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🤖 | What is your favorite <TV anime> in 2020? 3rd place "Ainana" 2nd place "Wataru", 1st place ... Characters also battle ...


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What is your favorite <TV anime> in 2020? 3rd place "Ainana" 2nd place "Wataru", 1st place ... Characters also battle ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
The novel settings and hints unique to the original anime surprised anime fans.
 

Which TV anime do you like the most in 2020?Not to mention the works that I had been watching before the broadcast, I knew the reputation ... → Continue reading

 Anime! Anime!


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Anime

AnimeIt is,ア ニ メ ー シ ョ ン(English: animation)ofJapaneseIn略 語Is[1].. Refers to all video works composed using animation. In this articleJapanGeneral commercial animation (Television Animation,Theater animation,OVAEtc.).

the term

In Japan, the term "animation" used the following translations, depending on the time.

Age distributionTranslationMessage
1930 eraLine drawingMost of the movie credits in the 1930s were "line drawings." "Line drawing" means "drawing" by "line",Live actionSometimes it means maps, graphs, charts, etc. used in movies, and staff sometimes drew maps, graphs, tables, subtitles, etc. as well as animation.[2].
1940 eraSince-presentMovie"Video" isKenzo MasaokaWas proposed as a Japanese translation. In 1941Shochiku Animation Research InstituteFounded in 1943Kumoto ChuripuWas credited. Conventionally used "line drawing"Asahi movie companyAlso put credit for "video" in "Fuku-chan's submarine" in 1944[3].. OtherJapanese video (Toei video),Shinei Video,Japan Video AssociationIn addition, the name of the production process of commercial animation (original picture andMovie) Has become popular in the industry, and is described as a Japanese translation of animation in many dictionaries and encyclopedias.
1950 era -1970sCartoon movie (manga)Before the popularization of the word animation,PrewarAfter the warEspecially for childrenAnimated movieWas called a "manga movie" or just "manga". The work name and series name including this name are "Toei Manga Festival], [Calpis Manga Theater], [Manga Japan Old Story"and so on.
1960 era -1970sTV manga1964'sAstro boy] There was also the start of television broadcasting, especially children's works are wide (especially including non-TV) was called "TV manga."
1960s onwards-presentAnimation"Small moviesUp until the June 1965 issue (a specialized magazine for filmmakers), the word English was used as it was in the Katakana language. It was It was first used in the July issue without the notice that the word animation stands for animation. Picture book series ""Poplar companySeems to be the first book to use anime for the title. 1975Japanese animationFounded in 1978AnimageFirst issue, 1985Hiroshima International Animation FestivalWith the start, etc., the technical term animation has become popular with the general public.
1968å¹´AnimatePicture bookseries"",Kasei-sha. Not an abbreviation for animation,animation In the verb form Animated Read in Japanese. This is the first example of using a word containing anime for the public.
1969年Anime llamaInsect proAnimation byDrama-CineramaBy etc.Coined word.. movies"Thousand and One Nights(Published in 1969)ク レ オ パ ト ラ』(Published 1970) was used in. 『Sorrowful Belladonna』(Published in 1973) "Anime Romanesque" was used, but neither widely spread.

Overview

Originally "animation" is an abbreviation for "animation", and "animation" refers to all video techniques and visual expressions that use the illusion of time-lapse photography, including experimental images such as special effects and abstract images of live-action works. Be

However, when it is abbreviated as "animation", many people commonly associate it with TV animation, theater animation, OVA, etc., which are generally popular as commercial works. These features are basically commercial works, many of them are pictured character works, and to some extent story works. Furthermore, it also includes independently produced works that are strongly influenced by these commercial works. In the production technique, because of the division of laborCel animeWas the mainstream, but in someDoll animeAre also used in recent yearsComputer graphicsAnimation by CG (CG animation) is also popular.

When simply saying "animation", cel animation (Cel anime) Often refers to. In this article, we mainly describe "animation" in a popular and general sense such as commercial cel animation produced in Japan (digitization and 3DCG are described later in this article).

The main works are "List of anime works].

"Culture and Art Basic Law"Media arts, Related lawAct on promotion of creation, protection and utilization of contents"according tocontentIt is defined as one of the above, and is not abbreviated as "animation" in any of them, but is officially written as "animation". As another definition, from the perspective of multifaceted art classification,Art(Not including video),Image,Music,literature,EntertainmentComprehensiveartSometimes it is said.

Production company and production company

With the increase in the number of works produced, the division of labor has progressed, and pre-production planning/manufacturing companies, production drawing/video studios, art studios, post-production photography companies, sound studios, etc. Has been divided into labor.

In addition,Gross contractThere is also a production company called "," which accepts a batch of production work for each episode and handles all production work.

Production process

TV animation # production processSee also It is divided into three steps when roughly divided. There are various methods for raising production funds, so they are not covered in this section.

  1. Pre-production
    • Based on the plan book, the work of establishing the main staff organization and the flow of production, and making various settings necessary for production such as script, setting, storyboard etc.
  2. production
  3. Post production
    • Work such as post-recording, background music, sound effects, and VTR editing.

It is produced through a more detailed process. Depending on the production company, the number of staff in each department that is put into the work, and the progress of technology, there are differences in job titles and processes, but the basic process from planning to completion is as follows.[Note 1].

In the case of multiple series works, depending on various circumstances, the main staff and persons in chargeAnime production companyIt is not uncommon for such things to change in the middle.

  1. Planning
    • Create planning documents that describe the planning intention of the work and sales points in the overall image, and the production sideProduction CommitteeOften formed) decides whether to adopt it.
    • It is divided into an original project and a project based on existing works such as manga and novels. In the latter case, it is not uncommon to find it difficult to obtain the consent of the copyright holder.
  2. Staff organization and workflow confirmation
  3. script(scenario·Book reading)
    • In the story production work, pillars,lines,WritingComposed of.
    • Series compositionIs in the position of director of screenplays, and when multiple screenwriters are in charge of one work, they perform the work of controlling the variation in storylines.
  4. Configuration
  5. Storyboard
    • directed by,Show(producer) Assembling the script as a picture. The flow of the content of the work is drawn in a framed picture. Based on this, the original work is done. You will be instructed about the situation of the frame division, camera work, sound effects, dialogue, and the number of seconds of shooting.
  6. Original picture(Original/Paint-Layout system)
    1. The job system called the original painting man (original painter, person in charge of original painting, layout man) is in charge. Create a background composition and character layout (screen configuration) based on the storyboard based on the completed screen. Original workpen tabletWith such evolution, it is shifting to digital production.
    2. The production (producer) confirms the content of the storyboard and the difference between the production intention and the layout, and gives a correction instruction to the drawing director.
    3. Animation directorIs movementCharacter DesignTo fix the screen and to unify the screen, and perform work called editorial correction.
  7. Movie
    1. A job system called a video man is in charge. Roughly drawing the original picture, drawing a picture between the original pictures and completing all the movements. Also called Nakawari.
    2. Video inspectionThe so-called system checks the video with a simple shooting device and gives instructions for correction.
    • For original pictures and videosanimatorSee also
  8. Finishing (color tress, coloring, digital coloring):Color setting(Color design) instructions ・Coloring work as specified in the video.
    • Cel animation: Transfer the video to the cell with a tress machine and color the back side of the cell.Cel pictureSee also
    • Digital animation: Clean up the capture line with a scanner.Trace the shadow line and highlight line with a different color from the contour line.Unnecessary lines such as shadow lines are filled and invisible.At this point on the object AntialiasingIs not applied (color cannot be applied if applied).
  9. back ground
    • Art directorCreates an art board that will be the background setting. Background staff creates a background according to the background settings specified in the original image. In digital animation, the background was often finished with paint, but the background for digital production is also increasing.
  10. photograph : CinematographerSupervises the work and combines the finish with the background.Transmitted light,Multiplane camera,Multiple exposureSuch aseffectAdd processing.
    • Cel animation: Set the cel image and background on the shooting table, one frame at a time.the filmTake a picture.
    • Digital animation: The finish and background are combined into video data.Antialiasing is applied.
  11. Music composition
    • Music that suits various situationsBGMWork to create.
  12. Sound work:Sound directorIt is,Voice actorIn charge of casting, performance instruction, and sound production such as dubbing. In many cases, directors and directors (producers) participate.
    1. Dubbing
      • The work of recording the voice based on the voice actor in the filmed video.DubbingOccupational system called is sometimes the acting instruction. Due to the production schedule, it is not uncommon for the images to be recorded before they have been completed. Depending on the work, there are cases in which the inserted song is recorded at the dubbing studio in order to enhance the affinity with the scene.
    2. Presco
      • When importance is placed on the synchronization between video and audio, this method is used, which is different from after-recording, in that the voice is recorded first and then the drawing operation is started. This is the mainstream overseas.
    3. dubbing
      • Work to add BGM and sound effects to the voice.
  13. Film or VTR edit
    • Before and after the opening, ending and commercialseye catchingWork to combine and complete. Final adjustment and color adjustment of the object are also performed.

However, due to various circumstances[4] Or it may be canceled during production[5]At some stage, after the post-recording was finishedEnter the warehouseIn some cases[6].. In rare cases, a work that has been canceled once may restart over time.[7].

Distribution form

Production industry and environment

It is not large enough to be called the animation industry, and it is limited to one field of video production.Construction industry OfSubcontractorIt is said that it has a structure similar to the system, and the production cost is divided into "(Major production production (main contractor)" → "Medium-sized production professional (subcontractor)" → "Small production professional (subcontractor)"Pinhane)” is said to exist[8][9].

The development and improvement of the expression technique depends on the sensitivity of the individual and the skill level of the technique, and is supported by labor-intensive work in which the skill difference is reflected in the quality, but the production environment isanimatorIn the case of, the income is about 2-3 yen per month for a new employee. It is said that mid-sized companies are about 7 yen-5000 yen, and about 10% have annual income of 25 million yen or less (Japan Performing Arts Associations Association, 2008 survey) and other problems such as wages, employment environment, and working conditions, there is a constant situation that domestic human resources cannot be secured.

Therefore, it is outsourced to production companies such as China and South Korea, which have low labor costs, to support the foundation of anime production in Japan.Cell drawingIt is feared that the production site and the human resource development to continue it will be hollowed out. There is also a risk that Japanese technology will be leaked by outsourcing overseas.

Labor saving and digitization of manufacturing process

Until the digitization of animation production, various systems such as film animation, video animation, and video conversion equipment have been developed.

In 1986Hiroshi Ikeda(Toei Video Technology Laboratory Director) said, "The media of video is built on the basis of such science and technology, and of course, the emergence of new video media according to the development of these science and technology. Therefore, the people involved in video must constantly respond to the development of these science and technology, and if they fail to do so, they will even drop out as video engineers."[10]

In the late 1970s and 1980s, the animation production process began to change drastically due to the spread of video and the introduction of computers, and the movement toward digitalization began.

Labor saving

In 1984, a system that allows you to take time-lapse VTRs appeared from the shooting site.

The VTR animation shooting that allows you to instantly understand the shooting result from the film animation that you do not know the shooting result until development is achieved by reducing the production cost by shortening the shooting period at the shooting site, maintaining image quality, compacting the video media and retaking Freed from financial losses.

Widely used in addition to animation works, subtitles of movies and karaoke (Superimpose (video editing)), department stores, manufacturers and other video catalogs are now used. Also, since it is now possible to reproduce in large quantities without degrading image qualityOVABecame an opportunity to spread.

With the advent of a film-to-video converter in 1985, many film animation works were converted to video and broadcast on television, which was also a guideline for digitization.

Digitization and 3DCG

In the 1990s, with the development of computers and software development, the range of applications used for animation production became wider and it was used.

From the late 1990s,Cel pictureFrom the digital coloring to the whole, around 1999, it was made in cels until the end.Sazae』Broadcast on September 2013, 9, all commercial works have moved to digital format. Introduced into the finishing process, digital paint is easy to correct, there is no need to wait for the paint to dry, and the labor of managing cell images such as scratches and dust can be saved, and it can be posted on the network as image data. It has become possible to communicate with remote areas such as foreign countries, resulting in significant labor saving and cost reduction.

In addition, in the image expression, the number of colors used by the paint is no longer limited, enabling precise gradation expression. There is no decrease in brightness due to overlapping cells when shooting, allowing more freedom in camera work,airbrushbySpecial effects,Transmitted lightIt has the advantage that it can be easily applied. However, since it is output as video, the texture of the image differs between film and video, the film has a soft texture, the video has a clear image, and there was a feeling of strangeness in the color that was clear and too bright, but it was improved and cel animation was improved. You can also see works that surpass the beauty.

Worked on many Disney movies abroadPixar Animation StudioFull with3DCG animationIs produced, but in JapanAutomobileIt started with the complementary use of portraying machines and magic effects. The completed 3DCG isDrawing collapseIt contributes to stable quality and labor saving, as it can be drawn at any angle without having to do it and can be transformed and discolored with software even after completion. On the other hand, simply arranging CGs gives a feeling of strangeness due to the difference in texture from hand-painted, so techniques for adjusting the color tone etc. to reduce the feeling of strangeness and reproducing the hand-drawn expression method in a full CG work are fused. Attempts are being made to do so.

In the 2010s, a technique called “CELLLook” that reproduces the texture of cel animation with CG developed, and the number of works using CG for characters increased. Meanwhile, professional level3DCG softwareHas a high license fee, requires a high-performance computer model, and requires personnel trained at a vocational school to learn complicated operations. There are few works.

The actual work is doneAnime production companyMany small studios outsource only one department or CG related work,Polygon PicturesThere is also an example in which a 3DCG specialized company like the one mentioned above enters the animation production.

anime

Since the Latin character "m" is next to "a" and does not include "e", it cannot be abbreviated as "anime". Since the language that can abbreviate animation as animation is limited to Japanese, it can be used in English-speaking countries outside Japan.animeIs used for Japanese anime and anime with a Japanese style of expression.[11]. In Japan, anime is used regardless of the country or style of production.[12][13][Note 2].

EnglishThen when spelled as animepronunciationIs like "Ainim" or "Anime", but is pronounced as "Anime" in Japanese.animation(English) -> Animation (Japanese) -> Anime (Japanese) -> anime (English). In some cases, "anime" readings in Japan are published as nouns in dictionaries.

FrenchTo animate(Moving) past participle anime(Animation, moved, moved)[14], Same purpose in English anime There is also a theory derived from French because it is spelled as.

Spread in the United States
1972 years,Video deckWas released in February 1976,Fansub(A pirated version with English subtitles without permission.Copyright infringementThat is, the sales of anime DVDs have also been adversely affected) activities began, and in 1977, a specialized circle started its activities. The word anime was already used to refer to Japanese robot animation, but it was a slang or jargon of enthusiasts and did not spread widely.[15].. 1991,The Society for the Promotion of Japanese Animation(Abbreviated name SPJA) was established, and the following year 1992Anime ExpoIs held, OTAKU (Nerd) Increases[16], Anime rapidly spread[17]. However, more of them watch anime on pirated versions such as free fansubs than those who pay for it and watch it.
Spread in France
Animation made in Japananime(Anime)Called. Imported as exported from English. Animation (video)cartoon(Desanna Nanime)It is called (moving picture).

Japanimation (Japanimation)

North America

A term that mainly refers to Japanese animation used in the 1970s and 1980s. By the 1990s when it came to be used in Japan, it had already become almost dead. Syllabically Japan-animation から Japanimation Of略 語In Although,Jap(JapaneseDerogatory) animation Because of the discrimination and prejudice against Japanese people and culture, and the prejudice against animation, it is possible that the animation made in Japan included the meaning of "stupid things" or "bad things for children's education." ..At that time, Japanese, sexual, and violent expressions were deleted from the works exported to North America due to differences in culture, customs, and expression restrictions.Anime is still called cartoon in America.

In addition, we may edit multiple works that are continuous over a long period of time as one work, and show a uniquely modified work that is far from the intention of the creator.[18]. Since the 2000s, some animation relatedonlineSHOP[19] Sometimes used in.

Japan

In response to the aforementioned origin in North America,OverseasIn the 1990s, it means "animation made in Japan that is popular and popular, viewed outside Japan".AKIRA''ghost in the ShellIs the publisher of the original mangaKodanshaIt was often used in the media including, but it has decreased since the 2000s. In 2011, the OVA series "Animated the popular American TV drama of the same name"Supernatural the Animation』, Overseas drama Japanese animation production companyMad houseWas called Japanimation because it was animated and released worldwide (also used in advertisements during television broadcasting).[20][21].. It is used when introducing works from a world-conscious perspective, such as "Japanese animation that is accepted in the world".[22].

Industry group

Japan Video Association(Abbreviation: AJA)

Aimed at unifying the intentions of the animation industry in Japan, collaborating with related organizations, and sustainable development of the animation industryInstitute.

Businesses such as productions that manage voice actors join[23].

Japan Voice Actor Business Council

Organized by a voice actor company[24].

Japanese Animation Creators Association(Abbreviation: JAniCA)

A general incorporated association that was incorporated on December 2009, 12 with the aim of improving the status of animators and directors and passing on technology.

Japan Voice Producers Federation(Abbreviation: JAPA)

Established on April 2003, 4, "Collaboration and exchange with domestic and foreign related cultural organizations. Business for the development of visual culture". "Public relations and publishing business to improve the social status of the industry". "Establishment and advocacy of rights related to audio products". A general incorporated association whose main business is the collection and distribution of "rebroadcast usage fees"[25].

Japan Actors Union

Actors who are vulnerable to TV stations and production companies were formed with the aim of eliminating one-sided and disadvantageous appearance contracts. Many voice actors are also members[26].

National promotion and protection policy

Agency for Cultural Affairs Media Arts Festival

For the purpose of creating and developing media artsAgency for Cultural AffairsとCG-ARTS AssociationIs a festival sponsored by. Held every year since 1997[27].

Basic Arts and Culture Act

Enforced on December 2001, 12, art using movies, manga, animation, computers and other electronic devices is defined as media art, and measures are taken to promote it.

Act on promotion of creation, protection and utilization of contents(Content Law)

May 2004, animation, manga, etc.Content industryA law was enacted to work together with the public and private sectors to protect and nurture.

Cool Japan(Cool Japan)

A term used in the foreign culture promotion and export policy of the Japanese government, such as the Minister of Strategy of Cool JapanOverseas demand development support organization(Commonly known as Cool Japan Fund) has been established for anime, manga, games, J-POP, idols, etc.Pop culture-sub cultureIs also included.

Young Animator Training Project(Abbreviation: PROJECT A)

Animator human resources development project that has been implemented by the Japanese Animation Creators Association (JAniCA) since 2010 (22) under the consignment of human resources development projects such as young animators of the Agency for Cultural Affairs.

Museums

A museum that displays cels, films, and original drawings of manga and anime works. Set up a museum shop and various anime eventsInternational Animated Film AssociationSome also hold official film festivals and indie animation film festivals. "DoraemonThe author of 』was livingKawasaki City OfFujiko F. Fujio MuseumOr,Detective Conan』The land related to the authorTottoriTohaku-gunHokuei Town OfGosho Aoyama Hometown MuseumIn many cases, it is also used as a tourist base for regional revitalization in the birthplaces of famous anime works and manga authors.

Most museums are specialized facilities for specific writers and creators,Suginami Animation Museum,Akihabara UDX内 のTokyo Anime CenterIn, various special exhibitions that transcend the boundaries of production companies and publishers are held, and exhibitions and goods such as original drawings used for animation are sold.

Trade fairs and film festivals

Tokyo International Anime Fair

TokyoとJapan Video AssociationThe largest in the domestic animation industry sponsored by the "Tokyo International Anime Fair Executive Committee", which is composed of animation business organizations such asTrade fairMet.2002年から2013年Until around the end of MarchTokyo Big SiteThe exhibition that was held in. "Awards for anime works and related parties"Tokyo Anime AwardThe award ceremony was held.

Anime Content Expo

2010年ToTokyo Metropolitan Youth Development OrdinanceA major publisher in opposition toKadokawa Shoten,Akita Shoten,Kodansha,Shueisha,Shogakukan,Shinchosha Co., Ltd.,Futabasha,Shonen Gaho-sha,Hakusensha,Leid) 10 companies2011年Cooperate in participating in the Tokyo International Anime FairRefusalIssued a statement to do. afterwardsKadokawa ShotenとAniplex,Animate,King record,Geneon Universal Entertainment Japan,Frontier Works,Marvelous entertainment,media FactoryAnnounced that a total of eight companies will hold the event on the same day as the Tokyo International Anime Fair. It was a Japanese exhibition on animation hosted by the "Anime Contents Expo Executive Committee" and held at Makuhari Messe in Mihama Ward, Chiba City, Chiba Prefecture.

AnimeJapan

2014å¹´An exhibition realized by integrating the Tokyo International Anime Fair and Anime Contents Expo.TokyoWill not participateKADOKAWA,Aniplex,Japan Video Association19 companies will participate. LocationTokyo Big SiteIt will be a larger trade fair than the pre-division Tokyo International Anime Fair.

Annecy International Animation Film Festival

1960å¹´ToCannes International Film FestivalAnimated from the animation department,International Animated Film AssociationOfficial international animeFilm festival.Frederick Buck"A man who planted a tree" has won the grand prix.

MIFA (Marché international du film d'animation), the world's largest animation trade fair, is held at the property. During the three days of the festival, anime-related people from about 3 countries around the world participated.

Other

Hiroshima International Animation Festival,Ottawa International Animation Festival,Zagreb International Animation FestivalIs said to be the world's four largest animation festivals including Annecy.

Self-regulation of expression

In an anime movie,Film Ethics Committee"In the TV anime,BroadcasterIs voluntarily broadcast standard/program standard (Broadcast code) And operateRadio Act,Broadcasting lawThe voluntary organization defined by the Commercial Broadcasting Union member companies "Broadcast Ethics and Program Improvement Organization(BPO) has self-regulation.

OVA and Web anime do not have legal regulations or voluntary groups regarding self-regulation, but they are subject to the same self-regulation as TV animation and movies for broadcasting rights sales.Adult videosSimilar toAdult animeThe work is "Japan Video Ethics AssociationIs being examined.

Since there is no voluntary regulation for packaged sales of TV animation, it is possible to return to the original state of expressions that have strong stimuli such as sex appeal and bloodshed regulated by TV broadcasting, and to add or replace more radical images. Some have.

History

1960s, 1970s
1963年January 1, Osamu Tezuka's first commercial serial TV animation program (one weekly animation) in JapanAstro boy』Start broadcasting. It was a low-quality animation work that was said to have been blamed as "TV picture-story show" by the creators of animation movies at the time of watching the broadcast. It will be televised in and will develop in a different direction than animation in other countries.
When there were few domestic anime in the 1960s and 1970s,Tom and jerry], [PopeyeAlthough many imported works were broadcasted, domestically produced anime increased,1968年ToColor broadcastingAlso started,1969年ToSazae』Broadcast started, became recognized as a TV manga.
1970 eraから1980 era
"Space Battleship Yamato"Galaxy Express 999"ofReiji Matsumoto,Mobile Suit Gundam"ofYuno Tomino,Nausicaa of the valley of wind"ofHayao Miyazaki,Urusei Yatsura 2 Beautiful Dreamer"ofOshii Mamoru,Aim for the top!"ofHideaki AnnoAfter that, many famous animation directors who will lead the Japanese animation world have appeared.
From this time to TV stationsDeliveryAnd convenient transportationNerima-ku,SuginamiSuch asSeibu Shinjuku LineProduction companies are gathering along the railway line, making it Japan's number one anime company cluster.
1980 eraから1990 eraOverFranceJapanese children's TV shows were continuously broadcast on Japan's TV anime and became popular, and it grew many anime fans (this generation bears the name of the program's personality.DorotheCalled "generation")[28][29].. As a result of this popularity, the number of Japanese TV anime broadcasts outside France has increased, which has triggered the international acceptance of Japanese anime.
1990å¹´
The annual average viewership rate for anime programs was 9.7%, the highest ever since 1978 (according to video research, Kanto area).
From the late 1990s2000 era
Due to the decline in the viewership rate of anime broadcast frames in the morning and evening and golden time due to the declining birthrate, it has been changed to news, information programs, variety programs, etc.youthShifted to the midnight frame, which was broadcast in a single shot for the layer.
From the traditional target for children such as boys and girls from the time of day, low budget targeted for junior high school students and adult anime fansMidnight animeExplosively increased,2000å¹´There were seven,2004å¹´60 were produced and were crudely forged.
Originally there are few viewers, there is a situation that it is a time zone with a low audience rating and it is difficult to get sponsors, but the quality declines due to the randomization of low-budget works (Drawing collapse), etc., causing viewers to leaveCensoredAnd so on. Popular to compensate for the low attention due to the midnight zoneVoice actorThe number of works that depended onIdol voice actorIt became the flow called.
On the other handHideaki AnnoDirector'sNeon Genesis EVANGELIONIs1997å¹´The rebroadcast was held in the middle of the night, and there were cases such as unusual viewer ratings in the 5% range.Princess Mononoke], the first box office animation surpassed the box office revenue of 100 billion yen, and finally recorded 193 billion yen.
In addition,Hayao Miyazakidirected by,Studio GhibliProductionSpirited AwayIs the world's most acclaimed box office revenue over 300 billion yen,75th Academy AwardsFeature Animation Film Award,52nd Berlin International Film FestivalGold bear awardEtc. Also from this time at Studio GhibliAn actorThe number of works that do not rely on voice actors such as and animation directors increased.
2002å¹´Release"Voices of a Distant StarIsXin HaichengIt was noted that he performed director, screenplay, directing, drawing, art, editing almost all alone, full digital animation individual production is unparalleled in the work, and it is highly evaluated and various in the world. Awarded.
In addition,シ ャ フ ト,PA WorksAn animation production company with a characteristic background and direction has also appeared,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu] Will get a lot of attention.
Since around 2005, the five major commercial TV stations have reduced the number of late-night anime broadcast slots that have various circumstances, and the late-night anime that lost the broadcast slots,Kanagawa,TOKYO MX (Tokyo),Sun TV(Hyogo), Etc. I was forced into a local station whose broadcasting area is a densely populated area such as the Tokyo metropolitan area and the Kansai area.
In the three major metropolitan areas, there are areas where more than 100 late night animations are broadcast on the ground, while there are also areas where no one is broadcast. From that timeインターネットDue to the popularization of TV, etc.Mass mediaInformation about late-night animation, which is not covered in, became easier to obtain, and the number of viewers gradually increased, albeit gradually.
Also in the information program, the drama "2005"train manIn a boomMoeThe wordNew Word/Buzzword AwardTaking advantage of being awarded the top tenAkihabara,maid CafeSuch as anime and information related to it has begun to appear, including critical ones, so-calledGeekThe number of people who are interested in and prejudice increased.
2010 era
Broadcasting other than long-lived works called children's animations and children's animations in the morning and evening or even during the golden hours could not get the audience rating, and the broadcasting hours of the late-night frames have almost disappeared.
Some late-night anime topic worksSmartphoneDue to the spread ofインターネットAnime distribution atTwitterYouths who are not interested in anime and people who like animeentertainerWith the enthusiastic support of, it came to be ranked higher in the ranking of CDs and books.
We also focused on the purchasing power peculiar to anime fansLawsonThe number of tie-up campaigns with late-night anime has increased in various companies, and late-night anime is becoming a more familiar existence than it was before. But at midnight1 cool(3 months, 13 weeks) Due to the short broadcast period, there are no works that will become a topic of all generations.Recently, my sister looks a little strange.With explicit sexuality likeBroadcast Ethics and Program Improvement OrganizationSome works are pointed out by.
On the other handAnime for childrenThen it became a social phenomenonYokai watch] Has also appeared. In addition, in recent years, it has become possible to enjoy animation on the Internet video site at any time around the world.Electronics storeAnd subcultures such as anime and manga gatherAkihabaraIs becoming a world-famous tourist destination from the sanctuary of otaku, and is also being incorporated as a route for foreign tours.
Hayao Miyazaki in the theater animation2013年Published “Breeze] Has announced the retirement from the feature film. After the retirement report, Hideaki AnnoMamoru Hosoda, Makoto Shinkai and others have been picked up as candidates for successors to Hayao Miyazaki. Above all, Makoto Shinkai's "What is your name?』In the Japanese animation film Hayao Miyazaki next to box office revenue exceeded 100 billion yen, the momentum is approaching 200 billion yen.
While Japan's demand for animation is increasing worldwide, chronic problems such as the working environment and wages of animators are not resolved, and the domestic market is shrinking due to the declining birthrate and aging population. Especially an animation production companyA-1 PicturesThen, a man who worked as a coordinator of the scene called ``production progress'' that asked the person in charge for drawing or received the finished product committed suicide in October 2010, and as of April 10, 2014 Shinjuku Labor Standards Inspection Office due to overworkdepressionWas the cause. The medical record of the medical facility I visited had a description of "600 hours worked per month", but it is said that there is no evidence of overtime payment. This incident triggered the poor working environment being picked up by the media,Black Company Award 2014 Industry Award] Was to be awarded.
in recent yearsIndependent TV stationThe late-night anime that was broadcast onNHKThere are also cases of purchase and broadcasting by. As a result, it has become possible to broadcast popular works in a time zone where younger people can easily watch the work. In addition, I recently visited the place that became the stage of animationPilgrimage to sacred placesHas attracted attention and is expected as a trump card for regional revitalization.

Narrative aspect

In the United StatesRatingDue to strict regulations such as, comical based on easy-to-understand stories for children (comedyThere are many works that entertain movies, but in Japan it has been for children since "Astro Boy",Underground (culture)There was also a close influence on comics that were influenced by, so simply say "hero always wins"Moral disciplineNot the story ofSocial satireThere are many works that depict various emotions and psychology inherent in the hero in various and complicated stories including[30].

Technical aspects

Limited animationIs the mainstreamWalt Disney CompanyFull animations found in anime works such as are rarely used.movies24 as well asTopTaken at / sec, butMovieIs the same image shot at 3 frames x 8 / sec. In a still scene, the same image is shot at 24 frames / sec. For works for television broadcasting, the amount of cels used is determined for each episode by the direction.

Partial animation (Mouth)
A method of taking pictures of the same person's mouth, eyes, hands, feet, etc. as cels for each part. Recently, not only the mouth but also the chin etc. have come to move. Not only does it save you the trouble of making it, but it also makes the movement clearer in comparison with stationary.
Bank system
A technique for using videos repeatedly. It is used in the explanation of the synopsis of serial works, the union of robot animations, the transformation of magical girls, etc., and the dialogue scenes of the main character. The background image may be replaced and used as a completely different scene.
Still picture
It is used to create a lively state with many people, such as the spectators' seats in the stadium, party venues, and crowds in the city. Still images are often used.DezakiIs often used.Akiyuki Shinbo,シ ャ フ トIn the case of, it is famous for the style that makes the design of the still picture unique.
Flow line ・Concentrated line-Comic marks
Manga techniques are often used.
Camera work
The technique of scrolling (panning) cels up, down, left, and right on the background, and the camera's "drawing"zoom(Actually, pull the picture under the fixed camera). This is a technology that saves the number of drawings and clarifies the intention of the production.
Paka Paka
It was a technique that blinks the background violently with a series of flashes, and was often used as a flashy and attractive production effect at no cost, but I saw the 1997th episode of "Pokemon" broadcast on December 12, 16. Viewer complained of poor physical conditionPokemon shockTaking this opportunity, NHK and commercial broadcasters have formulated it, and self-regulation regarding the use of fluffy is being carried out.

Commercial aspect

It is said that it imitated the sales strategy of The Walt Disney Company, but it decided to take a different path.

For TV showssponsorIt is usually undertaken within the budget presented by, but it is undertaken with the apparently insufficient production cost, and the shortage is the export of the main business manga to overseas.re-air, Toy / stationery / confectionery maker rights to commercialize anime characters (Copyright) A system for collecting production funds by sales was born and will continue until later.

Output

At the same time as the TV broadcast of commercial animation in Japan, a sales strategy was adopted to export to many countries at low cost in order to recover the production cost in a short period of time. Since products that were produced on the premise of distribution in Japan are exported, the contents are often significantly modified due to the domestic law and cultural circumstances of the export destination.[Note 3].. In addition, the titles of works, characters, staff, etc. may be rewritten according to the country of export, or the viewer may not know that they are made in Japan.

またCopyrightSome works were sold under a contract (abandoned). in America,"Super Dimension Fortress Macross"Super Dimension Knight Southern Cross"Armor Genesis Mospida』3 worksHarmony Gold USA Company (Harmony Gold USA)Butadaptationdid"Robotech] Was produced, and there are cases where it was exported to other countries.[31].

Japanese animation spread all over the world at a low price amid the lack of software due to the worldwide increase in channels.[32].. Now in North America,South America,Europe,South Asia,East Asia,ロシア,オーストラリアAnd so on all over the worldMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsAccording to the survey (2005), the export value of TV animation is about 412/15 of the domestic TV broadcasting rights fee of 1 billion yen, which is about 26 billion yen to 28 billion yen.[33].. The majority of exportsNorth AmericaIt is also said that the target is occupied.

Japan External Trade OrganizationIs conducting content surveys by region and country, including reports on anime statistics and trends.[34].. However, in recent years, due to the expansion of the overseas anime market, Japanese-made animeshareIs shrinking. In addition, the number of "pirated anime sites" that illegally distribute subtitles in each country's language after the broadcast is increasing.

Export history

  • 1961å¹´ -Toei video (current:Toei animation) Is exported to the United States in the early feature films.Hiroshi OkawaToei Video, which was founded by the aim of "Toy Disney," was aware of the international market from the beginning.[35].
  • 1963å¹´ -Tetsuwan Atom, which was first exported as TV animation, was released in the United States eight months after the start of broadcasting.NBCBroadcasted by the affiliate NBC Enterprises as a program sale rather than a US network[36].. The following "Jungle Emperor" was created from the beginning with consideration for racial discrimination, etc., considering the American market.[37].
  • 1970 eraFirst half-TV animation exports became commonplace, initiallyHong KongとTaiwanStarted for[38],Northeast asiaSphere,Southeast AsiaIt will be broadcast in the area.
  • Late 1970s-firstイタリア, ThenFranceStarted in the 1980sEuropeExported in large quantities to. In the background of this, there was a large number of TVs in Europe due to the demand for multi-channel TVs and the low cost of Japanese-made works.[39][40].. Two-thirds of the TV animation produced by Toei Animation was for Europe, especially for France and Italy.[41].. As with the United States and Asia, the content was subject to change. In Italy, Japanese animation was broadcast for a total of 1 hours a day during the peak period.[42].
  • 1980 era -Broadcast in the People's Republic of China[43].
  • 2013å¹´ - Information and Communication Policy Research InstituteAccording to the announcement, the overseas export value of Japanese broadcasting contents in 2013 was about 138 billion yen, of which animation accounted for 62.2%.[44].
  • Current,Hong Kong,Thailand,TaiwanFor example, an anime work broadcast in Japan is being broadcast in about a week. AlsoNetAt that time, anime for overseas was distributed, and one hour after the broadcast in Japan, Japanese animation could be seen all over the world.
  • In recent years, there have been illegal animation distribution sites called "pirated editions", mainly overseas, making it difficult to expand exports overseas.Ministry of Economy, Trade and IndustryAccording to the calculation, the loss due to pirated editions is estimated to be 5600 billion yen per year in China alone and more than 2 trillion yen in the United States.

Evaluation outside Japan

Often recognized as "sexual and violent"[45][46].

As a cultural difference,Doraemon, Etc. that show Japanese life scenery,Rose of VersaillesThose that deal with specific countries, such as ", will vary greatly depending on the country. 『DoraemonIs not accepted in North America, which honors heroic men, and was not broadcast until 2014, but is popular in Southeast Asia.

Except for sexual expressions, Japanese cultural expressions are being accepted and reevaluated in Southeast Asia. The favorite works are not so different from those in Japan. Also"Super electromagnetic machine Voltes V], there are also hits among some people (fans) in certain countries. The character's popularity also varies from country to country.

Examples of regulations outside Japan

FranceThen, in 1983, Minister of Culture Jack Lang declared that it was a cultural invasion and decided to subsidize the animation producer in his country.[47].. In 1989Kinnikuman], [Fist of the North StarIs cruelBashingThe broadcast was canceled. 『Saint Seiya』Is a violent scene cut and hit worldwide and hit, except the United States, Europe, Mexico, South America has a strong popularity[48].. In addition, there is a quota system that obliges broadcasters to broadcast more than 6% of European programs, and US and Japanese animations are broadcast in the remaining 4%.[49].

EUIn member countries, it was difficult to broadcast new animations from foreign countries after the EU Council issued the “TV Directive without Borders” in 1997, which requires broadcasting stations to make European programs 50% or more of the broadcasting time. Has become.

ニュージーランドThen,Punipuni ☆ Poemii], the appearance of the characters that appearAn infantLooks likeInfant loversIf it is confirmed that the possession has been banned by a government agency and the possession is confirmed, it will be punished for violating the child pornography prohibition law. North America andオーストラリアDisposal according to that is done in many countries.

AmericaSo, Japanese animation has long been renamed, edited and modified and Americanized, non-American remarks are removed, and at the same time there is only a minimal reference to the original Japanese production team. Was[50].. In the 1970s in the United States TV purifying movement for children, the increasing violence description and sexual content of Japanese animation was regarded as a problem, the American TV network shifted anime broadcasting from weekday golden time to Saturday morning However, various guardian groups put pressure on the network and demanded further purification of anime, and Japanese animation could not be flowed. In 1982, Toei sold "Galaxy Express 999" to New World Pictures in the United States, but it was significantly modified to match the United States and the story was destroyed, so Toei collapsed the American office and withdrew. There is. Even in recent years, it may still be changed to the American style, the stage of the work is changed to a fictitious place in the United States instead of Japan, the person is changed from the Japanese name to the American style and the American culture and life is reflected, Japan The United States has been localized by converting yen into dollar bills. In the United States, "promoting a healthy diet" is one of the broadcasting standards in the animation for children's programs. Expressions related to food are also regulated and edited or modified in the American style from the Japanese version. ..

In the People's Republic of China, regarding the import and broadcasting of overseas anime in 2006, domestic anime broadcasting must not fall below 7% of the total animation broadcasting. Some regulations have been established such as foreign animation can be imported until 17:20, foreign animation broadcasting is prohibited from XNUMX:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX[51].. The broadcast share of Japanese works exceeds 8%,DumpingIt was excluded because it was an invasion of Japanese culture by. At the same time, embarked on the protection and development of the domestic animation industry.[52].

South Korea(Korea), onceRestricting the inflow of Japanese popular culture in KoreaThere was,1998å¹´Was banned by. Japanese animation had been broadcast before the ban was lifted, but to avoid restrictions, the above (Output(See section), the modified version of Korean specifications such as the stage and the person was broadcast regardless of the reality of the geography. After the ban was lifted, the ones that had been broadcast before were unchanged, but the actual geography of Japan and charactersJapaneseIt is broadcast as it is in Japan. Some fictional stages and people who are not aware of pilgrimage to the sacred place are still localized in Korea.[Note 4].

IndiaThen, focusing on the adverse effects on children, which were regarded as problems in JapanSocial phenomenonIs happening,Crayon Shin-chanThere is also a movement to prohibit broadcasting[53].

From the above cases, there is also a view that not all Japanese anime can be said to be globally accepted.[54]

Product development and animation

Anime and comics, novels, anime magazines, aniraji, game software, figures (toys), etc. have an indispensable close relationship in terms of sales strategy, and they are developed in various media.Media mixIs planned on the premise.

The width of the subject is wide,Science fiction anime,Robot anime(Super Robot-Real robot),Gag anime,Magical girl anime(Henshin Heroine),Love comedy,Spo root,Moe Anime,Air system(Daily),Sekai system,Harem stuffAnd so on.

Original anime

Manga and novels, light novelsComputer gamesThere is no original such asOriginal animeIf, during or after the broadcast (rarely in anticipation of animation before broadcast, there are also cases that say) will be made into a manga or novel. The works of Hayao Miyazaki, Mamoru Hosoda, and Makoto Shinkai have recently been released to the theater as original animations. In recent years, there is a tendency to invite well-known scenario writers from the game industry as screenwriters for production.

Movie/TV

In the case of movies,Omnibus,Sequel,Spin-offIt is often produced as a movie that can be viewed as a complete theater work, which is easy to understand even if you are not watching the TV main broadcast, but watch the TV main broadcast in advance. I can not understand unless I doNeon Genesis EVANGELIONAnd 'Puella Magi Madoka Magica the Movie [New Edition] Rebellion StoryThere are also works such as. Also,"Space Battleship Yamato 2199Some movies will be broadcast as a TV series after being premiered as a movie.

Live action

A live-action movie based on an anime project that has no originals such as manga or novels.TV dramaIn Japan,2004年"CASSHERN"("New Human Casshern]).2009年"Yatterman (movie)"2010年"SPACE BATTLESHIP Yamato"("Space Battleship Yamato]). Abroad,2008年,Speed ​​racer(Original: "Mach GoGoGo")and so on.

Detail is"Live actionSee.

Regarding the work,List of live-action movies of anime and manga-List of anime/manga TV drama worksSee.

Animation of live-action works

The original (original draft) was planned for the live-action work, and in the animated work, "Moonlight mask"Love warrior rainbow man"The ☆ Ultraman"and so on.

Comic

In the past, theatrical works were called "manga movies" and TV works were called "TV manga (manga)".ComicAnd the anime were confused or almost equated. Even now, there are many works based on manga works.

Comicalization

The word "manga" was generally used by making an original work that is not a manga original into a manga, but from around 2000 it means a novelization.NovelizeJapanese English derived fromComicalization(Comicalize) is widespread. It is not limited to the main story being made into a cartoon, but it is a biography or extra edition derived from the main story by multiple authors.Spin-off OfAnthology,OmnibusThere are many works in the format.

Picture book

Picture bookIn the work animated in the original, in JapanAnpanman(Go! Anpanman)” and the British “Train picture book(Thomas Thomas)"and so on.Anime for childrenFor example, there are many works that are made into picture books. Also, works based on old tales are being made from the dawn to the present.

Film book

It is a picture book made by arranging animation film frames, and is typical of Kodansha.

Until the popularization of video media such as home video, popular anime movies are also sold, and it is still a still image to enjoy along with SP, LP, sono sheet etc. that recorded drama sound etc. It was within reach of the fans.

Novel

General literary artsLight novelThere are many animated works of. Also, if the original is a novel, it is often a late-night anime or theater animation. In general literary arts, novels that have been live-action in the past are often newly animated.

Regarding the work,Light novel animation listSee.

Novelize

TV animation, movies, manga, game software, etc. will be the originalNovelizeIs also being done. Similar to comicalization, there are many works that develop spin-offs such as extra stories and extras derived from the main part.

Musical (2.5 dimensional musical)

2.5 dimensional musicalIt is also called the stage, which faithfully reproduces the setting of characters and stories based on anime, manga, games, etc.musical) Has been made.

1974'sRose of VersaillesWas started, and in 1993 days, 8 stages were performed in 31.Saint SeiyaMobilized 37 people, which triggered the musicalization, and thenSailor MoonAnd 'Prince of TennisA number of popular works such as “” have been converted into musicals, and the total number of viewers in 2013 exceeded 160 million. In 2014,Japan 2.5 Dimensional Musical AssociationHas also been established.

Package sales of video media

For household use as a major change in distributionVideo deck(VHS-β max) Has not appeared on TV or in theaters in 1983OVAthe work"Dalos] Has appeared. OVA sells video softwarerental videoIt is a business model that emerged as a result of the collection of production costs by the usage fees paid by the store.

Such as toy makerssponsorSince the work can be created regardless of the intention of the work, there is relatively freedom of expression, and the majority of the purchasers are specific fan groups and the content of the work is biased, but the purchasers are specified. It has the advantage of being easy to commercialize and sell. Initially, it was produced as a one-story completed work similar to an animation movie that lasts 60 to 90 minutes, but laterTV stationFor the sale of broadcasting rights, the mainstream is produced in units of several episodes, including a theme song in about 24 minutes.

Since the latter half of the 1980s, the spread of home-use VCRs has led TV movies to be packaged and sold after being broadcast. Later than videoLaser discAlthough (LD) was a high-grade or enthusiastic device, the device itself was not as popular as the video device itself, but its playback software, LD, has penetrated among core anime fans like video cassettes. Most of the video works released were animation and movies. In the era of video and LD until the 1990s, the VCR itself was widely popular, but there are few retail stores for packaged software, which is a much smaller maniac market than the later DVD era. Since the unit price is high and the video cassette/LD is larger than the DVD, it is bulky to carry, so if you have an anime or movie work that you did not record from your own TV,rental videoIt was the mainstream to rent it for viewing.

The same size as a music CDDVDSince the advent and spread of the 2000s, the market size such as the number of packaged works, the number of stores, and the sales space has increased dramatically.

In the late 2000sTerrestrial digitalWith the penetration ofHigh definitionThe number of production works has increased,Blu-ray Disc(BD) andBD recorderWith the advent and spread of BD, BD became the mainstream (including works already packaged in the pastDigital remaster(HD remaster) May be re-released as a version).

In response to the flow of OVA, late night and early morning frames with low broadcasting rightsCable TV,Independent TV station,BS/CS channelThus, the number of TV anime programs targeting a specific fan base has increased. EspeciallyMidnight anime,UHF animeIs basically low in audience ratingsponsorSince the fee is low and it is difficult to recover the production cost by itself, the business model that makes a profit by selling various packages has become mainstream. However, sales of video media are on the decline due to the spread of online distribution (regardless of whether it is legal or illegal).Sales promotionIs the current situation.

In the middle of the 2010s, the trend of supplementing profits from online distribution has become mainstream both inside and outside the country.

magazine

1977å¹´, Magazine for adultsMonthly OUT"But"Space Battleship Yamato] It was a huge hit with a special feature, which became an opportunity to develop into an anime magazine. At that time, a TV information magazine for children "Tv landWas publishedTokuma bookstoreLaunched the special edition "Roman Album Space Battleship Yamato" on TV Land and recorded 40 copies. Following this success, the monthly anime magazine "AnimageIs published.

afterwards,"Mobile Suit GundamAfter a number of publishers entered and weeded out during the anime boom that followed,'' as of 2015, the general magazine called the 10-day selling anime magazine is "Animage" "Animedia""Monthly new type"The three magazines are in a situation of competing.

As a derivative magazineMoe AnimeSpecial magazine ("Megami Magazine""Daughter TYPEEtc.) orVoice actorSpecial magazine ("Voice actor grand prix""Voice actor animedia"Such),Anime songSpecial magazine ("Lisani!, Etc.) have also appeared.

Criticism/Research

1917å¹´"" in the September issueJunichi KonaiIs the first criticism of animation in Japan. After that, the criticism of animation was "Kinema Junpo""Movie criticism, Etc. have become major media for announcements and have been conducted in the form of critiques of new works.

1950 eraToToei videoWas established, and feature films are being produced regularly at a pace of once a year.Asahi ShimbunIt is also handled in movie sections such as[55].

1977å¹´ToYasushi Watanabe"" was published by the coauthor. It is often cited as a reference material as a basic document in the history of Japanese animation. For animations and critiques outside Japan,1966å¹´Was written inTakuya Mori,Emiko OkadaEtc. were active[56].. Both "History of Japanese Animated Movies" and "Introduction to Animation" were a series of serialized articles in "Movie Review" magazine.

1970 eraAt the end, the anime boom arrived and many anime magazines were launched. The magazine was composed with the help of a writer from an anime fan who was a doujinshi.[57].Ryusuke Hikawa,Yuichiro Oguro,Masahiro Haraguchi,Takashi Shimotsuki,Shinsuke NakajimaStarted as a student part-time job and have been active since 2000[58]. "AnimageIs focused on systematically introducing the creator's work history[59],Animated"When"Monthly OUT”, criticism articles and reviews of works submitted by readers were for sale[60][61].

Specialized magazines focusing on criticism and research include "" which was launched in 1998, "" which was launched in 1999, and "" which was launched in 2000.Anime style, Etc., but it was short-lived, and “Anime Style” moved to the Internet.

"Monthly new typeSince the mid-1980s when "" appeared, anime magazines have shifted from articles such as creators and work research to making emphasis on characters and gravure, basically anime magazines that actively publish anime criticism No longer exists[62].. On the other hand, research books centering on popular works and popular creators will continue to be published from the 1990s, when Hayao Miyazaki and Mamoru Oshii became popular in the business of "Neon Genesis Evangelion". Became[63].

1998å¹´In October, the first academic conference in Japan aimed at academic research on animeJapan Animation SocietyWas established[64].

Aniraji

Abbreviation for anime radio. A radio program that is mainly targeted for listening to otakus such as anime, games, manga, light novels, and voice actors. October 1979,Radio Osaka"Anime topia], many startedMidnight broadcastAlthough it is broadcast as a program, Internet radio programs are increasing with the spread of the Internet environment.

There were many general information programs by anime magazines and record companies in the early days, but based on anime, games, manga, novels (light novel), etc.Radio DramaPrograms, popular voice actor personality programs, request programs specializing in anime songs and game music, and programs for discussing anime topics from listeners have become widespread.

Music (sound medium)

Used in the playMusic OfTheme song(Theme song) ・Insert song ・Image Song・Instrumental song・BGMIn addition to the soundtrack, we recorded the drama sound with the background of the world of drama and animation.SP- LP-Sono sheetSuch as record boardscassette tapeAnd nowCDIn addition to being distributed byiTunesInternet delivery is also increasing.

In the past, video media were extremely expensive, and audio media such as SP/LP/Sonosheet record boards, cassette tapes, and CDs that recorded audio for dramas were within the reach of ordinary enthusiasts. ..

Official Website

インターネットWith the spread of, most anime works have the form of setting up an official website and advertising. The content includes introductions of works and synopses, free distribution of advertising materials such as trailers and PVs, and PR of related products.desktop-Mobile phoneMay also provide content for Especially in the case of late-night anime, since the audience is almost limited, they often rely on advertising on the Internet. AlsoSocial MediaAdvertising is cheap, and it has the advantage that it can sometimes send work information to tens of thousands of people with the retweet function.

Of production TV stations and production companiesWebsiteIn many cases, each work/series has its ownDomain nameIn many cases, it is acquired and installed as an independent site managed by the production company.BroadbandDue to the spread of the environment, there are also cases where the main story and official radio are being distributed.

2010 eraWhen you enterSocial MediaIn the form of receiving the spread ofTwitter,facebookThe number of cases of acquiring an official account of the company and disseminating information is increasing. Also, an example where the work becomes a hot topic by exchanging animation information between Internet users (Puella Magi Madoka Magica,Kotoura-san(Etc.) and examples of anime that ended with the official website becoming a hot topic again (Kill Me Babyand so on.

Figure (toy)

It has been deeply related since the beginning of TV animation, and basically most of the animation for children is premised on developing toys, and it is picked up with a mechanism such as movement, coalescence, deformation that attracts children's interest. It was a sponsor's request to make a toy that can be played as a leading role appear, which influenced the setting of the work. The material depends on the ageTinplateMade bySoft vinylMadeChogokin (toys)There are differences.

In the 1960s, soft vinyl character dolls and prefabricated dollsCharacter modelExisted,1970 eraLatter half,Scale modelOf "Space Battleship Yamato" faithfully reproduced based on the settings likePlastic modelHits and follows the flowBandaiWill be the biggest hit product in the history of Japanese plastic models that has pushed to the top of the model industryGunplaHas appeared.

Also, character erasers that are not used as erasers, etc.Capsule toyProducts by (Gasha Gasha, Gachapon, etc.) were also developed, and in the 1970sSuper carRiding the boom "Wolf on the circuitIt became a big boom due to hits such asSuper car eraser,Kinkeshi Man Eraser(Commonly known as Kinkeshi) etc. have appeared.

1980 era, Following "Mobile Suit Gundam"Real robotIn the boom, the main products of toys became plastic models and aggressive product development was carried out, but it did not exceed the Gunpla boom, and "Blue Meteor SPT Reisner』The boom is over, such as the main sponsor withdrawing due to sluggish sales of plastic models and the broadcasting is discontinued, but the penetration of scale character plastic models to young people due to the Gunpla boom will produce a small number of prototypesGarage kitIt also led to the rise of the monsters, and things that were considered unprofitable even if they were made into plastic models centered on monsters and beautiful girl figures will gradually permeate.

1984å¹´January,General Products(Gainax(Predecessor of) The world's largest later, regardless of professional or amateur sponsoredGarage kit, The biggest event for exhibition and sale of models and sculptures, "Wonder Festival(Abbreviated as "Wonfes" and "WF") will be held, and an event of doujinshi convention handmade model exhibition and sales will be held to coincide with the withdrawal of major toy makers.

1990 eraIn the garage kit, which is expensive and requires advanced technology and labor to assemble and paint,Neon Genesis EVANGELION"ofAyanami ReiWhen the finished product of Naruto is traded at a high price among enthusiasts, animationBeautiful girl OfEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euBecame a boom, and othersKaiyodoElaborate and cheapShokuganIn addition, Bandai absorbed the expression method of the garage kit and coupled with the figure boom that started with a capsule toy that is so realistic that it can not be compared with the conventional character eraser.コ レ ク シ ョ ンWas the target of. For sales promotion, it may be attached to appendices such as books, game software, DVDs, and purchase benefits.

Late-night anime figures are focused on how well they are made, which has led to soaring prices.

Animated works of toy products

Product planning for toysdraftIn the example animated in (Original), "Transformers"Zoids"Hikarian"and so on.

Game software

arcade game,Consumer games(Home game console) Forプ ロ グ ラ ムRecorded physicalMedia(Detail isGame softwareSee also),Online softwareProvided atComputer games Ofsoftware.

1983å¹´, A blockbuster product that later became a social phenomenonNESIs released, and toy makers suffering from sluggish sales of toys such as plastic models will shift their main products to the development of home video game consoles and game software. A popular work in the past, relatively easy to make into game softwareshooting game(1985, "Space Battleship Yamato"),Competitive fighting game(1985,"Kinnikuman Mass Lug Match]),War simulation game(1987,"SD Gundam World Gachapon Warrior]) And other products were developed.

later,Role playing games-Adventure gamesThere will also be works that will be animated based on the original. "Danganronpa School of hope and high school student of despair], A love simulation game, and even an adult game that has been reorganized so that it can be viewed even under the age of 18, and the range of works has expanded. Also, in recent years, "Angel Beats!"ofAji JunAnd "Astronomical method"ofNaoki HisaEtc. of game companiesScenario writerIs increasingly writing screenplays for anime.

Games for mobile phones

Since the functions of mobile phones have expanded and the Internet has become easier to useGREE,MobageMobile phone game sites with free basic charges such as have become popular. Various anime works have also become mobile phone games.Idolmaster Cinderella GirlsThen, it was animated based on the characters that appeared in the mobile phone game, and it got a big topic.

またSmartphoneBecomes popular, it will replace existing game sitesア プ リ ケ ー シ ョ ンThe game at is now a hit. EspeciallyLove Live! School Idol FestivalThe number of registered people increased by 2 million in the two months during the anime was broadcast, and the number of registered people increased exceptionally. As of March 100, the number of registered people has exceeded 2015 million in Japan and 3 million worldwide.

In this way, the popularity of mobile phone games based on anime works will increase the name recognition. Therefore, game application development centering on midnight animation is intensifying.

Regarding the workList of animated game softwareSee.

Trading cards

Collection card for games and viewing. The trading card boom of the social phenomenon that occurred from the end of the 1990s to the beginning of the 2000s became popular and is often abbreviated as "treca".

It has existed for a long time as related products such as animation and manga,MenkoHas existed since the age called.

Using a game cardCard gamesIs called Trading Card Game (abbreviated as TCG). Usually there are two players in a battle format.

Character Goods

An animated character for children was drawn文 房 具And clothing,CandyMost of the products, such as foods, can be bought easily at supermarkets, shopping centers, convenience stores, etc., but some anime shops and event venues also sell goods with low production volume, so rare items are used. It is traded at high prices in markets and online auctions.

Surrounding culture

1970 eraLate

anime fan

Initially, the animation was for children, and it was not known that some adults liked it. August 1977, movie version "Space Battleship Yamato] Newspapers picked up the topic as a result of the peculiar behavior of fans who lined up all night on the day of the release, and it began to be known to adults that there are hobbyists who like anime. Many were high school students and adults. In the year following the release of "Space Battleship Yamato"Anime magazineWas first published,CorrespondenceWhen it becomes possible to contact through a corner etc., manyFan clubWas born. Even in the older generation, the impression that anime still belongs to children still remains, but that impression is fading as the times go by.

Big friends

Originally a child (Children) Was targetedAnime-Comic-Special effectsAn adult fan who is absorbed in hero programs.

Secondary creation

LegallyParodyEven if it is modified as, without obtaining permission from the right holder, free distribution to unspecifiedSaleWhat to doCopyright lawIt is an act contrary to.

However, copyright infringementGuilty chargesSo, if you areChargesdo itLawsuitIt is expensive to bring in, and even if you win a case, you may not have the ability to pay compensation, and the authors are crying or falling asleep, or they are acknowledging as a fan support act.

Secondary creation doujinshi

For those who have the hobby of issuing a newsletter and making a fan book again when the fan club is born.Self-publishedBegins, and grows with the involvement of manga, which has a deep connection with anime, and various other cultures. But,Comic marketSuch as (Comiket)Doujinshi sale eventAnd commercialization is progressing through consignment sales of specialty bookstores (for details, seeDoujinshi # The situation and problems surrounding manga/anime doujinshiSee).

Seen in Doujinshiイ ラ ス トA typical method is to draw outlines and boundaries with clear lines to simplify gradations of colors and shadows and express them in stages.Anime picture(Moe picture).

Cosplay

Also called "disguise". The act of dressing up as a fantasy character with clothes and makeup.Costume playThe person who does it is a cosplayer (Cosplayer), or layer for short. An independent event is also held, and self-produced cosplay photo books are sold at comic markets and doujinshi specialty stores. However, in recent yearsCopyrightCosplay costume seller as an infringement ofPolicemenThere are also cases of being caught in.

Itasha(Itasha)

Also called "Moesha".Moe AnimeA fan's car with stickers and painted logos of the characters and related manufacturing companies and brand names. The bike isPainful car(Tansha)", bicycle "Painful(It was Chari)", and is called a gouten in the case of a train. In 2008, Aoshima Bunka Kyozaisha Co., Ltd. applied for the sale of a plastic model and registered a trademark, and was registered on June 6 of the same year. A community was formed along with an increase in owners of Itasha.

In recent years, trains and buses that draw illustrations of anime-style characters have often been operated for corporate advertising purposes, but they often fall into the category of itasha.

In the area where the anime works are set, some companies wrap anime on trains and buses to attract tourists who target anime fans. There are anime illustrations in the carス タ ッ フSign of theVoice actorThere are also some in-car announcements being carried out.

Pilgrimage to sacred places

Detailed localLocation(Location hunting) Began with the advent of a work that set the image production and the world view.Novel,movies,TV dramaAround the stageLocation tour, It is the same action as the stage exploration, but the difference is that there are fans who visit the site with a pain car in which the character's cosplay and anime characters are drawn.

Fans who specified the location (sacred place) visited the place (pilgrimage) and compared it with the local photo and scene in the play (in the case of cosplay, the same pose as the character in the play)インターネットWas published on fan sites, etc., and a fanzine-style guidebook was produced and distributed at the fanzine sale event.

Unlike live-action movies and TV dramas, it often includes unrecognized local residents' houses and schools that were used as video works, and there is no denying the possibility of causing anxiety or annoyance in daily life. , An example in which the publisher of the work made a request to refrain from pilgrimage to the sacred place[65],Foot-and-mouth diseaseIn some cases, we asked them to refrain from visiting farms and other places that were used as a stage for prevention.

On the other handWhat is your name?It was the stage ofHida CityThen, because the tourists who saw the work flooded into Hida city and were widely covered in the news etc.2016å¹´The pilgrimage to the Holy Land was selected as one of the top 10 in the world.

There is no need for advertising costs associated with the work, and tourism demand will increase, so there are great expectations as a way to promote tourism. Therefore, there are local governments and areas that produce moe characters that focus on attracting activities for anime and manga locations. However, the boom of most anime works is transient, and since it is not known whether or not the works will be talked about, there are places where the number of tourists of anime fans has fallen significantly below the number expected by the local government.

MorePilgrimageSee.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "Bomberman Jetters" Scenario Meeting Animation Bomberman Jetters Production Site Report とTelecom animation film Of Basic knowledge of the animation industry-Flow of animation production-,Fact-finding report on animation industry(PDF)-The description is based on the Fair Trade Commission, January 2009.
  2. ^ America Ofデ ィ ズ ニ ーThe production work is also called "Disney animation" in Japan,KodanshaDisney anime books,Kasei-shaDisney-authorized, such as the Disney anime novel versionPicture book"Animation" is also used in and the novelized version.
  3. ^ American version of "Cardcaptor Sakura" (local title is "CardCaptors』) Is the French version of" AVALON ", whose surname is AVALON.Every time(The local title is "Juliette, je t'aime") is set in Mimosa Pension, and the heroine's name is Juliet. ButSeoul Special CityAnd so on.
  4. ^ After the ban was lifted, fictitious geography or the actual geography of Japan is set, but those whose main stage is fictitious facilities are the original names, or only the geography and personal names are localized in Korea.

Source

  1. ^ Japanese language dictionary,Daijirin,Sanseido Japanese Dictionary (Sanseido Web Dictionary)"Anime" section
  2. ^ Production under the control of the U.S. military and seizure of filmRefer to the description of "Line drawing order form". See inside the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum Virtual Museum
  3. ^ "Fuku-chan's Submarine" Japanese Movie Database
  4. ^ Tatsuo Sato_diary (diary for August 2005, 8) Tatsuo Sato Retrieved November 2015, 4.
  5. ^ "Alive Final Evolutionary Shonen" Animation Announcement Announcement Increased Production Discontinuation Anime! Anime! Biz viewed 2010 June 6, 6 April 2015.
  6. ^ A voice actor has a manga "That is a voice actor! ] TV animation decided. The original author, Masumi Asano × Drawing, Kenjiro Hata, fastest talk(Page 1) Excite Review Retrieved on December 2014, 12 and December 30, 31.
  7. ^ Gainax starts production of "Aoki ur", which depicts the world after "One Amis". Release of "preceding short story" next spring ITmedia Retrieved February 2014, 12, April 11, 2015.
  8. ^ 14th Is the Japanese animation industry okay? (2006/10/16) http://www.nikkeibp.co.jp/style/biz/feature/tv_iibun/061016_14th/
  9. ^ 15th What is the dark shadow creeping on the animation industry (2006/11/07) http://www.nikkeibp.co.jp/style/biz/feature/tv_iibun/061107_15th/
  10. ^ Course Animation Volume 3 Image Design by Hiroshi Ikeda / Art Publisher
  11. ^ anime Marian Webster dictionary
  12. ^ Nobuyuki Tsuken, "The Power of Japanese Animation, Two Axis That Goes Through 85 Years of History," NTT Publishing, 2, p2004
  13. ^ Nobuyuki Tsuken, "Osamu Tezuka as an Anime Artist: Its Path and Essence", NTT Publishing, 2007, p.20 Anime! Animation! Arbitrary Glossary Part 1 Differences between Anime and Animation Anime! Anime! Archived August 2010, 7, at the Wayback Machine.December 2008, 2
  14. ^ As an exampleDebussyPiano song of "Image"The third tempo "Moveman mouvement (movement)" The tempo instruction at the beginning is "Trezanyme" très animé(Move very).
  15. ^ By Fred Patten.
  16. ^ Dictionary.com-Otaku
  17. ^ Dictionary.com-Anime
  18. ^ Kinema Junpo 1995
  19. ^ For example,japanimation.com Such.Anime Oxide
  20. ^ "Supernatural The Animation" Overseas DramaPowerPush!! TVGroove.com
  21. ^ A very popular drama nationwideSUPERNATURALIs fully animated by Japan cinema-magazine.com
  22. ^ Not just Studio Ghibli! Pay attention to the works that will tell you about the future of Japanimation! -Cinema Today
  23. ^ Japan Entertainment Management Business Association.
  24. ^ Japan Voice Actor Business Council .
  25. ^ Japan Voice Producers Federation .
  26. ^ Cooperative Association of Japanese actors
  27. ^ Japan Media Arts Plaza "Archived copy”. As of May 2009, 4オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2009/8/26Browse.
  28. ^ Global human pattern @ Europe Pursue Japan
  29. ^ Documentaire présentant le Japon à travers l'amitié franco-japonaise
  30. ^ Yasuo Otsuka "Ambition of Little Nemo" Tokuma Shoten, 2004, p.29.
  31. ^ ROBOTECH.COM (official site) : Tatsunoko ProJapan cannot be selected as the shipping destination of the online shop due to a license contract issue with Harmony Gold
  32. ^ Hiromichi Masuda "Understanding Anime Business" NTT Publishing, 2007, p.148
  33. ^ Japanese animation program export sales ¥30 billion annually Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Anime! Anime! July 2007, 6
  34. ^ Japan External Trade Organization Survey Report (Content) http://www.jetro.go.jp/industry/contents/reports/
  35. ^ Satoshi Kusanagi, "How Japanese Animations in Japan Are Seen?" Tokuma Shoten, 2003, pp.30-32
  36. ^ Kusanagi (2003), p.55
  37. ^ Koichi Yamamoto"Insects Pros and Cons: Anita Menta's Youth", Shinchosha, 1989, p.153
  38. ^ Naoki Furuta, "The Age of Astro Boy: The Battle of the Video Industry", World Thought Company, 2009, p.254
  39. ^ Furuta (2009), p.258
  40. ^ Kiyotani Shinichi "Le Otaku France Nerd Circumstances" Bestsellers, 1998, p.33
  41. ^ Furuta (2009), pp.254-255
  42. ^ A man who spread "Dragon Ball" to Europe Interview with President Animax Takiyama, a leading Japanese anime exporter[Broken link]Weekly Toyo Keizai, April 2013, 04
  43. ^ Takashi Endo, "Chinese Moving New Man, Japanese Animation and Manga Move China" Nikkei BP, 2008, pp.9,81, XNUMX
  44. ^ "Current situation analysis of overseas expansion of broadcasting contents (FY2013) (PDF)”. Cabinet Secretariat (November 2014, 11). 2014/12/3Browse.
  45. ^ Satoko Kajiyama, "Weed Soul, Mitsuhisa Ishikawa, The Man Who Bought Anime Business," Nikkei BP, 2006, p.195
  46. ^ Ryusuke Hikawa "Truth of Japanimation" "Separate Volume Treasure Island 985 A Super Masterpiece Edition This Anime Is Amazing" Takarajimasha, 2004, p.35
  47. ^ Kiyotani (1998), p.52
  48. ^ Kiyotani (1998), pp.53-54.
  49. ^ "Gatekeeper" Profiling Survey of Japanese Contents Overseas (France) (March 2011) | Survey Report-View by Country/Region-JETRO
  50. ^ "Astro Boy", "Kimba the White Lion", "Battle of the Planets", "Space Battleship Yamato (Star Blazers)" and many more.
  51. ^ China Content Market Research (6 Fields) 2009 Edition (October 2009) | Research Report-View by Country/Region-JETRO
  52. ^ Endo Homare (2008), p.67,91.196,206
  53. ^ "Shin-chan" TV stop in India? Concerns about the impact on children”"Archived copy”. As of May 2008, 12オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008/12/7Browse.
  54. ^ web SPA! "Japanese manga isn't really popular in the world!"http://spa.fusosha.co.jp/feature/list00000686_2.php
  55. ^ Nobuyuki Tsuken "Introduction to Animation", Heibonsha Shinsho, 2005, pp.108-110
  56. ^ Tsuken (2005), pp.110-111.
  57. ^ Yoshihiro Yonezawa "A small feast of manga and doujinshi" "Separate volume Takarajima 358 Take me to the comic market! All about the huge comic doujinshi market" Takarajimasha, 1998 pp.44-45.
  58. ^ Tsuken (2005), pp.111-112.
  59. ^ Mamoru Oshii "There must be a theme for the end of the period" "For the 200th issue of" Animage "" "Animage" February 1995 issue
  60. ^ Masanobu Komaki, "When I was an Animec ... Editor-in-Chief Struggle", NTT Publishing, 2009, p.83
  61. ^ Toshio Okada, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Masanobu Komaki "A Thorough Study on the History of Otaku" "Unprecedented Otaku Roundtable 1 Yoiko" Music Senkasha, 2001, p.57
  62. ^ Ryota Fujitsu "Declaration of" Anime Critic "" Fusosha Publishing Co., Ltd., 2003, pp.277-278
  63. ^ Tsuken (2007), p.179
  64. ^ Japan Animation Society Official Website
  65. ^ Strawberry marshmallow: Monthly comicsDengeki Daio2006 year 3 month number

References

Book

Article

Related item

外部 リンク

Anime

AnimeIt is,ア ニ メ ー シ ョ ン(English: animation)ofJapaneseIn略 語Is[1].. Refers to all video works composed using animation. In this articleJapanGeneral commercial animation (Television Animation,Theater animation,OVAEtc.).

the term

In Japan, the term "animation" used the following translations, depending on the time.

Age distributionTranslationMessage
1930 eraLine drawingMost of the movie credits in the 1930s were "line drawings." "Line drawing" means "drawing" by "line",Live actionSometimes it means maps, graphs, charts, etc. used in movies, and staff sometimes drew maps, graphs, tables, subtitles, etc. as well as animation.[2].
1940 eraSince-presentMovie"Video" isKenzo MasaokaWas proposed as a Japanese translation. In 1941Shochiku Animation Research InstituteFounded in 1943Kumoto ChuripuWas credited. Conventionally used "line drawing"Asahi movie companyAlso put credit for "video" in "Fuku-chan's submarine" in 1944[3].. OtherJapanese video (Toei video),Shinei Video,Japan Video AssociationIn addition, the name of the production process of commercial animation (original picture andMovie) Has become popular in the industry, and is described as a Japanese translation of animation in many dictionaries and encyclopedias.
1950 era -1970sCartoon movie (manga)Before the popularization of the word animation,PrewarAfter the warEspecially for childrenAnimated movieWas called a "manga movie" or just "manga". The work name and series name including this name are "Toei Manga Festival], [Calpis Manga Theater], [Manga Japan Old Story"and so on.
1960 era -1970sTV manga1964'sAstro boy] There was also the start of television broadcasting, especially children's works are wide (especially including non-TV) was called "TV manga."
1960s onwards-presentAnimation"Small moviesUp until the June 1965 issue (a specialized magazine for filmmakers), the word English was used as it was in the Katakana language. It was It was first used in the July issue without the notice that the word animation stands for animation. Picture book series ""Poplar companySeems to be the first book to use anime for the title. 1975Japanese animationFounded in 1978AnimageFirst issue, 1985Hiroshima International Animation FestivalWith the start, etc., the technical term animation has become popular with the general public.
1968å¹´AnimatePicture bookseries"",Kasei-sha. Not an abbreviation for animation,animation In the verb form Animated Read in Japanese. This is the first example of using a word containing anime for the public.
1969年Anime llamaInsect proAnimation byDrama-CineramaBy etc.Coined word.. movies"Thousand and One Nights(Published in 1969)ク レ オ パ ト ラ』(Published 1970) was used in. 『Sorrowful Belladonna』(Published in 1973) "Anime Romanesque" was used, but neither widely spread.

Overview

Originally "animation" is an abbreviation for "animation", and "animation" refers to all video techniques and visual expressions that use the illusion of time-lapse photography, including experimental images such as special effects and abstract images of live-action works. Be

However, when it is abbreviated as "animation", many people commonly associate it with TV animation, theater animation, OVA, etc., which are generally popular as commercial works. These features are basically commercial works, many of them are pictured character works, and to some extent story works. Furthermore, it also includes independently produced works that are strongly influenced by these commercial works. In the production technique, because of the division of laborCel animeWas the mainstream, but in someDoll animeAre also used in recent yearsComputer graphicsAnimation by CG (CG animation) is also popular.

When simply saying "animation", cel animation (Cel anime) Often refers to. In this article, we mainly describe "animation" in a popular and general sense such as commercial cel animation produced in Japan (digitization and 3DCG are described later in this article).

The main works are "List of anime works].

"Culture and Art Basic Law"Media arts, Related lawAct on promotion of creation, protection and utilization of contents"according tocontentIt is defined as one of the above, and is not abbreviated as "animation" in any of them, but is officially written as "animation". As another definition, from the perspective of multifaceted art classification,Art(Not including video),Image,Music,literature,EntertainmentComprehensiveartSometimes it is said.

Production company and production company

With the increase in the number of works produced, the division of labor has progressed, and pre-production planning/manufacturing companies, production drawing/video studios, art studios, post-production photography companies, sound studios, etc. Has been divided into labor.

In addition,Gross contractThere is also a production company called "," which accepts a batch of production work for each episode and handles all production work.

Production process

TV animation # production processSee also It is divided into three steps when roughly divided. There are various methods for raising production funds, so they are not covered in this section.

  1. Pre-production
    • Based on the plan book, the work of establishing the main staff organization and the flow of production, and making various settings necessary for production such as script, setting, storyboard etc.
  2. production
  3. Post production
    • Work such as post-recording, background music, sound effects, and VTR editing.

It is produced through a more detailed process. Depending on the production company, the number of staff in each department that is put into the work, and the progress of technology, there are differences in job titles and processes, but the basic process from planning to completion is as follows.[Note 1].

In the case of multiple series works, depending on various circumstances, the main staff and persons in chargeAnime production companyIt is not uncommon for such things to change in the middle.

  1. Planning
    • Create planning documents that describe the planning intention of the work and sales points in the overall image, and the production sideProduction CommitteeOften formed) decides whether to adopt it.
    • It is divided into an original project and a project based on existing works such as manga and novels. In the latter case, it is not uncommon to find it difficult to obtain the consent of the copyright holder.
  2. Staff organization and workflow confirmation
  3. script(scenario·Book reading)
    • In the story production work, pillars,lines,WritingComposed of.
    • Series compositionIs in the position of director of screenplays, and when multiple screenwriters are in charge of one work, they perform the work of controlling the variation in storylines.
  4. Configuration
  5. Storyboard
    • directed by,Show(producer) Assembling the script as a picture. The flow of the content of the work is drawn in a framed picture. Based on this, the original work is done. You will be instructed about the situation of the frame division, camera work, sound effects, dialogue, and the number of seconds of shooting.
  6. Original picture(Original/Paint-Layout system)
    1. The job system called the original painting man (original painter, person in charge of original painting, layout man) is in charge. Create a background composition and character layout (screen configuration) based on the storyboard based on the completed screen. Original workpen tabletWith such evolution, it is shifting to digital production.
    2. The production (producer) confirms the content of the storyboard and the difference between the production intention and the layout, and gives a correction instruction to the drawing director.
    3. Animation directorIs movementCharacter DesignTo fix the screen and to unify the screen, and perform work called editorial correction.
  7. Movie
    1. A job system called a video man is in charge. Roughly drawing the original picture, drawing a picture between the original pictures and completing all the movements. Also called Nakawari.
    2. Video inspectionThe so-called system checks the video with a simple shooting device and gives instructions for correction.
    • For original pictures and videosanimatorSee also
  8. Finishing (color tress, coloring, digital coloring):Color setting(Color design) instructions ・Coloring work as specified in the video.
    • Cel animation: Transfer the video to the cell with a tress machine and color the back side of the cell.Cel pictureSee also
    • Digital animation: Clean up the capture line with a scanner.Trace the shadow line and highlight line with a different color from the contour line.Unnecessary lines such as shadow lines are filled and invisible.At this point on the object AntialiasingIs not applied (color cannot be applied if applied).
  9. back ground
    • Art directorCreates an art board that will be the background setting. Background staff creates a background according to the background settings specified in the original image. In digital animation, the background was often finished with paint, but the background for digital production is also increasing.
  10. photograph : CinematographerSupervises the work and combines the finish with the background.Transmitted light,Multiplane camera,Multiple exposureSuch aseffectAdd processing.
    • Cel animation: Set the cel image and background on the shooting table, one frame at a time.the filmTake a picture.
    • Digital animation: The finish and background are combined into video data.Antialiasing is applied.
  11. Music composition
    • Music that suits various situationsBGMWork to create.
  12. Sound work:Sound directorIt is,Voice actorIn charge of casting, performance instruction, and sound production such as dubbing. In many cases, directors and directors (producers) participate.
    1. Dubbing
      • The work of recording the voice based on the voice actor in the filmed video.DubbingOccupational system called is sometimes the acting instruction. Due to the production schedule, it is not uncommon for the images to be recorded before they have been completed. Depending on the work, there are cases in which the inserted song is recorded at the dubbing studio in order to enhance the affinity with the scene.
    2. Presco
      • When importance is placed on the synchronization between video and audio, this method is used, which is different from after-recording, in that the voice is recorded first and then the drawing operation is started. This is the mainstream overseas.
    3. dubbing
      • Work to add BGM and sound effects to the voice.
  13. Film or VTR edit
    • Before and after the opening, ending and commercialseye catchingWork to combine and complete. Final adjustment and color adjustment of the object are also performed.

However, due to various circumstances[4] Or it may be canceled during production[5]At some stage, after the post-recording was finishedEnter the warehouseIn some cases[6].. In rare cases, a work that has been canceled once may restart over time.[7].

Distribution form

Production industry and environment

It is not large enough to be called the animation industry, and it is limited to one field of video production.Construction industry OfSubcontractorIt is said that it has a structure similar to the system, and the production cost is divided into "(Major production production (main contractor)" → "Medium-sized production professional (subcontractor)" → "Small production professional (subcontractor)"Pinhane)” is said to exist[8][9].

The development and improvement of the expression technique depends on the sensitivity of the individual and the skill level of the technique, and is supported by labor-intensive work in which the skill difference is reflected in the quality, but the production environment isanimatorIn the case of, the income is about 2-3 yen per month for a new employee. It is said that mid-sized companies are about 7 yen-5000 yen, and about 10% have annual income of 25 million yen or less (Japan Performing Arts Associations Association, 2008 survey) and other problems such as wages, employment environment, and working conditions, there is a constant situation that domestic human resources cannot be secured.

Therefore, it is outsourced to production companies such as China and South Korea, which have low labor costs, to support the foundation of anime production in Japan.Cell drawingIt is feared that the production site and the human resource development to continue it will be hollowed out. There is also a risk that Japanese technology will be leaked by outsourcing overseas.

Labor saving and digitization of manufacturing process

Until the digitization of animation production, various systems such as film animation, video animation, and video conversion equipment have been developed.

In 1986Hiroshi Ikeda(Toei Video Technology Laboratory Director) said, "The media of video is built on the basis of such science and technology, and of course, the emergence of new video media according to the development of these science and technology. Therefore, the people involved in video must constantly respond to the development of these science and technology, and if they fail to do so, they will even drop out as video engineers."[10]

In the late 1970s and 1980s, the animation production process began to change drastically due to the spread of video and the introduction of computers, and the movement toward digitalization began.

Labor saving

In 1984, a system that allows you to take time-lapse VTRs appeared from the shooting site.

The VTR animation shooting that allows you to instantly understand the shooting result from the film animation that you do not know the shooting result until development is achieved by reducing the production cost by shortening the shooting period at the shooting site, maintaining image quality, compacting the video media and retaking Freed from financial losses.

Widely used in addition to animation works, subtitles of movies and karaoke (Superimpose (video editing)), department stores, manufacturers and other video catalogs are now used. Also, since it is now possible to reproduce in large quantities without degrading image qualityOVABecame an opportunity to spread.

With the advent of a film-to-video converter in 1985, many film animation works were converted to video and broadcast on television, which was also a guideline for digitization.

Digitization and 3DCG

In the 1990s, with the development of computers and software development, the range of applications used for animation production became wider and it was used.

From the late 1990s,Cel pictureFrom the digital coloring to the whole, around 1999, it was made in cels until the end.Sazae』Broadcast on September 2013, 9, all commercial works have moved to digital format. Introduced into the finishing process, digital paint is easy to correct, there is no need to wait for the paint to dry, and the labor of managing cell images such as scratches and dust can be saved, and it can be posted on the network as image data. It has become possible to communicate with remote areas such as foreign countries, resulting in significant labor saving and cost reduction.

In addition, in the image expression, the number of colors used by the paint is no longer limited, enabling precise gradation expression. There is no decrease in brightness due to overlapping cells when shooting, allowing more freedom in camera work,airbrushbySpecial effects,Transmitted lightIt has the advantage that it can be easily applied. However, since it is output as video, the texture of the image differs between film and video, the film has a soft texture, the video has a clear image, and there was a feeling of strangeness in the color that was clear and too bright, but it was improved and cel animation was improved. You can also see works that surpass the beauty.

Worked on many Disney movies abroadPixar Animation StudioFull with3DCG animationIs produced, but in JapanAutomobileIt started with the complementary use of portraying machines and magic effects. The completed 3DCG isDrawing collapseIt contributes to stable quality and labor saving, as it can be drawn at any angle without having to do it and can be transformed and discolored with software even after completion. On the other hand, simply arranging CGs gives a feeling of strangeness due to the difference in texture from hand-painted, so techniques for adjusting the color tone etc. to reduce the feeling of strangeness and reproducing the hand-drawn expression method in a full CG work are fused. Attempts are being made to do so.

In the 2010s, a technique called “CELLLook” that reproduces the texture of cel animation with CG developed, and the number of works using CG for characters increased. Meanwhile, professional level3DCG softwareHas a high license fee, requires a high-performance computer model, and requires personnel trained at a vocational school to learn complicated operations. There are few works.

The actual work is doneAnime production companyMany small studios outsource only one department or CG related work,Polygon PicturesThere is also an example in which a 3DCG specialized company like the one mentioned above enters the animation production.

anime

Since the Latin character "m" is next to "a" and does not include "e", it cannot be abbreviated as "anime". Since the language that can abbreviate animation as animation is limited to Japanese, it can be used in English-speaking countries outside Japan.animeIs used for Japanese anime and anime with a Japanese style of expression.[11]. In Japan, anime is used regardless of the country or style of production.[12][13][Note 2].

EnglishThen when spelled as animepronunciationIs like "Ainim" or "Anime", but is pronounced as "Anime" in Japanese.animation(English) -> Animation (Japanese) -> Anime (Japanese) -> anime (English). In some cases, "anime" readings in Japan are published as nouns in dictionaries.

FrenchTo animate(Moving) past participle anime(Animation, moved, moved)[14], Same purpose in English anime There is also a theory derived from French because it is spelled as.

Spread in the United States
1972 years,Video deckWas released in February 1976,Fansub(A pirated version with English subtitles without permission.Copyright infringementThat is, the sales of anime DVDs have also been adversely affected) activities began, and in 1977, a specialized circle started its activities. The word anime was already used to refer to Japanese robot animation, but it was a slang or jargon of enthusiasts and did not spread widely.[15].. 1991,The Society for the Promotion of Japanese Animation(Abbreviated name SPJA) was established, and the following year 1992Anime ExpoIs held, OTAKU (Nerd) Increases[16], Anime rapidly spread[17]. However, more of them watch anime on pirated versions such as free fansubs than those who pay for it and watch it.
Spread in France
Animation made in Japananime(Anime)Called. Imported as exported from English. Animation (video)cartoon(Desanna Nanime)It is called (moving picture).

Japanimation (Japanimation)

North America

A term that mainly refers to Japanese animation used in the 1970s and 1980s. By the 1990s when it came to be used in Japan, it had already become almost dead. Syllabically Japan-animation から Japanimation Of略 語In Although,Jap(JapaneseDerogatory) animation Because of the discrimination and prejudice against Japanese people and culture, and the prejudice against animation, it is possible that the animation made in Japan included the meaning of "stupid things" or "bad things for children's education." ..At that time, Japanese, sexual, and violent expressions were deleted from the works exported to North America due to differences in culture, customs, and expression restrictions.Anime is still called cartoon in America.

In addition, we may edit multiple works that are continuous over a long period of time as one work, and show a uniquely modified work that is far from the intention of the creator.[18]. Since the 2000s, some animation relatedonlineSHOP[19] Sometimes used in.

Japan

In response to the aforementioned origin in North America,OverseasIn the 1990s, it means "animation made in Japan that is popular and popular, viewed outside Japan".AKIRA''ghost in the ShellIs the publisher of the original mangaKodanshaIt was often used in the media including, but it has decreased since the 2000s. In 2011, the OVA series "Animated the popular American TV drama of the same name"Supernatural the Animation』, Overseas drama Japanese animation production companyMad houseWas called Japanimation because it was animated and released worldwide (also used in advertisements during television broadcasting).[20][21].. It is used when introducing works from a world-conscious perspective, such as "Japanese animation that is accepted in the world".[22].

Industry group

Japan Video Association(Abbreviation: AJA)

Aimed at unifying the intentions of the animation industry in Japan, collaborating with related organizations, and sustainable development of the animation industryInstitute.

Businesses such as productions that manage voice actors join[23].

Japan Voice Actor Business Council

Organized by a voice actor company[24].

Japanese Animation Creators Association(Abbreviation: JAniCA)

A general incorporated association that was incorporated on December 2009, 12 with the aim of improving the status of animators and directors and passing on technology.

Japan Voice Producers Federation(Abbreviation: JAPA)

Established on April 2003, 4, "Collaboration and exchange with domestic and foreign related cultural organizations. Business for the development of visual culture". "Public relations and publishing business to improve the social status of the industry". "Establishment and advocacy of rights related to audio products". A general incorporated association whose main business is the collection and distribution of "rebroadcast usage fees"[25].

Japan Actors Union

Actors who are vulnerable to TV stations and production companies were formed with the aim of eliminating one-sided and disadvantageous appearance contracts. Many voice actors are also members[26].

National promotion and protection policy

Agency for Cultural Affairs Media Arts Festival

For the purpose of creating and developing media artsAgency for Cultural AffairsとCG-ARTS AssociationIs a festival sponsored by. Held every year since 1997[27].

Basic Arts and Culture Act

Enforced on December 2001, 12, art using movies, manga, animation, computers and other electronic devices is defined as media art, and measures are taken to promote it.

Act on promotion of creation, protection and utilization of contents(Content Law)

May 2004, animation, manga, etc.Content industryA law was enacted to work together with the public and private sectors to protect and nurture.

Cool Japan(Cool Japan)

A term used in the foreign culture promotion and export policy of the Japanese government, such as the Minister of Strategy of Cool JapanOverseas demand development support organization(Commonly known as Cool Japan Fund) has been established for anime, manga, games, J-POP, idols, etc.Pop culture-sub cultureIs also included.

Young Animator Training Project(Abbreviation: PROJECT A)

Animator human resources development project that has been implemented by the Japanese Animation Creators Association (JAniCA) since 2010 (22) under the consignment of human resources development projects such as young animators of the Agency for Cultural Affairs.

Museums

A museum that displays cels, films, and original drawings of manga and anime works. Set up a museum shop and various anime eventsInternational Animated Film AssociationSome also hold official film festivals and indie animation film festivals. "DoraemonThe author of 』was livingKawasaki City OfFujiko F. Fujio MuseumOr,Detective Conan』The land related to the authorTottoriTohaku-gunHokuei Town OfGosho Aoyama Hometown MuseumIn many cases, it is also used as a tourist base for regional revitalization in the birthplaces of famous anime works and manga authors.

Most museums are specialized facilities for specific writers and creators,Suginami Animation Museum,Akihabara UDX内 のTokyo Anime CenterIn, various special exhibitions that transcend the boundaries of production companies and publishers are held, and exhibitions and goods such as original drawings used for animation are sold.

Trade fairs and film festivals

Tokyo International Anime Fair

TokyoとJapan Video AssociationThe largest in the domestic animation industry sponsored by the "Tokyo International Anime Fair Executive Committee", which is composed of animation business organizations such asTrade fairMet.2002年から2013年Until around the end of MarchTokyo Big SiteThe exhibition that was held in. "Awards for anime works and related parties"Tokyo Anime AwardThe award ceremony was held.

Anime Content Expo

2010年ToTokyo Metropolitan Youth Development OrdinanceA major publisher in opposition toKadokawa Shoten,Akita Shoten,Kodansha,Shueisha,Shogakukan,Shinchosha Co., Ltd.,Futabasha,Shonen Gaho-sha,Hakusensha,Leid) 10 companies2011年Cooperate in participating in the Tokyo International Anime FairRefusalIssued a statement to do. afterwardsKadokawa ShotenとAniplex,Animate,King record,Geneon Universal Entertainment Japan,Frontier Works,Marvelous entertainment,media FactoryAnnounced that a total of eight companies will hold the event on the same day as the Tokyo International Anime Fair. It was a Japanese exhibition on animation hosted by the "Anime Contents Expo Executive Committee" and held at Makuhari Messe in Mihama Ward, Chiba City, Chiba Prefecture.

AnimeJapan

2014å¹´An exhibition realized by integrating the Tokyo International Anime Fair and Anime Contents Expo.TokyoWill not participateKADOKAWA,Aniplex,Japan Video Association19 companies will participate. LocationTokyo Big SiteIt will be a larger trade fair than the pre-division Tokyo International Anime Fair.

Annecy International Animation Film Festival

1960å¹´ToCannes International Film FestivalAnimated from the animation department,International Animated Film AssociationOfficial international animeFilm festival.Frederick Buck"A man who planted a tree" has won the grand prix.

MIFA (Marché international du film d'animation), the world's largest animation trade fair, is held at the property. During the three days of the festival, anime-related people from about 3 countries around the world participated.

Other

Hiroshima International Animation Festival,Ottawa International Animation Festival,Zagreb International Animation FestivalIs said to be the world's four largest animation festivals including Annecy.

Self-regulation of expression

In an anime movie,Film Ethics Committee"In the TV anime,BroadcasterIs voluntarily broadcast standard/program standard (Broadcast code) And operateRadio Act,Broadcasting lawThe voluntary organization defined by the Commercial Broadcasting Union member companies "Broadcast Ethics and Program Improvement Organization(BPO) has self-regulation.

OVA and Web anime do not have legal regulations or voluntary groups regarding self-regulation, but they are subject to the same self-regulation as TV animation and movies for broadcasting rights sales.Adult videosSimilar toAdult animeThe work is "Japan Video Ethics AssociationIs being examined.

Since there is no voluntary regulation for packaged sales of TV animation, it is possible to return to the original state of expressions that have strong stimuli such as sex appeal and bloodshed regulated by TV broadcasting, and to add or replace more radical images. Some have.

History

1960s, 1970s
1963年January 1, Osamu Tezuka's first commercial serial TV animation program (one weekly animation) in JapanAstro boy』Start broadcasting. It was a low-quality animation work that was said to have been blamed as "TV picture-story show" by the creators of animation movies at the time of watching the broadcast. It will be televised in and will develop in a different direction than animation in other countries.
When there were few domestic anime in the 1960s and 1970s,Tom and jerry], [PopeyeAlthough many imported works were broadcasted, domestically produced anime increased,1968年ToColor broadcastingAlso started,1969年ToSazae』Broadcast started, became recognized as a TV manga.
1970 eraから1980 era
"Space Battleship Yamato"Galaxy Express 999"ofReiji Matsumoto,Mobile Suit Gundam"ofYuno Tomino,Nausicaa of the valley of wind"ofHayao Miyazaki,Urusei Yatsura 2 Beautiful Dreamer"ofOshii Mamoru,Aim for the top!"ofHideaki AnnoAfter that, many famous animation directors who will lead the Japanese animation world have appeared.
From this time to TV stationsDeliveryAnd convenient transportationNerima-ku,SuginamiSuch asSeibu Shinjuku LineProduction companies are gathering along the railway line, making it Japan's number one anime company cluster.
1980 eraから1990 eraOverFranceJapanese children's TV shows were continuously broadcast on Japan's TV anime and became popular, and it grew many anime fans (this generation bears the name of the program's personality.DorotheCalled "generation")[28][29].. As a result of this popularity, the number of Japanese TV anime broadcasts outside France has increased, which has triggered the international acceptance of Japanese anime.
1990å¹´
The annual average viewership rate for anime programs was 9.7%, the highest ever since 1978 (according to video research, Kanto area).
From the late 1990s2000 era
Due to the decline in the viewership rate of anime broadcast frames in the morning and evening and golden time due to the declining birthrate, it has been changed to news, information programs, variety programs, etc.youthShifted to the midnight frame, which was broadcast in a single shot for the layer.
From the traditional target for children such as boys and girls from the time of day, low budget targeted for junior high school students and adult anime fansMidnight animeExplosively increased,2000å¹´There were seven,2004å¹´60 were produced and were crudely forged.
Originally there are few viewers, there is a situation that it is a time zone with a low audience rating and it is difficult to get sponsors, but the quality declines due to the randomization of low-budget works (Drawing collapse), etc., causing viewers to leaveCensoredAnd so on. Popular to compensate for the low attention due to the midnight zoneVoice actorThe number of works that depended onIdol voice actorIt became the flow called.
On the other handHideaki AnnoDirector'sNeon Genesis EVANGELIONIs1997å¹´The rebroadcast was held in the middle of the night, and there were cases such as unusual viewer ratings in the 5% range.Princess Mononoke], the first box office animation surpassed the box office revenue of 100 billion yen, and finally recorded 193 billion yen.
In addition,Hayao Miyazakidirected by,Studio GhibliProductionSpirited AwayIs the world's most acclaimed box office revenue over 300 billion yen,75th Academy AwardsFeature Animation Film Award,52nd Berlin International Film FestivalGold bear awardEtc. Also from this time at Studio GhibliAn actorThe number of works that do not rely on voice actors such as and animation directors increased.
2002å¹´Release"Voices of a Distant StarIsXin HaichengIt was noted that he performed director, screenplay, directing, drawing, art, editing almost all alone, full digital animation individual production is unparalleled in the work, and it is highly evaluated and various in the world. Awarded.
In addition,シ ャ フ ト,PA WorksAn animation production company with a characteristic background and direction has also appeared,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu] Will get a lot of attention.
Since around 2005, the five major commercial TV stations have reduced the number of late-night anime broadcast slots that have various circumstances, and the late-night anime that lost the broadcast slots,Kanagawa,TOKYO MX (Tokyo),Sun TV(Hyogo), Etc. I was forced into a local station whose broadcasting area is a densely populated area such as the Tokyo metropolitan area and the Kansai area.
In the three major metropolitan areas, there are areas where more than 100 late night animations are broadcast on the ground, while there are also areas where no one is broadcast. From that timeインターネットDue to the popularization of TV, etc.Mass mediaInformation about late-night animation, which is not covered in, became easier to obtain, and the number of viewers gradually increased, albeit gradually.
Also in the information program, the drama "2005"train manIn a boomMoeThe wordNew Word/Buzzword AwardTaking advantage of being awarded the top tenAkihabara,maid CafeSuch as anime and information related to it has begun to appear, including critical ones, so-calledGeekThe number of people who are interested in and prejudice increased.
2010 era
Broadcasting other than long-lived works called children's animations and children's animations in the morning and evening or even during the golden hours could not get the audience rating, and the broadcasting hours of the late-night frames have almost disappeared.
Some late-night anime topic worksSmartphoneDue to the spread ofインターネットAnime distribution atTwitterYouths who are not interested in anime and people who like animeentertainerWith the enthusiastic support of, it came to be ranked higher in the ranking of CDs and books.
We also focused on the purchasing power peculiar to anime fansLawsonThe number of tie-up campaigns with late-night anime has increased in various companies, and late-night anime is becoming a more familiar existence than it was before. But at midnight1 cool(3 months, 13 weeks) Due to the short broadcast period, there are no works that will become a topic of all generations.Recently, my sister looks a little strange.With explicit sexuality likeBroadcast Ethics and Program Improvement OrganizationSome works are pointed out by.
On the other handAnime for childrenThen it became a social phenomenonYokai watch] Has also appeared. In addition, in recent years, it has become possible to enjoy animation on the Internet video site at any time around the world.Electronics storeAnd subcultures such as anime and manga gatherAkihabaraIs becoming a world-famous tourist destination from the sanctuary of otaku, and is also being incorporated as a route for foreign tours.
Hayao Miyazaki in the theater animation2013年Published “Breeze] Has announced the retirement from the feature film. After the retirement report, Hideaki AnnoMamoru Hosoda, Makoto Shinkai and others have been picked up as candidates for successors to Hayao Miyazaki. Above all, Makoto Shinkai's "What is your name?』In the Japanese animation film Hayao Miyazaki next to box office revenue exceeded 100 billion yen, the momentum is approaching 200 billion yen.
While Japan's demand for animation is increasing worldwide, chronic problems such as the working environment and wages of animators are not resolved, and the domestic market is shrinking due to the declining birthrate and aging population. Especially an animation production companyA-1 PicturesThen, a man who worked as a coordinator of the scene called ``production progress'' that asked the person in charge for drawing or received the finished product committed suicide in October 2010, and as of April 10, 2014 Shinjuku Labor Standards Inspection Office due to overworkdepressionWas the cause. The medical record of the medical facility I visited had a description of "600 hours worked per month", but it is said that there is no evidence of overtime payment. This incident triggered the poor working environment being picked up by the media,Black Company Award 2014 Industry Award] Was to be awarded.
in recent yearsIndependent TV stationThe late-night anime that was broadcast onNHKThere are also cases of purchase and broadcasting by. As a result, it has become possible to broadcast popular works in a time zone where younger people can easily watch the work. In addition, I recently visited the place that became the stage of animationPilgrimage to sacred placesHas attracted attention and is expected as a trump card for regional revitalization.

Narrative aspect

In the United StatesRatingDue to strict regulations such as, comical based on easy-to-understand stories for children (comedyThere are many works that entertain movies, but in Japan it has been for children since "Astro Boy",Underground (culture)There was also a close influence on comics that were influenced by, so simply say "hero always wins"Moral disciplineNot the story ofSocial satireThere are many works that depict various emotions and psychology inherent in the hero in various and complicated stories including[30].

Technical aspects

Limited animationIs the mainstreamWalt Disney CompanyFull animations found in anime works such as are rarely used.movies24 as well asTopTaken at / sec, butMovieIs the same image shot at 3 frames x 8 / sec. In a still scene, the same image is shot at 24 frames / sec. For works for television broadcasting, the amount of cels used is determined for each episode by the direction.

Partial animation (Mouth)
A method of taking pictures of the same person's mouth, eyes, hands, feet, etc. as cels for each part. Recently, not only the mouth but also the chin etc. have come to move. Not only does it save you the trouble of making it, but it also makes the movement clearer in comparison with stationary.
Bank system
A technique for using videos repeatedly. It is used in the explanation of the synopsis of serial works, the union of robot animations, the transformation of magical girls, etc., and the dialogue scenes of the main character. The background image may be replaced and used as a completely different scene.
Still picture
It is used to create a lively state with many people, such as the spectators' seats in the stadium, party venues, and crowds in the city. Still images are often used.DezakiIs often used.Akiyuki Shinbo,シ ャ フ トIn the case of, it is famous for the style that makes the design of the still picture unique.
Flow line ・Concentrated line-Comic marks
Manga techniques are often used.
Camera work
The technique of scrolling (panning) cels up, down, left, and right on the background, and the camera's "drawing"zoom(Actually, pull the picture under the fixed camera). This is a technology that saves the number of drawings and clarifies the intention of the production.
Paka Paka
It was a technique that blinks the background violently with a series of flashes, and was often used as a flashy and attractive production effect at no cost, but I saw the 1997th episode of "Pokemon" broadcast on December 12, 16. Viewer complained of poor physical conditionPokemon shockTaking this opportunity, NHK and commercial broadcasters have formulated it, and self-regulation regarding the use of fluffy is being carried out.

Commercial aspect

It is said that it imitated the sales strategy of The Walt Disney Company, but it decided to take a different path.

For TV showssponsorIt is usually undertaken within the budget presented by, but it is undertaken with the apparently insufficient production cost, and the shortage is the export of the main business manga to overseas.re-air, Toy / stationery / confectionery maker rights to commercialize anime characters (Copyright) A system for collecting production funds by sales was born and will continue until later.

Output

At the same time as the TV broadcast of commercial animation in Japan, a sales strategy was adopted to export to many countries at low cost in order to recover the production cost in a short period of time. Since products that were produced on the premise of distribution in Japan are exported, the contents are often significantly modified due to the domestic law and cultural circumstances of the export destination.[Note 3].. In addition, the titles of works, characters, staff, etc. may be rewritten according to the country of export, or the viewer may not know that they are made in Japan.

またCopyrightSome works were sold under a contract (abandoned). in America,"Super Dimension Fortress Macross"Super Dimension Knight Southern Cross"Armor Genesis Mospida』3 worksHarmony Gold USA Company (Harmony Gold USA)Butadaptationdid"Robotech] Was produced, and there are cases where it was exported to other countries.[31].

Japanese animation spread all over the world at a low price amid the lack of software due to the worldwide increase in channels.[32].. Now in North America,South America,Europe,South Asia,East Asia,ロシア,オーストラリアAnd so on all over the worldMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsAccording to the survey (2005), the export value of TV animation is about 412/15 of the domestic TV broadcasting rights fee of 1 billion yen, which is about 26 billion yen to 28 billion yen.[33].. The majority of exportsNorth AmericaIt is also said that the target is occupied.

Japan External Trade OrganizationIs conducting content surveys by region and country, including reports on anime statistics and trends.[34].. However, in recent years, due to the expansion of the overseas anime market, Japanese-made animeshareIs shrinking. In addition, the number of "pirated anime sites" that illegally distribute subtitles in each country's language after the broadcast is increasing.

Export history

  • 1961å¹´ -Toei video (current:Toei animation) Is exported to the United States in the early feature films.Hiroshi OkawaToei Video, which was founded by the aim of "Toy Disney," was aware of the international market from the beginning.[35].
  • 1963å¹´ -Tetsuwan Atom, which was first exported as TV animation, was released in the United States eight months after the start of broadcasting.NBCBroadcasted by the affiliate NBC Enterprises as a program sale rather than a US network[36].. The following "Jungle Emperor" was created from the beginning with consideration for racial discrimination, etc., considering the American market.[37].
  • 1970 eraFirst half-TV animation exports became commonplace, initiallyHong KongとTaiwanStarted for[38],Northeast asiaSphere,Southeast AsiaIt will be broadcast in the area.
  • Late 1970s-firstイタリア, ThenFranceStarted in the 1980sEuropeExported in large quantities to. In the background of this, there was a large number of TVs in Europe due to the demand for multi-channel TVs and the low cost of Japanese-made works.[39][40].. Two-thirds of the TV animation produced by Toei Animation was for Europe, especially for France and Italy.[41].. As with the United States and Asia, the content was subject to change. In Italy, Japanese animation was broadcast for a total of 1 hours a day during the peak period.[42].
  • 1980 era -Broadcast in the People's Republic of China[43].
  • 2013å¹´ - Information and Communication Policy Research InstituteAccording to the announcement, the overseas export value of Japanese broadcasting contents in 2013 was about 138 billion yen, of which animation accounted for 62.2%.[44].
  • Current,Hong Kong,Thailand,TaiwanFor example, an anime work broadcast in Japan is being broadcast in about a week. AlsoNetAt that time, anime for overseas was distributed, and one hour after the broadcast in Japan, Japanese animation could be seen all over the world.
  • In recent years, there have been illegal animation distribution sites called "pirated editions", mainly overseas, making it difficult to expand exports overseas.Ministry of Economy, Trade and IndustryAccording to the calculation, the loss due to pirated editions is estimated to be 5600 billion yen per year in China alone and more than 2 trillion yen in the United States.

Evaluation outside Japan

Often recognized as "sexual and violent"[45][46].

As a cultural difference,Doraemon, Etc. that show Japanese life scenery,Rose of VersaillesThose that deal with specific countries, such as ", will vary greatly depending on the country. 『DoraemonIs not accepted in North America, which honors heroic men, and was not broadcast until 2014, but is popular in Southeast Asia.

Except for sexual expressions, Japanese cultural expressions are being accepted and reevaluated in Southeast Asia. The favorite works are not so different from those in Japan. Also"Super electromagnetic machine Voltes V], there are also hits among some people (fans) in certain countries. The character's popularity also varies from country to country.

Examples of regulations outside Japan

FranceThen, in 1983, Minister of Culture Jack Lang declared that it was a cultural invasion and decided to subsidize the animation producer in his country.[47].. In 1989Kinnikuman], [Fist of the North StarIs cruelBashingThe broadcast was canceled. 『Saint Seiya』Is a violent scene cut and hit worldwide and hit, except the United States, Europe, Mexico, South America has a strong popularity[48].. In addition, there is a quota system that obliges broadcasters to broadcast more than 6% of European programs, and US and Japanese animations are broadcast in the remaining 4%.[49].

EUIn member countries, it was difficult to broadcast new animations from foreign countries after the EU Council issued the “TV Directive without Borders” in 1997, which requires broadcasting stations to make European programs 50% or more of the broadcasting time. Has become.

ニュージーランドThen,Punipuni ☆ Poemii], the appearance of the characters that appearAn infantLooks likeInfant loversIf it is confirmed that the possession has been banned by a government agency and the possession is confirmed, it will be punished for violating the child pornography prohibition law. North America andオーストラリアDisposal according to that is done in many countries.

AmericaSo, Japanese animation has long been renamed, edited and modified and Americanized, non-American remarks are removed, and at the same time there is only a minimal reference to the original Japanese production team. Was[50].. In the 1970s in the United States TV purifying movement for children, the increasing violence description and sexual content of Japanese animation was regarded as a problem, the American TV network shifted anime broadcasting from weekday golden time to Saturday morning However, various guardian groups put pressure on the network and demanded further purification of anime, and Japanese animation could not be flowed. In 1982, Toei sold "Galaxy Express 999" to New World Pictures in the United States, but it was significantly modified to match the United States and the story was destroyed, so Toei collapsed the American office and withdrew. There is. Even in recent years, it may still be changed to the American style, the stage of the work is changed to a fictitious place in the United States instead of Japan, the person is changed from the Japanese name to the American style and the American culture and life is reflected, Japan The United States has been localized by converting yen into dollar bills. In the United States, "promoting a healthy diet" is one of the broadcasting standards in the animation for children's programs. Expressions related to food are also regulated and edited or modified in the American style from the Japanese version. ..

In the People's Republic of China, regarding the import and broadcasting of overseas anime in 2006, domestic anime broadcasting must not fall below 7% of the total animation broadcasting. Some regulations have been established such as foreign animation can be imported until 17:20, foreign animation broadcasting is prohibited from XNUMX:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX[51].. The broadcast share of Japanese works exceeds 8%,DumpingIt was excluded because it was an invasion of Japanese culture by. At the same time, embarked on the protection and development of the domestic animation industry.[52].

South Korea(Korea), onceRestricting the inflow of Japanese popular culture in KoreaThere was,1998å¹´Was banned by. Japanese animation had been broadcast before the ban was lifted, but to avoid restrictions, the above (Output(See section), the modified version of Korean specifications such as the stage and the person was broadcast regardless of the reality of the geography. After the ban was lifted, the ones that had been broadcast before were unchanged, but the actual geography of Japan and charactersJapaneseIt is broadcast as it is in Japan. Some fictional stages and people who are not aware of pilgrimage to the sacred place are still localized in Korea.[Note 4].

IndiaThen, focusing on the adverse effects on children, which were regarded as problems in JapanSocial phenomenonIs happening,Crayon Shin-chanThere is also a movement to prohibit broadcasting[53].

From the above cases, there is also a view that not all Japanese anime can be said to be globally accepted.[54]

Product development and animation

Anime and comics, novels, anime magazines, aniraji, game software, figures (toys), etc. have an indispensable close relationship in terms of sales strategy, and they are developed in various media.Media mixIs planned on the premise.

The width of the subject is wide,Science fiction anime,Robot anime(Super Robot-Real robot),Gag anime,Magical girl anime(Henshin Heroine),Love comedy,Spo root,Moe Anime,Air system(Daily),Sekai system,Harem stuffAnd so on.

Original anime

Manga and novels, light novelsComputer gamesThere is no original such asOriginal animeIf, during or after the broadcast (rarely in anticipation of animation before broadcast, there are also cases that say) will be made into a manga or novel. The works of Hayao Miyazaki, Mamoru Hosoda, and Makoto Shinkai have recently been released to the theater as original animations. In recent years, there is a tendency to invite well-known scenario writers from the game industry as screenwriters for production.

Movie/TV

In the case of movies,Omnibus,Sequel,Spin-offIt is often produced as a movie that can be viewed as a complete theater work, which is easy to understand even if you are not watching the TV main broadcast, but watch the TV main broadcast in advance. I can not understand unless I doNeon Genesis EVANGELIONAnd 'Puella Magi Madoka Magica the Movie [New Edition] Rebellion StoryThere are also works such as. Also,"Space Battleship Yamato 2199Some movies will be broadcast as a TV series after being premiered as a movie.

Live action

A live-action movie based on an anime project that has no originals such as manga or novels.TV dramaIn Japan,2004年"CASSHERN"("New Human Casshern]).2009年"Yatterman (movie)"2010年"SPACE BATTLESHIP Yamato"("Space Battleship Yamato]). Abroad,2008年,Speed ​​racer(Original: "Mach GoGoGo")and so on.

Detail is"Live actionSee.

Regarding the work,List of live-action movies of anime and manga-List of anime/manga TV drama worksSee.

Animation of live-action works

The original (original draft) was planned for the live-action work, and in the animated work, "Moonlight mask"Love warrior rainbow man"The ☆ Ultraman"and so on.

Comic

In the past, theatrical works were called "manga movies" and TV works were called "TV manga (manga)".ComicAnd the anime were confused or almost equated. Even now, there are many works based on manga works.

Comicalization

The word "manga" was generally used by making an original work that is not a manga original into a manga, but from around 2000 it means a novelization.NovelizeJapanese English derived fromComicalization(Comicalize) is widespread. It is not limited to the main story being made into a cartoon, but it is a biography or extra edition derived from the main story by multiple authors.Spin-off OfAnthology,OmnibusThere are many works in the format.

Picture book

Picture bookIn the work animated in the original, in JapanAnpanman(Go! Anpanman)” and the British “Train picture book(Thomas Thomas)"and so on.Anime for childrenFor example, there are many works that are made into picture books. Also, works based on old tales are being made from the dawn to the present.

Film book

It is a picture book made by arranging animation film frames, and is typical of Kodansha.

Until the popularization of video media such as home video, popular anime movies are also sold, and it is still a still image to enjoy along with SP, LP, sono sheet etc. that recorded drama sound etc. It was within reach of the fans.

Novel

General literary artsLight novelThere are many animated works of. Also, if the original is a novel, it is often a late-night anime or theater animation. In general literary arts, novels that have been live-action in the past are often newly animated.

Regarding the work,Light novel animation listSee.

Novelize

TV animation, movies, manga, game software, etc. will be the originalNovelizeIs also being done. Similar to comicalization, there are many works that develop spin-offs such as extra stories and extras derived from the main part.

Musical (2.5 dimensional musical)

2.5 dimensional musicalIt is also called the stage, which faithfully reproduces the setting of characters and stories based on anime, manga, games, etc.musical) Has been made.

1974'sRose of VersaillesWas started, and in 1993 days, 8 stages were performed in 31.Saint SeiyaMobilized 37 people, which triggered the musicalization, and thenSailor MoonAnd 'Prince of TennisA number of popular works such as “” have been converted into musicals, and the total number of viewers in 2013 exceeded 160 million. In 2014,Japan 2.5 Dimensional Musical AssociationHas also been established.

Package sales of video media

For household use as a major change in distributionVideo deck(VHS-β max) Has not appeared on TV or in theaters in 1983OVAthe work"Dalos] Has appeared. OVA sells video softwarerental videoIt is a business model that emerged as a result of the collection of production costs by the usage fees paid by the store.

Such as toy makerssponsorSince the work can be created regardless of the intention of the work, there is relatively freedom of expression, and the majority of the purchasers are specific fan groups and the content of the work is biased, but the purchasers are specified. It has the advantage of being easy to commercialize and sell. Initially, it was produced as a one-story completed work similar to an animation movie that lasts 60 to 90 minutes, but laterTV stationFor the sale of broadcasting rights, the mainstream is produced in units of several episodes, including a theme song in about 24 minutes.

Since the latter half of the 1980s, the spread of home-use VCRs has led TV movies to be packaged and sold after being broadcast. Later than videoLaser discAlthough (LD) was a high-grade or enthusiastic device, the device itself was not as popular as the video device itself, but its playback software, LD, has penetrated among core anime fans like video cassettes. Most of the video works released were animation and movies. In the era of video and LD until the 1990s, the VCR itself was widely popular, but there are few retail stores for packaged software, which is a much smaller maniac market than the later DVD era. Since the unit price is high and the video cassette/LD is larger than the DVD, it is bulky to carry, so if you have an anime or movie work that you did not record from your own TV,rental videoIt was the mainstream to rent it for viewing.

The same size as a music CDDVDSince the advent and spread of the 2000s, the market size such as the number of packaged works, the number of stores, and the sales space has increased dramatically.

In the late 2000sTerrestrial digitalWith the penetration ofHigh definitionThe number of production works has increased,Blu-ray Disc(BD) andBD recorderWith the advent and spread of BD, BD became the mainstream (including works already packaged in the pastDigital remaster(HD remaster) May be re-released as a version).

In response to the flow of OVA, late night and early morning frames with low broadcasting rightsCable TV,Independent TV station,BS/CS channelThus, the number of TV anime programs targeting a specific fan base has increased. EspeciallyMidnight anime,UHF animeIs basically low in audience ratingsponsorSince the fee is low and it is difficult to recover the production cost by itself, the business model that makes a profit by selling various packages has become mainstream. However, sales of video media are on the decline due to the spread of online distribution (regardless of whether it is legal or illegal).Sales promotionIs the current situation.

In the middle of the 2010s, the trend of supplementing profits from online distribution has become mainstream both inside and outside the country.

magazine

1977å¹´, Magazine for adultsMonthly OUT"But"Space Battleship Yamato] It was a huge hit with a special feature, which became an opportunity to develop into an anime magazine. At that time, a TV information magazine for children "Tv landWas publishedTokuma bookstoreLaunched the special edition "Roman Album Space Battleship Yamato" on TV Land and recorded 40 copies. Following this success, the monthly anime magazine "AnimageIs published.

afterwards,"Mobile Suit GundamAfter a number of publishers entered and weeded out during the anime boom that followed,'' as of 2015, the general magazine called the 10-day selling anime magazine is "Animage" "Animedia""Monthly new type"The three magazines are in a situation of competing.

As a derivative magazineMoe AnimeSpecial magazine ("Megami Magazine""Daughter TYPEEtc.) orVoice actorSpecial magazine ("Voice actor grand prix""Voice actor animedia"Such),Anime songSpecial magazine ("Lisani!, Etc.) have also appeared.

Criticism/Research

1917å¹´"" in the September issueJunichi KonaiIs the first criticism of animation in Japan. After that, the criticism of animation was "Kinema Junpo""Movie criticism, Etc. have become major media for announcements and have been conducted in the form of critiques of new works.

1950 eraToToei videoWas established, and feature films are being produced regularly at a pace of once a year.Asahi ShimbunIt is also handled in movie sections such as[55].

1977å¹´ToYasushi Watanabe"" was published by the coauthor. It is often cited as a reference material as a basic document in the history of Japanese animation. For animations and critiques outside Japan,1966å¹´Was written inTakuya Mori,Emiko OkadaEtc. were active[56].. Both "History of Japanese Animated Movies" and "Introduction to Animation" were a series of serialized articles in "Movie Review" magazine.

1970 eraAt the end, the anime boom arrived and many anime magazines were launched. The magazine was composed with the help of a writer from an anime fan who was a doujinshi.[57].Ryusuke Hikawa,Yuichiro Oguro,Masahiro Haraguchi,Takashi Shimotsuki,Shinsuke NakajimaStarted as a student part-time job and have been active since 2000[58]. "AnimageIs focused on systematically introducing the creator's work history[59],Animated"When"Monthly OUT”, criticism articles and reviews of works submitted by readers were for sale[60][61].

Specialized magazines focusing on criticism and research include "" which was launched in 1998, "" which was launched in 1999, and "" which was launched in 2000.Anime style, Etc., but it was short-lived, and “Anime Style” moved to the Internet.

"Monthly new typeSince the mid-1980s when "" appeared, anime magazines have shifted from articles such as creators and work research to making emphasis on characters and gravure, basically anime magazines that actively publish anime criticism No longer exists[62].. On the other hand, research books centering on popular works and popular creators will continue to be published from the 1990s, when Hayao Miyazaki and Mamoru Oshii became popular in the business of "Neon Genesis Evangelion". Became[63].

1998å¹´In October, the first academic conference in Japan aimed at academic research on animeJapan Animation SocietyWas established[64].

Aniraji

Abbreviation for anime radio. A radio program that is mainly targeted for listening to otakus such as anime, games, manga, light novels, and voice actors. October 1979,Radio Osaka"Anime topia], many startedMidnight broadcastAlthough it is broadcast as a program, Internet radio programs are increasing with the spread of the Internet environment.

There were many general information programs by anime magazines and record companies in the early days, but based on anime, games, manga, novels (light novel), etc.Radio DramaPrograms, popular voice actor personality programs, request programs specializing in anime songs and game music, and programs for discussing anime topics from listeners have become widespread.

Music (sound medium)

Used in the playMusic OfTheme song(Theme song) ・Insert song ・Image Song・Instrumental song・BGMIn addition to the soundtrack, we recorded the drama sound with the background of the world of drama and animation.SP- LP-Sono sheetSuch as record boardscassette tapeAnd nowCDIn addition to being distributed byiTunesInternet delivery is also increasing.

In the past, video media were extremely expensive, and audio media such as SP/LP/Sonosheet record boards, cassette tapes, and CDs that recorded audio for dramas were within the reach of ordinary enthusiasts. ..

Official Website

インターネットWith the spread of, most anime works have the form of setting up an official website and advertising. The content includes introductions of works and synopses, free distribution of advertising materials such as trailers and PVs, and PR of related products.desktop-Mobile phoneMay also provide content for Especially in the case of late-night anime, since the audience is almost limited, they often rely on advertising on the Internet. AlsoSocial MediaAdvertising is cheap, and it has the advantage that it can sometimes send work information to tens of thousands of people with the retweet function.

Of production TV stations and production companiesWebsiteIn many cases, each work/series has its ownDomain nameIn many cases, it is acquired and installed as an independent site managed by the production company.BroadbandDue to the spread of the environment, there are also cases where the main story and official radio are being distributed.

2010 eraWhen you enterSocial MediaIn the form of receiving the spread ofTwitter,facebookThe number of cases of acquiring an official account of the company and disseminating information is increasing. Also, an example where the work becomes a hot topic by exchanging animation information between Internet users (Puella Magi Madoka Magica,Kotoura-san(Etc.) and examples of anime that ended with the official website becoming a hot topic again (Kill Me Babyand so on.

Figure (toy)

It has been deeply related since the beginning of TV animation, and basically most of the animation for children is premised on developing toys, and it is picked up with a mechanism such as movement, coalescence, deformation that attracts children's interest. It was a sponsor's request to make a toy that can be played as a leading role appear, which influenced the setting of the work. The material depends on the ageTinplateMade bySoft vinylMadeChogokin (toys)There are differences.

In the 1960s, soft vinyl character dolls and prefabricated dollsCharacter modelExisted,1970 eraLatter half,Scale modelOf "Space Battleship Yamato" faithfully reproduced based on the settings likePlastic modelHits and follows the flowBandaiWill be the biggest hit product in the history of Japanese plastic models that has pushed to the top of the model industryGunplaHas appeared.

Also, character erasers that are not used as erasers, etc.Capsule toyProducts by (Gasha Gasha, Gachapon, etc.) were also developed, and in the 1970sSuper carRiding the boom "Wolf on the circuitIt became a big boom due to hits such asSuper car eraser,Kinkeshi Man Eraser(Commonly known as Kinkeshi) etc. have appeared.

1980 era, Following "Mobile Suit Gundam"Real robotIn the boom, the main products of toys became plastic models and aggressive product development was carried out, but it did not exceed the Gunpla boom, and "Blue Meteor SPT Reisner』The boom is over, such as the main sponsor withdrawing due to sluggish sales of plastic models and the broadcasting is discontinued, but the penetration of scale character plastic models to young people due to the Gunpla boom will produce a small number of prototypesGarage kitIt also led to the rise of the monsters, and things that were considered unprofitable even if they were made into plastic models centered on monsters and beautiful girl figures will gradually permeate.

1984å¹´January,General Products(Gainax(Predecessor of) The world's largest later, regardless of professional or amateur sponsoredGarage kit, The biggest event for exhibition and sale of models and sculptures, "Wonder Festival(Abbreviated as "Wonfes" and "WF") will be held, and an event of doujinshi convention handmade model exhibition and sales will be held to coincide with the withdrawal of major toy makers.

1990 eraIn the garage kit, which is expensive and requires advanced technology and labor to assemble and paint,Neon Genesis EVANGELION"ofAyanami ReiWhen the finished product of Naruto is traded at a high price among enthusiasts, animationBeautiful girl OfEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euBecame a boom, and othersKaiyodoElaborate and cheapShokuganIn addition, Bandai absorbed the expression method of the garage kit and coupled with the figure boom that started with a capsule toy that is so realistic that it can not be compared with the conventional character eraser.コ レ ク シ ョ ンWas the target of. For sales promotion, it may be attached to appendices such as books, game software, DVDs, and purchase benefits.

Late-night anime figures are focused on how well they are made, which has led to soaring prices.

Animated works of toy products

Product planning for toysdraftIn the example animated in (Original), "Transformers"Zoids"Hikarian"and so on.

Game software

arcade game,Consumer games(Home game console) Forプ ロ グ ラ ムRecorded physicalMedia(Detail isGame softwareSee also),Online softwareProvided atComputer games Ofsoftware.

1983å¹´, A blockbuster product that later became a social phenomenonNESIs released, and toy makers suffering from sluggish sales of toys such as plastic models will shift their main products to the development of home video game consoles and game software. A popular work in the past, relatively easy to make into game softwareshooting game(1985, "Space Battleship Yamato"),Competitive fighting game(1985,"Kinnikuman Mass Lug Match]),War simulation game(1987,"SD Gundam World Gachapon Warrior]) And other products were developed.

later,Role playing games-Adventure gamesThere will also be works that will be animated based on the original. "Danganronpa School of hope and high school student of despair], A love simulation game, and even an adult game that has been reorganized so that it can be viewed even under the age of 18, and the range of works has expanded. Also, in recent years, "Angel Beats!"ofAji JunAnd "Astronomical method"ofNaoki HisaEtc. of game companiesScenario writerIs increasingly writing screenplays for anime.

Games for mobile phones

Since the functions of mobile phones have expanded and the Internet has become easier to useGREE,MobageMobile phone game sites with free basic charges such as have become popular. Various anime works have also become mobile phone games.Idolmaster Cinderella GirlsThen, it was animated based on the characters that appeared in the mobile phone game, and it got a big topic.

またSmartphoneBecomes popular, it will replace existing game sitesア プ リ ケ ー シ ョ ンThe game at is now a hit. EspeciallyLove Live! School Idol FestivalThe number of registered people increased by 2 million in the two months during the anime was broadcast, and the number of registered people increased exceptionally. As of March 100, the number of registered people has exceeded 2015 million in Japan and 3 million worldwide.

In this way, the popularity of mobile phone games based on anime works will increase the name recognition. Therefore, game application development centering on midnight animation is intensifying.

Regarding the workList of animated game softwareSee.

Trading cards

Collection card for games and viewing. The trading card boom of the social phenomenon that occurred from the end of the 1990s to the beginning of the 2000s became popular and is often abbreviated as "treca".

It has existed for a long time as related products such as animation and manga,MenkoHas existed since the age called.

Using a game cardCard gamesIs called Trading Card Game (abbreviated as TCG). Usually there are two players in a battle format.

Character Goods

An animated character for children was drawn文 房 具And clothing,CandyMost of the products, such as foods, can be bought easily at supermarkets, shopping centers, convenience stores, etc., but some anime shops and event venues also sell goods with low production volume, so rare items are used. It is traded at high prices in markets and online auctions.

Surrounding culture

1970 eraLate

anime fan

Initially, the animation was for children, and it was not known that some adults liked it. August 1977, movie version "Space Battleship Yamato] Newspapers picked up the topic as a result of the peculiar behavior of fans who lined up all night on the day of the release, and it began to be known to adults that there are hobbyists who like anime. Many were high school students and adults. In the year following the release of "Space Battleship Yamato"Anime magazineWas first published,CorrespondenceWhen it becomes possible to contact through a corner etc., manyFan clubWas born. Even in the older generation, the impression that anime still belongs to children still remains, but that impression is fading as the times go by.

Big friends

Originally a child (Children) Was targetedAnime-Comic-Special effectsAn adult fan who is absorbed in hero programs.

Secondary creation

LegallyParodyEven if it is modified as, without obtaining permission from the right holder, free distribution to unspecifiedSaleWhat to doCopyright lawIt is an act contrary to.

However, copyright infringementGuilty chargesSo, if you areChargesdo itLawsuitIt is expensive to bring in, and even if you win a case, you may not have the ability to pay compensation, and the authors are crying or falling asleep, or they are acknowledging as a fan support act.

Secondary creation doujinshi

For those who have the hobby of issuing a newsletter and making a fan book again when the fan club is born.Self-publishedBegins, and grows with the involvement of manga, which has a deep connection with anime, and various other cultures. But,Comic marketSuch as (Comiket)Doujinshi sale eventAnd commercialization is progressing through consignment sales of specialty bookstores (for details, seeDoujinshi # The situation and problems surrounding manga/anime doujinshiSee).

Seen in Doujinshiイ ラ ス トA typical method is to draw outlines and boundaries with clear lines to simplify gradations of colors and shadows and express them in stages.Anime picture(Moe picture).

Cosplay

Also called "disguise". The act of dressing up as a fantasy character with clothes and makeup.Costume playThe person who does it is a cosplayer (Cosplayer), or layer for short. An independent event is also held, and self-produced cosplay photo books are sold at comic markets and doujinshi specialty stores. However, in recent yearsCopyrightCosplay costume seller as an infringement ofPolicemenThere are also cases of being caught in.

Itasha(Itasha)

Also called "Moesha".Moe AnimeA fan's car with stickers and painted logos of the characters and related manufacturing companies and brand names. The bike isPainful car(Tansha)", bicycle "Painful(It was Chari)", and is called a gouten in the case of a train. In 2008, Aoshima Bunka Kyozaisha Co., Ltd. applied for the sale of a plastic model and registered a trademark, and was registered on June 6 of the same year. A community was formed along with an increase in owners of Itasha.

In recent years, trains and buses that draw illustrations of anime-style characters have often been operated for corporate advertising purposes, but they often fall into the category of itasha.

In the area where the anime works are set, some companies wrap anime on trains and buses to attract tourists who target anime fans. There are anime illustrations in the carス タ ッ フSign of theVoice actorThere are also some in-car announcements being carried out.

Pilgrimage to sacred places

Detailed localLocation(Location hunting) Began with the advent of a work that set the image production and the world view.Novel,movies,TV dramaAround the stageLocation tour, It is the same action as the stage exploration, but the difference is that there are fans who visit the site with a pain car in which the character's cosplay and anime characters are drawn.

Fans who specified the location (sacred place) visited the place (pilgrimage) and compared it with the local photo and scene in the play (in the case of cosplay, the same pose as the character in the play)インターネットWas published on fan sites, etc., and a fanzine-style guidebook was produced and distributed at the fanzine sale event.

Unlike live-action movies and TV dramas, it often includes unrecognized local residents' houses and schools that were used as video works, and there is no denying the possibility of causing anxiety or annoyance in daily life. , An example in which the publisher of the work made a request to refrain from pilgrimage to the sacred place[65],Foot-and-mouth diseaseIn some cases, we asked them to refrain from visiting farms and other places that were used as a stage for prevention.

On the other handWhat is your name?It was the stage ofHida CityThen, because the tourists who saw the work flooded into Hida city and were widely covered in the news etc.2016å¹´The pilgrimage to the Holy Land was selected as one of the top 10 in the world.

There is no need for advertising costs associated with the work, and tourism demand will increase, so there are great expectations as a way to promote tourism. Therefore, there are local governments and areas that produce moe characters that focus on attracting activities for anime and manga locations. However, the boom of most anime works is transient, and since it is not known whether or not the works will be talked about, there are places where the number of tourists of anime fans has fallen significantly below the number expected by the local government.

MorePilgrimageSee.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "Bomberman Jetters" Scenario Meeting Animation Bomberman Jetters Production Site Report とTelecom animation film Of Basic knowledge of the animation industry-Flow of animation production-,Fact-finding report on animation industry(PDF)-The description is based on the Fair Trade Commission, January 2009.
  2. ^ America Ofデ ィ ズ ニ ーThe production work is also called "Disney animation" in Japan,KodanshaDisney anime books,Kasei-shaDisney-authorized, such as the Disney anime novel versionPicture book"Animation" is also used in and the novelized version.
  3. ^ American version of "Cardcaptor Sakura" (local title is "CardCaptors』) Is the French version of" AVALON ", whose surname is AVALON.Every time(The local title is "Juliette, je t'aime") is set in Mimosa Pension, and the heroine's name is Juliet. ButSeoul Special CityAnd so on.
  4. ^ After the ban was lifted, fictitious geography or the actual geography of Japan is set, but those whose main stage is fictitious facilities are the original names, or only the geography and personal names are localized in Korea.

Source

  1. ^ Japanese language dictionary,Daijirin,Sanseido Japanese Dictionary (Sanseido Web Dictionary)"Anime" section
  2. ^ Production under the control of the U.S. military and seizure of filmRefer to the description of "Line drawing order form". See inside the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum Virtual Museum
  3. ^ "Fuku-chan's Submarine" Japanese Movie Database
  4. ^ Tatsuo Sato_diary (diary for August 2005, 8) Tatsuo Sato Retrieved November 2015, 4.
  5. ^ "Alive Final Evolutionary Shonen" Animation Announcement Announcement Increased Production Discontinuation Anime! Anime! Biz viewed 2010 June 6, 6 April 2015.
  6. ^ A voice actor has a manga "That is a voice actor! ] TV animation decided. The original author, Masumi Asano × Drawing, Kenjiro Hata, fastest talk(Page 1) Excite Review Retrieved on December 2014, 12 and December 30, 31.
  7. ^ Gainax starts production of "Aoki ur", which depicts the world after "One Amis". Release of "preceding short story" next spring ITmedia Retrieved February 2014, 12, April 11, 2015.
  8. ^ 14th Is the Japanese animation industry okay? (2006/10/16) http://www.nikkeibp.co.jp/style/biz/feature/tv_iibun/061016_14th/
  9. ^ 15th What is the dark shadow creeping on the animation industry (2006/11/07) http://www.nikkeibp.co.jp/style/biz/feature/tv_iibun/061107_15th/
  10. ^ Course Animation Volume 3 Image Design by Hiroshi Ikeda / Art Publisher
  11. ^ anime Marian Webster dictionary
  12. ^ Nobuyuki Tsuken, "The Power of Japanese Animation, Two Axis That Goes Through 85 Years of History," NTT Publishing, 2, p2004
  13. ^ Nobuyuki Tsuken, "Osamu Tezuka as an Anime Artist: Its Path and Essence", NTT Publishing, 2007, p.20 Anime! Animation! Arbitrary Glossary Part 1 Differences between Anime and Animation Anime! Anime! Archived August 2010, 7, at the Wayback Machine.December 2008, 2
  14. ^ As an exampleDebussyPiano song of "Image"The third tempo "Moveman mouvement (movement)" The tempo instruction at the beginning is "Trezanyme" très animé(Move very).
  15. ^ By Fred Patten.
  16. ^ Dictionary.com-Otaku
  17. ^ Dictionary.com-Anime
  18. ^ Kinema Junpo 1995
  19. ^ For example,japanimation.com Such.Anime Oxide
  20. ^ "Supernatural The Animation" Overseas DramaPowerPush!! TVGroove.com
  21. ^ A very popular drama nationwideSUPERNATURALIs fully animated by Japan cinema-magazine.com
  22. ^ Not just Studio Ghibli! Pay attention to the works that will tell you about the future of Japanimation! -Cinema Today
  23. ^ Japan Entertainment Management Business Association.
  24. ^ Japan Voice Actor Business Council .
  25. ^ Japan Voice Producers Federation .
  26. ^ Cooperative Association of Japanese actors
  27. ^ Japan Media Arts Plaza "Archived copy”. As of May 2009, 4オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2009/8/26Browse.
  28. ^ Global human pattern @ Europe Pursue Japan
  29. ^ Documentaire présentant le Japon à travers l'amitié franco-japonaise
  30. ^ Yasuo Otsuka "Ambition of Little Nemo" Tokuma Shoten, 2004, p.29.
  31. ^ ROBOTECH.COM (official site) : Tatsunoko ProJapan cannot be selected as the shipping destination of the online shop due to a license contract issue with Harmony Gold
  32. ^ Hiromichi Masuda "Understanding Anime Business" NTT Publishing, 2007, p.148
  33. ^ Japanese animation program export sales ¥30 billion annually Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Anime! Anime! July 2007, 6
  34. ^ Japan External Trade Organization Survey Report (Content) http://www.jetro.go.jp/industry/contents/reports/
  35. ^ Satoshi Kusanagi, "How Japanese Animations in Japan Are Seen?" Tokuma Shoten, 2003, pp.30-32
  36. ^ Kusanagi (2003), p.55
  37. ^ Koichi Yamamoto"Insects Pros and Cons: Anita Menta's Youth", Shinchosha, 1989, p.153
  38. ^ Naoki Furuta, "The Age of Astro Boy: The Battle of the Video Industry", World Thought Company, 2009, p.254
  39. ^ Furuta (2009), p.258
  40. ^ Kiyotani Shinichi "Le Otaku France Nerd Circumstances" Bestsellers, 1998, p.33
  41. ^ Furuta (2009), pp.254-255
  42. ^ A man who spread "Dragon Ball" to Europe Interview with President Animax Takiyama, a leading Japanese anime exporter[Broken link]Weekly Toyo Keizai, April 2013, 04
  43. ^ Takashi Endo, "Chinese Moving New Man, Japanese Animation and Manga Move China" Nikkei BP, 2008, pp.9,81, XNUMX
  44. ^ "Current situation analysis of overseas expansion of broadcasting contents (FY2013) (PDF)”. Cabinet Secretariat (November 2014, 11). 2014/12/3Browse.
  45. ^ Satoko Kajiyama, "Weed Soul, Mitsuhisa Ishikawa, The Man Who Bought Anime Business," Nikkei BP, 2006, p.195
  46. ^ Ryusuke Hikawa "Truth of Japanimation" "Separate Volume Treasure Island 985 A Super Masterpiece Edition This Anime Is Amazing" Takarajimasha, 2004, p.35
  47. ^ Kiyotani (1998), p.52
  48. ^ Kiyotani (1998), pp.53-54.
  49. ^ "Gatekeeper" Profiling Survey of Japanese Contents Overseas (France) (March 2011) | Survey Report-View by Country/Region-JETRO
  50. ^ "Astro Boy", "Kimba the White Lion", "Battle of the Planets", "Space Battleship Yamato (Star Blazers)" and many more.
  51. ^ China Content Market Research (6 Fields) 2009 Edition (October 2009) | Research Report-View by Country/Region-JETRO
  52. ^ Endo Homare (2008), p.67,91.196,206
  53. ^ "Shin-chan" TV stop in India? Concerns about the impact on children”"Archived copy”. As of May 2008, 12オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2008/12/7Browse.
  54. ^ web SPA! "Japanese manga isn't really popular in the world!"http://spa.fusosha.co.jp/feature/list00000686_2.php
  55. ^ Nobuyuki Tsuken "Introduction to Animation", Heibonsha Shinsho, 2005, pp.108-110
  56. ^ Tsuken (2005), pp.110-111.
  57. ^ Yoshihiro Yonezawa "A small feast of manga and doujinshi" "Separate volume Takarajima 358 Take me to the comic market! All about the huge comic doujinshi market" Takarajimasha, 1998 pp.44-45.
  58. ^ Tsuken (2005), pp.111-112.
  59. ^ Mamoru Oshii "There must be a theme for the end of the period" "For the 200th issue of" Animage "" "Animage" February 1995 issue
  60. ^ Masanobu Komaki, "When I was an Animec ... Editor-in-Chief Struggle", NTT Publishing, 2009, p.83
  61. ^ Toshio Okada, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Masanobu Komaki "A Thorough Study on the History of Otaku" "Unprecedented Otaku Roundtable 1 Yoiko" Music Senkasha, 2001, p.57
  62. ^ Ryota Fujitsu "Declaration of" Anime Critic "" Fusosha Publishing Co., Ltd., 2003, pp.277-278
  63. ^ Tsuken (2007), p.179
  64. ^ Japan Animation Society Official Website
  65. ^ Strawberry marshmallow: Monthly comicsDengeki Daio2006 year 3 month number

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