have become new food resources due to changes in the environment. The hunting prey iselephant,BisonFrom large mammalsDeer,boarIt changed to medium and small mammals.Pit dwellingFrom the ruinssalmonDiscovery of jawbone. A small bone U-shaped hook.|
|stone tool||Locally polished stone axIs made. Manufacture and use of spears and bows and arrows.|
|Earthenware||Bean grain earthenware-Uplift line literary pottery・ Claw-shaped pottery ・ Oshijomon pottery (multi-Jomon pottery).Petroglyphs with engraved female figures are made.|
|(I.e.||Fukui cave-Kamikuroiwa Iwain Ruins-Hanamiyama RuinsSuch.|
About 1 years ago
6 years ago[*14]
|The Japanese archipelago was completely separated from the continent and became an island country. At the beginning, the temperature was about 2 degrees lower than it is now, and the sea level was about 30 meters lower. After that, the sea level returns.Onikai CalderaVolcanic ash accumulates throughout western Japan due to the eruption of.|
|A village is composed of several pit dwellings. Combination hook.Acorn,WalnutSuch asNutsA rudimentary farming method for planting and cultivating trees was established and became a food resource. In hunting, small and medium-sized mammals such as deer and wild boar were mainly used instead of large mammals. Bows and arrows have rapidly become widespread as hunting tools.|
|stone tool||Earth weights and stone weights for nets. Yasu, harpoon. For beating, crushing, and grinding nutsStone plateAnd ground stones were also used.|
|Earthenware||The advent of pottery for squeezing changed life in the Paleolithic era. Jomon and twisted yarn-bottomed pottery was made. From Natsushima Kaizuka, earthenware from the early stage to the end, such as twisted yarn type pottery, shell sinking line type pottery, and shell streak type pottery, was excavated in layers. A small clay figurine is made.|
|(I.e.||In the first half of this period, shell mounds were built in the coastal area created by the invasion of the sea.The type of shellfish isYamato ShijimiIs the main subject.Fishing became more active with hunting.The oldestKanagawaYokosukaNatsushima shell mound,ChibaKatori-gunKanzaki.. Belongs to the stamped earthenware periodAichiChita DistrictMinamichita TownThe first shell mound was discovered at a depth of 13 meters below sea level. The population is 2.Jomon dogBurial with people.Burial.|
About 6 years
5 years ago[*15]
|Warm climate and rising sea level and temperature (Jomon Kaishin, 4 to 5 meters above sea level), so shell mounds will be created in the current inland area.SubtropicalSexualEvergreen broad-leaved forest,(I.e.Adapted toDeciduous forestConsists ofVegetation zoneFormation.|
|A pit dwelling surrounds the square to create a settlement..湖沼の発達によりDue to the development of lakesDugout canoeIs made.Started fishing activities.Accessories such as earrings, magatama, and tube balls are made.|
|stone tool||Lacquer begins to be applied to woodware, earthenware, combs, obsidian, etc.Stone circles are made.|
|Earthenware||From this period onward, the number of pottery increased at a stretch, the shapes and functions diversified, and flat-bottomed pottery became common.土器は羽状縄文を施したThe pottery has a pinnate Jomon periodTextile potteryIs actively made (→Sekiyama style,Kurohama style).|
|(I.e.||Tateishi line (Ritsusekiretsu) Stone circle.Shell mound.Population 10.|
About 5 years
4 years ago[*16]
|The temperature begins to drop.The coastline is almost as close as it is now.|
|VillageWill grow in scale.Afforestation farming methodKind ofAcornEasier to eatChestnutIt will change to a large scale.Tooth extractionCustoms begin.|
|stone tool||Stone stickSuch spells are actively made.|
|Earthenware||Clay figurineSuch spells are actively made.Three-dimensional patternHaveLarge earthenwareIs in fashion.|
|(I.e.||Large shell mound formation.Stone pillar altar.The population is 26.|
About 4 years
3 years ago[*17]
|Large shell mound.Shell mounds were also formed in the inland area.Salt-making specialized group, salt-mediated group, salt-consuming group.Extension funeral..Outbreak of fishermen for trading purposes.|
|Earthenware||There is a pottery mound in a corner of the village.EarthenwareUsedSalt makingTraces of.|
|(I.e.||Wood circle (giant wooden pillar ruins).Oyu Loop Stone(Stone circle), Concentrated in the Tohoku region.Paving stone dwelling site.The population is 16.|
About 3 years
|The temperature dropped by around 2 degrees.Sea level is also falling.A devastating blow to fishing activities.|
|Fishing net.Harpoon fishing blooms on the Pacific side of Tohoku.Head surgery may have been performed.Jomon paddy fields in Kitakyushu and Kinki.|
|stone tool||Wooden sword.|
|Earthenware||Yamanotera-style pottery, Kashiwazaki-style pottery (Yusu-style pottery).|
|(I.e.||Shell mound.Population 7.|
- ^ Calibration carbon datingAccording to the oldestEarthenwareGoes back about 16,000 yearsAomoriKanita TownEarly Jomon pottery excavated from the Odai Yamamoto II site has been discovered.According to calendar year calibration chronology.The calendar year calibration dating method was based on the hypothesis that the concentration of radiocarbon in the air was constant in the conventional radiocarbon dating, but it became clear that fluctuations occurred, and the measured values were corrected. thing.
- ^ A place where large mammals are dismantled.
- ^ A method of estimating the archaeological structure and population size, assuming that a family existed in a centralized area of stone tools, generally a block.
- ^ Concentration of red-burnt gravel, mainly river stones.
- ^ South Kanto such as Musashino Plateau and Tama Hills.
- ^ It is believed to be a stone tool used as a weight for the fishing industry.
- ^ A method of estimating the type of plant from plant opal, which is a fossil of plant silicic acid.
- ^ Bean grain earthenware,Uplift line earthenwareIs in North ChinaMicrolith blade cultureIs seen as a lineage of.
- ^ The Chinese pottery of this period is unprinted, that is, it does not have patterns such as Jomon.
- ^ Mung beanaboutTorihama shell moundReport was revised, and there is no report that mung bean was cultivated during the Jomon period.
- ^ There is a theory that it was carried by the Tsushima Current and a theory that it was brought in artificially...滋賀県大津市Otsu City, Shiga PrefectureAwazu shell moundDetected in the early layers of.
- ^ Tsushima Okayama University Ruins, Minamimizote Ruins in the late middle leaves
- ^ Jomon I
- ^ Jomon period II
- ^ Jomon period III
- ^ Jomon period IV
- ^ Jomon period V
- ^ Jomon period VI
- ^ a b Yuichiro Kudo "Age of appearance of earthenware and paleoenvironment: From the arrangement of research history"National Museum of Japanese History Research Report," Vol. 178, National Museum of Japanese History, March 2012, 3, pp. 1-7, two:10.15024/00000228,2019/3/22Browse.
- ^ Yamada 2015, p.33-51.
- ^ Yamada 2015, p.55-58.
- ^ Yamada 2019, pp.77-78
- ^ Sawara, p.10.
- ^ Yamada 2019, p.8
- ^ "Japanese Archeology Volume XNUMX"Collection.
- ^ Michio Okamura"Overview of the Jomon period".
- ^ Sasaki.
- ^ Teshigawara.
- ^ "Formation of a nation in East Asia"Collection.
- ^ Keiji Imamura"Neolithic of the Japanese Archipelago".
- ^ Discovery of the world's oldest cooking trace, heating of aquatic organisms such as fish
- ^ Fujio, p.60
- ^ a b Fujio, p.74
- ^ Fujio, p.30-45.
- ^ Fujio, p.66.
- ^ "Archaeological Study of Ancient East Asian Regional Ministers"Collection.
- ^ Kadota "The fate of hard-ball magatama in the Three Kingdoms of Korea".
- ^ a b Quote error: invalid
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- ^ , "Northern farming""Various cultivated plants and agricultural culture"Collection.
- ^ Hiroshi Yuasa "Gourd-Practical and Symbolic Cultural Magazine"
- ^ (* There is no reference source.)
- ^ Yoshinori Yasuda(* There is no reference source.)
- ^ Teshigawara.
- ^ "Archaeology and Modernity"Collection.
- ^ Makoto Sahara"Rice and Japanese culture".
- ^ "History of Okayama Prefecture (prefectural history)"Collection.
- ^ Hisashi Kano「吉備の国づくり」p.15.
- ^ a b c d e f Sawara, p.17
- ^ "Nagasaki Archaeological Site Dictionary-Yamanotera Kajiki Ruins". Nagasaki. 2018/11/14Browse.
- Yasuhiro Yamada"The Jomon period created: Exploring the development of Japanese culture"Shinchosha Co., Ltd.Shincho Sensho November 2015, 11 978-4106037788
- Yasuhiro Yamada`` History of the Jomon period'' Kodansha's new book 2019
- Makoto Sahara"The horse race did not come"Japan Broadcast Publishing AssociationNHK Books September 1993978-4140016589
- : Original work / supervisor,Makoto Sahara: Author,Nara Institute of Cultural Properties: Hen "German Exhibition Memorial Overview Japanese Archeology (XNUMX) Popular Edition" Student company 2007/4/1978-4311750373
- Takaaki Sasaki: "The Birth of Japanese History Shueisha Edition" Series Japanese History (1)Keiji Nagahara,Kodama Kota,Hayashiya Tatsusaburo: Hen Shueisha 1991/5/29978-4081950010
- "Jomon culture" New Japan PublisherShin Nihon Shinsho June 1998978-4406025935
- History Study Group: Hen Japanese History Study Group: Hen "Formation of a Nation in East Asia" Japanese History Course Volume 1 University of Tokyo Press 2004/5978-4130251013
- Shinichiro Fujio"Jomon Controversy" KodanshaBook Selection Metier December 2002978-4062582568
- "Archaeological Study of Ancient East Asian Regional Ministers" Student company 2006/12/1978-4311304897
- Yoichiro Sato : Supervision ,: ed. "Various Cultivated Plants and Agricultural Culture" Eurasian Agricultural History (4) Earth Research Institute Library (7-4)Rinkawa Shoten 2009/10978-4653040446
- Makoto Sahara: Written by Makoto Sahara, "Archology and Contemporary" (6) Kim Seki,Hideji Harunari: Hen Iwanami Shoten 2005/9/29978-4000271165
- Manabu Fujii,Kurachichi Katsunao,Hisashi Kano: Author "History of Okayama Prefecture (Prefectural History)" 2nd Edition Yamakawa Publishing 2012/6/1978-4634323315
- Jomon people
- Japanese History
- Japanese history period classification table
- Indigenous people
- List of archaeological sites in the Jomon period
- Type site
- Flame pottery
- TokyoOta-ku Omori Kaizuka
- Sannai Maruyama Site
- Yamazaki Sanzo(A person who lived a life that reproduced the life of the Jomon period)
- Kushime Bungyo era
- Comb Ceramic Culture
- Haplo group C-M8 (Y chromosome)
- Mizuno Jomon Photo Studio
- National Museum of History and Folklore
- History Q & A Repainted Japanese history "Education Kumamoto"Broken link
- Jomon period --Kids site JOMON round and round Jomon archaeological site in northeastern HokkaidoJOMON JAPANJomon Archaeological Sites in the northeastern part of Hokkaido
- What kind of era is the Jomon period? - Chino City Jomon Project
- Jomon culture: Culture of hunter-gatherers formed in the prehistoric Japanese archipelago - nippon.com Japanese
- Jomon people's life - Tamagawa Academy