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United States movies
United States moviesIs mainlyアメリカ合衆国PeopleMovie companyMade bymoviesThat. solelyHollywoodmoviesIt is often used in the sense of, but to be precise, some American movies are not only major movies by Hollywood movie companies.Independent movieThere are many movies produced by small companies such as. The American movie is the largest in the world in terms of the number of annual productions and the production cost of one movie. Another major feature is the richness of internationality. The movie makers and actors involved in American movies are not necessarily American nationals, and many of them come to the United States from all over the world.
recent years[When?]Then.The cost of production and the actors' soaring prices have risen, making it hard to make a blockbuster work like at one point. Of large and past works by staff who can expect profitRemake,SequelRelatively low cost in addition to remakes of movies from other countriesDocumentary movieThe current situation is that we have no choice but to rely on such things. In addition, for the purpose of cost reduction,カナダ,オーストラリア,EuropeThere are many cases where it is shot outside the United States.[Source required]
1893,in AmericaThomas edisonBut"KinetoscopeInvented the projector. It wasn't considered to be the direct origin of the current movie, as it was a peephole type where you could see a moving image in a box. Direct origin 1895ToFrance OfLumiere brothersInvented byCinematographIt is.
On June 1894, 6, EdisonWilliam KL DixonAnd William Heise in a studio called Black MariaAs sports's first commercial movie, Mike Leonard and Jack Cushing playboxingI shot the sixth round ofIs produced.. The company continued this year,James J. CorbettKnocks out Peter Courtney six times』, This work became a national hit.. In the shooting of a boxing match in May 1895, a projector called the idroscope developed by the Latham brothers was used for the first time, and a projection device called the Latham loop was used to make longer movies... It is said that these images did not reflect the actual boxing match of the boxing, but were adapted and directed..
1903,Edwin S. PorterBut"Big train robberyWas produced. An early movie with a story,WesternIt is a work that can be said to be the originator of. Movies around this timePicture-story showIt was the stage of such a show. 1905First in the United StatesMovie theater PittsburghWas established in.
Edison CinematographMonopolize the patent used in the United States,MPPCIt was difficult to make a movie in the US because I tried to form a trust to eliminate companies outside the trust. TroubledMovie person(I.e.West coast OfLos Angeles OfHollywoodI fled to. There was little rainfall there and there were various landscapes, so it was suitable for film production. Also,World War I( 1914~ 1918), many filmmakersEuropeI came to the US from The most famous person isUKFromAlfred Hitchcock.
The US movie industry was mainly createdJew OfImmigrationwas. The Jews were persecuted by other jobs and focused on the new entertainment business of cinema. 1912ToUniversal movieとParamount movies, 1915To20th Century FoxFox film, which is the source of 1919ToUnited artists, 1923ToWarner Brothers, 1924ToMetro Goldwin MayerとColumbia Movie, 1928ToRKOThe current major studios have been established one after another.
Everyone who founded these companiesJewAlso, there are many Jews in the cast, staff, etc.,アイルランドThere are many systems. Also known as the "Father of American cinema" at this timeD.W.GriffithDirector'sCreation of the people』( 1915) Was published.
1927, The first feature film in AmericaTalkie movies"Jazz singer』Is published, and the heyday of Torquay is thereafter. 1929To1th Academy AwardsWas held. It can be said that the movie that started as a show started to be recognized as a culture in earnest.
1930 era~1940 eraIs called the "Hollywood Golden Age". bigMovie companyProduced large-scale, high-quality movies one after another. this isStudio systemCalled. 『Event of one night], [Gone with the wind], [Stagecoach], [Citizen cane], [Baghdad Thief] Is typical.
Screwball comedyと 呼 ば れ るRomantic comedyMovies,XNUMXnd Avenue], [Top hat], [Giant Ziegfeld], [New York dancing], [When I was young"SuchMetro Goldwin MayerA large-scale work representativemusicalThe movie became popular. Also,"Dirty face angel], [Maltese hawk], [Count three], [Incandescent], [Third manSuch asFilm noirCalled,hard boiledとFemme FataleA lot of movies involving were also made.
1941Participated fromSecond World WarInside, "Casablanca], [Yankee Doodle Dandy], [XNUMX seconds over Tokyo, A patriotic movie, etc.,War propagandaMany works were also produced. In addition,1940 eraAt the end of the studio systemAntitrust lawWhen,tv setWas destroyed by the appearance of.
Although television has spread as a new entertainment,Parisian AmericanAnd 'If you sing in the rain], [Band wagonSuch asMusical movieThe heyday of the entertainment blockbuster that used a large number of stars by making full use of a large-scale set centered around was continued. On the other hand,Birth of Star], [Applause], [Oklahoma!, Etc., a musical that emphasizes storyline was born in the mid-50s, and created the prototype of a musical film that continues to this day.
Also, the movie companies of this period are different from the ones used in the past because of their differentiation from television.Standard sizeSince then, I have started aiming to enlarge the screen.20th Century FoxCompany 1953Published “Holy clothes] For the first timeCinema scopeIntroduced, thenHow to Marry a Millionaire], [Demetrius and the Warrior, Etc., in addition to FoxSeven deprived brides], [East of Eden], [Long gray line, Etc. were also produced by Cinemascope. On the other hand,Paramount moviesCompany too 1954of"White christmasWas put into practical useVista visionThen,Thief money], [Desperate fugitive], [Ten Commandments, Etc.
Incidentally,1940 eraFrom the second half1950 eraIn the first half,Cold WarWith the startRed pickingUnder the influence ofCharles ChaplinMany filmmakers who were regarded as "leftist" and "cooperative" were forced to pursue the American film industry, and also had a great influence on the content of the work. Also, not in the United States,Europe,AfricaIt was often taken in. 『Roman Holiday], [African queen], [Paris lover], [War and peace], [Frankenstein's Counterattack], [Ben Ha] Is typical.
Although the studio system collapsed, entertainment heyday continued until the mid-60s. Typical items areBreakfast at Tiffany], [Mary Poppins], [Western Pioneer History], [West Side Story], [Sound of music, Etc.
However, in the late 60s, entertainment blockbuster was no longer made, 1967of"We have no tomorrowIn the United States,American new cinemaCalled "DissidentA group of works that portray young people1970 eraSome were produced up to the middle. this is1960 eraHappened in America toCivil rights movement,hippie,Vietnam WarAffected by the oldWIt is believed to have been influenced by the collapse of the social sense of values.
In the 60s, so-called collaborative films produced by Hollywood-capitalized and European-made companies, especially in England, increased. 『Romeo and Juliet], [Arabian Lawrence], [Dr.'s unusual affection], [Is Paris burning], [Chiki Chiki Bang Van], [Oliver!"and so on. Above allUnited artistsProduced by007 Doctor Noo』Is a low-budget hit. The sequel continues to be produced to this day. Also,"Sequel to the sunset gunman, OrWestern], [Gangsters in the setting sunSuch asMacaroni WesternThere are not a few works of co-produced with Hollywood.
Also, with the spread of the civil rights movement, finallyAfrican AmericanActors will receive a legitimate evaluation in the leading role, 1963ToSidney PoitierIs a socialist work "Lily of the field"soAcademy Award for Best ActorAwarded in 1970Little giant"When"Soldier BlueByWesternIt has come to a turning point.
Around this time, studios seeking new sources of revenue began to seek a way to make TV series,Peyton Place Story], [0011 Napoleon Solo], [Spy Operation], [Hitchcock Theater], [Detective colombo] And other television series were successful.
1970 eraThere was another major change in American cinema.Stephen Spielberg,George Lucas,Francis Ford CoppolaIt is the appearance of them. They areMovie schoolLearn in1960 eraToEuropeHe was a new type of director who learned the technology born in. bigBox office recordIn addition to raising it, it was highly supported by critics. In addition, literary comedy has been highly evaluated in Japan and Europe.Woody AllenWas also noticed1970 eraAfter I entered.
1968'sMonkey planet"When"2001 Space Journey'S two works became a hit, and attention began to be given to science fiction movies as well.Star WarsStarting withEncounter with the unknown], [Superman], [エ イ リ ア ンMany hits such as "," etc. were produced, and even after the beginning of the 80s, "タ ー ミ ネ ー タ ー], [Back to the future] Was produced. The 007 series was also inspired by it, and the SF color increased.007 moon lakerWas produced.
Also, from this timeRockyThe number of movies that draw success stories in place of "American New Cinema" has increased.
Also, from this time to the 90's, action movies reached their heyday,Sylvester Stallone,Arnold Schwarzenegger,ブ ル ー ス · ウ ィ リ スSo-calledAction actorIs emerging. In the representative work of this time, "Rambo], [Commando], [タ ー ミ ネ ー タ ー], [Die hard"and so on.
1989ToSonyBut"SpidermanAnd 'Charlie's angel』Has a seriesColombian moviesIn the next yearPanasonicBut"Back to the future』Has a series etc.Universal PicturesVideo software (videoA series of acquisitions of major studios by Japanese companies aimed at obtaining rights.
Computer graphics(CG) With the development of technology, we have been released from the conventional technical and cost limits. Also, the socialist directorSpike LeeThe appearance ofQuentin Tarantino,Paul Thomas AndersonIt is also worth noting that the emergence of video-generation film directors such as.
Computer graphicsWith the further development of (CG) technology,Green destiny], [Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone], [007 Casino Royale], [Lord of the Rings: Return of the King], [PLANET OF THE APES], [Star Wars Episode 2/Clone Attack], [Star Wars Episode 3: Revenge of the Sith], [Pirates of the Caribbean], [Transformers], and many great works were made.
However, in recent years, cost problems such as soaring performance fees and production costs for performers,Japanese movieIncreasing numbers of foreign movies, sequels to past hits, and remakes have become prominent.
In addition,Digital media,インターネットWith the spread ofPeople's Republic of China,Kingdom of ThailandSuch asCopyrightRelatedlawIs relatively looseDeveloping countriesInPirated versionWe are also facing the new problem of rampage.
2008of"Ironman"as well as"dark Knight], the success of the box office and evaluation, many movies based on American comics have been produced,Marvel Cinematic UniverseDue to the success of each company, we planned to make each company a universe, but the reality is that it is difficult to succeed.
Copyright protection period
The copyright protection period is often 70 years after publication in other countries,米 国The case is a little complicated.
The copyright in the United States disappears in the following cases,Public domainBecomes However, copyright protection systems and protection periods vary from country to country and may still be copyrighted outside the United States. In the US, it is in the public domain, but in Japan, as a prominent example accused of copyright protection,Roman Holiday"(It was finally confirmed that it is in the public domain in Japan as well.Roman Holidays # Copyright issuesSee also).
- 1922Previously released (Since the talkie was not developed, all were silent films at the beginning of production, and the talkie will be added later)
- 1977Produced and released byCopyright notationIs missing
- 19893/1Produced/published by, there is no copyright notice in the work, and the copyright is not registered, or the procedure is incomplete.
- 1963Within 28 years after the release of the copyright notice in the workRenewalDid not perform (copyright re-registration) or incomplete procedure
- The production company went bankrupt and the copyright was not inherited.
Other than the above, the protection period will be 95 years after publication.
1963Previous workCopyright noticeWithin 28 years after the releaseRenewalIf you do not, the copyright will expire,Public domainBecomes If renewed, the protection period will be extended to 95 years after the release. The copyright notice of the package of the renewed work is as follows, for example.
- Copyright (C) 1963 Renewed (C) 1991 Wikipetan Films Corp. All Rights Reserved.
1963Previous works that do not have Renew characters in the copyright notice of the package are likely to be in the public domain (However, even if the package has the Renew mark, it is not actually renewed and it is in the public domain. ).
CompanyThere is a difference in posture depending on20th Century Fox,ユ ニ バ ー サ ル,コロンビア, Etc. are frequently renewed,Warner,Paramount,MGM,United artists, Etc. are often in the public domain because they were not renewed.
Many prominent movies made in the United States are often made in traditionally liberal and multi-ethnic areas such as the West Coast and East Coast, and are politically liberal. After World War IIMcCarthyismA slightly patriotic, nostalgic movie was popular after a massive witch hunt in the Hollywood film world byCivil rights movement,Vietnam WarAfter the spread of distrust of the United States itself, the liberal mood of the American movie world grew. On the other hand, patriotic films are constantly being produced in Japan because of their favorable reception, and the reality is that the diversity of American films is maintained.
In the United States, because of the high social status of entertainers, it is famous for publicizing charities and supporting political parties without obscuring political views, and actors support themselves at milestones such as the presidential election. Going to support political parties and candidates is a natural sight in American society.
There are many acting groups, colored races and actresses.
Meanwhile, Republican supporters
- Arnold Schwarzenegger
- ク リ ン ト · イ ー ス ト ウ ッ ド
- ブ ル ー ス · ウ ィ リ ス
- Sylvester Stallone
- Chuck Norris
- Mel Gibson
Often, he is a male of action-play entertainment and an avid Christian. But Schwarzenegger has a strong liberalCaliforniaI also served as governor of the electionSame-sex marriage,Abortion, Immigrant tolerant and Eastwood of CaliforniaCarmel CityServed as mayorIraq warPublicly opposed to the Republican Left (Rockefeller Republican) And the influence of the liberal Hollywood movie world can be seen noticeably.
- ^ "Leonard-Cushing fight" (English). Library of Congress. Retrieved January 2014.
- ^ "Corbett and Courtney before the Kinetograph”(English). Library of Congress. Retrieved January 2014.
- ^ a b Eagan, Daniel (2009-11). “Jeffries-Johnson World's Championship Boxing Contest” (English). America's Film Legacy: The Authoritative Guide to the Landmark Movies in the National Film Registry. University of Oklahoma Press. P. 22. ISBN 978-0826429773
- ^ a b c Abel, Richard (2004-8). “Sports films” (English). Encyclopedia of Early Cinema. Taylor & Francis. p. 875. ISBN 978-0415778565
- ^ a b Rogers, Will (2000-11). “The Training Ground” (English). The Papers of Will Rogers: Wild West and Vaudeville, April 1904-September 1908. University of Oklahoma Press. P. 204. ISBN 9780806132679
- ^ Streible, Dan (2008-4). “Bootlegging” (English). Fight Pictures: A History of Boxing and Early Cinema. University of California Press. Pp. 291–292. ISBN 978-0520250758
- Midori Mall "Hollywood Business" Bunshun Shinsho Bungeishunju ISBN 4166602101
- Mikio Kato"Film Gaze Politics" The Battle of Classic Hollywood Movies Chikuma Shobo ISBN 4480872833
- Takahiko Soejima"World hegemony America read on Hollywood movies" (Kodansha + α paperback)ISBN 4062568438
- Takahiko Soejima "World hegemony America read in Hollywood movies <below>" (Kodansha + α paperback)ISBN 4062568446
- Studio system
- Academy awards
- Sundance Film Festival
- AFI American Movie 100 Year Series
- Golden raspberry award(Razzy Award)
- 2010 United States Movies List
- Haze code
- List of American movies set in Japan
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