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"GREAT PRETENDER", latest PV for the final chapter & Junichi Suwabe's comment released

 
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There was a criminal organization where the boss Akemi Suzaku had a livelihood in human trafficking ...!
 

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Human trafficking

Human traffickingWhat is (Jinshinbaibai)?A humanLike goodsBuying and sellingWhat to do[1].. In modern times, it is used in a wide range of various actual conditions and legal positions for similar acts.

Overview

In many modern developed countries, when trafficking is talked about, it is "a strong constraint on the person and range of action.AgreementTo be another person without the consent of the personBuying and sellingAnd that's what is humanely malicious. " A bad typical form is "expensiveContract moneyIs received by another person (or a large amount of smuggling costs are paid in debt), the person is detained in a crippled place for many years, and the contract is transferred to another person or place without knowing it. And values ​​or physical pain or dangerThe laborWhile being forced to spend a long period of time, disadvantageous conditions are added to the person and he cannot escape. " (Management prostitutionThis is not the case just because it is. )

In many civilized countries, what is legally bought and sold directly is the "contract", the "right to be a contract partner", and the "right to lend money such as contract money and smuggling costs". By placing this in an environment that is out of the legally protected state of the general public due to inconvenience, ignorance, and other environments due to the contents of the contract, a state is created as if human beings themselves can be bought and sold and restrained. This type of contract or reality is called human trafficking (with the meaning of criticism). The person in question is prepared to accept such disadvantageous hardships and dangers to some extent, and accepts the contract.For saleThat is. A person placed in such a state is sometimes described as a slave (substantially with the meaning of condemnation). Many people in modern middle and developed countries who are described as trafficking slaves are in this state, where debt or a fixed-term binding contract is at the heart of their substantive binding force (meaning legal). is not). In low- and middle-income countries, customs may be stronger than contracts.

In civilized nations, there are usually aspects that are an extension of general labor contracts, and they should also be prevented or relieved by legal protection when their practical restraint or exploitation level exceeds a certain level. This level varies from time to time. (Currently in many countriesLabor Standards Actas well as the Employment Security ActIllegal labor and contracts by considerable lawForced lawProhibitions and contracts made under illegal level conditions are legally invalid[2]. )

In insecure towns, undeveloped areas, and politically unstable areas, it is sometimes reported that there is trafficking as a crime by violent means such as abduction and abduction. Narcotics, kidnapping, and detention starting with a fictitious contract are definitely crimes from the beginning and are of a different species than the above explanation (currently Japanese legal trafficking is mainly here (currently Japanese legal trafficking is mainly here).Trafficking crime)). In other words, there are two different routes, "trafficking (contract)" and "people kidnapping (violence / crime)", and there is also "fraudulent" in the middle, and bad conditions overlap from trafficking and resale. Sometimes it approaches the route of darkness.

Apart from them, adoptions may occur for the purpose of exchanging money (conventional rewards are possible). If this is an individual parent-child / relative relationship, even if there is a human rights issue, it is generally difficult to treat it as a trafficking issue. It becomes a problem of human trafficking when there is a systematic mediation such as doing such a business or repeating it. Again, the essence evaluation is reversed depending on the degree of protection and human rights protection.

Trafficking in persons after the end of slavery is generally accepted and sold (debtRepayment, use of money required for relatives, etc.),parent ChildIn some cases, parents may make a contract on behalf of their child, or they may buy or sell (resell) a person who is already in that state.KidnappingIt is a term that includes various entities, essences, and fields, such as the fact that it is often invited and transferred by compulsory means such as, or by sweet words, and in a broad sense it may include group fraudulent methods that the person does not notice. In the criticism appeal of human trafficking, it is used in a wider range.

Especially when international movement is involved, it is difficult to detect the organization fundamentally, and it is difficult for the person to receive legal protection due to the position of illegal immigration and language barrier. , It is easy to force fraudulent employment, trafficking as a complete crime becomes malicious, and the rate of disappearance increases. Children also have abused protection rights, which are typical and symbolic of maliciousness.1990 eraSince then, especially since 1996, international trafficking has often been taken up as an international issue.

The purpose of human trafficking isForced labor, Sexual exploitation,Organ transplantation,internationalTreatyDefined inDrugProduction and trading,povertyIt is a means to get money for the reason. In modern society, human trafficking is almost every country.crimeIt is said to be an act.

Human trafficking is another name for smuggling people,Human trafficking(English: Human Trafficking) OrTrafficking(English: Trafficking[3]),Japanese GovernmentThisHuman traffickingIs expressed as[4][5].

Sending country / relay country / receiving country

Countries involved in international trafficking are classified into three countries: sending countries, relay countries, and receiving countries.

Political instability in the sending country,Social anxiety,内 戦,Naturedisaster,EconomyChange of situation,Discrimination, There are factors (push factors) such as pressure from the surroundings and family, and the host country hasSex-related servicesAnd sexual activity with children, illegal organ transplants and experiments,terrorist, There is a demand (pull factor) for labor under harsh conditions. For this reason, illegal traffickingBusinessIs established as.

The target of predatory power has no rebellious powerPoor,minority, Disaster victims,ImmigrationSuch asminorityAnd children are easy to choose. These target persons are likely to be subject to human trafficking because they do not have a birth certificate or documents to prove their identity and are difficult to receive protection from the government.

2005 Sumatra earthquakeIn the event of a child's trafficking in the turmoil of a catastropheKidnappingOccurred frequently[6].

International efforts

The first international treaty banning human trafficking was the "International Agreement on the Control of Women's Trafficking to Conduct Ugly Business" signed in 1904 in 12 European countries. The agreement aims to prevent women from being sold as prostitutes, and six years later, it added penalties to traders engaged in trafficking in "prohibition of women's trafficking to engage in ugliness." "International treaties" have been signed in 6 European countries, and "international treaties" that include themInternational Convention on the Prohibition of Women and Children(1921) was signed in 28 countries, including Japan.

In modern times, it came into effect in 1949.United Nations OfConvention on the Prohibition of Trafficking in Persons and Exploitation of Others from Prostitution(Convention for the Suppression of Human Trafficking), adopted in 1956Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery,United Nations Convention on the Prevention of International Organized CrimeProtocol on "Trafficking in Persons" of (International Organized Crime Prevention Convention),Yogyakarta PrinciplesThe 11th Principle stipulates the prohibition of human trafficking.

Trafficking Protocol

2000,International Convention against Organized CrimeAs a protocol that complementsUnited NationsUnited Nations General AssemblyAdopted by 2003Treaty issued to.JapanWas approved by the Diet on June 2005, 17 (Heisei 6). Since the conclusion of the Protocol is conditional on the parties to the treaty, Japan has not yet reached the conclusion of the Protocol, but the domestic law for organized crime stipulated by the Treaty has not been developed. With the legislation, ratification and contracts were reached.

Cases of each country

Japan

The oldest record of human trafficking in Japan is "Japanese calligraphy”677 (5th year of Emperor Tenmu) is a request for permission to buy and sell. [7].Shimotsuke OfKokujiからBad cropforCommon peopleAn application for the sale of children has been submitted and is not permitted. However, from the existence of this request for permission, the existence of buying and selling before that is inferred.Great treasure law-Yoro RitsuryoBut although it was banned, it was being smuggled.SlaveWas treated as an inheritance and its sale was not prohibited[8].. The word for buying people is often seenKamakura Period,Muromachi PeriodIs. "Collection extractIt is stated that children, adolescents, and even the elderly are sold for money.Quiet examinationThere is a song in "People buying boats row offshore, row quietly as much as they sell very well."Popular songThen "Sumida River"" "" Etc. of Kojo RuriDaisho SanshoFamous with.

Sengoku periodIn the latter half of the 16th century, Kyushu daimyo sold Japanese as slaves to buy firearms from Portuguese merchants. Japanese slaves are exported to Portugal, China, Korea, etc., and the number is said to be about 5.[9]. This isHideyoshi ToyotomibyVeteren exileAndEdo ShogunatebyIsolationIt is said that it became one of the causes of the system[10].Hideyoshi TenshoThe rule sent to the Utsunomiya Kunitsuna in August 18 ties the peasant to the land and at the same time prohibits all trafficking. [11].

The role of Bunroku and KeichoThen, Hideyoshi to comfort the Korean people,RandomizationSuch asabductionPromulgated a red seal that prohibits acts[12][13]But,Korean PeninsulaToServiceThe priest Keimon wrote in "Korean Daily" that "some merchants who are better than Japan have come, some who can do business, walk after (the Japanese army) from the back, and buy men and women of all ages." As I did, a merchant for the purpose of trafficking was traveling. Since these slave traders procured Koreans through low-ranking soldiers, Kiyomasa Kato and others said, "If there is a person who uses a low-ranking person in the violent wolf clan, it is the responsibility of the master to add success or failure." Is issuing a ban[14].

According to the Tamonin diary, Korean women and children went through Tsushima and Iki along with the plundered goods.NagoyaSent to[15].. Human traffickingNagasakiCarletti, an Italian merchant, records that Koreans were sold for about 1 silver (24 ton = 1 silver) per person.[16].

But,Osaka University of TourismVisiting Researcher, Institute of TourismWatanabe DaimonAccording toThe role of Bunroku and KeichoThe soldiers who went out hunted humans with the atrocities of scraping their ears and nose.KoreaAbducted old men, women and childrenslaveTurned into[17].Korean PeninsulaToServiceThe priest Keimon left a diary called "Korean Daily", saying, "Purchase men and women of all ages, tie up their necks with ropes, drive them forward, and if they don't walk, drive them with a cane and run them. Just likeRakshasaI can't help but blame the sinners. "" You can buy them like this, for example, like walking with a monkey, pulling a cow and horse and carrying luggage, etc. It's going to be a monkey. "[18].Watanabe DaimonAccording to "RandomizationIs a lotDamingWas tolerated and widely performed. "Tomonin Diary』, TheyNara"Motoyama Buzen Ansei Father and Son War Memorandum" describes the men and women who were caught alive on the ship.Owari Tokugawa familyIs the residence ofNagoya CastleSent to [19].. In addition, Daimon also changed direction and captured Hideyoshi, who initially banned hunting.KoreanClaims to issue an order to advance[20].

MeijiEarly "Geisha liberation orderWhen "" became famous and innocent, legal restrictions on human trafficking receded, and it was said that selling offspring was lighter than selling others and was considered "Japanese sales".[21].. Regarding human trafficking from the Meiji era to the Showa era, Hidemasa Maki explains the structural reasons for the chronic poverty in rural areas, the strength of paternity, and the hotbed of human trafficking.[22].

Second World WarImmediately afterwards, there were conspicuous cases where minors were virtually bought and sold with advance debt and engaged in man-making and agricultural assistance, but in 1950, when special eating and drinking areas began to be formed in various places, there were cases where they were sent out as prostitutes. Soared to% (55% in the previous year). This was followed by a spinning woman, a babysitter, and a maid. Most of the traffickers were in the Tohoku region, and the places of acceptance were Tokyo, Saitama, etc.[23].

Human trafficking is still modernGangsterIn some cases, it occurred with the involvement of 2007A female employee of a sex shop was notified of a fictitious debt (about 150 million yen) by the owner of the sex shop, who is a member of a gangster, because she was late or absent without notice, and she was forced to repay it. Refused to escape, but was caught by the gangster and sold to another sex shop, and the Tochigi Prefectural Police opened the gangster and the sex shop.Trafficking crimeIt is reported that he was arrested and arrested for the first time.[24].

2004, Japan has passed the "Trafficking Countermeasures Action Plan" after the "Relevant Ministries and Agencies Liaison Conference on Trafficking Countermeasures"[25]announced. 2005In 6 monthCriminal lawRevised to "Trafficking crimeWas newly established, and human trafficking is now treated alongside kidnapping.[26].Immigration Control and Refugee Recognition ActHas also been revised, and victims of human trafficking, etc.DeportationIt is not covered by the special landing permitSpecial permission to stayWas switched to measures such as giving and protecting[27][28].

US Department of StateTrafficking Report 2018[29]So, for the first time, Japan was promoted to "Tier 1: fully meets the minimum standards for eradicating human trafficking." 2011 edition[30]Japan is listed as "Tier 2: a country that does not fully meet the minimum standards for eradicating trafficking, but is making significant efforts to meet it," and even in the 2014 edition, Japan is a destination country, a supplier country, and a passing country. It was pointed out that it was a country[31].. In a 2014 report, the U.S. Department of Defense stated that Japanese companies would implement "Foreigner training / technical intern training systemHowever, non-payment of wages, long working hours,passportBy restricting movement by cheating such as taking upChugoku,Southeast AsiaNativehuman rightsHe introduced the fact that foreign women are forced to work in the sex industry by gangster organizations, and pointed out the inadequacy of the Japanese government's response. The Tier 2 classification is the seventh consecutive year from 2011 to 2017. In the 7 edition, about Japan by high school girlsAid communicationIn addition to pointing out that JK business facilitates prostitution, some of the trainees who entered the country under the foreign technical intern training program are in a situation of forced labor and demand improvement. , "It is also the destination and source of human trafficking related to forced labor and prostitution." Japan is the slowest of the seven major countries and has been promoted to the highest rank (7 grades, described below).[32]

On June 2020, 6, the United States Department of State released its annual report on global trafficking, downgrading Japan from the best of the four ratings up to the previous year to the second from the top.[33].

National Police AgencyAccording to the statistics of trafficking victims since 2001, the nationalities of foreign victims areThailand,フィリピン,インドネシア,コロンビア,TaiwanAnd many more[34], It is said that there are many things that use deception as a means, such as the type of job that was explained at the time of solicitation is different from the type of job that is actually engaged.[35].

Conventionally, these problems have been dealt withCriminal lawupperFor-profit kidnappingLaw that prohibits illegal employment and forced labor (for foreigners)Prostitution Prevention LawThe background that each case was not dealt with seriously as a clear slave and trafficking, and the foreign workers who were victims of trafficking at the time of the discovery of such damage Return to home country due to illegal employmentDeportationHowever, it was also regarded as a problem that the trial on the side of the trafficking perpetrators was conducted without the victim. The U.S. Department of State points out that there are still unresolved issues in Japan[30].. The Japanese government2020 Tokyo Olympics-ParalympicWe have formulated the "Trafficking Countermeasures Action Plan 2014" and are working on anti-trafficking measures.[36].

China and Korea territory

Yuan, Goryeo, Southern Song

MasterThen.yuanAnd belongedGoryeo-Southern Song DynastyInvaded Tsushima, Iki, and the coast of northern Kyushu widely, genocide the Japanese inhabitants, and brought them back as prisoners of war and slaves. "NichirenIn the XNUMXth "Mongolia" edition of "Notes", "Futajima peasant, etc." Man or kill or capture. One place for women. Tetsute Yuzuru Ship. Non-captive. No one harmless "(the man on the two islands of Iki Tsushima, or killed or captured, gathered the women in one place and tied them to the ship through their hands. The prisoner could not be harmed alone)," In "Taniiri Michi Gosho", "Peasants kill or kill a man or make a living, and collect a woman and tie it to a ship through a hand or make it alive. No one can be saved. "The role of FumonagaThese Japanese people were given as gifts, gifts, or gifts among the royal aristocrats and some soldiers of the Yuan dynasty as nobi. King of GoryeoLoyal kingAnd the princessKuturkukermish200 Japanese children, men and women, were presented to[37][38][39].

Joseon Korea

Mr. LeeHas a strong social status,White Ding,SlaveThere was a discriminated class.SlavePeople were owned by their husbands and governments and were bought and sold for money, and it was quite difficult to get out of this status. 1894Kono reformWas abolished by.

Korea under Japanese ruleIn the case of kidnapping and trafficking of a girl by a Korean prostitution agency (South Korean girl abduction case) Occurred frequently. The criminal was sometimes a female trader. Also Japanese armyComfort womanThere is a claim that human trafficking occurred frequently and that not only the traders but also the Japanese government was involved, and it is still in Japan and Korea.Recognition of historyControversy,外交It is also a problem. AlsoKorean military comfort womanWomen who claim to have been forced to blame the South Korean government. Korea said there were difficult-to-count national crimes such as sexual assault and beatings, confinement, forced abortion, forced sexually transmitted diseases, and fraudulent cohesion between sexually transmitted traders and police officials. It has been put into effect), but it is reported that it was "just like paper scraps".[40].

In 2014,Korean Shioda Slave Labor CaseOccurs,Intellectually Handicapped IndividualWas trafficked and forced to work unpaid.

north korea

Among the North Korean defectorsDefectionWomen are subject to trafficking, with 20 women aged 24-7,000yuan, 25-30 years old women are sold to China etc. for 5,000 yuan, 30 years old and over for 3,000 yuan[41].

People's Republic of China

People's Republic of ChinaSo every year, tens of thousands of childrenKidnappingHave been bought and sold. Most are considered boys. In the backgroundone child policyAs a result, there is a demand to buy children because even if they want to have many children, they cannot have them, and there are no penalties for families who buy children. Many are said to have been kidnapped from poor inland families and sold to wealthy families on the eastern coast. FamilyPolicemenThe police may refuse the investigation even if they appeal to.

The Chinese government has not taken any measures. In some cases, doctors are involved in the sale of children.[42][43].. There are also cases where parents who cannot pay fines sell their children because they have children that exceed the one-child policy. They areAdoptionIt is bought and sold in the form of.インターネットTrading is also active[44].. The Chinese government says that the number of child abductions is 1 (7 experts).[45][46].

In addition to the damage caused by the kidnappingparentBuying and selling of children bycrimeAlso, 2014According to court precedents in China, about 4% of trafficking crimes were trafficking by real parents due to financial hardship.[47].

In addition, the areas in China where children are trafficked are:Shandong,Henan Province,Fujian ProvinceAccording to the statistics of 2014, about 2% of trafficking destinations are in Shandong Province.

In China, the number of foreigners sold from Southeast Asia is also increasing.[48].Ministry of Public Security of ChinaIt is, 2018Sold as a wife toSoutheast AsiaAnnounced that it rescued more than 1100 women from[49].

アメリカ合衆国

アメリカ合衆国So especially in the southPlantationでBlack slaveWas being abused. As many as 1000 million slaves were sold from West Africa to the United States. In the United States, there was an example of buying a black man with his family. Not for humanitarian reasons, but mainly because the children of the family became slaves of the next generation and could maintain the number of slaves without having to bother to buy slaves from slave merchants. In some statesAbolitionism movementHowever, it was the abolition of slavery throughout the United States that 1840,Abraham LincolnByDeclaration of slave liberationAndCivil WarbyUnion ArmyWill be after the victory[50].. Besides black peoplecoolieColored races from all over the world, such as the Chinese, were sold to the United States as a labor force.JapanBut,IshigakiIt is inTojin graveSleep onclearThe tragedy of people is transmitted.

However, even with the abolition of slavery, fierce discrimination against colored races persisted and is still uneradicated. In addition, there are still human trafficking organizations that buy and sell women from Central and South America and exploit them.[51].

US State Department Classification

United States Department of StateIs "(English edition)Is announced every year[52].. Tier 2 Watch List and the lowest ranked Tier 3 are monitored countries. America'sTrade promotion authorityBy law, it is not possible to enter into a trade agreement with a Tier 3 country, for example, a Tier 3 country.TPPCannot join[53].

State Department Report Classification
Tier 1It meets the criteria
Tier 2Does not meet the criteria but is working hard
Tier2 WatchListThe standard is not met, but the number of victims is remarkable during efforts, and there is no improvement from the previous year, or no improvement is promised from the next year onward.
Tier 3Not meeting the standards and lacking effort

2018

Ranking by the 2018 State Department Report[54]Is as follows.

Works dealing with human trafficking

Here, we deal with works in which the issue of human trafficking is consistently focused on in the works and works in which the act of "trafficking" is an important subject in the work. Works such as "some characters have something to do with human trafficking" are not dealt with.

Image

  • Lilia 4-ever(2002) A movie produced in Sweden. A work depicting prostitution slave crimes set in the former Soviet Union and Sweden.
  • Sex traffic(2004) A TV drama produced in England.MoldovaA work depicting women bought and sold for the purpose of prostitution from poor European countries such as.
  • Human traffic(2005) A TV drama produced in the United States. A social drama dealing with human trafficking.
  • The child(2005) Draws the path of a bad boy who has sold his newborn child for money.Dardenne brothers Cannes International Film FestivalThe work that won the Palme d'Or for the second time.
  • Eastern Promise(2007) Russian Mafia trafficking business in LondonDavid CronenbergA social violence movie drawn by.
  • 96 time(2009) Depicts a battle for the recapture and destruction of a former CIA agent whose daughter and his friend were kidnapped by an Albanian trafficking organization. The title is associated with the period during which the victim is believed to be safe.
  • INTERSECTION(2009) An anime planned by MTV EXIT. A work depicting the case of the seizure of a brothel from the perspective of each character. Deal with sexual exploitation.
  • (2009) This is a special program by MTV EXIT and has no title. Similar to the above "INTERSECTION", it deals with basic knowledge, cases, countermeasures, etc.
  • Truth Dark Accusation(2011) German-Canada collaboration movie. starringRachel Weisz.United Nations, United Nations Civilian Police (Private military company), A female dispatcher confronts the issue of trafficking to Bosnia involving the local government and police. Based on a true story.

Autobiography / biography

  • (Daiwa Shobo) Harriet Ann Jacobs, Translated by Yuki Horikoshi The story of Harriet, a girl born as a slave in North Carolina, USA in the 1820s.
  • (From around) Marcela Loaiza, translated by Mioko Tokiwa and Yumiko Iwasaki-A memoir of a Colombian woman who was forced to have sex work in Japan.

literature

  • Karayuki(Asahi Shimbun) 1976, Kazue Morisaki ――The hardships of girls who were sold in poverty and forced into prostitution as Karayuki-san.
  • Dark children (Gentosha Bunko) by Yang Sok-il --- Draws children who are bought and sold for the purpose of prostitution and organ transplantation in Thailand and the Japanese people around them. In 2008Junji SakamotoIt is visualized by the director.

fairy tale

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Human trafficking -Kotobank
  2. ^ In Japan,Labor Standards Act5 article, The law6 article,Employment Security ActArticle 63 No. 1 and No. 2, The lawArticle 65 No. 10,Labor contract law5 articleAnd the Labor Standards Act13 article,Civil law90 articleOthers have banned illegal labor, including slavery, and have invalidated the contract.
  3. ^ Trafficking is illegal trafficking.
  4. ^ May 27 Efforts related to measures against human trafficking (PDF)
  5. ^ Government public relations online
  6. ^ Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami Information-Japan Committee for UNICEF
  7. ^ Daimon Watanabe, "Japanese History of Personnel Trading, Slave, and Abduction," p14, 2014
  8. ^ Kiyoshi Shimoju, "Japanese History of Selling Self-From Human Trading to Annual Service" p11
  9. ^ About Japanese slaves in Macau in the Ming dynasty[1]
  10. ^ "Japanese slaves in the Atlantic slave trade era". Osaka University of CommerceShimoyama Laboratory. 2014/2/9Browse.
  11. ^ Daimon Watanabe, "Japanese History of Personnel Trading, Slave, and Abduction," p126-p127, 2014
  12. ^ "Shimadzu Historical Materials Collection" Tetsuzo Kitagawa Persons' Traffic Company Page 152 "Forbidden Goryeo Country (Clan) I, Army Kou Otojin, etc.
  13. ^ "Story Oriental History: Korea" Masukichi Hashimoto Yuzankaku 266 pages
  14. ^ Hisashi Fujiki "Battlefield of Elephant Soldiers: Medieval Melee and Slave Hunting" Page 59
  15. ^ "Tamonin Diary 20" May 5, 18th Tensho
  16. ^ "From" Nanban "to" Red Hair "" Nakamura Quality P28
  17. ^ "Japanese History of Trafficking, Slave, and Abduction" p172-p174, 2014
  18. ^ Ryosuke Naito, "Study of Prisoners in the Role of Bunroku and Keicho," p226, University of Tokyo Press, 1976.
  19. ^ Daimon Watanabe, "Japanese History of Personnel Trading, Slave, and Abduction," p172- p173, 2014
  20. ^ Daimon Watanabe, "Japanese History of Personnel Trading, Slave, and Abduction," p175, 2014
  21. ^ Yutaka Fujino "Postwar Japanese Personnel Trading" p18
  22. ^ Yutaka Fujino "Postwar Japanese Personnel Trading" p19
  23. ^ "In addition, there are many places where trafficking is accepted in Tokyo." "Asahi Shimbun" September 26, 9, page 22
  24. ^ Arrested members on suspicion of human trafficking Japanese women damaged - Asahi Shimbun 20077/24付[Broken link]
  25. ^ Trafficking in Persons Action Plan (Report). Cabinet Secretariat. (2004-02-07). http://www.cas.go.jp/jp/seisaku/jinsin/kettei/041207keikaku.html. 
  26. ^ 2005 Penal Code Amendment
  27. ^ About victims of human trafficking in XNUMX
  28. ^ ""Trafficking in persons" forced into prostitution or forced labor If the victim asks for help, go to the nearest police station". Government public relations (September 2014, 5). 2014/6/7Browse.
  29. ^ 2018 Trafficking in Persons Report (Part Regarding Japan) (Report). US Embassy in Japan. https://jp.usembassy.gov/ja/tip-2018-ja/. 
  30. ^ a b 2011 Trafficking in Persons Report (Excerpt / Report on Japan) (Report). US Embassy. http://japanese.japan.usembassy.gov/j/p/tpj-20110727a.html. 
  31. ^ US Embassy "2014 Trafficking in Persons Report (Parts on Japan)"[2]
  32. ^ "JK business makes prostitution easy ... US trafficking report”. Nippon Television Network Corporation news24 (July 2015, 7). 2015/11/12Browse.
  33. ^ "US / Trafficking Report, Downgrading Japan Skill Training / Child Prostitution, Countermeasures" Insufficient ": Asahi Shimbun Digital". Asahi Shimbun(July 2020, 6). https://www.asahi.com/articles/DA3S14527882.html 
  34. ^ About trafficking offenses in 25 (PDF)
  35. ^ About trafficking offenses in 24 (PDF)
  36. ^ May 27 Efforts related to measures against human trafficking (PDF)
  37. ^ Tetsuo Ebisawa, "The Yuan Dynasty Nobi Problem," "Social and Cultural History," No. 8, July 1972
  38. ^ Tetsuo Ebisawa, "The Yuan Dynasty Nobi Problem," "Social and Cultural History," No. 8, July 1972
  39. ^ "Goryeo History" Vol. XNUMX, Chungnyeol King, XNUMXth year of the Wonjong of Goryeo "(December), Yang Metal Horse (XNUMXth), Samurai Chukinkata Kei, etc. People, King and Princess. "
  40. ^ 2014.07.05 The Hankyoreh "The government was worried only about sexually transmitted diseases in the U.S. military ... Protect the courtesy of humans'
  41. ^ North Korean defectors' sorrowful complaint, bar association white paper on human rights (Chosun Ilbo 2008/10/13)
  42. ^ “Trafficking in China, the tragedy of a woman who spent 17 years searching for her son”. AFPBB News(July 2014, 1). http://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/3006789 2014/1/26Browse. 
  43. ^ “Uncovering Infant Trafficking Organizations in China”. AFPBB News(July 2011, 11). http://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/2839013 2014/1/26Browse. 
  44. ^ "The darkness of the one-child policy that nests in China, baby trafficking expands online". Reuters(July 2014, 4). http://jp.reuters.com/article/topNews/idJPTYEA3007T20140401 2014/4/1Browse. 
  45. ^ "Some of China's Child Trafficking and Kidnapped Children Go to the United States-US Paper" Record China Delivered at 2012:12 on Saturday, December 29, 17
  46. ^ Women's trafficking is rampant in Myanmar, 8% sold to China, where there is a shortage of brides-Myanmar newspaper Delivery date: January 2013, 1 9:13
  47. ^ According to 2014 China Domestic Crime Statistics. According to a survey by South China University of Technology Law Academy, about half of parents buy and sell their children.
  48. ^ “Trafficking of Asian Women, Increasing in China”. AFPBB News(July 2011, 11). http://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/2843929 2014/1/26Browse. 
  49. ^ "Rescue 1100 foreign women "sold as wives"”. AFP (July 2019, 6). 2019/6/23Browse.
  50. ^ "Slave Trade III-History of American Slavery-”. Benedict Co., Ltd. 2014/1/26Browse.
  51. ^ "Detected a trafficking organization for sexual purposes in the southern United States and rescued 11 women". AFPBB News(July 2013, 1). http://www.afpbb.com/articles/-/2921727?pid=10122651 2014/1/26Browse. 
  52. ^ Trafficking in Persons Report 2015
  53. ^ US Trafficking Report Raises Malaysia / Cuba Rating reuters July 2015, 7
  54. ^ Trafficking in Persons Report 2018: Tier Placements and Regional Maps 2018.11.13 View

Related item

Predisposition to trafficking

Relationship with Japanese tradition

事件

Trafficking-related organizations

Laws, treaties, sins

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