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Gay barAndMalehomosexual Ofbar.Shemale,Crossdresserな どWomen's clothingThere are two bars, one is a bar where men and ex-males who have been dressed mainly serve heterosexuals, and the other is a bar where gay men who do not have a crossdresser gather.There is no strict definition, but today's gay bars often refer to the latter,Homo barAlso called.Crossdressers are becoming more and more distinct from gay bars by calling them "shemale shops."Shinjuku 2-chomeMost of them are gay bars, and there are few transvestite bars (Later).
Gay bars exist all over the world, forming a city as one big collective.This section describes the content for Japan.
Mid-Edo period (GenrokuAround the year)Yinma Chaya(AboveNow called Wakashū Chaya)Sales onlyThere was a gay bar that was similar to a bar..Also, before the war, it is said that gay bars and gay clubs appeared in the first year of Showa..
The first gay bar "Yanagi" after the war
The first gay bar after the war was in 1945 (Showa 20).Shinbashi OfKarasumori Shrine"Mr. Masao Shimada (commonly known as Mr. Oshima) who opened the store on the approach road"WillowIt was a store with a relatively strong color of the transvestite bar.This shop is called "Aoe's mom", "YoshinoThat's momToshio YoshinoIt is also known as a bar that produced famous moms dressed like both of them (Aoe who later opened a gay bar in Ginza)Carousel MakiAt the same storeKen TogoWas also working.Yoshino in 1963RoppongiGay bar "YoshinoTo open)..In the willow,Ranpo Edogawa,Alan Delon,Pierre Cardin,Eve Saint LaurentCelebrities such as were also visiting.
"Blanswick" ... "Night song" ...
After this, in 1948,Mishima YukioNovel "Forbidden colorThe gay coffee shop "Redon" that appears in ""Brunswick"Also,GinzaOpened in Owaricho (currently 5-chome)..In the same storeAkihiro MiwaIs working as a boy, and Yoshino is visiting as a guest at that time.The times go down, but Mishima's "Physical school(1963), a gay bar called "Hianshins" from Ikebukuro appears.This work has also been made into a movie, but it is unknown whether there was a model store.OtherKandaHas "Silver Dragon" which opened in 1949 (Showa 24), Shinjuku's first gay bar "Yakyoku" (Tsunohazu) and "Ipsen" opened in Shinjuku 1951-chome in XNUMX..Akihiro Miwa"Purple History" published by Akihiro Miwa under the author's name,Toshio Yoshino"Master of service" and others are familiar with gay bars.
Currently (as of 2012), there are about 2 gay bars in Shinjuku 450-chome alone (Sankei Shimbun, July 2012, 7)...By the way, in the April 1991, 4 issue of "Spa!" During the bubble period, "about 24 bars are crowded around Nakadori," but the basis of the Sankei article is "according to the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department's Security Division." However, the source of how the spa counted was not disclosed.A simple comparison shows that the number of gay bars has increased by 300, but the actual increase or decrease in gay bars has not been verified.
With the rapid spread of the Internet since 1995, the number of people going to gay bars, which was also a meeting place, is decreasing.Also in 2008Shinjuku 3-chomeToFukutoshin LineMini with the new stationバ ブ ル, And many gay bars are in trouble due to the rise in real estate rent.The number of stores for heterosexuals and stores that are converting to offices is increasing, and even voices that threaten the survival of 2-chome Gay Town are beginning to rise..
Gay bar classification
Gay bar (homo bar)
Less than 1% of homosexuals have a gender identity disorder, and most gay men do not dress as women and want to remain male.The men gather at the "gay bar," which is the largest number and is also called a homo bar.There are various characteristics depending on the store, and there are stores with unique masters / moms, stores with a wide customer base, stores that gather according to their favorite body shape and age, stores that gather for hobbies, and other stores that have a theme. ..
- Features / Customer base
- By body type ... Most of the bars are regardless of body type, but there are bars dedicated to athletics where gays who like sportsmen and machos gather, bars dedicated to gays who like gays, and bars dedicated to fat.
- By age ... Young bar for young people, bar mainly for people in their 30s and 40s, bar for old people ("dandruff / dandruff bar" where elderly people like dandruff gather, and dandruff bar for young people There is a "dandruff / young bar" where elderly people gather),RankBars (a type of dandruff-only bar. The mortuary tablet of the lover who died with the bottle is kept, and when you order, the mortuary tablet comes out and you swallow it with nostalgia).
- By hobby (sports) ...TennisCircle system,volleyballsystem,Winter sportsSystem etc.
- By hobby (music) ...Seiko Matsuda,Akina Nakamori,Miyuki NakajimaThere is a store where enthusiasts such asEspecially, "Miyuki Bar" is "West Coast" and "Blue Coral"., "36 ℃" and "Poisonous Nana", but the west coast closed in the late 5's., 36 ℃ also closed around 5. "Miyuki Night", which was first held at the 2010-chome club "ARTY FARTY" (old store) in the late 1990s, is still held at the 2-chome club..
- Gaijin bar ... "SpartacusThere is a worldwide gay guidebook called "(English version), and many foreign gay customers gather at the stores listed there. "SHIRE", "Regent" in the 1970s and 80s(Currently Tokyo Sankyo Shinkin Bank), gay disco black box, MAKO were famous. Since the 90's, there has also been an open cafe-style bar for foreigners along Nakadori.
- Others ... SM bars for gays, most stores have "politics and religion are legal" as the usual way of water business, but there are "rib bars" where gay rib people gather, and stores where people who like Okinawa gather.
A normal gay guy who gets to know moms and masters and talks over the counterbarThe taste is different, and customers can talk freely in the store and stay longer.The customer base is relatively young because the price is reasonable, starting at 1 yen per cup.The inside of the store is relatively large, and the space between tables and seats is wide, so you can move seats even after ordering.Club (≒Disco) And gay bar (snack) Intermediate existence.Popular with gay men who dislike restraint, it has increased since the 90s, but stores with a long history such as "ANNEX" (formerly CLUB / ZIP) are famous.3A (attack appeal appointment) cards and pens are placed in various places such as tables, and you can write the address etc. to a type of man and hand it over..Many gay customers are looking for a partner.Some stores hold gay nights on weekends.
By the way, "It became popular as a full-fledged gay drama.Alumni AssociationThere is a gay bar called "Splash", but the set was modeled on ZIP (currently ANNEX).Also, the name Splash is taken from NY's famous gay shot bar..
A store that appoints a male host.There are many one-order stores.In the past, many boys in the store were straight men, so it came to be said that.However, many stores are now a mix of gay, straight and bisexual.
In recent years, transsexuals who want to dress up as women and become completely female.ShemaleHowever, the store where they are located is called a "shemale store" and is being distinguished from the "gay bar" (homo bar) where male homosexuals who do not dress as women gather.Both are still often referred to as gay bars, but they are different genres.
The customer baseHeteroMost of them are men and women, and most gay men do not go, except for gay men who love transvestites (gays who specialize in transsexuals).Also, it is not always the transsexual (transsexual) who works at the transsexual store, but a transvestite (= a homosexual man who wants to remain a man)TG) Also.In addition to the transsexual bar, there is also a transvestite gay bar whose mom is the transvestite.There is a regular bar where you can drink over the counter and a "shemale show pub" that offers shows.
Shemale and transvestite stores in TokyoKabukicho,RoppongiAnd so on, OsakaDoyamaBesidesShinsaibashiAnd so on. Both 2-chome and Doyama are mostly non-transvestite gay bars, and there are very few transsexual and transvestite shops.The reason is that the number of transvestites is only less than 1% of all gay men with gender identity disorder, and many non-transvestite male homosexuals (gay) do not go to transsexual bars. This is because even if you set up a store in 2-chome, you cannot expect much demand...The transvestite community exists separately from Shinjuku XNUMX-chome, Kabukicho,Shinjuku Golden Gai,Shinjuku 3-chomeLocated in the block of the main town (around Suehirotei).
A bar where gays, transvestites and transsexuals are mixed as clerk.A bar with a mixture of gay and heterosexual customers is called a tourist bar.
MoreJapanese gay culture #club culturereference
Although not a gay bar, gay discos already existed in the 1970s, and black boxes and MAKO were famous. The club "NEW SAZAE" was opened in 1966, but it is unknown if there was a dance space from that time. Many of the gay discos in 80-chome disappeared as the disco boom of the 2s once converged due to the revision of the Fuei Law.After that, the number of clubs began to increase after the 90's, and a relatively large number of young gay men and Lehman gay men in their 20s and 30s gathered. DJs make sounds and dance on themStandThere is no difference from a club for straights.Events such as gay nights and boy hunts are held on weekends.There used to be a permanent gay club "Delight" in 2-chome.
A bar where non-gay straight men and women can enter.However, many gay bars in 2-chome have membership-based tags, and most bars are still open only to gay men.
List of areas and number of stores
It operates mainly in metropolitan areas.
- Hokkaido - Sapporo(SusukinoSouthwest)
- Tohoku - Aomori-Hirosaki-Akita-Hachinohe-Sendai
- Tokyo - Shinjuku 2-chome,(I.e.(Mainly 7-chome and Higashiueno),Asakusa(Mainly 2-3 chome),Shinbashi(Mainly Karasumori Exit 3-4),Ikebukuro(West exit / East exit),Shibuya,中,KoenjiSuch.
- Kanto - 横 浜 市(Common name:Noge<< Or Sakuragicho >>),埼 玉(Omiya-Nishikawaguchi-Urawa-Kawagoe),Chiba,TakasakiSuch.
- Central part-Hokuriku - Nagoya(Girls' alley'Ikeda Park,Prosperity4-chome area >>),Shizuoka,KanazawaSuch.
- Osaka - Doyama Town,Minami(Namba4-chome, etc.),new world
- Kansai - 京都,Sannomiya,Himeji
- Chugoku - Hiroshima,Okayama
- Shikoku - Takamatsu
- Kyusyu - Fukuoka CityHakata(Sumiyoshi-Haruyoshi),Kitakyushu(Kokura),Kumamoto(Shimodori)Such.
- Okinawa - Naha(Sakurazaka）
(1) Number of gay bar stores (according to gay yellow page "Gclick" << 2013 >>)
- Shinjuku 2-chome --274
- Kita (Doyama) -150
- Ueno --95
- Asakusa --67
- Shimbashi --66
- Nagoya (Sakae 4-chome, Fushimi Station) -63
- Hakata --62
- Minami (mainly Namba 4-chome) -42
- Yokohama (commonly known as Noge << or Sakuragicho >>)-37
- Sapporo --32
- Hiroshima -30
- Naha -25
- New World Naha -25
- Ikebukuro / Kokura-21 each
- Kyoto -17
- Sendai -14
- Okayama --13
- Shizuoka / Kagoshima ―― 10
- Kanazawa / Matsuyama ―― 9 each
- Shibuya, Hamamatsu, Kochi-8 each
- Aomori, Takamatsu, Kumamoto-7 each
- Nakano / Himeji ―― 6
- Yamagata / Oimachi -5
(2) Number of gay bar / sales host stores (according to Badi-March 1998 issue "Otoko no Yellow Page")
- Shinjuku 2-chome area --263
- Kita (Doyama) -115
- Minami --51
- Nagoya -50
- Ueno --46
- Hakata --38
- Sapporo --30
- Yokohama / New World-29 each
- Asakusa --27
- Kyoto -21
- Ikebukuro -20
- Naha -17
- Kokura -16
- Shimbashi / Hiroshima ――15 each
- Okayama --13
- Sendai -12
- Shizuoka --11
- Sannomiya / Kumamoto-10 each
- Aomori -8
- Kanazawa ―― 7
- Akita, Koenji, Himeji-6 each
- Shibuya, Chiba, Niigata, Gifu, Kochi, Matsuyama, Miyazaki, Kagoshima ―― 5 each
- Kamata, Oimachi, Hachioji ―― 4 each
- Hakodate, Hachinohe, Aomori, Koriyama, Takasaki, Nishikawaguchi, Mito, Nagano, Hamamatsu, Oita, Nagasaki-each 3
- Nakano, Akabane, Urawa, Kawagoe, Kawasaki, Utsunomiya, Oyama, Fukushima, Iwaki, Matsumoto, Numazu, Yokkaichi, Fukui, Shin-Osaka, Akashi, Tokushima, Matsue--2 each
Many stores are open from 18:20 to 20:15.Some stores open after noon, offer lunch at a low price, open as a bar from around 20:XNUMX, open as a coffee shop (cafe) from around XNUMX:XNUMX, and open as a bar from around XNUMX:XNUMX. There are stores that do.
After the bar is closed at night, some stores are open during the day under a different name.The price is basically the same as when the bar is open.It will be handed over to the night shop during business hours until the evening.
The market price is 1 to 1,200 yen for a set of side dishes and snacks, which are generally called izakaya, and a drink.If you do, the set fee is around 1,500 to 1,500 yen.The price of the bottle varies depending on the store, but the market price is around 2,000 yen.Up to one pitcher glass is included in the set price, but it may be free depending on the store.Dried food (knobs) was included as a set as mentioned above, but there are stores where you can take it freely.Also,karaokeThere are a wide variety of stores, such as stores that have introduced and stores that do not have.
- Anniversary party
- Staff birthday
- Travel (actual cost of participants)
- Year-end and New Year countdown
- Cherry-blossom viewing
Behind the bar survival
Young staff are said to be in flux.The reality is that some people are disgusted by working for a few days to a few months and quit because of the strictness of the owner or the fact that they do not get used to it well.
There are some cases where the relationship with the tenant building owner does not go well, and there is a crisis of store closure such as a decrease in sales.We are trying to make people aware of the existence of the stores by mutually installing event leaflets (flyers) between the stores.Some stores issue stamp cards to those who wish to add value as a privilege.In addition, we will provide support events to deepen exchanges between customers.
- ^ TBS-based Gorou Deluxe "Akihiro Miwa" (TBS-based broadcast on August 2012, 8)
- ^ a b From "Boyfriend for Otokonokono" (published in 1986 by Shonensha, released by Yukiinsha) P132 "History of Japanese Male Colors".
- ^ "Services Cryptogam Humanity", Claire February 1991 "Gale Renaissance 2" P91 (Bungeishunju)
- ^ a b A great writer and a young man from a rural area meetBungaku Ito, June 2006, 6
- ^ Yukio Mishima over the representation of "Confessions of a Mask"Kayo Takeuchi, Ochanomizu University F-GENS Journal, 2007-09
- ^ November 2006, 11 Bungaku Ito's "Except for the Postwar Gay Bar (11)"[Page number required]
- ^ From the Sankei Shimbun, delivered on July 2012, 7, "Shinjuku 3-chome's largest gay bar group caught".
- ^ "Disappearing" Shinjuku 2009-chome "-Who breaks the lifeline of the flower garden of heretical culture?" (Sairyusha, XNUMX)ISBN-978 4779114106
- ^ Miyuki Nakajima XNUMX-chome snacks where fans gather Ao Sango website
- ^ The April 1997 issue of Badi had an advertisement for the West Coast, but it did not appear in the March 4 issue.
- ^ Miyuki Nakajima Night
- ^ Foreign bar "Regent"
- ^ February 1994 Marco Polo "Gay in everyday wear-Gay paradise Shinjuku 2-chome How we enjoy-"
- ^ February 1994 Marco Polo "Gay in everyday wear-Gay paradise Shinjuku 2-chome How we enjoy-"
- ^ Shemales and transvestites used to be called "gay boys," but since the 1980s transsexuals have come to be called transsexuals.
- ^ However, although the number of non-transvestite gay men is small, there are also types who like transsexuals and shemales (transvestite men who have both gynecomastia and male genitalia).
- ^ The women's clothing community has been formed since the latter half of the 1960s, and there are few in Shinjuku 2-chome, and it is located in the main town, Kabukicho, and Shinjuku Golden Gai next to Shinjuku 3-chome (from JR Shinjuku Station) (October 2010). At the symposium "Mediation of Gender Sexuality" held at "10 Arts Chiyoda" on March 17th.Junko MitsuhashiFrom his remark).
Prosecutor's office(Prosecutor's office,British: Public Prosecutors Office) IsJapan OfAdministrative agencyOne of the.ProsecutorTo govern the affairs ofMinistry of Justice OfSpecial institution.Supreme Prosecutor's Office,High Public Prosecutors Office,Local prosecutor's officeas well as the Ward Public Prosecutor's Office4 offices are set up.
Prosecutor TheIndependent government officeAt the same time, it is subject to a command system with the prosecutor's president at the top (the principle of one prosecutor).The public prosecutor's office is the government office that controls the affairs of such public prosecutors.National Administrative Organization LawArticle 8-3,Ministry of Justice establishment lawArticle 14 andPublic Prosecutors Office LawIt is a special organization of the Ministry of Justice established based on.The Prosecutor's Office is located corresponding to each court, and there are four types: the Supreme Court, the Higher Prosecutor's Office, the District Public Prosecutor's Office, and the District Public Prosecutor's Office, which correspond to the Supreme Court, the High Court, the District Court, and the Summary Court, respectively.
PoliticsIt maintains a certain degree of independence from the law and is expected to exercise its profession in accordance with the justice of the law.Political appointedMinister of JusticeHas a public prosecutor's office as an administrative agencyMinistry of JusticeSince he is the head of the prosecutor's office, it can be understood that he has the authority to direct each prosecutor, which is a subordinate body, but from the viewpoint of preventing unjust political intervention in exercising the right to sue.Public Prosecutors Office LawFor specific casesCommand authorityIs activatedAttorney GeneralThere are restrictions that can only be done through, and the Minister of Justice is not allowed to direct a particular prosecutor directly in a particular case.
The prosecutor's authority stated that it would be a problem if the Minister of Justice and the prosecutor's opinion were in conflict, and that he might not follow the command of the Minister of Justice in the past.国会There was also a problem with such things.National Civil Service Law"Employees must comply with the law and adhere to the business orders of their superiors in carrying out their duties.Therefore, the prosecutor's chief is legally obliged to submit to the Minister of Justice's job order unless there is a serious and obvious defect, and the Minister of Justice who exercised command is politically responsible for the pros and cons of the result. Will bear as.
- Supreme Prosecutor's Office - Supreme CourtCompatible with
- The abbreviation is Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office.Attorney GeneralIs the head, and the deputy prosecutor assists.The prosecutor's president and deputy prosecutorCertifier.
- High Public Prosecutors Office・ 8 offices (6 branch offices)- High CourtCompatible with
- Abbreviation is high inspection.The chief prosecutor is the head.The prosecutorCertifierIs.There are eight locations in Sapporo, Sendai, Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Hiroshima, Takamatsu, and Fukuoka.
- Local prosecutor's office・ 50 offices (203 branch offices)- District court,Family courtCompatible with
- Abbreviation is ground inspection.ProsecutorIs the head.
- Ward Public Prosecutor's Office・ 438 Agency- Summary courtCompatible with
- Abbreviation is ward inspection.It is headed by a senior prosecutor (a prosecutor designated by the prosecutor's office in the case of a non-placed ward prosecutor), but is supervised by the district public prosecutor's office who has jurisdiction over the location of the ward prosecutor.
ProsecutorThe capacity of the prosecutor is 24 in 1,810,Deputy prosecutor899 people, a total of 2,709 people.The prosecutor is mainlyBar examinationPass,Judicial trainingAfter that.He may be promoted to a prosecutor from a deputy prosecutor through an internal examination.RarelyUniversity教授Sometimes he has a legal qualification.Also,judgeAnd the prosecutor's personnel exchange is also taking place (Judgment exchange).
The deputy public prosecutor is mainly a public prosecutor who has undergone an internal examination.Although rare, after a testSDF OfPolice forceIn some cases, it consists of people other than the public prosecutor's office.In addition, as an aid to the prosecutorProsecutor's officeThere is.As a real number, the number of clerks in each public prosecutor's office exceeds that of prosecutors.Often seen in TV newsreelsCardboardThose who carry it are mainly public prosecutors.The prosecutor's officegovernment officialAdopted from Type II and Type III tests.The public prosecutor's officeLegal professionIt is composed of a public prosecutor who is a public prosecutor, a public prosecutor's office who is his assistant, and a public prosecutor's engineer.
In recent years, the number of female prosecutors has increased significantly,Osaka District ProsecutorAnd so onJudge systemThe target case of the case reveals the policy that male and female prosecutors will be in charge as a pair.
The names of the heads of each public prosecutor's office are as shown in the table below:
|Prosecutor's office||Name of the chief||Second seat name|
|Supreme Prosecutor's Office||Attorney General||Deputy Chief Prosecutor|
|High Public Prosecutors Office||Attorney General||Deputy Prosecutor|
|Local prosecutor's office||Prosecutor||Deputy Prosecutor|
|Ward Public Prosecutor's Office||Senior Prosecutor|
The types of public prosecutors supplemented to the positions of public prosecutors at each public prosecutor's office are as shown in the table below.The chief prosecutor, the deputy prosecutor, the chief prosecutor and the deputy prosecutor are placed only in certain types of offices.On the other hand, prosecutors are placed in all kinds of offices.
|Type of prosecutor||Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office||High inspection||Ground check||Ward inspection|
|Deputy Chief Prosecutor||○|
Public Prosecutor's Office executive
List the certifiers among the public prosecutor's office executives
|Official office||Name||Phonetic||Inauguration date||Educational History||Judicial training period||former job|
|Attorney General||Makoto Hayashi||Makoto Hayashi||2020/7/17||Faculty of Law, University of TokyoGraduated (1981)||35 period||Tokyo High Public Prosecutors Office Attorney General|
|Deputy Chief Prosecutor||Yoshikazu Ochiai||Ochiai Yoshikazu||2020/7/17||Graduated from the Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo (1984)||38 period||Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office Criminal Director|
|Tokyo High Public Prosecutor's OfficeAttorney General||Toru Sakai||Toru Sakai||2020/7/17||Graduated from the Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo (1982)||36 period||Deputy Chief Prosecutor|
|Osaka High Public Prosecutor's OfficeAttorney General||Kazuo Sakakibara||Kazuo Sakakibara||2020/1/9||Graduated from the Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo (1982)||36 period||Fukuoka High Public Prosecutor's Office Attorney General|
|Nagoya High Public Prosecutor's OfficeAttorney General||Kiyoaki Nakagawa||Nakagawa Seimei||2020/5/29||Graduated from the Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo (1982)||36 period||Public Security Intelligence AgencySecretary|
|Hiroshima High Public Prosecutor's OfficeAttorney General||Ryoichi Nakahara||Ryoichi Nakahara||2020/3/30||Keio University Faculty of LawGraduated (1982)||37 period||Yokohama District Public Prosecutor's Office Prosecutor|
|Fukuoka High Public Prosecutor's OfficeAttorney General||Yukio Kai||Yukio Kai||2020/6/19||Graduated from the Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo (1982)||36 period||Takamatsu High Public Prosecutor's Office Attorney General|
|Sendai High Public Prosecutors OfficeAttorney General||Ryotaro Ohashi||Obaryotaro||2020/3/30||Waseda University Faculty of LawGraduated (1984)||38 period||Legal Research Institutelong|
|Sapporo High Public Prosecutor's OfficeAttorney General||Hiroshi Kataoka||Hiroshi Kataoka||2020/1/9||Graduated from the Faculty of Law, University of Tokyo (1983)||37 period||Nagoya District Public Prosecutor's Office Prosecutor|
|Takamatsu High Public Prosecutor's OfficeAttorney General||Tetsuya Sogi||Sogi Tetsuya||2020/6/19||Graduated from Waseda University Faculty of Law (1984)||38 period||Tokyo Public Prosecutor's Office Prosecutor|
The government offices that have the authority to exercise the right of prosecution are the individual government offices (that is, each prosecutor has the authority as one government office).ProsecutorIs.The prosecutor's main task is to handle the judicial process of criminal cases.
In that case,PolicemenFor cases sent from (in media terms, "inspection")investigation, Decide whether to file a prosecution, and file a prosecution (Prosecution) After that, for the same case裁判 所Conducts litigation activities to demand fair and proper application of the law.Regarding prosecutionProsecution monopolyIs taken, with very limited exceptions (Referee system・ Except for the prosecution decision system by the public prosecutor's office), only the public prosecutor can do it.
Other,Personnel litigationMay be one party in the event.In addition, the prosecutor is seconded to the Ministry of Justice and other ministries and agencies to participate in legislation and to take part in the law of the government.ExpertIt may also act as a litigation prosecutor as a designated agent in a proceeding in which the state is a party.
Ministry of Justice and Public Prosecutors Office
Each role of business
In addition to the Ministry of Justice, the Ministry of Justice has a public prosecutor's office as a special institution.Organizationally, the public prosecutor's office looks like a subordinate organization of the Ministry of Justice, but the order of the public prosecutor's office is higher than that of the administrative vice-minister of the Ministry of Justice.
Career of prosecutor's officer Repeated personnel transfers between the Ministry of Justice and the Public Prosecutor's Office, centered on national civil servants (there is personnel exchange between the Ministry of Justice, the Public Prosecutor's Office, and judges).The roles of the Ministry of Justice are "maintenance and maintenance of basic legislation," "maintenance of legal order," "protection of national rights," "unified and proper handling of disputes related to national interests," "implementation of proper immigration control," etc. Mainly office work. Also known as the "Red Brick School" or the "Judiciary Bureaucrat."On the other hand, the public prosecutor's office is a national societySecurityFor the purpose of leaving it to maintenance, it has the authority to investigate criminal cases and dispose of prosecution / non-prosecution, request the court to apply the law properly, and direct and supervise the execution of trials. , Responsible for investigating and directing and supervising investigations.
Prosecutors occupy major posts in both the Public Prosecutors Office and the Ministry of Justice.As with the career national civil servants of other ministries and agencies, national civil servants who have passed the national type I examination will be promoted to the section chief of the ministry, but it can be said that it is rare for them to take up posts above the director of the ministry.
The main posts are not "career national civil servants" who have passed the national class I examination at both the Ministry of Justice and the public prosecutor's office, but "prosecutors" who have been appointed as prosecutors after passing the bar examination.It can be said that it is a special ministry that is different from other ministries.
Problems and discussion
Slush fund problem
originally,DemocracyDue to the reform of the judicial system, criticism of the authority over prosecutors has increased, such as monopolizing the authority to prosecute prosecutors, with a weak foundation.Prosecution examination committeeAttempts have been made to make the recommendations of the above legally binding.
But by a former prosecution executiveBack metalAccusationAnd the method for the prosecution's investigationNational investigationCriticism thatIs also happening.Hokkaido Police Back Money Case,Gifu prefectural office back money problemThe prosecution's acquiescence to all of the many cases of slush funds also expanded criticism of the prosecution.
"Leak" of investigation information and "pre-censorship" of media coverage
"The prosecutionPress clubInvestigative information to the media affiliated withleakIt may be pointed out that "I am doing"..At the press club, it is said that "pre-censorship" of article content by the prosecution has become the norm, and the prosecution has "prohibited entry and exit" to prosecution-related facilities for affiliated news organizations that have reported inconvenience to themselves. Some point out that they are taking measures..In addition, the prosecution has refused coverage by media outlets that are not affiliated with the press club..
Relationship with the court
In general, the public prosecutor's officeLawyerIt is said that the ties with the court are stronger than those of the court.A prominent example is the court exchange, which is supposed to show a close relationship with the court.It has been pointed out that such a relationship carries the risk of conducting proceedings in favor of the prosecution in criminal trials, and may be one of the causes of misjudgment..
In Japan's criminal justice, the dismissal rate of warrant claims in all courts decreased from 1968% to 1990% for arrest warrants and 0.20% to 0.04% for detention claims from 4.57 to the late 0.26s.When the court checks it properly,detentionSince there are about 10% of claims rejected, the low rejection rate since 1990 is unusual, and it is said that it can be said that the court responds to the prosecution's warrant request without checking...There are criticisms that there are judges who do not doubt the prosecutor and that they may be the prosecutor's confirmers.Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the facts of the same period of judicial training impair fair procedures..
Relationship with the Supreme Court
Supreme Court JudgeApproximately two of the fifteen are judges from prosecutors, but the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court presents multiple candidates for this election.In many cases, the chief prosecutor of the Tokyo High Public Prosecutor's Office and the deputy prosecutor are appointed as the chief prosecutors of other regions.In addition, there are cases where the Supreme Court judge is retired and then re-employed or registered in the bar association list as follows.
|Former prosecutor||Supreme Court Judge Term||Part of reemployment|
|Tatsuo Kainaka||2002-2010||Olympus Third Party Committee,Japan Airlines,Oriental land,Mizuho Bank,Mizuho FG,Japan Pension ServiceCase Committee|
|Tomoyuki Yokota||2010-2014||Nagashima / Ohno / Tsunematsu Law Office Advisor,Japan Nuclear Fuel,Chiba Bank,Japan Post GroupJP Reform Executive Committee Member|
Relationship with economy and society
Horie (Live door caseFrom his own experience, the public prosecutor's office creates a case, and the alumnus's Yame inspection defends it.Match pumpClaims to be like..In addition, the stricter punishment of economic incidents in recent years has caused companies tocompliance(Compliance with laws and regulations) Many companies have a large amount of prosecution alumni due to demandRemunerationHorie insists that he has come to welcome him.The prosecution, which has both investigative and prosecution powers, has criticized that it is equivalent to trying to replace the entire company as a wallet by intervening in the economic case in earnest, and the police pachinko industry self-regulation To a groupdictateIt's the same composition as the prosecution, but the prosecution says it's worse..
|Former Prosecutor General||Part of reemployment|
|Kunihiro Matsuo||AGC,Toyota,Mitsui,Sompo Japan,Avex GroupWait|
|Akio Harada||Sumitomo Corporation,Shiseido,Seiko Holdings,Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group Wait|
|Keisuke Kitajima||Daiwa Securities Group,Nippon Yusen Wait|
|Takaharu Doi||Kansai TV,Hankyu Corporation,Komatsu Works,Sekisui House,Kansai Electric Power Wait|
|Yusuke Yoshinaga||Tokio Marine Fire Insurance,Daimaru,Benesse, Publisher SBB (sold by threatening high-priced books), etc.|
|Yasutaka Okamura||Toyota Motor,Mitsui Wait|
|Hiroshi Maeda||Nippon Television Network, Sumitomo Corporation, etc.|
Visualization of interrogation
- From June 2019, 6, the revised Code of Criminal Procedure, which requires recording of the entire process of interrogation, came into effect...However, because the target cases are limited, such as denial cases of serious cases and cases with problems with accountability.Japan Federation of Bar Associations,Criminal procedure codeSome scholars continue to demand that all interrogations be recorded, following legislative examples in other countries."Visualization" that records and records the state of interrogation more widely isOsaka District Public Prosecutor's Office Chief Prosecutor Evidence Tampering CaseWith the opportunity of such things, it has become more strongly demanded.However, there are cases where the prosecutor interrupts the visualization, which has been criticized as it may contribute to false accusations..
Special investigation and public security prosecution
investigationAs a prosecutor who focuses on政治家In many cases, we are in a position not to hesitate to expand the situation.As a criticism, the prosecution runs alone and has a certain political effect.FashionMay be criticized as.
- Yoshiro Kobayashi --OsakaCourt of AppealsProsecutor General.DoujinshaBackground
- Taketomi Wataru --Prosecutor (Great reverse case OfHigh Treason Incident), Prosecutor of the Great Court (handling).lawyer,Member of the House of Representatives-Constitutional political partyGeneral affairs.Tokyo Imperial University Law UniversityGraduation
- Naoshi Ohara --Prosecutor (High Treason Incident in the High Treason Incident), Minister of Justice.Graduated from Tokyo Imperial University Law University
- Kiuchi Somasu - Deputy Chief Prosecutor..Graduated from the Faculty of Law, Tokyo Imperial University
- Yoshitsugu Baba - Tokyo District ProsecutorProsecutor Masa,Attorney General..Graduated from the Faculty of Law, Tokyo Imperial University
- Manichi Tanaka -First generationTokyo District Public Prosecutor's Office, Supreme Public Prosecutor's Office.Faculty of Law, Chuo UniversityGraduation
- Seijiro Yamamoto --The Tokyo District Public Prosecutor's Office, Deputy Prosecutor, Osaka District Public Prosecutor, and Chuo University President.Graduated from the Faculty of Law, Chuo University
- Shintaro Kawai --Director of the Tokyo District Public Prosecutor's Office and Chief of the Osaka District Public Prosecutor's Office.Graduated from the Faculty of Law, Chuo University
- Yusuke Yoshinaga --Tokyo District Public Prosecutor's Office Special Investigation Department Manager, Prosecutor General.Okayama UniversityGraduated from the Faculty of Law
- Kuniichi Kiyohara - Banishment of public officeLater, he became the president of the public prosecutor.Graduated from the Faculty of Law, Tokyo Imperial University
Public security prosecution
Before the warThought prosecutionIt was said to be a (thought prosecutor) and had been enacted before the war.Great treason,Security order,Public Security Act,Thought criminal protection observation methodHandle cases such as violations,Prefectural Police Department OfExtra high section,Foreign Affairs Division,eachPolice stationCommanded the special high school staff and foreign affairs staff.Surrender of Japanrear,Allied Supreme Commander General CommandDue to the "Human Rights Directive" issued by (GHQ), the extra high police and foreign affairs police were abolished, and nearly half of the members wereBanishment of public officeWas doneHowever, in the thought prosecution, the number of prosecutors exiled from public office remained at a minimum, so they survived in an almost intact state.After that, after working as a labor prosecutor (labor prosecutor), he played a central role in the postwar security system as a public security prosecutor (public security prosecutor)...The public security prosecution is also called the "flower of time" during all prosecutions.eliteIt is a course, Build a career back and forth between the Ministry of Justice and the Public Prosecutors Office.
- Kaichiro Hiranuma --Prosecutor General,Chief of the Board, Minister of Justice, Minister of Interior, Chairman of the Privy Council,Prime Minister.KokuhonshaFounder, President of Nihon University, President of Daito Bunka Institute.PostwarClass A war criminal..Graduated from Tokyo Imperial University Law University, Doctor of Law
- Suzuki Kisaburo --Judge of the Supreme Court, President of the Prosecutor, Minister of Justice,Constitutional societyGovernor, executive of the national headquarters.Graduated from the Department of Buddhist Law, Tokyo Imperial University Law University
- Matsukichi Koyama --Ministry of Justice (Shinbei CaseOthers), Prosecutor General (Other)Kyoto Gakuren Incident), President of Hosei University.School of the Association of SciencesGraduation
- Raizaburo Hayashi --Prosecutor General, Chief of the Supreme Court, Minister of Justice (Thought criminal protection observation methodEstablished),Secretary counselor.Banishment of public officeLater, President of Chuo University.Tokyo Law SchoolGraduate, Doctor of Law
- Jiro Mitsuyuki --Director of the Human Resources Bureau of the Ministry of Justice, Chief of the Prosecutor of the Tokyo Court of Appeals, Chief of the Prosecutor (enactment of the Law for the Protection of Thought Offenders), Member of the House of Peers.Graduated from Tokyo Imperial University Law University
- Suehiko Shiono --Tokyo District Court Prosecutor's Office Prosecutor Masaru (Thought DepartmentBesides installationXNUMX-XNUMX incident), Minister of Justice (Teijin caseThe protagonist of the shadow),Grand courtDeputy Prosecutor's Office, banished from public office.Graduated from Tokyo Imperial University Law University
- Iwamura Tsuyo --Prosecutor-General, Minister of Justice.Later a lawyer.Graduated from the Department of German Law, Tokyo Imperial University Law University
- Hiromasa Matsuzaka --Deputy Attorney General of the Tokyo District Court Prosecutor's Office (March XNUMX incident in addition to the establishment of the Thought Department), Minister of Justice, Prosecutor General, Class A war criminals, expulsion of public office.Graduated from the Department of English Law, Tokyo Imperial University Law University
- Katsu Ikeda --Deputy Director of the Prosecutor's Office of the Supreme Court, Director of the Criminal Affairs Bureau of the Ministry of Justice, Director of the Thought Department, AttorneysSupreme Court Judge..Department of Buddhist Law, Tokyo Imperial University Law University
- Namisuke Nakano --Prosecutor's president banished public office.Later a lawyer.Graduated from Tokyo Imperial University Law University
- Kimura Atsutarou --The Prosecutor-General, the Minister of Justice, the Commissioner of the National Safety Agency, and the Commissioner of the Defense Agency after the expulsion of public office.Graduated from the Department of English Law, Tokyo Imperial University Law University
- Yoshihiro Kishimoto --Tokyo High Public Prosecutor General (Utsunomiya TokumaCase).LDPMember of the House of Representatives violates the Public Offices Election Act.Graduated from the Faculty of Law, Tokyo Imperial University
- Daikichi Imoto --Prosecutor (People's Front Case,Sorge case), Attorney after expulsion from public office, Prosecutor General,Meeting to answer the spiritsPresident.Graduated from the Faculty of Law, Tokyo Imperial University
- Prosecutor's office
- "Prosecution Statistics Monthly Report"
- "Election-related statistics report", "Prosecution examination meeting decision case statistics", etc. (1 year)
- "Prosecutor's Association", "National Deputy Prosecutor's Association", etc. (3 years)
- "Prosecution Monthly Report", "Prosecution Monthly Report Abstract", "Prosecution Materials", "Election Case Report", "Prosecution Examination Board Case Report", etc. (5 years).
- "Prosecution Research Special Materials", "Prosecution Research Survey Report", "National Personnel Authority Consultation Results", etc. (10 years)
- "Secret document storage book", "Secret document storage book", "Secret document management book" (30 years)
- Ministry of Justice
- ^ "Public Prosecutors Office staff”. Public Prosecutors Office. 2018/12/3Browse.
- ^ Ministry of Justice: Organization Chart
- ^ National Civil Service Law (October XNUMX, XNUMX Law No. XNUMX) Article XNUMX, Paragraph XNUMX
- ^ District Court and Family Court Branch Establishment Regulations (December 22, 12 Supreme Court Regulation No. 20), High Court Branch Establishment Regulations (February 14, 23 Supreme Court Regulation No. 2).
- ^ Ministry of Justice 1947.
- ^ The trial prosecutor and the Osaka District Public Prosecutor's Office are a pair of men and women ... Consideration for sex crimes Yomiuri Shimbun (March 2009, 3)
- ^ There may be no senior prosecutor.In that case, the prosecutor or deputy prosecutor belonging to the agency (if there are two or more deputy prosecutors, the deputy prosecutor designated by the public prosecutor) administers the agency affairs and directs and supervises the staff of the agency.
- ^ The ward public prosecutor's office may not be placed due to the capacity.
- ^ Mitsui Tamaki "Criminal accusation! Prosecution" Making back money "" Kobunsha, May 2003, 5.ISBN 9784334973919
- ^ Sato Yu "National Trap, called Rasputin of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs" Shinchosha Co., Ltd., August 2005, 3.ISBN 9784104752010
- ^ a b Aoki"National Policy Investigation-Runaway Special Prosecution and People Preyed on" Prosecution Leak (pages 28-40) Criminal Justice Deterioration (pages 194-205)Friday, February 2008.ISBN 9784906605408
- ^ a b "Large media and bureaucrats" Kasumigaseki's whistle "coalition that pinches the Hatoyama administration" "SAPIO』Vol. 21, No. 20,Shogakukan, November 2009, 11, p.25.
- ^ Muneo Suzuki "Anyone can do it if targeted" Sankei Shimbun (January 2010, 1)
- ^ a b MARTIN FACKLER (May 2009, 5). “In Reporting a Scandal, the Media Are Accused of Just Listening” (English). New York Times 2010/1/3Browse.
- ^ Yomiuri ShimbunSocial Affairs Department, "Document Prosecutor," Chuokoron-Shinsha, September 2006.ISBN 4121018656
- ^ Kaoru Inoue, "Prosecution to" Forge "" Takarajimasha Shinsho, December 2010
- ^ "Thorough Battle", p. 164.
- ^ "Thorough Battle", pp. 164-165.
- ^ "Chairman's talk on enforcement of law requiring visualization of interrogation”. Japan Federation of Bar Associations (February 2019, 6). 2020/7/29Browse.
- ^ Prosecutor "guilty", recording stop intimidation ... defense protest Yomiuri Shimbun February 2012, 2
- ^ Fujio Ogino "Thought Prosecutor" Iwanami Shinsho p.vi
- ^ Before the war, it was the commander of the Tokubetsu Police and the Sotogoto Police nationwide.Ministry of InteriorSecurity bureauTherefore, there were frequent disagreements and troubles between the Prosecutor of Thought and the Home Ministry Police Affairs Bureau over the command and policy of the investigation.
- ^ 1950The expulsion of public office was lifted before and after, and many of the former high-ranking police officersPublic security policeI have returned to work.The Foreign Affairs Police (Foreign Affairs Division) has also been revived as a division of the Public Security Police.
- ^ Fujio Ogino "Thought Prosecutor" Iwanami Shinsho p.6
- ^ Fujio Ogino "Thought Prosecutor" Iwanami Shinsho p.199
- ^ Tokyo Shimbun Special Coverage Group"Verification" National policy arrest "Why and how did the economic prosecution bury Horie and Murakami?"Kobunsha Publishing Co., Ltd.(Original work September 2006, 9), First Edition, pp. 16-415.ISBN 9784334975050.2009/1/3Browse.
- ^ In parentheses is "Standard document retention period standard』Based on the storage period as an administrative document.
- Ministry of Justice"Local Prosecutor's Office branch establishment rules], 1947.
- Shigeki Ito "Autumn Frost Day-Recollection of the Prosecutor's President" Asahi Shimbun, February 1988.ISBN 9784022558817
- Sankei ShimbunSpecial Feature "Prosecution Fatigue" Kadokawa Shoten, February 2002.ISBN 9784043548033
- Koji Fujinaga "Case book of special prosecution" Kodansha, February 1998.ISBN 9784061494183
- Soichiro Tahara & Yasuhiro Tase speak on the political impact of the Livedoor affair./Japan Foreign Correspondents Association
- Takafumi Horie"Thorough battle"Shueisha(Original August 2009, 3), first edition.ISBN 9784087805185.2009/7/5Browse.
- Aoki"National policy investigation-runaway special prosecution and preyed people"Friday, February 2008.ISBN 9784906605408