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From high-end gaming laptop MSI with "spacecraft" design
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It has a built-in 99.9Whr battery with a capacity that is the limit that can be carried on board an aircraft without restrictions.
MSI Computer Japan (MSI, Tokyodai ...), which handles personal computers (PCs) and peripherals. → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
"Light aircraft" (balloon,airshipEtc.) and "heavy aircraft" (グ ラ イ ダ ー,airplaneEtc.).. A light aircraft is one that utilizes the fact that gas, which is lighter than air, has static buoyancy.WingsWorking air dynamicsLiftIs to use.airplane,Rotorcraft,Glider,airshipEtc. are included.
Aircraft are legally given different definitions for different purposes. In the following, a typical definition from the perspective of aviation administration is illustrated.
- Definition by ICAO
- Chicago Convention(International Civil Aviation Convention) does not have a general definition of aircraft,International Civil Aviation OrganizationIn some of its annexes to the Convention (ICAO), "the bearing capacity in the atmosphere is defined as thereactionAny equipment you can get from I am trying. In addition, the phrase "other than the reaction of air on the surface of the earth" is 196711/6It was added toHovercraftWill be excluded.
- U.S. Aviation Administrative Definition
- 米 国 OfUnited States CodePart 49, Part VII, Part A (Air Traffic and Safety) states "any contrivance invented, used, or designed to navigate, or fly in, the air. , Or any designed device)” (49 USC §40102(a)(6)). On the other hand, in Federal Regulations Vol. 14 Chapter 1 (Federal Aviation Bureau of the Ministry of Transport), "a device that is used or intended to be used for flight in the air" is used or used. Device intended to be)' (14 CFR §1.1).
- Japanese Aviation Administration Definition
- Japan OfAviation lawThen, "People can ride and serve for aviationairplane,Rotorcraft,Glideras well as the airshipOtherCabinet Order"Equipment that can be used for aviation as specified in". (Article 2, Paragraph 1 of the Civil Aviation Law) However, there is currently no equipment that falls under the Cabinet Order. Also,balloon,Unmanned aerial vehicle(Aviation Law, Article 2, paragraph 22),rocketEtc. are not included in the aircraft because they are out of this definition.
Classification of aircraft
There are various taxonomies. Generally the aircraftdensity 空 気LighterLight aircraftAnd heavier than airHeavy aircraftIt is roughly divided into two. Besides, based on the operator of the aircraft and the purpose of operation, etc.Commercial aircraft"/"Military aircraftThere is a method to classify. In addition, "manned aircraft"/"Drone(Unmanned aerial vehicle)"are categorized. AlsoengineDepending on the type ofTurbine(Machine)"/"piston(Machine)" (or "Reciprocating(Machine)”).
volumeThe big "Enjoy (風 船Something like that)hydrogen,heliumLighter than the atmosphere, such as heated airgasBy filling with, the average specific gravity of the aircraft is made lighter than air, and it is an aircraft that flies with buoyancy (static lift). Also known as LTA (Lighter-Than-Air) aircraft or aerostat.
- Light airship
- A light aircraft that has a propulsion device and can be operated. Has a rigid skeleton structureRigid airship(ZeppelinEtc.) and have no skeletonAirshipThere is.
- A light aircraft that does not have a propulsion device.burnerUse the air heated byhot air balloonAnd use hydrogen, helium, etc.Gas balloonThere is.
Wingsaroundatmosphere OfItineraryCaused byLiftAn aircraft that floats and flies with (dynamic lift). Depending on the wing type, it is divided into fixed-wing aircraft and rotary-wing aircraft. With HTA (Heavier-Than-Air) aircraft or aerodyne.
- Fixed wing aircraft
- An aircraft that has wings for lift and is fixed to the airframe, and obtains lift by moving in the atmosphere. Airframe with variable wing plane shape (Variable wing aircraft) Is also included.
- A fixed wing aircraft equipped with a propulsion device. To create propulsionengineIs a manned aircraftJet engine,Piston engineSuch asInternal combustion engineIs the main. Generally not 1,500 although not classified by ICAOkgA single-engine reciprocating aircraft with a seating capacity of 2-6 people is called a light aircraft.JapanAccording to the aviation law of Japan, a navigation aircraft with a simple structure equipped with a landing (water) device and a power unit is not an airplaneUltralight motiveClassify.
- Vertical takeoff and landing aircraft
- An airplane that can take off and land vertically like a helicopter. Some jet planes have their engine nozzles facing downwards, and some have lift engines for vertical takeoff and landing separately from those for propulsion. Vertical takeoff and landing by tilting the rotorTilt rotor machineEtc. also have the characteristics of a rotary wing aircraft. Also, although you cannot take off verticallyShort-range takeoff vertical landing aircraft (STOVL)There is also what is called.
- グ ラ イ ダ ー(Glider)
- Fixed-wing aircraft that do not have power. Towing by another plane or on the groundwinchTake off by external power, such as winding the cable by, and after the takeoff is separated and glides. Those equipped with propulsion devices for takeoff and re-climbingMotor gliderCalled. The crew is limited to 2 people.
- Paragliding,hang glidingIs not an aircraft under Japanese aviation law.
- Heavy airship
- The entire hullLifting bodyNext, the propeller and other parts of the hull will gain propulsionLiftTo surface.
- An aircraft that floats in the air due to lift generated by its rotating wings.
- Orniopter(Flapping machine)
- The one that gains lift by flapping its wings. It exists in radio control. Manned aircraft have yet to successfully take off without auxiliary power[Note 1].
- A heavy aircraft that flies only by thrust, regardless of lift
- Less than 7t,Light aircraftFrom a small single-engine machine such asBeechcraft King AirTwin-engined business machines such as
- Airbus A380Dedicated category.
Since most of the aircraft in this category are of medium size, it is planned to be subdivided into 6 stages in "Coordinated Decision Making (ACDM)" aimed at improving operational efficiency of air traffic control..
Human beings have long been eager to fly in the sky, and although the concept of various flight machines was set up, the machine that actually flew in the sky was invented for the first time. 1783Was that.France OfMontgolfier BrothersThis yearhot air balloonInvented However, this did not mean that it could move freely in the air, and the development of machines that flew in the air with power continued. 1903Toアメリカ合衆国 OfWright brothersFly by power, so-calledairplaneInvented, and the aircraft developed rapidly thereafter.
Relationship with ship
Aviation laws, terms, customs,ShipMany are derived from. For example, the following examples can be given.
- Passenger planeLet's compare it to a passenger ship,ship),kitchenToGalley』I call it.
- EnglishLet’s call the conductor “Captain (captain)”. (日本語Then the aircraftCaptain, The shipCaptain）
- The crew memberscrew)” and is called an “air crew.Flight attendantIs called a stewardess because it is a passenger ship crew member.
- On the left side of the aircraftPortside(port side), right side of the aircraft toStarboard side(starboard side)".
- In the air, drive on the right as you would at sea.Starboard boat priority principleThere is a rule based on, and a red light on the port side and a green light on the starboard side.
- Set the departure/arrival location to "empty"HarborCall it "(air"port")". Even if there are doors on both sides, there is no legal provision, and basically you get on and off from the port side as well as a ship. Most of the models that open the canopy and board are hinged on the right side.
- Charter contractSimilar toAircraft leasingIs performed.
Take off and land on land runwaysAmphibious aircraftIs basically treated as an aircraft.
Aircraft use only certified parts and are basically made to order, so even a small aircraft takes time to deliver and is expensive. For this reason, the second-hand market is developing, with manufacturers selling refurbished certified second-hand machines and a large number of vendors specializing in second-hand machines. As long as there are parts that haveBoeingとAirbusOf the two major companies have set up organizations to promote reuse (AFRA,PAMELA). Also, buying and selling parts, Many companies develop and sell repair parts and upgrade parts for discontinued aircraft[Note 2].
Buying and selling large passenger aircraftAirlinesHowever, large aircraft are very expensive, it takes several years to deliver them, and it is difficult to adjust to meet demand, so it enters between manufacturers and airlines.Aircraft leasingLarge relationships with financial institutions, such as the existence of many specialized companies.. In addition to affirmations, contracts have a unique style such as temporarily contracting for additional purchases, fixing them according to financial conditions and demand, and buying and selling purchase rights between airlines. Since it takes a long time to complete, there is a case where the airline company's management deteriorates after ordering and the aircraft that cannot be paid and is retained by the manufacturer is sold as a new old machine... Aircraft have a mechanical lifeLegal useful lifeBecause there is a large difference in sales, even parts can be sold, so a large market is formed with many transactions as tax saving, such as a company irrelevant to the aviation industry operating an aircraft leasing business for tax saving.. Small machines andBusiness jet TheFractional ownershipThis has activated the market for individuals.
Aircraft costs a lot of money to maintain and store, and a large number of qualified specialists are needed.Therefore, in addition to the manufacturers that manufacture aircraft and many companies that manufacture each component, maintenance and storage operations are also required. Professional media that provides information to specialized companies, temporary staffing companies that dispatch pilots and mechanics, airlines and leasing companies Forms the aviation industry.
Safety and accident
- Flight -One of the indicators in flight test.
- Transportation Safety Committee(In October 2008Air and Rail Accident Investigation CommitteeReorganization)
- Spatial disorientation -A symptom that the operator cannot objectively grasp the space.
- ^ In addition, as a mere fantasyMagnus effectuseRotor airplaneIt seems that the idea of "getting thrust by a rotating cylinder instead of a fixed wing" is a fancy, but there is no successful example.
- ^ For example Learjet Maintenance and Parts-Banyan Air Service -Out of production obsoleteLear jetA company that replaces machines with new engines that meet modern noise standards and sells and installs its own winglets.
- ^ a b c d e f Britannica Encyclopedia"aircraft"
- ^ a b Kojien Fifth Edition p.889 “Aircraft”
- ^ From the Japanese translation of the foundation
- ^ "Classification of aircraft”.“ Sky Day ”/“ Sky Season ”Executive Committee. 2016/5/26Browse.
- ^ "Aviation practical encyclopedia". Japan AirlinesCo., Ltd. 2016/5/26Browse.
- ^ Aviation trivia (25) A380 and 787-8 are the same large aircraft! What is the correct standard for large aircraft, medium aircraft, and small aircraft? -Mynavi news
- ^ Close-up! Air traffic controller Tetsuya Murayama Icarus Publishing 2018 ISBN-978 4802206242 p122
- ^ [Working car] Towing car-Working car at the airport that supports JAL's scheduled operation Vol.1 ~ (2/2) | Working car [Autoc One]
- ^ a b Real value of used Boeing 747 "old government machine costs about 30 billion yen" - GentoshaGold online
- ^ 7th Aircraft Finance - Hitotsubashi UniversitySumitomo Mitsui Banking CorporationEndowed lecture
- ^ US Air Force purchases former Trans-Aero 747-8 for next presidential aircraft Cost reduction with new old aircraft -Aviation Wire August 2017, 8
- ^ Boeing 747, Japan's former government-only aircraft, will reach the second-hand market for 30 billion yen - CNN
- List of aircraft manufacturers
- List of aircraft by type
- Timeline for aviation
- Aircraft takeoff and landing method
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