From the photo movie "The Promised Neverland" – (C) Kaiu Shirai / Posuka Demizu / Shueisha (C) 2020 Movie "The Promised Neverland" Production Committee
Naomi Watanabe, too strong presence! "The Promised Neverland" reproducibility is a hot topic
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A powerful person with intense emotions, he is aiming to overcome Isabella.
"Live-action Krone" played by Naomi Watanabe in the movie "The Promised Neverland" is "too strong" and "reproducibility is dangerous ..." → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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Psychiatry-psychologyThen emotions (British: emotion)WhenFeeling(Mood) can be distinguished, the former refers to something more temporary (oftenweather weather andthe weather It can be likened to climate). However, it is often used without distinguishing between the two.Brain scienceEmotionally,CerebrumSurface of (Cerebral cortex),andbrainDeep part of the (limbic system, etc.),身体Close toInteractionIt is assumed that And emotions思考,CognitionAre closely related (even if the person is not conscious)"Emotional Brain Science" sectionreference).
In generalA human(Human capital) Is emotional, but non-humanmammalianIn addition, the structure of the limbic system is similar to that of humans, and anxiety, fear, anger, etc. of humans due to administration of electrical stimuli and nerve agents to various parts of the limbic systemEmotionIt has been known for a long time that a reaction similar to the reaction is shown, and it is often presumed that these animals also have emotions. However, research on comparative cognitive science has just begun, andstimulateとcommunication skillSome argue that the correlation of is only observed.
In life culture, simplysituationIt may be abbreviated as ". "Thickness" means that a person's emotions are deeply drawn (sensitivity is high) and the emotions associated with them are expressed as attitudes (such as tears) and actions in some cases. It is used for phrases such as "Edokko temperament that is very affectionate",Edokko OfbreathIt is also one of the.
Biology of emotions
Biologically, emotions can be roughly divided into four factors. (1) Cause emotionBrain scienceMechanisms, (2) social mechanisms of emotions, (3) emotions that shape individual emotionsIndividual development, (4) It is an evolutionary function that forms universal emotions in species. The former two areClose factor, The latter twoUltimate factorCalled.
Closeness Factors-Emotional Brain Science
PhysiologyTo be emotionalRelated to physical sensation無意識Emotions(Emotion)ConsciousnessEmotionsOften classified as (feeling or emotional feeling). For conscious feeling,Cerebral cortex(Cerebral surface)Gyrus,Frontal lobeAre involved. For unconscious feelings,Subcortex(Towards the center of the brain)tonsil,Hypothalamus,Brainstemに 加 え て,Autonomic nervessystem,EndocrineSystem, skeletal muscle, etc.Peripheral system(Organs outside the brain) are involved. However, there is a counterargument that emotions and emotions are established only in the cortex and cingulate gyrus (Rolls et al.).
about emotionEmotionchecking ...
For example, when we are afraid, at the same time we feel fast-paced, thirsty and sweaty in our hands. It is the cortex that feels fear, and it is the subcortex that causes peripheral reactions (palpitations, etc.). But when we think about emotions, we can't separate them.
And so onStanley SchacterDeveloping these animals and experiencing and recognizing emotions are created by the cortex to explain the physical responses that occur to stimuli.OUR STORYInsist. For example, when the subject was placed in an unpleasant environment after being injected with adrenaline, the subject who was not informed of the side effects of adrenaline was uncomfortable because of the reaction caused by adrenaline such as palpitations and cold sweat. The subject, who had been informed of the side effects, judged that it was due to adrenaline, and said that there was less discomfort. So the cortexI made a story called emotion by interpreting the reaction of the body against the context before and after.It turns out that.
(Note) Schaker et al. advocated the two-factor theory of emotions in the 2s, but since no direct evidence of two factors was obtained, he revised his hypothesis to a physiological basis (= The two-stage theory of emotions, in which emotions are subsequently formed on the basis of emotion, was advocated (1960). This was developed by Lazarus et al., who defined emotions as more complicated ones including sociality (Sense of guilt, Yakimochi,jealousy,愛, And so on).
According to the emotion theory ofFirst, is it dangerous or beneficial?Subconsciously in the subcortex and cingulate gyrus, then in the cortexDetermine how to actTo do. Based on that judgment, peripheral reaction (Excitation of sympathetic nerves, skeletal muscle tension, etc.) Occurs, and finally it is in the cortexRecognize as conscious emotion.. The experimental evidence supporting this theory is that when a visual stimulus that evokes a strong emotion is presented for a short time (30 ms or less), it cannot be consciously recognized (Subliminal effectIt is a fact that a reaction is seen in the periphery despite the above. However, regarding consciousness, there are still various theories about where and how emotional consciousness occurs, and the details are unknown.
- Supplement 1
- The close connection between the body and emotions described above is often found in everyday words related to emotions. For example, "chest pain", "thought of the intestine", "blood rushing," "sucking in my hand", "throbbing my chest", "angry", "boiled my head", " "Blood in my head", "Muscle", "Bitter", "Lead swallowing", "Chigurusa (= painful, Okinawan dialect)", etc. Some of these are typical sympathetic hypersensitivity reactions and some are gastrointestinal symptoms that may result from them.
- Supplement 2
- Mental illnessUsed to treatCognitive behavioral therapyIs based on the theory of "modifying emotions by changing the way of cognition," and is a good example of applying the interaction between the cortex and subcortex. Also,Autonomous training methodIs a training method to relax the mind and body while imagining a relaxed body condition such as "warm hands" and "feeling tired". It is used to treat stress, psychosomatic disorders, and neurosis. This is also an example of applying the interaction between peripheral autonomic nerve reaction and emotion.
- In October 2012, Eben Alexander, a world-renowned authority on neurosurgery, said "the post-mortem world exists." He used to be a monist who denied the postmortem world, but he recovered from experiencing a near-death experience while being hospitalized due to a brain disease. After discharge, a thorough examination of the brain condition during the experience confirmed that most of the brain had stopped functioning during the 10 days of coma. As a result of examining all possibilities, he decided that "that is definitely the world after death", and based on his own experience, he made a hypothesis of substantive dualism that "the brain itself does not create consciousness?" There is.
Young赤 ん 坊But in the first few days after birth, he started to react to his mother's facial expression. In addition, it is considered that they have some kind of emotion, such as looking at an object floating in the air for a long time. The main emotions are formed by the age of four.
Factors assumed in evolutionary psychology
Evolutionary psychologyThen, it is considered that the emotional mechanism is a biological adaptation that determines actions quickly according to the environment, and is formed in the process of evolution.Evolutionary psychologistIs love between relativesKind selectionDepending on the relationship between parents and childrenParent-child conflict,Sexual conflictI think that it evolved due to the factors of. AlsoReda CosmidesResearchers like each have different emotions formed by different selection pressures, have different functions, and thus have different neural bases ormoduleThink to have.Robert Trivers,Martin NovakWith evolutionary biologists such asGame theoryAt home, some emotions have evolved as motivations for friendship, cooperation, betrayal, guilt, impartiality, morality, etc.Reciprocal altruismとIndirect reciprocity,General reciprocityI think it can be derived from the theory of. From such a viewpoint, it is considered that emotions are at least partially innate, independent of general cognitive ability, and instantaneously and autonomously activated by internal and external stimuli. This perspective of biological adaptation can be traced back to functionalist psychology.
There has been a lot of debate over the ages about how humans have emotions. Below are the historical and cultural backgrounds, classification based on the history of emotion research,List of emotionsSee.
In general, as the six representative emotions,
Are often collectively referred to.
Five sentiments of China
The typical emotions that humans have
It is collectively expressed in five.
By bookThe contents of are different.
- Three letters
It says, "Sex emotions, emotions, love lusts, and seven emotions."
- Tightening (fear)
It is said that the seven emotions of this are related to people.
- Chinese medicine
- There are seven emotions of emotions, melancholy, and melancholy, and it is a word that is unfamiliar in Japan.When these become excessiveMental disorderIs said to occur.
Kanji in which the radical expresses emotions with a "heart"
Disgrace ・ Shinobu ・ Anger ・ Fear ・ Shame ・ Love ・ Sadness ・ Sorrow ・ Sorrow ・ Sorrow (I'm happy)-Mystery-Afraid-I'm scared-I'm sorry-I'm sorry-I'm happy-I'm happy-I'm hurt・Boss and so on.
Japanese words that express emotions
Denotes adjectives and adjectives (e.g., Kanashii) that represent emotions, verbs (e.g., Kanashimu) that express or convey emotions, and abstracted nouns (e.g., Kanashimi). However, "(kanji) + ~ suru", such as "I love you" and "I hate you", is excluded because the Chinese language is mixed.
- Adjectives and adjectives
- Disappointing/Envying/Disagreeable/Misery/Unable to Do/Enjoy/Enjoy/Enjoy/Happy/Happy/Mede/Annoying/Envy/Envy/Envy/Displeasing/Displeasing/Displeasing/Annoying/Disappointing/Unpleasant Frightening/Scared
- This murmuring, humorous, quivering, offending, stinging, fearing, repulsing, sneezing, welcoming, jealous, envy, encouraging, swelling, sickling, disgusting, kirari, glaring, mede, disgusting, dying, and vibe
- Joy, Kanashimi, Ikari, Urami
Indian traditional aesthetic theory
There is Nava Lhasa (the nine basic human emotions), which is
- Shringala (love(Feelings; feelings of love, feelings of love)
- Hasya (comic laughter)
- Karna (Sadness)
- Laura (anger)
- Vila (Brave feeling, energetic feeling)
- Bayanaka (fear)
- Bebassa (dislike)
- Ad pig (surprise/surprise)
- Shanta (Peace)
It is said to be nine of Lhasa)。
The seven basic emotions of sadness, happiness, anger, contempt, disgust, fear, and surprisecultureI thought it would be universally expressed in the same way, regardless of which. We also found similarities between humans and other primates by observing the growth of children and the emotional expression of orangutans.
Classification of psychological emotions
- Happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, anger, disgust
Ekman expanded this list in the 1990s, adding:
- Fun, contempt, satisfaction, confusion, excitement, guilt, achievement-based pride, peace of mind, satisfaction, joy, guilt
Facial expressions work autonomously and cannot be consciously controlled without training. AlsoHuman universalIt is a natural property, and the basic facial expressions are common to all cultures. From an evolutionary point of view, it is considered advantageous that communication signals can be freely controlled to manipulate other individuals, but this is not the case.Amotu ZahaviSome biologists like, think that it is most beneficial to convey their feelings honestly,Handicap signalIt is not clear what the actual benefits are.
Diseases and conditions that affect emotions
- Typical diseases that affect emotions/moodMood disorder(depression,Manic depression,maniaEtc.). Depression presents with a depressive mood (depressed, tired, lethargy, sad, crying, disgusting, dying, desperate), but in a manic state feeling refreshed, energetic, and energetic Feeling full, confident, and wanting to move around. In severe cases, an aggressive mood and anger will come to the front.
- However, depression is not the only disease that produces a depressed mood.Adjustment disorder,schizophrenia,Eating disorder,Personality disorderMay be associated with various diseases. Moreover, not only mental disorders but also healthy people often have temporary depression.
- Part of the limbic systemtonsilWhen or around it is destroyed, it is called sexual behavior abnormality, emotional abnormality (in the case of monkeys, even if you look at a snake, you try not to be afraid to touch it), and it becomes a condition characterized by lip tendency.
- Alexithymia(Alexithymia) isPsychiatryIn this term, we are not good at recognizing, recognizing or expressing our feelings, and tend to lack imagination and imagination. People with this tendencyPsychosomatic disorderIt is said that it is easy to become. In other words, because it is not good at recognizing one's own feelings, it appears as a physical symptom.Alexithymia,Psychosomatic disorderreference).
Drugs that affect emotions
- Antidepressant: Antidepressants are treatments for depression and depression, and improve depressed mood, depressed motivation, etc.Serotoninsystem,Noradrenalinesystem,DopamineThe effect is expressed by activating the nervous system. Depending on the antidepressant drug, the strength of the action on the nervous system of the three systems is different, and the drug effect is different for each drug.
- Anxiolytic : BenzodiazepinesBy acting on the receptor, it has the effect of eliminating anxiety.
- It is an illegal drugStimulantOf the brainDopamineA pleasant mood is expressed by strongly exciting the system. But at the same timeDopamineIt causes abnormalities in the systemic nerves and causes various side effects and sequelae.
- In addition, various drugs such as alcohol and steroids affect emotions.
Medical engineering technology to analyze emotions
- Emotion : Kansei control technologyIn the field ofProsodyThere is emotion recognition from. As for medical engineering technology, emotions have a recognition accuracy of 90% or more in excitement, but emotions are affected by individual cognitive labels, and accuracy up to that is not guaranteed.
- :Independent administrative agency·National Institute of Information and Communications TechnologyAnd corporationAGIIn the collaborative research of, the emotion recognition that can be used for fMRI isKansei control technologyThere is ST. However, it cannot be used in situations where there is no sound.
- In addition,Tokushima UniversityHave been researching emotion recognition from facial expressions.
- List of emotions
- Emotional labor
- Brain science
- Cognitive behavioral therapy
- Autonomous training method
- Models of Emotion (English) - ScalarpediaEncyclopedia "Emotional Model" item.
- Emotion (English) - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy"Emotion" item.
- Matsukawa HanzanChildren's picture drawing word』1874. (National Diet Library/Modern Digital Library)
- Facial expression recognition - Brain science dictionary