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🎥 | "Development of Chinese Films: From the Silent Period to the XNUMXth Generation", which traces the history of Chinese films, will be held at the National Film Archive of Japan


"Development of Chinese Film: From the Silent Period to the XNUMXth Generation", which traces the history of Chinese cinema, will be held at the National Film Archive of Japan

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In addition, the essence of Chinese culture is utilized in Shanghai animated cartoons, such as incorporating traditional ink painting.

In the National Film Archive of Kyobashi, Tokyo, a special feature on Chinese films, "Development of Chinese Films: From the Silent Period to the XNUMXth Generation" ... → Continue reading


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Ink painting

Ink paintingWhat is (Sui-e)?Tang DynastyIt is said that it was established ininkA typical painting method of Sumie expressed in.Ink is used not only on the black line but also on the surface, and the shade is expressed by blurring.A paintingIs.Overseas, it is sometimes called Zen painting.

Ink painting in China

Mainland ChinaThen.YinInk was used in the era, and paintings using inkæ¼¢Existed in the age of[1]..Some of the mural paintings in the Han dynasty are painted with ink lines and pigments.[1].

唐In the era, paintings expressed in shades of ink came to be made.[1]..Ink painting was established as a technique of landscape painting in the latter half of the Tang dynasty. 9th centuryZhang YanyuanSays that sumi-iro contains the colors of all things, and states that "there are five colors in sumi-iro."[2]..Ink painting is a Western painting油 絵Unlike the paintings, the brush ink infiltrates the paper.[3]..Also, in ink painting, only the painter perceptually and subjectively captures the essence of the object, and the background (light and shade on the background) with a fixed light source is drawn like a Western painting that emphasizes natural reproduction. Absent[4].

宋In the teensLiteratiAs a bureaucratic extra skill,four gentlemenAn ink painting of (Rantake Kikuume) was performed.Also,Zen BuddhismWith the spread of, Zen Buddhist historical figures were made in ink.LightIn the generation, ink paintings depicting flowers, fruits, vegetables, fish, etc. were also drawn.

Ink painting in Japan

JapanWhen ink comes from the continentNara periodInk and ink paintings can now be seen on wooden tablets, books, and murals that use ink.[1].

The style of ink painting is in JapanKamakura PeriodToZenWas transmitted with[1]..The paintings that came to Japan are "" and ""Gourd figureIt was an expression of Zen thought, such as "", but it gradually changed and "landscape paintingIs also written.

In art history, the term "ink painting" does not mean a painting drawn in a single color of ink, but a Chinese-style drawing that uses the shades of ink, bleeding, and faintness as elements of expression. As for works, it usually refers to those from the Kamakura period onwards.Even if it is a colored painting, it will be drawn in the style of ink painting, and those with ink as the main and color as the subordinate are often included in "ink painting".

Heian periodinitial,Esoteric BuddhismWith the introduction ofBuddha statue,Buddhist fittings,MandalaIn order to correctly hand down complicated forms such as these, many "esoteric iconography" drawn in black ink were produced.In the picture scroll, "Pillow grass child picture scroll], Some of which are drawn only with ink lines without using coloring.However, works drawn with uniform ink lines without fatness or shading like these are called "white painting" or "white painting" and are usually not included in the category of "ink painting". is there.

Early ink painting

Ink painting expression in China has been around since the end of the Tang dynasty.Five generations~宋It developed from the beginning of the era (late 9th century to 10th century).Whereas Chinese ink painting spontaneously began with the pursuit of realistic expression, Japanese ink painting began with the acceptance of Chinese painting.It is not always clear when the acceptance and production of ink painting in Japan began.Ink painting style brush painting can already be seen in the Buddhist paintings of the Takuma school around the end of the 12th century, but full-scale ink painting works appeared around the end of the 13th century, and nearly four centuries have passed since the origin of ink painting in China.

Although the technique of ink painting in Japan came from China, it was not always accepted only in the mainstream style in China, and combined with its own moral and cultural views, it followed a different path from Chinese ink painting.[1].

Japanese ink painting from the end of the 13th century to the 14th century is described in art history as "Early ink paintingI call it.The reason why ink painting became popular around this time was that the traffic of Zen monks between Japan and China became popular, and Song andyuanThe new style of painting was brought to Japan. In the 13th centurySchoolless ancestor,Lanxi RoadThese Chinese Zen monks came to Japan one after another.They brought Song and Yuan culture and culture to Japan, including paintings.In KamakuraRound TempleThe "Butsunichian Public Property Catalog", which is a collection of items in the collection of Butsunichian, is a list created in the 2nd year of Gen'o (1320) around the 2nd year of Joji (1363). It was revised to, but if you look at it, you can see that Engakuji Temple at that time had a large number of Chinese paintings.

Early ink painting in JapanBuddhist painterThe production was started mainly by Zen monks.In Zen Buddhism, which emphasizes teacher-funded agreement (to convey Buddhism from the master to the disciples), it is given to the disciples to prove that they have inherited the master's law.Top phase(Portrait of a Zen priest) and the founder of Zen BuddhismTadamaIncludingGrandmasterThere was a demand for paintings such as statues.Ink paintings produced during this period include the above-mentioned Chinsō and Soushi statues, as well as Dao'an paintings (TaoismandBuddhismRelated figures),four gentlemen(Points to orchids, bamboos, chrysanthemums, and plums) are the main ones.There is no direct relationship between ink painting and Zen Buddhism doctrine, and it seems that ink painting was accepted as a new foreign culture, similar to Zen Buddhism's architectural style.Kamakura periodPicture scrollIf you look at the picture-in-picture paintings expressed in, you can see that ink painting was also used for shoji paintings in temples other than Zen Buddhism at that time.

As a representative ink painter of the 14th centuryKao,Mokuan,Tetsufune TokusaiAnd so on.Regarding Kao, the biography is unknown because only the mark of "Kao" remains in the work, but the theory that he is the same person as the original Zen priest Kao Sozen is predominant.Mokuan is a Zen priest who returned to the area and died there.Tetsufune TokusaiDream window solitary stoneA Zen priest who is a disciple of

  • Daruma doll (Yamanashi)Kogakuji TempleWarehouse,National treasure) --Although the clothes of Daruma are colored, they are drawn with the ink painting method.Since Lanxi Daolong praises the upper part of the painting, 1278, when Lanxi died, is the lower limit of the production period.
  • Lanxi Daolong statue (Kanagawa, KanagawaKenchoji TempleKura, National Treasure) --It is a colored painting, but it is drawn in the same way as a Chinese painting.It is a masterpiece of the Chinsō of this era.At the top of the picture is the praise of Rankei himself in Bunei 8 (1271).
  • Kao brush Hanshan map (Nagano,Sunritz Hattori MuseumWarehouse[5], National treasure)- Hanshan TheChugoku-唐In the teenZhejiang ProvinceIt is inMount Tendai OfKokusei-ji TempleA legendary hermit who lived inFoundIt is also regarded as a good subject for ink painting.

Muromachi ink painting

Muromachi PeriodCan be said to be the heyday of Japanese ink painting.Ashikaga Zen BuddhismAs a result of the protection of Zen cultureGozan LiteratureProspered, in Kyoto, the temple of the Ashikaga familyAikokujiFromJosetsu,Weekly sentence,SesshuProduced painting monks including.Also,Tofukuji TempleOf the monkAkiyoshi YoshiyamaProduced a wide range of works, from dark Buddhist paintings to ink paintings. 8th ShogunYoshimasa AshikagaDid not ignore politics, but focused on promoting culture,KaramonoHe enthusiastically collected and appreciated Chinese-shipped calligraphy and tea utensils.What was prized in Japan at that time was the work of a Chinese painter from the Southern Song Dynasty.Xia Gui,Ma Yuan,Muqi(Mokkei),Liang Kai,Shi Ruofen(Gyokukan) and others were especially prized.Muqi, Liang Kai, and Shi Ruofen are painters who are more highly regarded in Japan than in China.It is wrong to think that the Japanese paintings in the Muromachi period were all ink paintings, and it is traditional in this period.Yamato pictureStudies since the latter half of the 20th century have revealed that folding screens were also actively drawn.

Japanese ink paintings up to the 14th century are figures such as Chinsō, Soushizu, Dao'anFlower bird paintingIn the 15th century, it was full-scale in Japan as well.landscape paintingWill be drawn.The earliest work of Japanese ink painting is "Heisa Rakugan" (private collection) with the seal "Shinkan".This work is of a Zen monk from ChinaYishan YiningIn 1317, his death year, is the lower limit of the production age.At the bottom of the screen, there is a red stamp of "Shinkan", which seems to be the name of the painter, but the biography etc. is unknown.There is a childish part in this "Heisa Rakugan-zu" that has not yet mastered the method of ink painting, and the expression of perspective is not sufficient.In the Oei era (early 1th century), about a century later, "Poetry axisA series of works called "" are produced.

The "poetry scroll" represents the boundary of "poetry, calligraphy, and painting". Ink painting was drawn at the bottom of the screen of the vertically long hanging scroll, and Chinese poetry related to the subject was written in the upper margin. It is a thing.This kind of poetry axis is considered to be the oldest one whose age can be known.Fujita Museum of ArtIt is a work of Oei 12 (1405) in the warehouse's "Shibamon Shingetsuzu".This figure is杜甫The poem is based on the poem, and 18 Zen monks write the poem at the top of the picture, following the preface, and the space occupied by the book is more than double that of the picture. Other representative works of the poetry axis produced in the first half of the 15th century include "Keiin Kotsukizu", "Takesai Reading Map", and "Light Blue Ryokozu". It is said that "Keiin Kozukizu" is a sign, and "Takesai Reading Map" and "Light Blue Ryokozu" are Shubun, but there is no confirmation.The axis of poetry during this period is a quiet study surrounded by mountain water, called a "study map".LiteratiMany of them are based on the ideal situation of.

In this era, the name and individuality of the painter finally became clear.Of the painting priest of SokokujiJosetsuIs known for several works, including "Gourd Ayuzu" (Hyonenzu, Taizo-in, Kyoto).After all it was a painter of SokokujiWeekly sentenceIs known from the literature for his achievements as a painter for the shogunate, and there are many works that are said to be "denshu bunboshi" in poetry and painting axes, landscape screens, etc., but there are no confirmed examples.

In the latter half of the 15th century, he was one of the most prominent painters as well as an ink painter.Sesshu(1420-1502/1506) appears.SesshuChinaOriginally from (Okayama Prefecture), he is said to have the blood of a local samurai.Moved to Tokyo and became a monk at Sokokuji Temple, but laterMr. OuchiMoved to Yamaguchi.Around the beginning of the Onin War (1467-1477), he traveled to Ming, China, stayed for three years and returned to Japan.After returning to Japan, he traveled exclusively to regions such as Yamaguchi and Oita, and left his works until his 3s.In 80, when he was 4 years old, Sesshu praised his work "Sansuizu" (commonly known as "Haboku Sansuizu"), which he gave to his disciple Sobuchi. I traveled there, but I didn't find a teacher there, "he wrote, praising his seniors, Josetsu and Shubun.This self-praise is the oldest thing a Japanese painter has talked about about his painting business, and it shows his pride as a Japanese painter.While digesting the influence of Chinese painting, Sesshu created his own ink painting based on the actual scene of Japan, such as "Amanohashidate".In addition, many disciples were trained, and some of them, such as Akizuki (from Satsuma) and Sobuchi (painter of Engakuji Temple in Kamakura), returned to their hometowns and played an active role.In this respect as well, Sesshu had a great influence on Japanese painting.

During the Muromachi period, many painters appeared in rural areas, many of whom were from the samurai family.A representative example of this is a painter from the samurai family in Hitachiota (Hitachiota City, Ibaraki Prefecture).Snow villageMet.Yukimura later left the house and became a painting priest, and continued to produce in the Kanto and Aizu regions until his 80s, but many of his works seemed to come from the samurai family.

There were many other ink painters during this period.As a prominent personSoga Jasoku,Pine, Takeozooka and others, but the biographies of these people are not very clear.Serving the Ashikaga Shogunate "The same people"(I was working as an art adviser, such as a connoisseur of karamono).Noami,Shingei,Soami) Also left a work of ink painting.


  • "Special Exhibition Ink Painting" Catalog, Tokyo National Museum
  • Weekly Asahi Encyclopedia "Art of the World" No. 115 "Ink Painting in the Muromachi Period", No. 116 "Sesshu / Sesson Shukei and Sengoku Painting", Asahi Shimbun, 1980


  1. ^ a b c d e f Art Appreciation Course 5 "The World of Sumie" Nakatsu City Kimura Memorial Museum, viewed November 2018, 11.
  2. ^ Gyokuun Yamada, "Basic Drawing Method for Ink Painting, New Edition, 2nd Edition", Nissho Publishing Co., Ltd., 2009, p. 4
  3. ^ Gyokuun Yamada, "Basic Drawing Method for Ink Painting, New Edition, 2nd Edition", Nissho Publishing Co., Ltd., 2009, p. 6
  4. ^ Gyokuun Yamada, "Basic Drawing Method for Ink Painting, New Edition, 2nd Edition", Nissho Publishing Co., Ltd., 2009, p. 8
  5. ^ It was a private collection for a long time, but the collection has moved to the Sunritz Hattori Museum in Suwa City, Nagano Prefecture. (reference):"Information on designated cultural properties and archaeological sites"(There is a link to the Suwa City official website and a list of cultural properties in the city)

Works based on ink painting

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Chinese civilization

Chinese civilization(Chugokubunmei) isMainland ChinaIn文明-cultureIt is a general term such as.Chinese civilization(Chukabunmei) orChinese culture(Chukabunka) Tomo.The oldest in the world文明Is one of theEast AsiaIt is also the central culture of.Historically, it has a vast area and population within the same cultural area, and after XNUMX years of development, the culture of each region is unique to China, saying that it "has a commonality but has distinct local characteristics." It became a feature.AndMainland ChinaNot justTaiwan-Hong Kong-Macau-SingaporeEtc.Greater ChinaAndJapan- South Korea-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euEtc.Kanji culture areaIt also had a very important impact on the countries.

Ancient Chinese civilization

Ancient Chinese civilizationYellow River Civilization,Nagae civilization,Liaokawa civilizationIt is roughly divided into three civilizations.

20st centuryAccording to mid-term theory, the Yellow River civilization was regarded as the center of ancient Chinese civilization.That is, firstYellow RiverIn the basinmilletIs the main cropAgriculture:Civilization emerged, influenced by natural and geographical factors, and graduallyPaddy riceIs the main cropYangtze RiverIt moved to the basin and developed.Therefore,Nagae civilizationWas thought to have inherited the Yellow River civilization.Also, the northern grasslandsNomadic peopleAnd the Yellow River basinAgricultural peopleContinued to fight for land, and in the process, nomadic and agricultural civilizations continued to gain direct exchange and fusion.

However,1986å¹´ OfSanxingdui RuinsSince the discovery of, such a view that "the Yangtze civilization is the result of the succession and development of the Yellow River civilization" has begun to be questioned.further,21st century OfChinese Civilization Search Source ProjectAccording to the origin of Chinese civilizationYellow RiverIt is said that not only the basin but also many other civilizations are involved.

In recent years, one of the ancestral peoples, "Kasatsu"From the point of view,Huaxia civilizationAlso studied as[1].

Region / ethnicity

The Chinese civilization is roughly divided into the following regions.The main ethnic groupHan people(Kasatsu)In addition to,Tibetan people,Mongolian people,Uighur,Manchurian,Korean peopleSuch asPeopleCreates a local culture with each characteristic.

  1. Zhongyuan-North ChinaandShaanxiYellow River Basin
  2. Sichuan Province-ChongqingUpstream of the Yangtze River
  3. 湖南-HubeiandJiangxiMiddle Yangtze River in the area
  4. Anhui-浙江-JiangsuDownstream of the Yangtze River
  5. TohokuRegion
  6. 内蒙古Region
  7. 新疆Region
  8. Nishizo,QinghaiandSichuan ProvinceWestern Tibetan region
  9. South ChinaAnd the Yue Cultural Area in East China



漢字ByKanji culture areaWas formed.


Thought / religion

Chinese mythologyas,Pangu-Nüwa-Sovereigns and Five Emperorsand so on.

View of space-astronomyas,Yin Yang thoughtとFive lines thought(Ying Yang Five Elements Thought)・ I Ching OfYawata-Chinese calendar(Agricultural calendar)・XNUMXth night-Zodiacand so on.

For thought and scholarshipMoroko HyakuyaThere is.

Of these to posterity注 釈As developed throughZhu Zixue(宋) ・Positive study(Light)・Kaozheng(clear).

In ChinaTaoism-Confucianism-BuddhismTheSanjiaoAnd.For TaoismShinsen Thought・ Ethnic religion is also included.As a sourceAncestral faithThere is.

Science and technology

Joseph Needham TheChinese civilizationInPapermaking- Printing technique-compass-GunpowderInvention ofFour Great InventionsAnd

MathIn the field ofZhoubi Suanjing(Former Han)・Chapter XNUMX Arithmetic-Zu Chongzhi-abacusSee.

AgricultureThen.General civil arts-Tiangong Kaiwu-Dream Pool Essays.Medical science TheTraditional chinese medicineSee.Herbs-Yellow EmperorSee also

Political thought / system

As a world view, the Chinese civilization is "the center of the world =Chinese-ChugokuAnd the surrounding area is the frontierChinese thoughtThere is.SinocentrismAlso called.

Literature and history books

Nature / animals

For mythical animalsDragon-Phoenix-Unicorn-Suzaku-Xuanwu-White tigerThere is.


ClothingXia ChaoからMing Dynasty・ I was able to recover to the present dayHanbokAndQing DynastyFromRepublic of ChinaOverChina dressThere is.

Architecture / sculpture

The sculpture is ... etc.

Arts and crafts

CraftsToBronze ware-lacquerware-陶器-磁器-Jade・ ・Silverware-Lantern-folding screen-Carving lacquerThere is.

Four arts

Bunshi saidFour artsIn the name ofQin-Chess-calligraphy-A paintingIt was said that he enjoyed the four arts of.

Musical instrumentToGuzheng-Guqin-lute-Cave-Fangxiang-箜hou-Erhu-Yangqin-Bianzhong-Sho-竽and so on.

ToShangchi(Chinese chess)・Go-Gomokuand so on.

calligraphyToSmall 篆-Regular script-Semi-cursive script-Clerical script-Cursive scriptand so on.

A paintingTolandscape painting-Flower bird painting-Portraitand so on.

EntertainmentToMahjong(Mahjong)・Acrobaticsand so on.

Martial arts




[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "History of Huaxia Civilization" edited by China History Museum, Choka Publishing Co., 2002.Wang Katsubayashi "Hana Natsu Civilization Theory" Yamanishi People's Publishing Co., 2006

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