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🎥 | Japanese "Sex Education" Thinking of Mr. Sora Kobayashi in the movie "When I Return to Gender" Zero ""


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Japanese "Sex Education" Thinking of Mr. Sora Kobayashi in the movie "When I Return to Gender" Zero ""

 
If you write the contents roughly
So, "sex education" deals with such "uncertain things" and "things that can't be helped".
 

The movie "When I Return to Gender" Zero "" has been released in theaters on Uplink Shibuya on July 7th. THE ... → Continue reading

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Sex education

Sex education(I'm going toEnglish: Sex education) Isgenital-Reproduction-sexual intercourse・ Sexual activity ・A humanOtherSexual behavioraboutEducationA word that means general.Sex education is doneDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularBesides,parent,teacher,nurse,MidwifeSuch,childrenDirectly instructed or cared for by those who educate and care forpublic healthIt may be done as part of the promotion activities of.

JapanAt school, mainlyHealth and physical educationIt is mainly done in the class ofHeartと身体change of(Primary sexas well as the Secondary sex characteristics,妊娠とbirth, Mutual understanding between men and womenGender equality society,SexSeeking for a personality that is not bound bySexually transmitted disease Ofprevention,contraceptionThe contents such as are dealt with.

in recent yearsSexual minorityな どsexCame to mention the diversity of[1][2].

Overview

ReproductionEducation in a broad senseFemale genitaliaToMale genitaliaInsertsexual intercourseSperm released from the male genitalia, which later occurs in the female body, binds to the female eggconceptionからEmbryoFrom the embryoFetusWe will deal with the creation and growth of new lives while following the trend of transition to birth and birth. In a narrow sense, the concept of sexually transmitted disease and its prevention,contraceptionContent such as law is included in this category.

school'sCurriculumIn some countries, sex-education is incorporated, but there is still intense debate about teaching it. At what stage should sex education begin, and how deep should we go?SexualityAnd content related to sexual behavior (safe intercourse practice,Masturbation, Sexual ethics, etc.), and various controversies have arisen.

in Japan,physical education・Health and physical education classes include "body development/development" in the 4th grade of elementary school and "mental development, anxiety, and coping with worries" in the 5th grade.[3], "Development of physical function and mental health" in the first grade of junior high school[4] Get sex education as. In the 4th grade elementary school,pubertyAverage age since the beginning[5] Because of this, many boys learn before puberty, but many girls learn after the beginning of puberty (Thelarche).

At elementary school, we focus on physical and mental changes, and the development and development differ between ourselves and others,BullyingSince it is easy to cause interpersonal troubles such as, positively accepting individual differences in growth and development will be taken up. Also, to promote development and developmentMeal-motion・Recovery and sleep are also covered. In junior high school, reproduction is taken up in addition to changes in body and mind, but the process of pregnancy is not taken up even if fertilization and pregnancy are taken up.

On the other handMenstruationEven though there are classesbraThere are few opportunities to learn about pubertyBreast growthIn the middle (about 4 years with the menstruation on the way)Junior braWithout wearingNo braOr, there are problems with wearing an adult bra[6][7].

Due to the increase in elementary and junior high school students wearing trunks, someMunicipalitiesThen, activities to encourage elementary and junior high school students to wear briefs have been organized.2000 eraSince the first halfTokyoAdachi-kuWomen enthusiastically engaged in sex education activities in some elementary and junior high schoolsnursing teacherIs providing underwear guidance for elementary and junior high school students as part of their sex education, and the circle of their activities has expanded throughout Adachi City. Yogo teachers advocate the wearing of briefs for boys in physical education classes because they can see the pubic area in the trunks, and encourage boys to put on briefs.[8].

The problem is how to measure the effects of education. Currently, the implementation of educationMinistry of education, The effect measurementMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareIt is not an exaggeration to say thatAs an example of sex educationKyoto City Board of EducationDevelops its own sex education in health guidance. Nowadays, there is an idea that it is appropriate to teach the birth of life from a lower grade when thinking about what kind of child care one wants to raise when he/she becomes a parent.

There is criticism over these issues that "excessive sex education can have a great impact on children."[9].

Also for childrenSex crimeBy relatives such as fathers, brothers, uncles, stepfathers, etc.Child sexual abuseHas become a problem, and many of these things have been ignorant of the victim's sex,pubertyThere is a movement to make children realize that they are the rights-holders who should be protected from sexual exploitation by the earlier sex education, but this is also a problem for young children who are not sensible. There is an opinion that it is difficult to have knowledge. Sexual education itself is an obscene act,Sexual harassmentTreat it and let the child absent and boycott,Monster ParentIt is also said that the unintelligible behavior of Mr.

2019XNUM X Month X NUM X Day,Tokyo Metropolitan Board of EducationHas published a revised version of its teaching guide for teachers, a guide to sex education.Course of StudyIt was accepted for the first time to implement classes that exceeded the range of. The guide summarizes the idea of ​​sex education at elementary, junior high and high schools, special needs schools,コ ン ド ー ム,pillAtcontraception,AbortionYou can't know when it's possible, and you don't know the past of your sexual partnerSexually transmitted diseaseThat there is a risk ofSocial MediaTell that you can't delete it by sending a sexual image with. For the first time, I also mentioned sexual diversityGender identity disorderClarified consideration for sexual orientation[10].

The concept that aging of eggs in girls begins with increasing age has recently become a hot topic, and the fact that boys also have aging of sperms (spermatogonia) is becoming academically understood.

From FY2020Kindergarten,Small-Junior high school,University,UniversityThere is a policy to start a new education called "life safety education", but it is said that sexual activity and contraception will not be dealt with continuously.[11]..However, the number of teenage pregnancy counseling is increasing in Corona, and the reality is that the bottom of the counselors to support groups is the 10th grade of elementary school.[12]..Consultations have been received from multiple people up to the sixth grade of elementary school[13].

On the other hand, since the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology also plans to work in cooperation with the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare for questions in the Diet, the Obstetricians and Gynecologists Association will spare no effort in sex education, especially for junior and senior high school students and the general public. It has stated that it does not, but has expressed concern that correct sexual knowledge will not be disseminated about education that does not teach sexual intercourse or contraception.[14].

2018Revised in JanuaryUNESCO'International Guidance on Sexuality Education[15][16]], sex education starts from the age of 5 and European standard of sex education starts from age 0.[17][18]..Internationally, as a concept to learn not only sexual knowledge and skills, but also human rights, gender views, diversity and happiness.Comprehensive sex education(Comprehensive sexuality education) is widespread[19]..The items of sex education recommended by UNESCO include not only "sexual activity" and "contraceptive methods" but also "human relations" and "gender theory" related to friendship and romance.[20].

Sex education in Japan

From the middle of the Meiji era to the early Showa era

Prewar sexuality scholars' discourse states that sexual excellence before the Meiji eraMasculinityIn order to maintain the identity as a man while prohibiting the scale of "," he included a new image of "what a man should be as a man", "Abstinence during school days, marrying at an appropriate time to get married"[21].

1890Disturbance of morals among students from around (Meiji 23)sexually transmitted diseaseThe spread of social problems through the media,1900 eraSex education was formed through discussions between medical doctors and educators, with the medical world leading the educational world, which has no means to deal with sex of students.[21].. The mission of early sex education is to promote the natural and healthy libido of young people.healthTarget andethicsIt is to guide in a suitable direction, and the point of the discussion is "MasturbationHarm ofsexually transmitted diseaseIt was a prevention method of "harm". However, due to the criticism that the spread of sexual knowledge based on science stimulates and assists sexual misbehavior of students, young sexual intercourse and romance are dangerous because students do not teach specific prevention methods for Hanayagi disease. During that time, the education of forced asceticism began to be done, that is, concentrate on schoolwork and abstinence.[21].

Yamamoto SeijiConducted educational activities on sex education from the Taisho era to the early Showa era, and came to Japan in 1922 (Taisho 11).Birth controlFamous inMargaret SangerActed as an interpreter for the lecture[22].Tetsuo HoshinoWrote "On Sex Education" (1927) in the early Showa era, and sex education is not just sexual education that gives knowledge about sexual desire, but is necessary for "all men and women that make up society". Claimed to be what we now call lifelong education[22].Habuto EijiWrote several books on sex education based on German sexology in the Taisho era, and for the masses in the early Showa period.How-to booksPublished many[22]..Takeo Ota (Tenrei Ota) IscontraceptionWorked on social issues through sexual research, such as devising a ring and launching the magazine "Sexology Research" in 1936 (Showa 11).[22].Hokumei Umehara TheEro guroThe pioneering magazine "Grotesque" was launched in 1928 (Showa 3).[22].

Change from chastity education to sex science

The beginning of sex education in Japan is1945(Showa 20)Second World WarThe country has taken the lead immediately after the defeat.Chastity education". Started as a part of measures for sex and security[17].Sex sciencePersonKyoto Seika UniversityProfessor of Popular Culture FacultySaito Hikaruaccording to,1947(Showa 22)GHQWith the support ofWomen's Democratic ClubWas founded and is one of the foundersSalvation ArmySergeant(Priest)ofTamiko YamamuroArgued that "monogamy is a marriage", "prohibition of premarital sexual intercourse for both men and women", "criticism of prostitution by men, recognition of women's personalities, and separation from the commercialization of women's sex". this isJapanese Christian Ladies' PartyIt has been the basis of the idea of ​​marriage, and it is an idea that existed before the war.[23].

1972(Showa 47),Japan Sex Education AssociationWas established from the chastity educationSex scienceSwitched to sex education[17].

Revision of learning guidelines

1992(4),Course of StudyWas revised and included specific guidance on sex, which was called the "first year of sex education."[17].

With the revision of the curriculum guidelines, adolescent growth isChange of voiceFrom "FamiliarityIt is defined asequalityTo be able to receive sex education in theEjaculationI had to make a trial and error such as how far to dig[24].

AIDSBecame a social problem,HIVWith the focus on the importance of education, the learning of the human body handled in science in 6th grade elementary school was accelerated in the 3rd grade, and "generation and growth of human beings" was positioned in the 5th grade. Came to be seen[17].

Meanwhile,TokyoHino city OfNansei School of Nursing(CurrentTokyo Metropolitan Nansei Special Support SchoolIn ), in response to the situation that children with intellectual disabilities did not notice even if they were sexually affected, singing with the names of male and female genitals and dolls with genitals were used for their own sex education. Efforts and Principals' meetings were highly evaluated[17].

Controversy over sex education

Nansei Nursing School Case

2002(22),Tokyo Metropolitan AssemblyでLDP OfToshiaki Koga,LDPHiroshi Tashiro,Democratic Party OfNobuyuki TsuchiyaThree membersNansei School of NursingI made the school such as as a problem "excessive sex education",Sankei ShimbunSocial media criticism occurred, with parents and dormitory staff receiving complaints and concerns from the school, such as being treated by media such as "extreme sex education" and "like an adult shop."[25][26]. afterwards,Nansei School of NursingIs completely changed or prohibited from the content of the lesson, and the lesson is instructed to be conducted under the permission of the vice-principal and the supervision of the day in advance, and the principal and 116 othersStaffWas disposed[17][25].

About this disposalSuperintendent of schools-Yokoyama"At Tokyo Metropolitan Nansei School of Nursing, false class organization or incorrect adjustment of working hours, andDrinkingSince the actual situation of inappropriate school management such as non-compliance with service discipline and other sex education not based on the curriculum guidelines, etc. was clarified, the school staff, along with faculty and staff, took action such as disposing to the principal who did not fulfill the management and supervision responsibility. It is a thing"[27].

2008January,Nansei School of NursingIn a lawsuit filed by a teacher, guardian, and related person of theTokyo District CourtAdmitted abuse of the discretionary power of the Board of Education and sentenced it to a cancellation of the disposition. Also,2009On March 3, the Tokyo District Court (Judge Wataru Yao) ordered the three members and the Tokyo Board of Education to pay damages of 12 million yen.

2013,Supreme CourtIs recognized as "unjust control" such as "inhibiting independence of education",Toshiaki KogaTo the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly side, the decision was made to pay compensation to the teachers who are plaintiffs.[17][25].

Love & Body Book for Adolescence

A booklet, "Love & Body Book for Adolescents", which describes how to respond to the aging of sexual behavior, abortion, and unexpected situations, was distributed to junior high schools free of charge.[28].. Some of the contents were criticized as being extreme and were collected and out of print in 2002.[28].. Was the subject of parliamentary debate in 2002[29][30].

Extreme sex education / gender-free education fact-finding project

20053 month 4 dayHouse of CouncilorsIn the budget committee,Eriko YamataniThe House of Councilorspenis,VaginaUsing terms such asセ ッ ク スIs extremely radical and unforgivable".Junichiro KoizumiThe former prime minister also agreed.LDP OfShinzo Abe"Radical sex educationGender-free"Education fact-finding project team" was set up and criticized that sex education disturbs sex more[17][24].Eriko YamataniArgued, "You don't have to teach sex." "It's good to have a dream story about Oshibe and Meshibe." "It's good to know after getting married."[24].

ThisCourse of StudyWas changed, "fertilization" is handled, but "process leading to fertilization" is not dealt with, and the word "sexual intercourse" is also deleted.Yukihiro MuraseClaimed that Japan has become an underdeveloped country in sex education[24].

How much do you teach sex education sex in Japan?

2013,Chukyo TV"How much sex education in Japan teaches sex" was broadcast and released for free later[31].

Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly Question

2018March: Classes at Adachi Ward Junior High School in Tokyo are inappropriateTokyo Metropolitan AssemblyThe question spread ripples.sexual intercourse,contraception,abortionIs not dealt with in the curriculum guidelines of junior high school, but emphasizes that "you should avoid sexual intercourse until you are in a situation where you can be born and raised" in a class for third graders,contraception,AbortionI also taught and thought about[32][33].

In addition, the pre-class questionnaire includes items such as "If the two agree, do you think it is okay to have sex if you become a high school student?" And the contraceptive method that you think is correct. I used words such as sexual intercourse, contraception, and abortion that were not mentioned. "Adachi-kuBoard of educationCame to teach[32][34].

The question of the starting council isNansei School of NursingAccused and disposed of and lost the Supreme CourtToshiaki KogaAnd said, "I will refrain from having sex until I get married.Chastity educationIt is necessary to have self-control education.” “The post-war values ​​of self-determination of “marriage/not marrying” are problems in the first place. If you firmly educate that “marriage/childbirth/child-raising” is a social contribution, easy sexual intercourse Will naturally be restrained."[35].

Yahoo!ニュースのアンケート(2018/5/15-5/25)では、25,063票中、性教育が必要は90.5%(22,674票)、不必要は9.5%(2,389票)だった[36].

2019At the Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly held on February 2, Keizo Nakai, the superintendent of education of the Tokyo Metropolitan Board of Education, said, "For children to acquire correct knowledge and make appropriate decisions and action choices regarding sex education in junior high schools." , Support each school in cooperation with the municipal boards of education, etc."Yuriko KoikeGovernor announced policy to enact crime victim support ordinance to assist victims of crime[37].

Life safety education

There is a policy to start a new education called "life safety education" from kindergarten to elementary, junior high and high schools and universities from 2020, but it is said that sexual activity and contraception will not be handled continuously.[38].

Sex education for boys

yuanHitotsubashi University-Tsuda CollegeTeacher'sYukihiro MuraseIt is,2014Published "Men's Sex Education" (ISBN 4469267600), the survey results of "ejaculation image" for high school boys are described. About 15% of boysEjaculationAbout 20% feels embarrassed, while about XNUMX% are embarrassed.MenstruationAbout 5% of the respondents answered that they were "dirty" in "Image of," and about 8% were "embarrassed." It is said that this gender difference is due to the presence or absence of education[39].

For girls, parents and schools teach the mechanism of menstruation in preparation for pregnancy and childbirth, but there is a trend that boys do not have to teach separately. In puberty, sexual desire and interest increase, and various sexual information is accessed through media and friends, but it is not scientifically correct knowledge, and misunderstanding and prejudice may distort understanding and recognition. Not a few[39].. When we asked 1 high-ranking boys, "Who is the person to consult about ejaculation and genitals?", 100%, 70% friends, 20% family members and relatives could not be consulted. I could not consult, and pointed out the fact that many children are worried[40].

"rapeI never thought she was a murderous act that severed a woman's personality. I thought that it was one of the variations of sex'' and when my boyfriend's "other feelings of other people" became a problem in unwanted pregnancy and abortion, it was also because I could not realistically imagine and empathize because of ignorance[24]Argues that sex education is a responsibility adults must fulfill for their children[39].

If adult video = the standard of sex, it could develop into psychological and physical damage to the partner. "Adult video is a fake thing." "That woman is acting with money. It is important to convey sexuality seriously so that it can be discriminated that it is something that is (made to be) done.semenBy responding to such things as wearing pants with "is dirty, please put it in another laundry basket", children can say that sex is dirty, nasty, or terrible.NegativeIt is said that there are cases in which there is a consciousness and avoids romance and sexual activity[40].

Saitama UniversityFaculty of EducationAccording to the professor, "Adults who think that sex is unpleasant" and "Adults who do not directly face sex" capture the sex based on a taboo consciousness that originates from a very personal sense, and adults Since he has not received a systematic sex education, he says that the values ​​of "fast for elementary school students" and "how to teach middle school students about contraception" will become a stopper.[17].

There is also the damage of being ashamed of the phimosis of the male genitalia and unintentionally undergoing expensive surgery due to the excessive publicity of the cosmetic surgery clinic.Experts have also warned that the phimosis is filthy and inaccurate information is circulating that it is at high risk of infection.[41][42]..Regarding reproduction, the size of the testes (testicles) is more important than the size of the penis that adolescent boys care about, and if it is underdeveloped, it causes infertility due to oligospermia or azoospermia.Some experts give sex education lectures to students that consultation on male genitalia is urology[43].

Efforts for sex education

2002FromAkitaThen with the prefectural board of educationMedical associationIs collaborating to provide sex education for junior and senior high school students.As a result, teenage abortion, which was 1.5 times the national average, fell below the average in 10.[44],2012Abortion rates for teens were about one-third. Sexual education is known to make sexual behavior more cautious[45].

ToyamaIn the meantime, the abortion rate for teenagers has been around 10 per 5 female population for the past 6-1000 years. On the other hand, the national average is around 1, and Fukuoka and Okinawa prefectures have around 6. Toyama City cooperated with an obstetrician and gynecologist who felt a sense of crisis that the sexes such as high school girls were commercialized in the 10s and the number of abortions suddenly increased nationwide. It is the result. What is sex education? Education is conducted with the consciousness of learning crisis management.[46].

The Saitama Prefectural Obstetrics and Gynecology Association established the "Sex Education Committee" in 2020 so that doctors and midwives can give lectures on sex education voluntarily throughout the prefecture, and 10 doctors participated. ing.Regarding the lecture, the prefectural superintendent of education says that the budget is not available, but Dr. Sachiko Takahashi, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Saitama Medical University Hospital, says that there is no need for a lecture fee and that she wants to create a system for sex education by an outside lecturer.[46][47].

UAF YouTubeMidwife's, which distributes sex education video channels onShiori OnukiAt the Akita International University Sex Education Talk Show, "Sex education is" human rights education "and there is no taboo.What we need to make people easier to live in. "[48].

Pregnancy and contraception

The current state of youth sexuality

According to the 5th National Survey of Youth Sexual Behavior of the Japan Sex Education Association, 1% of junior high school students with dating partners, 7% of high school students and 5% of girls, and more than 9% of university students have sex experience.First experienceIn junior high school students, the number of lovers is increasing in the same age as myself.It is said that sexual behavior is becoming younger due to daily life.[49].

In Okinawa Prefecture, where the number of young people pregnant and giving birth is 400 per year, doctors and the director of the child guidance center are explaining the need for a certain degree of sex education and the importance of sexual consent until the end of junior high school.[50].

In Tokyo, sex education for high school students is requested by the Tokyo Obstetricians and Gynecologists Association, and doctors in the area where the high school is located are dispatched. Reported to be nothing more than a school[51].

Single parent

Abortion,Special adoptionEven if you choose to give birth and raise a child at a young age, such as by utilizing the hospitalization and childbirth system that subsidizes the cost of delivery, it is still unmarried or even if you are divorced, it is 2012 to take over the child. According to the annual statistics, the wife side is 83.9%, and it is the mother who is overwhelmingly the single parent.[52].

In Japan, the relative poverty rate of single parents is high, with 60% unemployed, which is the worst 30th among 12 countries, and the relative poverty rate of working single parents is 58%, which is the worst among other countries. Rank[53] It is in the situation.

According to a government survey, 4 in 1 single-parent households has "nobody" who can rely on child care and housework, and the percentage of households who cannot expect financial assistance is 51.5% for single-parent households.[54] Pregnancy and childbirth when not ready is a major turning point in a woman's life.There are also NPOs such as the Yen Brio Fund for consultation on childbirth costs.[55].

abortion

The number of abortions was estimated to be 44 million in the 200 survey, and 42% of pregnant women at that time had an abortion, and 46% of them were due to the failure of family planning contraception. The promotion of drugstore sales of pills has been answered by the Diet[56].

The abortion rate under the age of 20 is the highest in the FY30 health administration report, with 6.6 ‰ in Tokyo and 6.4 in Hokkaijima, followed by 6.2 in Miyazaki and other areas in the Kyushu region.[57].

現在は中絶件数が毎年低減しているものの、平成30年度件数は 161,741件であり、「20歳未満」について各歳でみると、「19歳」が 5,916 件と最も多く、次いで「18歳」が 3,434件となっている。一方で30代は60,368件、40代以上も15,909件となっている[58].

Most of the statistics on childbirth are from the age of 15, but there are about 15 pregnancies under the age of 400 per year.[59].

The total abortion selection rate, which is the ratio of the number of births to the number of abortions in 29, is 15%, but it is as high as 20% for those under 59 years old.In addition, about 12 people are victims of sexual crimes such as forced sexual intercourse under the age of 1000.[60].

A survey of obstetricians and gynecologists in Saga Prefecture analyzes that the lack of knowledge about choosing extravaginal ejaculation as a contraceptive method and the relationship that cannot refuse sexual intercourse without contraception have an effect.[61].

There is a "national pregnancy SOS network" as a consultation destination for unwanted pregnancies[62]

Comparison with abortion in foreign countries

In the case where the body of an infant was found in a septic tank in a residential complex in Tsuyama City, Okayama Prefecture, the Okayama Prefectural Police arrested a female technical trainee of Vietnamese nationality on April 4 on suspicion of abandoning the body and released it on hold, but in May He has been re-arrested on suspicion of being pregnant.It was a crime that I thought I would be able to return to Japan if I was pregnant because I was an apprentice.[63].

However, if she were in Vietnam, the cost of abortion would be less than 500 yen in the early stages of pregnancy and over 1 yen in the middle.It was free in poor areas and remote areas.Still in JapanAbortion, There is a problem of being accused of self-abortion if the pregnant woman herself goes[64].

Abortion law was invalidated in South Korea from January 2021, 1[65].

Pregnancy and suicide

Younger pregnancies are prone to mental anxiety even if they wish to have a baby, and many women seeking emergency contraceptives regardless of age are sexually injured. Can be read[66].

In a survey of unnatural deaths among pregnant women in the 2005 wards of Tokyo from 2014 to 23, 63 of 23 suicides were pregnant.More than 10 of them happen within 2 weeks of pregnancy[67].

In the two years to 2016, there were at least 2 deaths nationwide in the maternity survey that committed suicide by the first year after childbirth, and a survey of pregnant women who died during pregnancy or less than one year after childbirth revealed that suicide was the cause of death. It is the first place of.Pregnant women are said to be prone to mental instability due to anxiety about child-rearing and changes in their living environment.[68].

According to a survey by obstetricians and gynecologists, 10% of all pregnant women have suicidal ideation even if they are pregnant (desired to deliver), and 15.6% are trying to commit suicide.It has been reported that general sexually transmitted disease patients and emergency contraceptive prescription patients are often dating DV victims and sexual abuse victims, and suicidal ideation is recognized.In addition, 7.2% of post-abortion patients suffer from sequelae of pregnancy (PAS), 76.2% have suicidal ideation, and 48.3% are actually trying to commit suicide.In overseas studies, 12.2% of abortion survivors considered suicide, 60% actually committed suicide, and half of them committed suicide more than once.The risk is especially high for teens and divorced people.Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was also seen[69].

A 13-year study in Finland found a 24% increase in suicide, accident and homicide deaths the year after abortion in a survey of all women.[70]..73 suicides during the study occurred within one year of abortion or miscarriage[69].

The study also found that suicide was the majority cause of death in aborted women.Pregnancy that is too young or unwanted increases the risk of suicide and leads to the killing of infants 0 days after delivery.The experience of aborting a fetus creates a great sense of guilt for women[71][72].

Overseas, many of the pregnancies can be easily avoided with the emergency contraceptives described below, but this has not been achieved in Japan, and as a result, women will bear the burden of undesired pregnancy and childbirth. To the constitutionEquality under the law,Right to lifeIs not guaranteed the risk of major psychological effects associated with abortion[71].

About contraception

For junior and senior high school students,contraceptionThere is a failure due to lack of correct knowledge.Sexual activity that avoids the ovulation day of the female menstrual cycle and chooses a "safety day" is not certain because the sperm released by the male survives up to 5 days in the female genitalia.In addition, there may be a misunderstanding that you will not get pregnant during menstruation, or it may not be known that measures to wash the vagina with extravaginal ejaculation or carbonated drinks are not contraception.[73].

spermAt the time of ejaculationsemenNot only secreted in the previous stageCowper's glandSince it may be slightly present in the liquid, it cannot be said to be a highly probable contraceptive method and is not usually counted as a contraceptive method (PI is about 4-19).Even if you have some knowledge, the condom contraceptive method that can be purchased at convenience stores used for general contraceptive methods is not perfect, and the contraceptive failure rate is 2%, which is 18% including cases where it is not used correctly. On the other hand, the pill is 0.3%[74].

It is common sense that condoms "prevent sexually transmitted diseases" and "combine" more effective methods for contraception.[75]..However, in oral sex where the genitals are touched by mouth, there is a problem that sexually transmitted diseases cannot be prevented unless both genitals are protected.

99% accuracy on the market for pregnancy anxiety[76] Is said to bePregnancy testThere is ignorance of the existence of, and it is a problem caused by insufficient understanding of various sexes.

The maximum number of weeks that an abortion is possible is 22 weeks, and a spouse's consent form is required for the abortion consent form.Even if you are unmarried, there are hospitals that seek the consent of your partner, and men are also responsible for signing the abortion agreement for the woman they are dating.However, this system has been criticized by lawyers because it leads to the current situation where surgery cannot be performed without asking the perpetrators of sexual assault for their consent.[77].

Approval of low-dose pills

In June 1999, a low-dose pill that controls pregnancy by women themselves was approved nine years after application. Since 11, more than 6 UN member states have approved pills, and with 9 million women taking them worldwide, Japan is the last developed country to approve pills.[78], The only unapproved country at the time among the 185 UN member states[79].

In February 1999, at the Diet deliberation by the Budget Special Committee of the House of Representatives, the Central Pharmaceutical Affairs Council decided that the pill approval would take more than nine years for the speed approval of Viagra by Representative Yoshinori Suematsu. The question was raised, and he said, "I have to wonder if there was something big about it."[80].

When asked about pill approval, citing that the clinical trial did not do Viagra, the answer was just to tell the department in charge.[81].

Due to concerns about the spread of HIV infection, the Pharmaceutical Affairs Council temporarily suspended deliberations, and adjustments were difficult, such as seeking opinions from the Public Health Council, which has jurisdiction over infectious disease issues. There was an opinion that it should have been (Professor Hiroyuki Oshima, Tokyo Medical and Dental University)[82].

The reason why the low-dose pill has been lifted from the long-term deliberation is that it is safe to prescribe the male erectile dysfunction drug "Viagra" due to a large number of personal imports and deaths. , Approved only six months after application.There is also a view that this is related to the criticism that it is male-oriented.[83].

The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has announced a peace treaty with the public understanding of the lifting of the pill ban and the creation of an environment where people can watch over the pills warmly (Toshiki Hirai, Chief of Examination and Management Division).However, while the pill was not approved, Viagra was approved as a super express, while the New York Times did not approve a globally safe low-dose pill, and it was sold in the United States after 88 due to side effects. He also introduced that only "dangerous" high-dose pills that are no longer available have been approved and continue to be sold, and introduced the strangeness of Japanese pharmaceutical administration.[84][85].

Regarding sexually transmitted diseases of concern, pill-approved 1999 HIV-infected persons were 379 Japanese men (including 195 same-sex contacts) and 45 women, and 2019 men (including same-sex) in 741. 575 people in contact), 29 of the same women[86].

Emergency contraceptives

Emergency contraceptives are oral agents that delay ovulation after sexual intercourse and prevent pregnancy, and are drugs that prevent pregnancy.No abortion effect that causes miscarriage[87].. A medium-dose pill called the Yuzpe method was once used, but in Japan levonorgestrel tablets were approved as an emergency contraceptive on February 2011, 2.Need to see a doctor in JapanPrescription medicinesIs[88] But in the United States, on campusvending machineYou can buy emergency contraceptives at[89]..In Japan due to this and price range issueswhoIs inconsistent with the 2018 statement that all women at risk of unintended pregnancy have the right to access emergency contraceptives.[90]..Prescriptions for online medical treatment are tentatively permitted in Corona, but for purchasing a pharmacy without a prescription (OTC conversion),Civic groupsSubmitted signatures for 10 people to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare[91] However, it has not been approved as of 2021.In 2017, it was rejected by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare's "Evaluation Review Committee Meeting on Conversion from Medical Use to Guidance and Generalization" due to insufficient sex education and lack of knowledge of pharmacists.[92] However, in May 2021, deliberations on unprescription pharmacy sales resumed.[93]..Since October 2020, the council has been deciding whether or not to switch, but it is expected that it will be transformed into a place to discuss solutions to problems to promote the switch.[94] The right to make decisions in the future has been transferred to the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare.
As of October 2020, 10 doctors have received online medical training for emergency contraceptives, and 1100 pharmacists have also received prescription training.The Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has stated that trained doctors can prescribe other than obstetricians.[95]..By the way, the abortion law in France (Weil method) Made upSimone Weil (politician)In his memoirs, he states that parliamentarians' resistance to the enactment of contraceptive legislation prior to abortion was extremely fierce.Abortion does not prevent men from affecting women's bodies, although men also offend men, whereas contraception recognizes women's freedom and disallows men's involvement. I'm considering that as a reason[96].

Forced infertility problem

The former Eugenic Protection Act enacted in 1948 allowed eugenic surgery and abortion due to hereditary disorders, mental disorders, intellectual disabilities, and Hansen's disease, based on the eugenic idea of ​​preventing the birth of "bad offspring." ..Under the former Eugenics Protection Law, a compulsory sterilization relief bill was passed at the plenary session of the House of Representatives in April 2019 for people who were forced to undergo sterilization or were exposed to radiation and were deprived of their fertility.[97].

infertility

I want a child, but I can'tinfertilityThe illness may be due to aging, and women have the largest eggs during the embryonic period and then decrease, so women's fertility (fertility) slowly increases until about 32 years of age. It falls, and like the decrease in the number of eggs, it drops sharply after the age of 37.Also, men's fertility declines with age.[98]..Women give birth over 35 years oldElderly birthIt also increases the risk of increased miscarriage and the frequency of fetal chromosomal abnormalities.[99].

Regarding infertility, there is also the problem of infertility in the second child, and according to a survey by a magazine company, more than 6% of those who have experienced infertility treatment when they were the second child, half of them are infertility for the first time in the second child. Even if you are in a treated state and want a child and have no problems with your first pregnancy, you may have problems with aging or sexlessness that make it difficult to get pregnant.For this reason, it is also important to understand the reproductive age early for lifelong design.[100].

According to the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology, the number of children born in 2017 by in vitro fertilization for fertility treatment is about 16 in 1 children born in this year.[101], There is a current situation where not everyone gets pregnant naturally.There is also the problem of recurrent pregnancy loss in which the foetation does not grow in the womb of a woman. In 2021, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare decided to expand the subsidy for fertility treatment costs[102].. In July 2021, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare accelerated the approval procedure for unapproved drugs used in the medical field by using the "public application" system in order to apply for infertility treatment insurance, which is aimed to start next year, and in vitro. Announced that it will be covered by insurance for fertility drugs used for fertilization, erectile dysfunction drugs for male infertility such as "Viagra", and antidepressants for erectile dysfunction.[103].

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 41% of infertility patients have infertility caused only by women, 24% by men, 24% by both men and women, and 11% by unknown cause. Has become[104].

ChlamydiaInfections can also cause infertility.Infertility may be affected by obesity and smoking, and while males can reproduce even in their 70s, male infertility due to supplement intake has also been pointed out.[105].

FetalPrenatal diagnosisDue to the widespread use of fertility, even children who have been given after infertility treatment are prepared to have an abortion if there is something wrong with the diagnosis. It is reported that between 2013 and five and a half years, more than 5 pregnant women received a new prenatal diagnosis and 6% of the positives were aborted.[106].

Pregnancy in corona sickness

As of 2020, the number of pregnancy notifications nationwide in the coronavirus has fallen by more than 3% from the same period of the previous year until July after May when pregnant people are notified around March when anxiety about infection increased. Births could drop below 5 next year[107].

However, this may be due not only to the childbirth of Japanese women, but also to the fact that foreign family members who came to Japan returned to their home countries and stopped giving birth in Japan.At the same time, a review of the "illegitimate estimation" system was reported.This stipulates that a child born within 300 days of divorce should be regarded as the child of the previous husband, but if the child was already dating a man who was not the previous husband before the divorce, premature birth, or medicine. It is expected that the revision will be made against the background that premature babies can survive due to the development of.At present, the birth registration may not be made and the family register may be lost in order to prevent the former husband from entering the family register.[108].

Trouble over menstruation

In addition, as a sexual problem, modern women have early menstruation and few pregnancy and childbirth, so they have many menstrual periods in their lifetime and menstrual troubles are increasing.Treatment with low-dose pills is effective, but the prevalence is 3%[109].

The pill is also said to be effective in reducing the likelihood of endometriosis, functional ovarian cysts, endometrial cancer, and infertility.[110].

More than 8% of working women feel the effects of menstrual pain and PMS (premenstrual syndrome) on their work, and there is a survey result that the annual economic loss is 6828 billion yen due to the effects.For this reason, some companies have begun to support low-dose pills to relieve menstrual pain and PMS under the benefits program.[111].

Menstruation may stop when the athlete pushes the mind and body[112]According to a survey conducted in Europe and the United States as of 2008, 82% of top athletes are taking low-dose pills and are in good condition with continuous menstrual measures.It is also prescribed for dysmenorrhea, PMS (premenstrual syndrome), and menorrhagia (high menstrual flow).[113].

The intrauterine system (IUS) that is worn inside the uterus also has a high contraceptive effect for up to 5 years and alleviates dysmenorrhea.[114].

Infection

1980 eraOr later,Acquired immunodeficiency syndromeThe existence of (AIDS) has been taken up, and sex education can no longer ignore its existence.AIDSHas reached the point where it can be said thatAfricaIn each country,Every woman participating in the study applied SERUM to one half of her face and an identical product without the EGF cellular activator to the other half. The study ran for eight weeks, during which time participants applied the serum twice a day. To rule out any effect anticipation could have on results, the study was double-blinded, meaning that none of the women in the study, nor the scientists in charge of measuring results, knew which half was which. Efficacy was assessed by standardized photography and biophysical measurements to evaluate skin topography, density, and thickness.Most of us view sex education as a very important public health program. In some international organizations, it is not possible to practice a wide range of sex education.Population explosionSome believe it will lead to global outcomes such as overcoming the crisis in Europe and improving women's rights.

By sex educationChlamydia,syphilis,HIV OfSexually transmitted diseaseAndHuman papillomavirus(HPV) due to infectionCervical cancer,Oropharyngeal cancer,Anal cancer,Penile cancerYou can learn how to protect yourself from such things.

In 2019, gonorrhea was 6,467 men and 1,738 women, a decrease from 1999 for men and the same level for women. In 2019, the number of syphilis was 4,384 for men and 2,255 for women, which was the same level for men and decreased for women until 22, but it is on the rise.[115].

All sexually transmitted diseases other than genital herpes affect many men.Regarding the increase in syphilis, it is believed that the infection is spreading from middle-aged and older men who use customs and women in their 20s who work there.It is necessary for both men and women to disseminate correct sexual knowledge regardless of age.[116].

Cervical cancer

Most cervical cancers are due to sexual intercourseHuman papillomavirus(HPV) infection affects about 1 people annually and kills about 2,800 people[117].

Human papillomavirus(HPV) infection is often around 20 years old[118]The most common infection is immediately after the start of sexual experience, and the skin of the genitals is also infected with or without genital insertion.

It takes 15 to 20 years for a woman with normal immunity to progress from infection to cervical cancer[119].

Cervical cancer is also called a "mother killer" because the peak of onset overlaps with the age of pregnancy / childbirth and the child-rearing generation.[120].

In addition, the transfer of cancer from the affected mother to the newborn was observed, and the National Cancer Research Center said that the baby immediately after giving birth inhales sheep's water mixed with cancer cells of the mother's cervical cancer into the lungs. Announced two cases in which cancer cells of the mother's cervical cancer migrated to the lungs of the child and developed lung cancer in the child[121]The first group of boys could be treated with immunotherapeutic drugs, but the second group of boys had their lung cancer removed by surgery.Two mothers announced that they had been diagnosed with cancer after and during childbirth and subsequently died[122].

Prevent HPV infectionHuman papillomavirus vaccineThe regular vaccination at public expense was for girls from the sixth grade of elementary school to the first grade of high school, but as of 6, it has become a policy to expand the coverage to boys as well.[123].

In the case of private expense, as of 2013, 1 doses of 1.5 to 2 yen are required. Vaccination by HPV-infected persons does not progress but has no curative effect[124].

Other infectious diseases

In addition, in order to protect the baby, "Mother-to-child transmission"Congenital rubella syndromeIn principle, it is free for some men in their 40s and 50s who have never had a chance to receive rubella vaccination due to the routine vaccination system of the vaccine for about 2019 years from 2021 to the end of 3. Antibody tests and vaccinations are being carried out in Japan[125].

Some illnesses are affected by deep kissing, which exchanges saliva without sexual activity.Infectious mononucleosis(Infectious mononucleosis) is a subclinical infection when it is first infected in infancy, but it often develops after puberty and is also called a kissing disease.Affected and often lasts for 38-1 weeks with a high fever of 2 ° C or higher[126].

The corona vaccine is expected to start in 2021, but the new corona vaccine and the other vaccines can be vaccinated two weeks after receiving one vaccine, so it is necessary to pay attention to the vaccination interval when planning the vaccination. There is[127].

Sex crime

Age of sexual consent

According to the continuation of the sex crime system established in the Meiji era in Japan, 13-year-old junior high school students have the ability to consent to sexual activity. In May 1,Age of sexual consentWas from 13 years old South KoreaThen, in the chat room of the communication application, I provided obscene videos and images of women who were made to do by intimidation etc. and gained a profit.Nth room caseThe age was raised to 16 years old, triggered by the fact that the victims who seemed to be junior high school students were included in.AlsoFranceAs a result of being raised to 15 years old by a sex crime case, it is 14 years old, which is the lowest than other countries such as Japan, the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Sweden, etc.[128][129].

In Canada, the age of consent for having a sexual relationship is 16 years, but the criminal law provides exceptions for "when the age is close" or "peer group (same age group)", 12 and 13 years old. There is also an exception for "when the age is close".England and Wales also have a criminal age of 16, but the Sex Offenses Act does not aim to regulate sexual consent between less than 16 people except in the case of sexual abuse.However, from the perspective of child protection, the law states that consent under 13 has no legal utility, and sexual activity with children under the age of 12 is subject to the most severe criminal law.[130].

In the case of the freezing death of a second-year junior high school girl in Asahikawa in February 2021, the victim girl was forced to masquerade by multiple people and the image spread, and she suffered from this and initially attempted to commit suicide. However, the perpetrator who forced him to send obscene images was a minor and could not ask the law, although he was in violation of the law concerning child pornography and the law of producing child pornography.In addition, after the police have completed the investigation, the perpetrator restores the data from the backup of the personal computer and redistributes it to the chat group, and the obscene image continues to leak, but because the perpetrator is of the same generation, coercion of sexual activity is a crime There are also unquestioned incidents[131].

There are many sexual crimes from people close to us

The perpetrators are often from familiar people such as acquaintances and relatives.A woman who had been sexually abused by her father since she was in elementary school could not confess the damage for a long time, saying that her family would fall apart, but it was revealed in the trial that her father did not recognize that even sexual activity without contraception was abuse. Being[132].

There are also cases where obscene acts and sexual violence are caused by familiar adults who trust, such as teachers and cram teachers, and victims may be deeply hurt by understanding the meaning after falling into self-harm or growing up.[133].

2015 Year EditionWhite paper on crimeAccording to the report, about 3% of the sex crime cases caught are due to acquaintances.[134].

According to a report by the president of the sexual violence relief center, a specified non-profit organization, 7% of the perpetrators were acquainted.There is often damage that the perpetrator thinks that the victim has agreed to sexual intercourse when he sees the victim who cannot resist the fear of being killed by sexual violence.Even if you don't know your face, a woman who has just arrived in Tokyo from a rural area may be asked to tell you the way, and you may be damaged in the car parking lot.[135].

In France, he emphasizes the importance of education that prevents anyone from touching important parts of the body.[136].

Sex crimes are highly recidivistic

Came in 1988Tokyo/Saitama consecutive kidnapping murder caseThen, in the end, the criminal was found to have taken a picture of the little girl naked by his father and was reported to the police and arrested, but if the girl's father did not report with Buddha's heart, the case was resolved. It is also said that it did not exist.Obscene acts are highly recidivistic and reporting is also significant in not causing the next victim.[137].

Sex crimes against children have a high re-crime rate, and it was found that a teacher who photographed a 9-year-old special support class girl naked had previously committed obscenity in another junior high school and then returned to work at an elementary school to commit the crime. ing[138].

Survey on violence between men and women

According to the "Survey Report on Violence between Men and Women" published by the Cabinet Office in March 30, among women who have been married so far, spouses, etc., "physical assault", "sexual coercion", etc. Approximately 3 in 7 people who have been violent "many times" have been repeatedly violent[139].

According to the "Survey on Violence between Men and Women" by the Gender Equality Bureau of the Cabinet Office in 30, 7.8% of the victims were forced to have sexual intercourse, 1.5% of the men, and when they were under 18 years old. Regarding the damage that occurred, 19.4% of the respondents answered "Is the perpetrator a guardian (eg parents)?"58.9% of women and 39.1% of men did not consult about the damage, and half answered that it was due to shame.[140][141].

rape

Of an international political scientistMiura RuriPublished in his book that he was taken into a car when he was in the third year of junior high school and suffered mass rape.At that time, he said he could not tell his family about the damage.[142].

In March 2020, the Ministry of Justice published a report investigating the actual situation three years after the enforcement of the revised Penal Code in 3, which severely punished sexual crimes, to victims, psychology experts, and doctors involved in perpetrator clinical practice. In the hearing, it was pointed out that the victims do not always show strong resistance, and that damage is difficult to be recognized unless they resist violently.There is also the issue that the definition of "impossible to resist (a state in which it is difficult to physically and psychologically resist)", which is a requirement for quasi-compulsory sexual intercourse, is ambiguous.[143].

Seiko Konishi, a psychiatrist who is familiar with the psychology of victims of sexual violence, may respond by herself because it ends earlier if she does not resist, or she may laugh and respond so as not to upset the perpetrator and further endanger her. Testified in a trial of sexual violence from father to daughter[144].KidnappingIncident orImprisonmentIncidents, etc.crimevictimaboutClinicalEven in, the victim is a survival strategyCriminalBuild a psychological connection with and be cooperative under its controlStockholm SyndromeIs also well known[145].

The media estimates that the number of cases in which the police received the damage report was only 4.71% of the estimated number of victims, and 1.92% of the cases in which the rape case was tried.Many of the victims are actually crying and falling asleep[146].

Freezing when damaged

Freezing (or freezing) reactions are seen in 70% of rape victims in Sweden when they are actually harmed.This is also seen in animalsApparent deathIn the state, it has a role to discourage predators and increase the survival probability by becoming tonic immobility.[147].

Unexpectedly, when a disaster or damage occurs, the head becomes blank and cannot react, which is called "freezing syndrome" and is known as a factor that delays escape.[148][149].

Sexual damage to men

In 2017, a bill to amend the Penal Code to severely punish sexual crimes was passed, the crime of rape in Article 177 was changed to "compulsory rape crime", and the penal provisions for rape and quasi-rape that limited the victims to women , Applicable equally to men.According to statistics, the number of underage boys in Japan who have suffered some kind of sexual damage is 5 in 10 to 1 high school boys, and the rape damage rate is 1.5%. It is not that there are no cases, and there are cases in which oneself is ashamed and traumatized and suffers mentally and mentally, so it is important for both men and women to have knowledge to prevent sexual crimes and to take care when they meet the crime.[150]..Possibly raped by multiple men after being swallowed with a drug-containing beverage and suffering from HIV[151], Because it is an adult man, it is not safe.

Idiot

In some cases, a female junior high school student who was routinely exposed to a sexual crime of molesting on a train cut her list with suicidal ideation.[152]..It has been pointed out that the problem of molestation is a sexual crime and that it is important that it is a violation of human rights, and 99% of molesters are crimes committed by men.[153].. According to the "White Paper on Crime" (27), the largest number of men who pervert is salaried workers who have graduated from four colleges, of which 4% are married men.[154]..Victims suffer from PTSD, such as being unable to use public transport or developing depression, and some are driven to the point of thinking about self-harm or suicide.According to a survey by the Gender Equality Committee of the Japanese Communist Party Tokyo Metropolitan Committee, 18% of the victims are 71 years old or younger, targeting not only junior high school students and older when attending school, but also infants and elementary school students with insufficient sexual knowledge. It became clear that[155].

Child abuse

According to the statistics of abuse deaths by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, more than half of the victims are 0 years old, and the most common child abuse deaths are "0 years 0 months 0 days".[156][157][158].

According to the 26 survey of the Social Welfare Organization Saito Foundation Mother and Child AiikukaiChild guidance center Temporary shelterResident abuse is 13.03 years of age for sexual abuse[159].

Forced obscene

There is a risk of dating DV in bondage and extortion of sexual activity, even during dating. Currently, about 4% of the damage caused by child pornography is "damage caused by images taken by children", and the children were tricked or threatened to have their nudes photographed and sent by e-mail etc. Damage is increasing[160].

In the so-called "papa activity" and "enjo kosai", which includes prostitution between older men and female students, sleeping pills are put up at the hotel to deal with forced sexual intercourse damage, obscene images are taken, and robbery damage occurs. Sometimes[161].

Voyeur / revenge porn

In the case where a student was voyeurized by a lecturer at a cram school, the criminal was arrested for violating the nuisance prevention ordinance in Chiba prefecture, but because the ordinance differs depending on the prefecture, it is not cracked down as a crime in other prefectures and it is regarded as a problem. ..With the spread of smartphones, the number of arrests for voyeurism has more than doubled from 10 years ago, so it is hoped that the criminal law will be revised as a "voyeur crime".[162].

Gender in Corona

From April to July 2020,New coronavirusDuring school holidays nationwide, which was taken to prevent the spread of infectious diseases, junior high and high school students at home, who had no school or club activities, had the opportunity to have sexual activity and became pregnant or felt anxious about pregnancy.Cradle of storkThe highest number of consultations from junior and senior high school students has been received at the pregnancy consultation counter of the Jikei Hospital in Kumamoto[163].

The girl who was found to be sexually abused during the corona illness included a pregnancy of sexual violence from her mother's lover at the age of 10 and a sexual coercion from her father at the age of 12, and Japan compared to other countries. While it is highly likely that sexual abuse has not been manifested, some girls blame or endure themselves due to lack of sex education that protects and values ​​their bodies.[164].

Sex education is also important for protecting the mind and body of women.FurthermoreCoronaAmong them, there is concern that women and children may suffer from domestic violence due to work from home or requests to refrain from going out.[165]..In April, the United Nations Population Fund pointed out that fear of virus infection and restrictions on going out could lead to unexpected pregnancies if women did not go to medical institutions.[166].

Consultation desk

性暴力を受けたときに相談できるワンストップ支援センターの大阪支部では、2010年度~18年度に来所し、受診につながった者のうち19歳以下の子どもは1285人で6割を占めている。また17、18年度、家族からの性暴力を訴えた子どもは161人となり、実父からが36%、実兄・義兄からが18%を占め、そのほか母の恋人・祖父・いとこが加害者の事例もある[167].

Some high school students became pregnant as a result of sexual intercourse with an older man, who is said to be dating because of their hardships, and in some cases, even if they confess to their parents, they can survive with the help of supporters such as the "small life door."[168].

In December 2020, the "Anshin Mother and Child Obstetrics and Gynecology Liaison Council" (Headquarters, Saitama Prefecture), which is created by an obstetrics medical institution, started a business to accept free consultations and first consultations for women under the age of 12. Is[169].

The consultation for sexual violence damage was "# 8891", and a speed dial common throughout the country was opened in October 2020.[170].

Sex education in countries other than Japan

Nordic sex education

デンマークSo, sex education is not limited to a particular part of the curriculum, and is discussed throughout the course of the lesson when needed.スウェーデンBut the same thing, and sex education1956It is compulsory thereafter.フィンランドThen, at the age of 15, he was given a parcel containing a condom at school.On the other hand, these countries have not reached the precociousness of sex in spite of such education.[171].

Christianity and chastity education

AmericaThen.1980 eraFrom the middleVenereal disease,AIDSFrom prevention of infectious diseasesコ ン ド ー ムWas instructed to use. However1990 eraFrom the beginningChristian rightof"(English edition)Was introduced.You must never have sex until you get married, and you must not teach the medical mechanism of pregnancy or how to use contraception.Bush administrationGave a huge amount of financial support, but cut off the grant if he taught birth control. As a result, minority sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy surged in some states[172][173].

Chastity educationIn a documentary film about(English edition)There is[174].(English edition)There is also a dance event where a father and a teenage daughter vow to "protect their virginity until they get married."

2004, American Newsweek magazine, 79% of Americans, 87% of Christians,聖母 マ リ ア OfVirgin birthReported that he believed in[175].

Controversy in America

In the United States, "absolute ascetic education (Abstinence-Only Sex Education) ""(English edition)(comprehensive sex education) ”There are several other curriculums.There is controversy over which of the two is better.In particular, there is fierce disagreement over whether dealing with children's sexual behavior is good or harmful.More specificallyコ ン ド ー ム,Oral contraceptivesSuch asBirth control,ContraceptiveInfluence on,Pregnancy at a young ageIt is a good idea to deal with the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. One of the sources of controversy over American sex education is:MaintenancePeople recommendChastity educationAnd there is increasing support for absolute abstinence education.In countries that show a more conservative attitude towards sex education, including the United States and the United Kingdom, the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancies are high.

American Psychological AssociationStudy shows the effectiveness of "comprehensive sex education"[176]..While the effectiveness of comprehensive and comprehensive sex education is evident in multiple peer-reviewed articles, it has been pointed out that "absolute abstinence education" poses a serious risk.[177].

Sex education in the adult industry

charismaAV maleRenowned asTaka Kato(1988Debut) is the "Secrets of the Final Chapter" (ISBN 4845412381) And various media recommend thorough hygiene such as nail care and sex techniques that emphasize the reaction of women. In addition, Kato always wears condoms with partners to prevent sexually transmitted diseases and unwanted pregnancies during sexual intercourse.

AV makers for women made by womenSilk labWas overwhelmingly popularIttetsuSaid that many people have said that "AV is a fantasy" since the time of Taka Kato, but many people are affected by AV without realizing it. In the internet age,Information literacyThose who have a high score have the correct information, and the gap is large.2014To "SEX Therapy Effective for Love" (ISBN 4040662296) Published. He said that what is important is communication from the standpoint of the other person, suggesting that women should be courageous and convey a sense of incongruity, and that men should accept it and change their methods and ways of thinking. As of 2017, the intense AV for men is already good, and the number of men looking at works for women is gradually increasing because they do not want to see the face that women dislike.[178].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

Source

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References

  • Tomomi Shibuya,Shoichi Inoue(Edit), 2008, "Why Sex Education Preached Abstinence to Male Students: Discourse on Hanayagi Disease in the 1910s and 40s", "Cultural History of Sexual Desire" 1, Kodansha <Kodansha Selection Book Mechie> ISBN 9784062584241

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