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🎥 | Eva Green starring "Proxima" notice lifted Astronaut Naoko Yamazaki "Growing while struggling"

Photo Movie "Proxima" Main Photo (C) Carole BETHUEL (C) DHARAMSALA & DARIUS FILMS

Eva Green starring "Proxima" notice lifted Astronaut Naoko Yamazaki "Growing while struggling"

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For her as an astronaut and mother, it was a long-sought dream, but at the same time she was separated from her beloved daughter, Stella.

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Space flight

Space flight(Uchuhiko,English: Spaceflight) Is an artificial structure宇宙空間To fly with, or thatTechnology.

Space flight technologySpace developmentIt is a technology that forms the basis ofSpace travel,Communication satelliteIt is also used in commercial activities such as.宇宙飛行技術の非営利的な用途としてはFor non-commercial uses of space flight technologySpace telescope,Reconnaissance satellite,Earth observation satelliteEtc.

Space flight is usuallyRangefromrocketIt starts with the launch of etc.まずは地球の周回軌道に乗るためにFirst of all, to get into the orbit of the earthSpacecraftThis is because we have to accelerate.宇宙機の動き(推進中、非推進中(慣性移動中)の両方)はThe movement of the spacecraft (both propulsion and non-propulsion (inertial movement))Celestial mechanicsCalculated by.SpacecraftMost of them remain in outer space, and these areAtmosphere re-entryCollapse or collapse at the time ofGraveyard orbitLeft in or as isSpace debrisWill be.Those abandoned during the moon landing follow the path of collision with the moon.

History of space flight

A realistic proposal for space flightSoviet UnionWas a researcherKonstantin TsiolkovskyMade byツィオルコフスキーはTsiolkovsky1897ToTsiolkovsky officialWas announced and the formula by rocket propulsion was established.Also,1903"Space exploration with reaction utilization device" (Russian: Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами)soLiquid hydrogenとLiquid oxygenOf a streamlined rocket fueled byBlueprintPublished, but these theoretical studiesロシアOther than that, it was not famous.1920 eraToMulti-stage rocketとJet engineCompleted the theory ofSpace stationDevised[1].

Robert Goddard 1919In the paper "Possibilities of Moon Flight" published in, space flight technologyengineeringMoved to the possibilities of the field.ゴダードが製作した世界初のThe world's first made by GoddardLiquid fuel rocket The19263/16Launched in about 2.5 in 12.5 secondsMeters(41フ ィ ー ト)Rose.このロケットで使用された(一旦直径が小さくなり、後に広がっていく、途中がくびれた形状のUsed in this rocket (once smaller in diameter and later expanding, with a constricted shape in the middlenozzle) And liquid fuel rocket technology will become important figures in later space flight technology.Hermann Oberthas well as the Werner von BraunIt was an important key for.

The first rocket in history to reach spaceV2 rocketIt is the prototype of the A4 rocket.194210/3At the third launch, A3 reached outer space and 4 from the launch point.KilometersI fell to the previous point.195710/4In the Soviet UnionSputnik 1Was launched, the world's firstArtificial satelliteIt became.この打ち上げによってBy this launchSputnik shockIs caused,The United States of AmericaWas shaken.19614/12The world's firstManned space flightBecomeVostok No. 1Was launched,Yuri GagarinIs the first in the world宇宙 飛行 士It became.

Rocket launches are still the most important means of reaching space today.Scrumjet engineOther technologies, such as, are still not fast enough as a means of escaping the Earth's gravitational sphere and are far from practical.[2].

Ground-launched space flight technology

Space flight certification criteria

The most common boundary of the universe isCarman line100 kilometers above the ground (62)Miles) Points upward (in the United States, space over 80 kilometers (50 miles) above the ground is defined as the universe)[3].

In order for an object launched from the surface of the earth to orbit the earthFirst cosmic velocityIs required, but this is the escape velocity from the Earth's gravitational sphere.Second space velocityMuch lower[4].

Ballistic flight

If the speed is sufficient during ballistic flight, the spacecraft will reach outer space, but will descend to the ground without going into orbit around the earth.A ballistic flight can last for hours.Pioneer 1Intended to reach the moonNASAFirst ofSpace probewas. 1号(0号から3号までの4機)は探査に部分的に失敗し、発射から43時間後に大気圏に帰還する前に11万3,854キロメートル(7万746マイル)に達したNo. XNUMX (XNUMX aircraft from No. XNUMX to No. XNUMX) partially failed exploration and reached XNUMX kilometers (XNUMX miles) XNUMX hours after launch before returning to the atmosphere.[5].

20045/17Launched "Go Fast Rocket".This was the world's first commercial spacecraft launch. 2004å¹´XNUMX6/21ToSpace ship oneWas launched,Private enterprisesbyManned space flightThe world's first spacecraft with an altitude of over 100 kilometers, andPrivate astronautBecame[6].

Earth orbit

Even at the lowest altitude orbit around the earth, a speed that is incomparable to ballistic flight (the first space velocity is 7.9 kilometers per second) is required, and advanced propulsion technology is required to achieve that.宇宙空間で安定したStable in outer spaceOrbitTo stay on the spaceshipOrbital speedMust have reached the first space velocity[7].

Reach directly

Achieving orbit is not essential for interplanetary navigation (spacecraftSecond space velocity (escape velocity)Need to reach).Early Russian spacecraft achieved very high altitudes.またNASAのAlso NASAApollo projectAt the initial stage, I was thinking of reaching the moon directly, but later I canceled it due to a weight problem.Outer planetsMany spacecraft to orbit choose to reach directly and do not enter orbit[8].

However, NASA's for future space explorationOrionAnd russiaKliperAssembling a spacecraft in orbit around the earth is considered[9][10][11]..クリーペルについては研究開発コストが2006年から2015年の間にR & D costs for Kliper between XNUMX and XNUMXRussian Federation Space AgencyTurned out to exceed the budget ofThe United KingdomHeld in 2006Farnborough AirshowAnnounced that "the plan will be suspended, and alternative space transport aircraft will be manufactured in stages."[12]..これはその後This is then20078/21,ESAThere was an official announcement of the Russian Federation Space Agency that it will be switched to joint development with[13].

Reaching space in other ways

Many ways have been devised to reach space without the use of rockets (Orbital elevator,Mass driverEtc.), but all of them are still unrealizable in modern times.Electromagnetic inductionThere are no known researchers to use to launch objects, and development is not progressing.その他の考案としてはAs another ideaSkylonIs trying to reach the first space velocity using a scramjet, but it has not been put into practical use.[14][2].

Launch pad and range, takeoff

The launch pad is a fixed structure designed to move a spacecraft.Generally, the structure of the launch pad consists of a launch tower and a moat to avoid firing flames.These are surrounded by facilities for assembling, servicing and fueling spacecraft.アメリカのAmerica'sRangeIs a winged spaceship (space shuttle) Is designed to facilitate movement and has a long runway.The range is built far away from the place of residence of the general public, mainly for noise and safety reasons.

Fires are frequent and constantLaunch time zoneLimited to.The time zone limitation is due to the positional relationship between the celestial body and the orbit, and the biggest influence is the rotation of the earth.Normally, the target orbit has a relatively flat flight path at a fixed angle with respect to the rotation axis of the earth.And because the earth is rotating in this orbit.

Re-entry and landing / landing


A large number of spacecraft in orbitPhysical energyThere is.宇宙船が安全に大気圏内で蒸発せずに着陸するためにはこのThis is for the spacecraft to safely land in the atmosphere without evaporationEnergyMust be thrown away.通常、この過程にはUsually in this processAero brakingIs used, but it requires a special way to protect the spacecraft.The theory of re-entry was proposed by.Based on this theory, spacecraft re-enter the atmosphere in blunt shapes.One of the kinetic energies of a spacecraft to become dullpercentMust be converted into the thermal energy generated by the collision with the atmosphere[15].

Landing / landing

Mercury Plan,Gemini plan,Apollo projectAll capsules landed in the sea[16][17][18]..These capsules were designed to land at a relatively slow speed.ロシアのRussianSoyuzLand on land[19]Use a braking rocket for this.The Space Shuttle runs at high speed after landing on the runway.


Spacecraft, cargo, and crew can be recovered from spacecraft that have successfully landed.In some cases, the spacecraft was still parachuting and a specially designed aircraft could be hooked and recovered in the air before landing.コ ロ ナReconnaissance satelliteThis was actually done and the specially refurbished aircraft was able to recover the capsules dropped from the satellite.[20].

Non-reusable launch system

All current spacecraft and all but NASA's Space ShuttleSpaceX OfFalcon 1Uses a multi-stage rocket to reach space.これらは基本的に使い捨てとなるThese are basically disposable[21].

Reusable launch system

The first reusable launch vehicle (X-15) Is19637/19Is a dedicated mother machineNB-52It was launched by the air-launch method from and flew ballistically using a rocket motor.[22]..最初の部分的に利用出来る有人宇宙船(スペースシャトル)はユーリ・ガガーリンの宇宙飛行20周年にあたるThe first partially available manned spacecraft (Space Shuttle) marks the XNUMXth anniversary of Yuri Gagarin's space flight.19814/12Fired in the United States[23].

Six shuttles were built during the space shuttle era, and of the experimental aircraftEnterpriseFive aircraft, except for, were actually operated as reusable space launch vehicles.エンタープライズは滑空実験機としてNASAで専用にEnterprise dedicated to NASA as a gliding experimentBoeing 747RemodeledShuttle transport aircraftAfter gliding on the back of the car, separated in the air,Edwards Air Force BaseI conducted an experiment to land on[24].

The first space shuttle to reach spaceコロンビアAnd thenChallenger,Discovery,ア ト ラ ン テ ィ スAndEndeavorContinued.エンデバーはEndeavor19861/28 OfChallenger explosionWas built after[25], Then Colombia20032/1 OfColombia aerial disassembly accidentLost in[26].

The Soviet Union's first reusable launch vehicle plan198811/15Was launched intoBlancwas.The plan ended with only one flight at the launch on the same day.The Bran was designed as a manned space plane, but its appearance was very similar to the American Space Shuttle.The Space Shuttle uses liquid fuel for the auxiliary booster and requires the main engine and external fuel tank, but the Blanc booster is only used for reverse injection and does not require those external equipment, so compared to the Space Shuttle. Is much smaller.ブランによる再使用型宇宙往還機計画はBran's reusable launch vehicle project1991 OfSoviet Union collapseThe budget has been reduced by, and the plan has been completed.この無人打ち上げを行った機体はその後After that, the aircraft that made this unmanned launchMoscow OfGorky ParkIs still on display as of 2003[27].

Space development outlook[28]Then one billion in one flightDollarThe space shuttle that spends the cost of2010It is expected that the operation will be stopped due to the increase in cost due to aging.スペースシャトルによる人間の輸送の役割はWhat is the role of human transportation by the space shuttle?2014It is a next-generation manned spacecraft that can be partially reused in the meantime.Crew Exploration Vehicle(Crew Exploration Vehicle, CEV,20068/22Was officially named Orion[9]) Is planned.スペースシャトルによる重量物輸送の役割はThe role of heavy goods transportation by the space shuttleNational Security Space Launch (Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle, EELV)Shuttle-derived rocket It is planned to be taken over by next-generation disposable rockets such as (Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle, SDLV).[29][9][30].

Scaled Composites TheAnsari X PrizeIn 2004, he launched SpaceShipOne to win the award, breaking the record set by the X-15 and winning it.[31]..IsSpaceship TwoIs expected to be produced.Virgin GalacticSpaceShipTwo operated by is a private private sector in 2008 as a reusable spacecraft that receives a fee from passengersSpace travelIs believed to be able to start[32][33].

Accident in space development

It holds the source of the enormous amount of energy required for all launch vehicles to reach orbit.Therefore, there is a risk that it will suddenly release this energy due to some important factor.19971/17 OfDelta II rocketWas reported to have broken the windows of a store 13 kilometers (16 miles) away in an accident that exploded 10 seconds after its launch.[34].

Moreover, although the universe is a fairly predictable environment, there is the risk of accidental decompression and failure of newly developed equipment.

Space weather forecast

Space weatherIs the concept of environmental change conditions in the universe.それは惑星の大気中の天気の概念と異なり、宇宙空間でのIt is different from the concept of atmospheric weather on planets, in outer spaceplasma,Gravitational wave radiation, Others in outer spacematerial(Generally, consider not only the influence of the earth but also the influence between planets and stars). "Space weather describes the conditions that affect the Earth in space." "Space weather on Earth is the result of the movement of the Sun, the nature of the Earth's magnetic field, and the positional relationship of the Earth in the solar system."[35]

Space weather has profound implications in several areas related to space exploration and space exploration.GeomagnetismIf you change the conditionsLow orbitIt can cause changes in atmospheric density that cause a rapid descent of spacecraft altitude.増加する太陽活動によるDue to increasing solar activityMagnetic stormCan potentially cause spacecraft sensors to malfunction or interfere with the operation of in-vehicle electronics.また、宇宙環境変化条件の理解も有人宇宙船と生命維持装置の設計に重要であるUnderstanding the conditions for changing the space environment is also important for the design of manned spacecraft and life support systems.[36].

Environment issues

The rocket as a structure is originally not heavily contaminated[37]..しかし、いくつかのロケットは毒性の強い推進剤を使用しHowever, some rockets use highly toxic propellants.[38][39], Most spacecraftCarbon neutralNot using propellant.多くの固体燃料ロケットがまたは他の化学物質に由来するMany solid fuel rockets come from or other chemicalschlorineHave[40],They areozone layerTemporary toOzone holeMay cause.大気圏再突入を行う宇宙船はオゾン層に一時的な影響を与えることとなるSpacecraft re-entry into the atmosphere will have a temporary impact on the ozone layernitrateTo generate.ほとんどのロケットは環境に影響を与えることが可能な金属で作られているMost rockets are made of metals that can affect the environment[41].

These problems also affect the space environment near the earth.軌道上のIn orbitSpace debrisSpace debris that grows due to collisions between each otherKessler syndromeThere is a concern that space development will not be possible in the near future.従って、現在の宇宙船は再利用が可能なように設計されているTherefore, current spacecraft are designed to be reusable.[42].

Space ship

A spacecraft is a vehicle that can control the orbit of flight in outer space.最初の「本当の宇宙船」はアポロ計画におけるThe first "real spacecraft" is in the Apollo programLunar moduleIs said to be[43]..以来これは設計された唯一の空力抵抗を考慮していない宇宙空間での乗り物であり、宇宙空間の中だけで動作したSince then this is the only designed space vehicle that does not consider aerodynamic resistance and has only operated in space.[44].

Manned space flight

The world's first manned space flight was Vostok 1961 on April 4, 12, and Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union became the world's first orbiting astronaut.公式なソビエト連邦の報告書には、ガガーリンが地上から約1キロメートル(11マイル)の空中からパラシュートで降下したという事実がどこにも言及されていないNowhere in the official Soviet Union report is the fact that Gagarin parachuted from the air about 7 kilometers (XNUMX miles) above the ground.[45].. At the timeFAI International Aviation FederationThe provision of "Astronauts must be in the spacecraft from launch to landing" (as of 2004, revised)[3]), It is believed that Gagarin concealed his disqualification as an astronaut when applied.The spacecraft used for current manned round-trip space flights are the American Space Shuttle and the Russian Soyuz.Past space programs for each used other spacecraft.recently,People's Republic of China OfShenzhou planIs one ofKamifune No. 5Made two manned space flights like SpaceShipOne in the United States.世界でも人間を宇宙に出した国は2ヶ国あるが、自国開発のロケットでの直接的な有人宇宙飛行を成功させた国はロシアとアメリカ、中国だけで、アメリカに続いて26番目、3年ぶりとなるThere are 42 countries in the world that have put humans into space, but Russia, the United States, and China are the only countries that have succeeded in direct manned space flight with their own developed rockets, the third country after the United States, XNUMX years. For the first time[46][47].

Weightless state

Putting the body in a weightless state for a long period of time causes multiple health problems.骨は脆くなり、筋肉及び心臓筋肉組織の永久的な萎縮が始まるBone becomes brittle and permanent atrophy of muscle and cardiac muscle tissue begins[48].

Also in a short period of weightlessnessSpace sicknesscause.inner ear OfSemicircular canalIt is said that this is because it loses resistance due to gravity and is confused, but it has not been clarified yet.前庭覚(平衡感覚)とWith vestibular sensation (sense of balance)VisualInput information such asCentral nervous systemThere is also a theory that space sickness started due to confusion in the system, and research is continuing.[49][50].


Solar radiation,Cosmic rayIs above the earth's atmosphereVan Allen beltIs blocked by[51].

Life support

In manned space flight, life support systems are one of the devices that enable humans to survive in outer space.有人宇宙飛行任務のこれらの装置について説明するとき、NASAはよくNASA often discusses these devices on manned spaceflight missions.Environmental ControlとLife Support SystemIs an acronym forECLSSUse[52]..Life support systems supply water, air and food.Also, maintain a proper air pressure on the body,excretionYou have to deal with the waste products that have been produced.宇宙線やCosmic raysMicro meteoriteIt may also be necessary to protect against external factors such as.The parts of the life support system are designed and composed bySafety engineeringIs taken into consideration.

Interplanetary space navigation

Interplanetary navigation (Interplanetary travel) Is onePlanetary system内 の惑星Refers to the navigation between.実際には用語の定義はActually the definition of the term isSolar systemOnly when traveling between planets.

Interstellar space navigation

Currently, five spacecraft are sailing away from the solar system.最も太陽系から遠く離れている位置にある宇宙船は5年に打ち上げられたThe spacecraft farthest from the solar system was launched in 1977.Voyager 1Is. 2012年11月現在で太陽から約180億キロメートルの位置にありAs of November XNUMX, it is located about XNUMX billion kilometers from the sun.[53], Traveling at a speed of about 17.12 kilometers per second (3.61 astronomical units / year)[54]..太陽系に最も近い恒星であり、2012年10月には惑星が発見されたThe closest star to the solar system, the planet was discovered in October XNUMXAlpha CentauriIs 4.37 light-years away.仮にボイジャー1号がこの恒星に向かっているとしても、現在のところ全行程の0.044%しか進んでおらず、到達までに約8万年がかかるEven if Voyager XNUMX is heading for this star, it is currently only XNUMX% of the total journey, and it will take about XNUMX years to reach it.[53].

Developed to date when navigating between stars with a spacecraftengineAre not suitable for any of them.If we reach Alpha Centauri in 50 years, we need a speed of 10% (3 km / s) of the speed of light.Combustion of fuel is virtually impossible because the weight of the fuel to be loaded increases proportionally in order to obtain accelerating energy.Swing byCan get energy from the outside, but not enough speed from the planets of the solar system.Spacecraft HayabusaWas installedIon engineEnergy sourceelectricityAnd tentativelyAtomic batteryLarge capacity with improved performancePower InputEven if it can sustain acceleration comparable to Hayabusa, it will reach about 1600 years later.[53]..実現化していないが有望視される動力にPower that has not been realized but is seen as promisingInertial confinementThere,Superconducting coilIf you can control the propulsion direction with, you may get the required speed[53]..空想的なFancySFSay inWarp navigationBesides,AntimatterUse andlaserAlthough methods such as continuous irradiation of the spacecraft have been devised, none of them is realistic, and it was once interstellar space navigation.Daedalus ProjectWas draftedBritish Interplanetary SocietyIt is said that it is planning a laser fusion engine with the plan "Icarus" to succeed[53]..また、どのように減速するか、稼動するAlso, how to slow down and operatemachineIs in outer spacemaintenanceThere are a lot of problems such as the difficulty of designing to keep it running for 50 years without it.[53].

Intergalactic space navigation

With modern scientific power, intergalactic navigation is purely expected because it is easily expected to have technical difficulties that far surpass interstellar navigation.Science fictionIt is believed that it is only.

Celestial mechanics

重力And celestial mechanics related to propulsion effects will be the study of spacecraft orbits.Celestial mechanics derives computational results for a spacecraft to reach its destination without consuming excessive fuel.

Spacecraft propulsion mechanism

Modern spacecraft use rockets as a propulsion mechanism,Ion engineSuch asElectric propulsionHas been put into practical use and its use in unmanned spacecraft is increasing, and it is possible to reach Delta-V while significantly reducing the weight of the spacecraft.

Space flight costs, markets, and uses

The cost of modern space flight is not universal and is often paid by the government.しかし純粋に市販のBut purely commercialSatellite broadcastingThere is a lot of demand in the launch market, although some funding is provided by the government in areas such as.

Space flight applications

Among these, one that is expected to grow is personal space travel operated by a private-sector commercial company.The high cost of flying into space is believed to include government inefficiencies.To be sure, the costs around NASA for documentary operations are legendary, and if private-sector commercial companies operate more efficiently, the costs could be significantly reduced.Private spacecraft such as Falcon 1 are developed on personal property and the cost of launch is very low.


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