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Electronic circuits include analog electronic circuits and digital electronic circuits.. Can amplify signals, calculate, transfer data, etc... Circuits can be constructed by interconnecting individual electronic components with wires of electrical conductors, but in recent yearsPrinted boardToPhotolithographyMake the wiring withSolderBuild a circuit by fixing electronic parts with.
Integrated circuitThen,SiliconElements and wiring on a substrate made of semiconductor such as.. An integrated circuit is also a type of electronic circuit, but in this article, the integrated circuit is treated as an indivisible component. For the electronic circuits inside the integrated circuitIntegrated circuitSee article.
Printed circuit boards are not suitable for prototyping, so for evaluation of new designsbread board,Universal boardEtc. are commonly used. They can quickly make changes to the circuit during development.
bigAnalog circuit-Digital circuit(Logic circuit) ・Analog and digital mixed signal circuit (Analog-digital conversion circuit,Digital-analog conversion circuitEtc.) handlefrequencyByHigh frequency circuitIn some cases, it may be divided.
Analog circuitCorresponds to the current orVoltageIs an electronic circuit that changes continuously with time. As a basic configuration of analog circuitSeries circuitとParallel circuitThere is. In the series circuit, electronic components are arranged on the same current path. For example, there is a line of light bulbs used for Christmas illuminations. In this case, if one of the bulbs burns out, all the bulbs will go out. In the parallel circuit, the same voltage is applied to each electronic component, and the current is distributed according to the electric resistance value of each component.
As a basic component of an analog circuit,wiring,Resistor,Capacitor,coil,diode,TransistorThere (recently,MemistaIs also added as one of the basic elements). The wiring is represented by a straight line, and each part is represented by a symbol.circuit diagramIt is generally expressed by. For analysis of analog circuitsKirchhoff's lawTo use. That is, the sum of all the currents at a certain node (the point where the wiring intersects) is always 0, and the sum of the voltages on the wiring forming the closed circuit is 0. Wiring is generallyElectric resistanceIt is considered to be an ideal electric conductor with no voltage applied.Electric resistance,reactanceTo explicitly giveResistor,coillikePassive elementTo add. Such as a transistorActive elementWas controlledCurrent sourceorVoltage sourceOften treated as. For exampleField effect transistorCan be modeled as a source-drain current source whose current is controlled by the gate-source voltage.
If the size of the circuit is close to the wavelength of the signal frequency it handles, more sophisticated techniques must be used. The wiring isTransmission lineTreated as a certain characteristicImpedanceIt is desirable to have. The transmitted and reflected waves are determined from the impedance at the start and end points. Such consideration becomes important when the frequency to be handled is higher than GHz. Since the integrated circuit has short wiring, it can be handled as a group of elements up to about 10 GHz.
As an alternative model, an independent power supply as a basic electronic unitElectromagnetic inductionMay be adopted. In this case, it depends on the frequency as the secondary electronic component.Negative resistance,GyratorCan handle, etc.
Digital circuitLet's assume that the electrical signal has discrete values,Truth valueOr represents a number.. These values represent the information to process. In most cases it is encoded as binary and one voltage (generally the higher voltage)Binary number'1', and another voltage (generally ground potential 1V) represents binary '0'. Digital circuits use many logic elementsLogic circuitConfigureBoolean logicIs a function ofAND,OR,NOTAnd implement possible combinations of them.Positive feedbackInterconnecting the transistors in a way that providesLatch circuit,flip flop, The circuit can take two or more metastable states, and keeps one state until the external input changes. Therefore the digital circuitlogicAnd memory can be provided, and arbitrary calculation functions can be configured. Memory using flip-flopsSRAMCall. Often usedDRAMIs a memory that stores electric charge in a capacitor.
Since each logic gate regenerates a signal in a digital circuit, it is possible to ignore points such as attenuation, gain, and offset voltage that should be taken into consideration in analog design. Easy to design. As a result, complex digital circuits in which a large number of logic elements are integrated on a single silicon chip can be mass-produced at low cost. Such digital integrated circuits are widely used in modern electronic devices such as calculators, cell phones and computers.
Digital circuitMicroprocessorGeneral-purpose calculation chips such asASICIt is used in logic circuits for specific purposes such as. Logic circuit configuration can be changed after factory shipmentFPGAAre also widely used.
Mixed signal circuit
A mixed signal circuit or hybrid circuit simultaneously includes elements of analog circuits and elements of digital circuits. For example,comparator,Multi vibrator,Phase synchronization circuit (PLL), ADC (Analog-digital conversion circuit), DAC (Digital-analog conversion circuit)and so on. Recent wireless circuits and communication circuits use mixed signal circuits. For example, in a receiver, an analog circuit amplifies and frequency-converts a signal, converts the signal into a digital signal, and then processes the digital circuit.
- Wiring parts
- Active element: An element that performs active operations such as amplification and rectification.
- Passive element(parts.Resistor,coil,CapacitorSuch)
- ^ Satoshi Iwata "Electronic Circuits New Inter-University" 2008, p. 1
- ^ Charles Alexander and Matthew Sadiku (2004). Fundamentals of Electric Circuits. McGraw-Hill.
- ^ Richard Jaeger (1997). Microelectronic Circuit Design. McGraw-Hill.
- ^ John Hayes (1993). Introduction to Digital Logic Design. Addison Wesley.
- Japan Electronic Circuits Association
- Electronic circuit basics -Tohoku Gakuin University
- Understand the basics and applications of electronic design --EDN Japan
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