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🍜 | The long-established udon restaurant in Asahi-ku, Osaka has plenty of udon noodles in a big bowl!An exquisite soup stock with a crisp chin ...


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The long-established udon shop in Asahi-ku, Osaka has plenty of udon in a big bowl!An exquisite soup stock with a crisp chin ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
It is also recommended to combine udon with chirashizushi or inari sushi, and you will miss curry udon in cold weather.
 

"Yamasho Udonten" has a shop right from "Shimizu" station in Asahi-ku, Osaka. ... → Continue reading

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Udon

This item includes some computers andBrowsing softwareContains characters that cannot be displayed(Details).
In this item,JIS X 0213Contains characters specified by :2004 (Details).

UdonIt is,Wheat flourIt has a certain width and thickness that is cut into long piecesnoodles, Or that dish.noodles[1]Also write.
For thin objects,Cold wheat""Raw noodlesIt is general that the dry noodles are referred to separately, but there is no strict provision for the dry noodles except for the thickness regulation (described later). Even thin noodlesInaniwa udonThere is also an example, and if thin noodles meet the standard, dry noodles will beKishimen,StringIs also included.

Overview

Easy common food,RiceBehaved as a food substitute and at celebrationsHalleAs a food ofJapanIt has been eaten all over the country. Cooking methods and ingredients vary depending on the region.

Big noodlespotでBoiledWhen raising it, make sure it is made of metal or so that it can be boiled while hooked around the pot.bambooMade and deepColanderOften used is the "firearm zaru" (also called "tebo" or "tebozaru" for short).

In the vessel to serve,Bowl of rice(Kake udon),dish(Udon bowl etc.),Colander(Zaru Udo), hotpot (Nabeyaki Udon),桶(Udon tub),The trough(Tara udon) is also used.

Besides specialty stores,Japanese buckwheat noodlesIn addition to some stores that offer in parallel,Chain restaurantIt is also a menu. Also, selling only noodlessupermarketIt is done in the state of dry noodles, boiled noodles, raw noodles, etc.Cup NoodleAs well, many manufacturers sell a wide variety of types.

vending machineIt is also sold by the cup noodle type (the one that comes out of the package as it is, or the one that comes out after pouring hot water into it)[2]), there is also a type that comes out with a warm finished product (boiled refrigerated noodles → hot water drain → pouring warm or simmered sauce → complete process)[3].

History

There are various theories about its origin, but it is as follows when arranged in chronological order.

In any case, in the early Edo period, the modern form was popular throughout the country and was widely eaten.

Remarks
  • 現代 のGreater ChinaNow, let's call Japanese udon noodlesOolong, But both are based on Japanese pronunciationJapanese alphabetAnd has nothing to do with origin.
  • Until the middle of the Edo period,Condiment Thepepperwas. In the late Edo periodRed pepperAs cultivation goes on track, it has taken its place and is still in existence today.[10].

culture

As the udon culture in Japan, udon is historically older than buckwheat noodles. The origin of wheat isCentral AsiaからWest AsiaIt is said thatRice cropIt is cultivated and developed in an area unsuitable for "In front of the gateLike Soba,WorshipersWith a long history as a "monzen feast"Shrines and templesThere are cultural udon noodles around Japan (Kazo udon,Yoshida Udon,Ise udonSuch).

Japanese eastern and western udon and soba culture

mainlyKansaiPreferred, soba preferredKantoIt is said that soba is not so liked,East Japan, Udon=West JapanIs incorrect.

In the early Edo periodEdoIn the city ofnoodlesAs buckwheat (soba cutting) is not popular,Buckwheat noodlesSince it was eaten in the form of, it seems that it was popular as noodles in Edo. The originator of buckwheat noodlesShinshu soba(The oldest record of buckwheat cutting isTensho2 years(1574)Kiso OfChoshoji TempleHe said he broke the buckwheat noodles to celebrate its completion.)ShinshuからKoshu Highway,NakasendoIt is said that it was transmitted to Edo through. When buckwheat noodles became popular, soba and soba restaurants became the mother of a unique culture.beriberiFor preventionCold injuryThere are also reasons why strong soba was liked.

It is true that soba was spread in Edo,Kanto regionBut,Musashino,GunmaIs the specialty of eachMusashino Udon"Or"Mizusawa udonThere are many specialty stores including[11].. In fact2004Every time(HeiseiEven in the production of udon (16th fiscal year), the first place is advertising to all over Japan.Sanuki Udon Noodles OfKagawaBut second placeSaitamaAnd Gunma Prefecture is in the top 5[12].. In these areas,Double cropbywheatIt is a well-cultivated and daily meal, and can often be eaten as kake udon or tsukemen.

Tensho12 years(1584),Osakaso"SandboxThere is a record that a soba shop opened,KinkiHowever, buckwheat noodles have been eaten since early times, and soba-cutting became popular. In the Kinki region, there are more udon restaurants than soba restaurants,京都Then in the neighborhoodTambaSoba making flourished in rural areas, so buckwheat culture has taken root, and there are many specialty soba restaurants.Herring sobaIs also a specialty of Kyoto. "Izushi sobaIt is said that the buckwheat culture in northern Kinki that was introduced from Shinshu during the Edo period.

Sanuki countryexcept forWest JapanIn most areas of Osaka, Kyoto,Fukuoka,NarutoThe waist is weak and soup[13]Soft noodles that are easy to smoke are preferred (Osaka Udon with soft skinThan). Also,KansaiIn many cases, it is often served with "Kayaku rice" (rice cooked by effectively using No. XNUMX soup stock), which is the preferred sensation for a soup.

Japan's Three Great Udon

Although there is a name of "three major udon noodles in Japan", according to the Japan Udon Society, this is not certified by a specific institution, and each region simply refers to it. For reference, the following 6 types are listed as candidates.

"Sanuki udon" from Kagawa prefecture,Akitaof"Inaniwa udon"Nagasakiof"GotoUdon, Gunma Prefecture'sMizusawa udon"Toyamaof"Himi udon"Aichi"Kishimen".

noodles

2 to 6% of floursaltIt is generally made from a dough that has been added. The reason is that of flourglutenThis is for tightening and increasing the elasticity of the fabric. About 90% of the salt added to the dough is lost from the noodles during boiling. A few are made without salt at all.

Wheat for udon

Although it is a traditional Japanese dish, more than half of the wheat used todayAustraliaIt is produced Standard White (ASW). About 76 tons of ASW is imported annually, while the total wheat production in Japan is about 80 tons.VarietyIs over 8%. LowAmyloseWheat for udon noodles, which has a chewy texture, is also being developed and cultivated one after another in Japan. "Kitahonami" "Aya Hikari" "Kinu AkariIs a typical variety[14].

specification

For dried noodles,Japanese Agricultural Standard"Dried noodles quality display standard[15]”, a machine made by a method in which flour is mixed with salt and water and kneaded well, cut into strips and dried, is classified as machine noodles[16]Is molded to 1.7 mm or more. Also, long diameter[16]Those molded to 1.3 mm or more and less than 1.7 mm areHiyamugiIt is also a standard of ", but if it meets it, it can be displayed as "thin udon"[15].Hand rolled udonFor, about wheat flour mixed with salt and water, well kneaded dough, apply starch, edible oil or wheat flour, stretch while spreading and dry, aging[16]Molded into a round bar or band of 1.7 mm or more,Japanese agricultural and forestry standards for hand-rolled dried noodlesThe ones that meet the details of

For raw noodles and boiled noodles (including semi-raw and frozen noodles)Noodle making methodRegardless of the "Fair competition agreement regarding the labeling of raw noodles[17]”, “In this agreement, “Udon” means Hiramen, Hiyamugi,Somen NoodlesRegardless of the name, it means the one that is made by adding water to wheat flour and kneading it, or the one that is made and processed after making noodles." In this agreement, "hiyamugi" and "somen" are also included. Therefore, in a narrow sense, it can be interpreted as "raw noodles/boiled noodle types exist only in udon". However, it is also permitted to use the names "Hiyamugi" and "Soumen" because it is "can be changed to a name that is not misidentified by general consumers" in another section.[18].

Once different manufacturing methods (rolling pinIn other words, the thin noodles “thin udon” and “hiyamugi” were clearly distinguished from each other, according to socially accepted beliefs. The distinction between "udon" and "hiyamugi" names is left to the dealers who handle them in accordance with the standards and regulations, so some parts such as dried noodles and raw noodles are ambiguous.

An example of manufacturing method

  • Ingredients for one person are 1 grams of flour (260 grams of finished product),Wed, Salt appropriately.
  • Mix salt and water.
  • Put the udon powder in a container and pour in salt solution little by little, mix until it hardens, let it rest for a while, place it on a plate and stretch it with a stick and cut it into thin pieces.[19].

Classification by manufacturing method

The general manufacturing method isHand-madeとHand overThere is. Manufacturing with a noodle making machine is one of these two manufacturing methods, or the entire process is done by machine.[20].

Hand-made udon
A dough made by kneading wheat flour (generally soft flour) with water and salt, kneading it, kneading it, letting it lie for a certain period of time, then stepping it well, rolling it flat with a rolling pin, and finally cutting it with a kitchen knife. The feature is that gluten grows when you step on it well, and it gives you elasticity. The cross section is square because it is cut with a kitchen knife. There are some that do not contain salt depending on the production area. Some or all of the steps can be carried out by a machine, and what is done by a machine is called "Handmade Udon".
Hand rolled udon
A dough made by kneading wheat flour (mostly soft flour) with water and salt, kneading the dough, letting it rest for a certain period of time, and rolling the dough on both ends of two sticks and rolling it many times. Some even apply oil when stretching. It features thin and smooth noodles. When stretching, it is generally firm so that it will not break or break. The cross section is round because it is made by stretching. Some kneading machines use machines, but most of the work is done manually. Udon made by this method is Inaniwa udon (Akita prefecture), Goto udon (Nagasaki prefecture),BitchuUdon(Okayama) Is a typical example.

Name of noodle according to its condition

Udon balls (boiled udon)
After making raw udon noodles, they are boiled in boiling water to stop the aging of the noodles and divide into individual servings. It's called a "ball" to make it round.[21].. The bagged ones are "boiled udon" at supermarkets andConvenience storeAlso sold.
For instant products in cups and bags, after boiling,vinegar,Ethyl alcoholThepreservativeAs a dash,Vacuum packagingSome products are
Raw udon
Packaged as it is after making noodles or by sprinkling powder on the surface. It has a good taste, but it is not suitable for long-term storage because the aging of noodles changes with time. Even a littleOxidationTo suppressOxygen absorberIt may be packaged with.
Half raw udon
It is orthodox to boil them in boiling water just before eating and to fasten with running water after boiling. The planting of exclusive wheat varieties is increasing. ProlapseoxygenOften packaged with a drug.
Dried udon
Generally called "dry noodles". There are many thin udon noodles. After making noodles, it is dried and aligned in a 20 cm rod shape to make it easier to store.
Frozen udon
Immediately after boiling in boiling water, quick-frozen. Generally, when noodles are frozen, the water content expands during freezing and the molecular structure is divided, resulting in poor taste. Therefore, in order to gain elasticity after boiling back,starch JumpsuitSometimes used as.
Instant noodles such as fried noodles (fried noodles)
Instant products in cups and bags areoilFried infreeze dryOr boiled and dried in hot air is used.

About "Koshi"

KoshiMeans a soft and tensioned state. That is, the degree of elongation[22].. The one with a hard texture"Koshi"There is a case that it is mistakenly recognized that there is, but it is wrong, and something that is elastic when biting with teethKoshiIs. In the case of Sanuki Udon, the degree of elongation is 1.7 times, for example, pulling 5 cm udon and stretching it without breaking more than 8.5 cm."Koshi"There is.

Food processing researcher Eizo Miki (Kagawa University(Professor Emeritus) defines Koshi as "a state that has both elasticity and tenacity." When water and salt are added to flour and kneaded, it is included in the flour.proteinElastic out ofGluteninAnd tenaciousGliadinIntertwineglutenIt is analyzed that it becomes a mesh structure of, and produces stiffness. Sanuki UdonyaInaniwa udonHowever, there are many areas and people who prefer less robust food such as Kansai and Kyushu.[23].

Cuisine

A wide variety of dishes are prepared. Name classification according to cooking method and eating style, and ingredients to put on (Remedy, Seeds, condiments) exist.

Type according to cooking method and eating method

There are various condiments and ingredients depending on the region and shop.

Kake udon and soup udon

Noodles in a bowl with hot soy sauce. Mainly in the Kanto region (mainly choppedshallotIf you add ingredients and seeds, they are not called "kake udon". In western Japan (excluding Kagawa prefecture), it is called "su udon",Tororo kelpOr thinly slicedKamaboko (steamed fish cake)Often, some kind of ingredients are included.

Also, if you want to taste the scent of soupThin soy sauceWhen you want to taste the richness of soupDark soy sauceTo use.

Zaru udon

Tighten the boiled noodles with cold water,SwordIt is a dish that is served in a dish such as (zaru).SoupAttach it to and eat. Also called "Mori Udon",Zaru sobaCarved asSeaweedIt may be distinguished by the presence or absence of.

Bukkake udon

Cut the boiled noodles in hot water and serve in a bowl,Raw soy sauceAnd sprinkle a small amount of soup and eat. There are various ingredients, and they are sometimes called "meat bukkake" by naming the ingredients.

Kamaage udon

Eat boiled noodles with soy sauce or sprinkle raw soy sauce without tightening with water. On noodlesRaw eggThe one with the soup is called "Kamatama Udon". In addition, the noodles that have been soaked in water and soaked in hot water are called "yudame udon".

Tsukeji udon

Put the boiled noodles in a bowl,豚 肉,mushroomEat it with stewed soup. Also called "Tsuke Udon" or "Soup Tsuke Udon".

Stewed udon

Boiled noodles in soup.

stir-fried udon

NoodlesStir fryCooked

Types of ingredients (medicine, seeds, condiments) placed on top

Kitsune Udon

Boiled sweetlyFriedThe one with. Depending on the area,ShinodaAlso called. In the Kinki region, the term "fox and udon" is rarely used because it refers to "kitsune = fried chicken".

Kizami udon

Finely chopped and drainedLight friedThe one with. Usually, lightly fried but not seasoned. In the Kinki region, it is served as a separate menu from "Kitsune".

Tsukimi Udon

Kake udon with raw eggs dropped.egg OfEgg whiteCloud (white)egg yolkIt is called "Tsukimi" because (Yellow) is regarded as the moon. In some cases, nori, which looks like the night sky, is laid.

Udon over mountain

YamGrated on top. There are also types such as bukkake and chilled. Often, raw eggs and chopped seaweed are placed on it. It is also called "Tororoudon" in some areas.

Toji udon

Also called "egg and udon". The surface of the bowl is bound with soft-boiled eggs.chickenThe one that has the same head as the Oyakodon is also called "Oyako Udon".

Tempura udon

tempura(shrimp,squidEtc.), orfried oystersThe one carrying. Unless stated otherwise, ordinary soba restaurants use shrimp tempura and stand-up restaurants use kakiage. The one using kakiage is sometimes called "kakiage udon". Standing restaurants in the Kansai region often offer two types, "tempura," which contains almost no ingredients, and "kakiage," which is mainly vegetable. Also,Fried SatsumaThere is also an area called "tempura udon"[24].

Tanuki udon

Ingredients vary greatly depending on the region. In the suburbs of KantoTenkasu(Fried balls) is scattered, and in Kyoto, after putting finely fried tofu,KuzuanGrateGingerRefers to the one withIshikawaKanazawaThen it becomes "Inari Ankake Udon".In Osaka and northern Kyushu, it is called "haikara udon", but since many stores offer green onions and tenkasu as free toppings, it is recognized as one of the options for the offered udon noodles.In Osaka and Kobe, the term "raccoon dog" generally refers to buckwheat noodles with fried tofu.

Power udon (chikara udon)

MochiThe one that contains.Often combined with other ingredients.Usually, yakimochi is often placed on it.

"Kachin udon" and "kachin udon" in the Kinki region refer to "mochi".Wife wordsFrom "Okachin".

Kayaku udon, Gomoku udon, Omeme udon

It contains several kinds of ingredients called "Seed" and "Kayaku". The ingredients areWhen,spinach,chickenIt is also called "Gome Udon". For items with many types of ingredients (more than 8 types), "Okame udon" (Okame HachimeIt is sometimes called). Okame udon originally originated in Ota-an in Tokyo and was originally a soba menu,Matsutake,Yuba, And ingredients such as kamaboko are arranged to look like the faces of okame. Today, ingredients other than kamaboko are often omitted or replaced with other ingredients. In Kansai, we talk about ingredientsRemedy(Kayaku)” is often called. In the Kanto region, those with ingredients are called "seed".

Udon noodles

It is similar to the above Gomoku udon, but the contents such as ingredients and soup stock differ depending on the area. Many in Kagawa and Kyoto,YamagataThere is also "Suppodo", which is presumed to be accented by "Shippuku". The table udon noodles in Kyoto areShiitake mushroomBoiled ofKamaboko (steamed fish cake),Yuba,Itafu,MitsuhaThe one with the above. In Kagawa, it is also a winter menu. Originally in the Edo periodTable dishWas devised in the Keihan area under the influence of[25][26].

Sauce noodles

Tsuyu niWaste powder,potato starchEtc., and thickenedBean pasteThe one multiplied. In Kyoto, thinly fried tofu is placed, sprinkled with kuzu-an, and grated ginger is called "tanuki udon," but the one without fried tofu is called "anke udon." In addition, a mixture of bean paste and beaten egg is called "Keran Udon".

Odamaki Udon

Savory egg custardThe noodles are added to the ingredients. Udon noodles are said to be called "Odamaki steamed", whereas noodles are the main ingredients. "Odamaki" is often written in Chinese characters as "Odamaki," but since the balls resemble balls wrapped with hemp thread like hollow balls,Columbine[27]There is also a theory that it was named. It was an expensive item,TaishoUntil the end of the term, it was actively served in Osaka. However, since it takes a lot of time and effort, it is very rare to find a shop on the regular menu.

Curry udon

Curry udon-Curry Nanban Udon(Depending on the regionCurry namba) And the soba noodlesCurry nanbanIs the same as Add curry powder to the soup stockcurryFor flavored foods, Japanese curry rolled in soup stock as soup sauce, or boiled noodlesCurry and riceThere are many kinds of curry for direct or with hot noodle soup.

The most common ones nationwide are Japanese-style dashi soup, which is generally used for udon noodles such as dried bonito flakes, and curry powder melted, and soup thickened with potato starch is then applied to the udon noodles.[28].

Origin isWaseda UniversityIn the vicinitySanchoanSaid[29],Showa10 years(1935) Around this time, it was eaten more actively than curry rice, and "Nanban curry powder" was sold by each company.[30].. Ingredients and cooking methods differ depending on the region, and there are many variations. Nanban is a curry-flavored soup with leeks made from bonito flakes. There is also "chilling", in rural areasNagoya curry udon,Toyohashi Curry UdonSuch,Town revitalizationThere are many dishes that have become original dishes for.

Kamo Nanban, Chicken Nanban, Kashiwa Udon

"NanbanUdon noodles. Depending on the area, chickens are often used under the names "Kamonanban" and "Kamonamba". In western Japan, where the distribution of white onions was low, diagonal cuts of green onions are often used.

Meat noodles

beef,豚 肉It's made with a sweet and spicy boiled dish. As an example,Yoshida UdonThen mainlyhorsemeatTo use.

Generally, thin meat is used,Kitakyushu(MainlyKokurakita Ward-Ogura Minami Ward), then,Pounding udonThere is a meat udon called "(Dogidogi Udon)" which is made from sliced ​​beef cheek meat and beef tendon meat.[31].

Other ways to eat

Nabeyaki Udon
Clay potStewed udon using. Usually, various kinds of ingredients such as tempura, eggs, kamaboko, chicken and vegetables are used.
Miso stewed udon
JuicemisoIt is tailored and cooked in a clay pot.Bean misoUsingLocal cuisine of Aichi prefectureIt is said that. In addition, those using miso peculiar to the region are offered in various places, and they areUdon noodles stewed in the countryside-Country-style miso stewed udonIt is also sometimes called.
stir-fried udon
Fried noodlesWind dish. Soy sauce and miso,Worcestershire sauceIt is seasoned with. In some areas, dry noodles are used as noodles.
Champon ware
HimejiWith local gourmet originstir-fried udon"When"Fried noodles"Mixed[32].. Different thicknessnoodlesThe combined texture is a new sensationTV programWas featured several times in[33].
Udon suki
ChowderAlthough it is a style dish, the main dish is noodles. It is often eaten in the Kinki region.
Fried udon
Deep fried like buckwheat noodles,beerKnobsSnacksOften eaten as.
salad
Sometimes it is made into a salad by dressing with vegetables.

Plate udonIs a noodle dish that does not use udon, although its name is "udon".

Udon noodles in Japan

Wheat producedsoil,climate, Brewing of soy sauce,Fishery:Such asLocal industryResponsible for distributionbusinessmanDue to the existence oflocal cuisineHas become a part of the local communitySpecialtyThere are various types, such as

Heavy snow udon

potatoIs a major production areaHokkaidoMt. YoteiAt the foot of the farmhouse, people have long been able to eat "starch udon" as home food for farmers. The potato starch and wheat flour have been adjusted to improve the taste so that they can be eaten deliciously over time. The origin of the name is that the foot of Mt. Yotei is a heavy snowfall area and the appearance of noodles is semitransparent to remind of snow.[34].. Recently own TVCMHas also been produced, and its popularity both inside and outside of Hokkaido is increasing.

Chihoku udon

HokkaidoAshoro TownMade with Chihoku wheat. Although the price is higher than other common udon noodles, it has a smooth texture and texture that other udon noodles do not have.

Inaniwa udon

Hand-rolled dry noodles from southern Akita[35].Japan's Three Great UdonCan be counted as one of.

Sweet Udon

MiyagiZao TownIs made of. Wheat is from Hokkaido. Sprinkle finely chopped green onions on the noodles, put egg yolk on top, and stir with a sweet sauce to eat.

Pulled udon

YamagataLocal cuisine. For boiled noodlesNatto,サ バEat using a sauce made by mixing cans. It is also called "Hizukiri Udon".

Okirekomi

Double cropGunma prefecture and northern Saitama prefecture, which have powder food cultureChichibu districtWith noodlesVegetablesStews[35].

Joshu Udon

Kiryu Udon

GunmaKiryuIt is eaten in the area centering around, and the noodles are rather thick. Eastern Gunma prefectureTogeThe regions are wheat producing regions[36]The noodle manufacturing industry is prosperous around Kiryu City. Wide noodles called "himokawa" are also used. In addition to zaru udon, it can be eaten as "kinokodon".

Tatebayashi Udon

GunmaTatebayashi TheNisshin Seifun Group HeadquartersOf the predecessor ofTatebayashi MillingIs the birthplace,TogeBecause the regions are wheat producing regions[36], There was a historical udon food culture (from the middle of the Edo periodTatebayashi ClanAs a specialty ofTokugawa ShogunateThere is a record that it was presented to[37][38].1994From (6)Town revitalization OfTourism resourcesIs utilized as[37][38].. Mainly dried noodles[38], The characteristic is that there are many udon noodles[39].

Mizusawa udon

GunmaShibukawaIkaho TownMizusawa special product. There is a ripening period between kneading and rolling the dough, which is characterized by its elasticity.

Ear udon

TochigiSano City(OldKuzuu Town) A local dish in Senba, shaped like an earSuitonUse lumpy noodles like.

Kazo udon

SaitamaKazo CityIt is a local dish that can be eaten in, and there is also Monzen Udon.

Cold soup udon

SaitamaChichibu CityEtc. (western part of prefecture),Saitama,Kawagoe-shi,Kazo CityIn the surrounding area, it is also a home-cooked meal that is mainly eaten in summer.[40].. Soup stock。The main taste is the miso, and vegetables are added. Based on freshly sesame seedsdialectso"Fresh""Freshly madeAlso called.

Musashino Udon

FormerMusashi countryTraditional cuisine centered on the region.Ground flourThere are many noodles that are stiff and have a dark taste. It was once widely produced and eaten due to the high production of wheat. In the old house of this areaCeremonial occasionThat it always came out[41].

One udon

One udon(Ippon udon) uses noodles that are extremely thick compared to ordinary noodles. It used to exist in Edo, Kyoto, and Nagoya, but the manufacturing process was difficult and was lost. Recently, Saitama PrefectureHanyuIt has been revived in Kyoto and is a specialty.

Udon noodles

A typical udon noodle from Shizuoka prefecture.The shape is 2.5 cm wide and has a flat and chewy texture.Used for nabeyaki udon and creative udon.

Hoto

YamanashiMade all overlocal cuisine[35].pumpkin,Root vegetablesMainly seasonal vegetables such asMiso SoupFirst, without kneading the salt into the dough, put the noodles that have been cut wide without making them into the raw state with the flour left to boil. The juice is thick because of this recipe[42].OyakiIt is regarded as a category of powdered food such as ya, and is not generally recognized as a category of udon[42].

Boiled

"Simmered" is Saitama PrefectureFukayaLocal cuisine with a focus on. Use wide noodles (approximately 2.5 cm, thickness 1.5 mm), Fukaya green onions, and root vegetables to simmer from the raw noodles. By simmering from raw noodles, there is an appropriate "thickness"[43][34].. The difference from Hoto in Yamanashi Prefecture is that hoto is miso-flavored, but it is seasoned with soy sauce. In addition, it is common to not add pumpkin to the boiled broth. In 2007, they challenged Toto in Yamanashi Prefecture by deciding which is the "hometown of Hototo".[44].

Kishimen

It is a typical local dish of Aichi prefecture and the shape of noodles is flat.

String

GunmaKiryuA typical regional dish, the noodles have a flat shape. There are various widths of noodles, from 5 mm to over 15 cm.

Yoshida Udon

YamanashiFujiyoshidaLocal cuisine made with[35].. Characterized by a very strong hardness and thickness, it does not slip or bite. Eat with miso or soy sauce flavored soup with dried sardines or dried bonito flakes. Cabbage and horse meat are put in, and each shop's special sushi (prepared pepper) is prepared. It is difficult to grow rice here in the northern area of ​​Mt. Fuji due to the cool climate and the geographical conditions of the lava plateau.

Oshibori Udon

NaganoHanashina-gunSakagiDishes made around the area. Strong pungent taste of mouse radishRadishEat it with grated soup and a soup with Shinshu miso.

Onigake (Osemen and Otoji)

NaganoSaku areaOf vegetablesBamboo ringsStewed food containing chicken, chicken, etc.Boiled riceIt is based on, and uses the miso soup. Transferring another noodle from bowl to bowl and eating it is called "osamen". Also, boiling noodles in a long-handled bamboo basket and eating them while moving them into a bowl is called "Otouji".[45].

Himi udon

ToyamaHimiIt features hand-rolled thin noodles made in.Kaga DomainIt has a history of more than 250 years since the feudal government as a gift[46]As with Akita's Inaniwa, it is extended without oiling. In addition, one of the features is that it can be stepped on like a hand.

Komatsu Udon

Ishikawa小松 市It is a thin noodle made with, and is characterized by its smoothness. There is a history that the Kaga domain has given it to Daimyo as a specialty. Normally, I knead it by foot and knead it by hand, then dried it with charcoal. In fact, raw udon is eaten,MeijiOr laterShowaUp until the beginning, each shop made homemade noodles, and it was popular that the compatibility between raw noodles and homemade dashi was characteristic. It is offered at about 70 stores to revive it.

Koro Udon

Mainly in NagoyaChukyo areaThen, chilled udon noodles are called "koro", and the udon noodles that are turned into kishimen are called "kishikoro."

Ise udon

MieIse CityEat with thick, black sauce over soft, boiled, thick noodles[35].

Kyoto Udon

It is eaten at homes and shops in Kyoto, and it is very particular about soup stock. The characteristic of noodles is that thin noodles are boiled until they become firm and the chopsticks lift the noodles so that they can be cut. However, other than that, there is no rule and there is no sense of unity in what is put out in the shop[34].

Kobu udon

KeihanshinMenus that are often seen in stores. "Tororo kelpOr put "Oboro Kombu" on top. In Kinki, kelp is often called “kobu”, and it is also written as “kobu udon” instead of “konbu udon” in the menu. It is also called "Tororoudon" or "Oboroudon".

Kasou Udon

It is a brewing zoneNadagogoThere are shops that are offered only in the winter in the area centered onSake leesUsedMeal soupBase dish. This menu is more common at set restaurants than specialty stores.

Kas udon

Especially in western JapanOsakaSouthernMatsubara,Habikino,Fujiidera CityHave been eaten by. I chopped it up as a toppingGreasyIs used and has a unique flavor. Since the beginning of the 2000s, the number of chain stores that mainly serve them has increased.[47].

Hormone udon

Osaka OfShin-Imamiya StationSeen aroundhormoneIt is made from the stewed vegetables. Cow'sFluffy(Lung) is mainly used.

Bitchu udon

Also called Kamogata Udon, Btsutyuu Kamogata Udon, Kamogawa Udon,OkayamaAsaguchi CityKamokata TownThis is the name of the noodles made in and around it, not the name of the dish. This area has long been a production center for Tenobe dried noodles, and TenobeSomen NoodlesAnd handHiyamugiAt the same time, hand-rolled udon noodles are also manufactured. Especially for hand-rolled udon noodles, the production volume is the highest in Japan.

Kurashiki bukkake udon

Edo Period,HeavenwasKurashikiCame toDeputy officialThere is a theory that what was presented to is the prototype[48].. Since it is a soup derived from Edo soba, it is thicker and sweeter than bukkake udon in other areas such as Sanuki, and has a lot of ingredients. It was a local dish that had been eaten here for a long time, but a local store sold it as a Kurashiki specialty and it became established.

Shino Udon

In Kurashiki City, Okayama PrefectureTamashimaIt is inSoto sectFamous templeEntsuji TempleAnother name for "one line, one bowl" that was eaten by the monks of the Edo period.

Soybean udon

HiroshimaEtajima CityLocal cuisine.soyとKelp,BonitoIn addition to the soybeans used to make the soup stock, use the tuyu that has been soaked in water overnight.Shiitake mushroom, Fried tofu, kamaboko and other ingredients[49].

Naruto udon

TokushimaNarutoIt is eaten mainly. From the feudal era to the late Showa periodShiodaIt prospered as a zone, but was supposed to have been provided as a nice food for those who had finished their hard work in the salt pans.[50].. It's a thin noodle with almost no stiffness, and the dashi stockBoiledA simple one using such as. The ingredients are finely chopped green onions, chikuwa, fried tofu, etc. The city advertises using the name "Naruchuru Udon" named by photographer Koji Nakano.[51][52].

Cod udon

In the northeastern part of Tokushima prefectureAwa CityDonari district's local cuisine[53].. Big with boiled soupThe troughTransferred toTsukeji udonJust like, soak it in soup and eat it.

Sanuki Udon Noodles

Kagawa Prefecture has the highest consumption per capita in Japan. In addition, despite the fact that the population is 40th by prefecture, it is the number one in Japan with more than double the amount of wheat flour used for udon, which is more than double that of Saitama prefecture. As part of the town revitalization, Kagawa Prefecture was called "Udon prefectureIt is an area rooted in food culture.Sanuki Udon NoodlesIs called[35]There are many different toppings and ways to eat, but it is characterized by its elastic elasticity and smooth texture.

Nabe Hol Udon

KagawaTadotsu TownIt is eaten at. Originally made by a butcher shop for workers, the hot pot hormone "ShimeIt is said that it was made as[54].

Hakata udon (Fukuoka udon)

Fukuoka-Kitakyushu-ChikugoEat in the direction[55], The waist is weak and soft is common[56][57][58][59].. The soup is kelp, dried bonito,Urume, Saba-bushi,Iriko,Ajiko, Chin (Flying fish) Etc. and finish with light soy sauce. As an ingredient, "Maruten" and "Goboten" are common. As a condimentYuzu pepperThere are many stores that have.

Maruten Udon

FukuokaIt is eaten in the area centered on.Fried SatsumaSimilar to, rounded fish paste and fried in oilPaste(Fried Kamaboko)[60]Is listed. In this area, the general fried kamaboko is also "tempuraIt is derived from the name. In the Kyushu region, it may refer to "tempura udon."

Burdock heaven udon (burdock heaven udon)

It is eaten in areas centered around Fukuoka Prefecture. Bamboo grassBurdockThefried oystersTempura (or fried separately)[60]Is on board,KyusyuIt is available at most stores in the northern region.

Kashiwa udon

A classic soup in northern Kyushu centered on Fukuoka Prefecture, chicken soup (in Western Japan, chicken is called "kashiwa") scattered in chicken stock. EspeciallyEkiben OfSwallowFamous forJR KyushuKokura StationからOrio Station,Hakata StationThroughTosu StationStationStanding udon restaurantThen, the one with a wrinkle topping is standard. In Oita Prefecture, etc., it refers to a block-shaped dish of chicken.

Goto udon

NagasakiGoto IslandsDried noodles produced in Japan. Thickly rolled out the doughSickleAfter cutting it into a spiral shape (from this process it is also called "sickle cut udon"),Somen NoodlesIt is made by a hand-rolled manufacturing method such as udon and Inaniwa udon. For this reason, it is characterized by thin noodles and a round cross section than usual. Do not touch the powder when hand-rolling,Camellia oilIt has a slight scent[61].. It also has a characteristic that it does not grow easily, so hot boiled udon noodles boiled in plenty of hot water can be used as soy sauce andFlying fish) The typical way to eat is "hell cooking", which is eaten with soup stock.[61].. Named Kobo DaishiSanuki Udon NoodlesOn the other hand, it is said that Goto Udon was directly transmitted geographically from the continent by its own route.[62].

Chin soup udon

It is eaten in Nagasaki Prefecture. The soup stock is taken by the jaws (flying fish) caught here,BonitoThe taste is lighter than the stock. The Nagasaki region has a long history of trade with the Chinese continent, and the Tenobe manufacturing method has been inherited as seen in Goto Tenobe Udon and Shimabara Tenobe Somen.Nara periodUdon is written as "Wheat Rope" in this literature, and it is thought that this is consistent with the "Hand-rolled manufacturing method" found in Goto Udon and Shimabara Somen in Nagasaki.[63].

Udon noodles

Oita OfSaiki CityOrigin[35].. BakedEsoIt is made by mixing fish meat such as fish, sesame, soy sauce and mashing it.StayingWhat is called "" is melted in hot water and used as soup sauce.

Thin horse

It is eaten in Oita prefecture. Making use of its elastic texture, like a kinako mochiKinakoIt is what was multiplied.

Dumpling juice

Local cuisine that can be eaten in the northern part of Kyushu. Mainly miso soup, flat dumplings and flat noodles enter. It is called "dangojiru" in Oita and "dagojiru" in other areas.

Shirukae

Kumamoto-shi(OldAkita Town) Local cuisine.NandinaLight green udon noodles made by adding the juice of mashed leaves to flour.

Fish udon

MiyazakiNichinan CityLocal cuisine around.Pacific WarIn the 1940s,Staple foodIt was eaten as a substitute food when there was a shortage. Flying fishSurimiThe noodles are made by adding flour to the noodles, and the soup stock is also taken from the bones of flying fish.Unlike the ones of the time (generally, the noodles are soft and not chewy), the modern ones are strong.Although it was not eaten for a long time after the end of the war, Nichinan was trying to popularize fish dishes in 1980.Fishery cooperativeThe women's department listened to the story from an old man in the land, reproduced it, and revived it.[64].

Outside Japan

WesternSuch asJapanese food boomByJapanese restaurantAs well,retortAnd frozen noodlessupermarketHave begun to be sold athome cookingAs well, it is becoming more common.

Hong KongThen "Karasufu",CantonesePronounced as "Woo Dong Min." It is a notation that began to be used in Japanese restaurants in Hong Kong, but nowMainland ChinaHowever, it is a notation that you can see. other"OolongSometimes, the notation is used, but in this case, the reading is accented as "woolongmin".Oolong TeaThere is no connection with.

TaiwanThen.OolongOrOolong YunIt is known by the name. Soup is a little localized, but basically it is not much different from Japanese one.

South KoreaHowever, due to the history of Japanese government in the first half of the 20th century,UdonKnown as Udon udong, it is the third favorite Japanese dish among Koreans.[65]However, it is normal for dashi soup to contain pepper, and the taste is often similar. on the other hand,BusanIn the surrounding area, there are soup stock-based products similar to Japan (butKimchiIs being prepared). Besides Japanese styleKalguksuThere is hand-made noodles.

Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfHoi An"Kaolau" (cao lầu) There is a thick noodle dish made from wheat,17st centuryFirst halfRed seal shipTrade eraIse merchantThere is a theory that the roots are Ise udon brought in by.

HawaiiHas been an immigration destination for many Japanese from the Meiji to early Showa periods.SaiminThere is a noodle dish called. CurrentlyChinese noodleIs used, but the taste of dashi is obviously Japanese, and it is thought that it is a dish that was formed through the exchanges of immigrants, mainly Japanese, in each country.

パラオBefore the warMandateWas receivingSouthern Ocean IslandsThere is a noodle dish called UDON because it was a part of. It has the same soy sauce flavor as Japanese one,Okinawa sobaIt's easy to get locally because of the influence of (due to the large number of immigrants from Okinawa in the past) or the amount of juice is small.spaghettiThe main feature is that the noodles are used.

Targeting foreign travelers visiting Japan in 2009Japan Tourism BoardIn the survey conducted by thesushi,Ramen,Sashimi, Followed by tempura in 5th place and buckwheat in 7th place[66].

Typical udon photos

List of statistics

Statistical data on consumption and number of stores by prefecture

  • 2014 yearsMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsHousehold surveyMore, Udon and Soba consumption ranking by prefecture (numbers are averages from 2012 to 2014)
  • The data up to the 10th place in each item is posted.
  • The amount of consumption is calculated as the annual amount of consumption per household.
  • If you press ▲▼ in the item field of the table, the order will change according to the item you pressed.
PrefecturesRankingConsumption amount per householdRankingTotal number of storesRankingNumber of stores per 10 populationTypical udon noodles
37Kagawa112,570 Yen146301XNUM X housesSanuki Udon Noodles
05Akita29,981 Yen4411843XNUM X housesInaniwa udon
06Yamagata37,970 Yen263088XNUM X housesPulled udon
10Gunma47,460 Yen88562XNUM X housesMizusawa Udon, Kiryu Udon, String Kawakami, Okikurikomi
26Kyoto57,103 Yen1556216XNUM X housesTable udon
19Yamanashi67,059 Yen253124XNUM X housesYoshida's Udon and Hoto
20Nagano76,788 Yen1648613XNUM X housesOshibori udon and rice balls
11Saitama86,716 Yen2158114XNUM X housesKazo Udon, Musashino Udon, Cold Soup Udon, Simmered Udon
23 Aichi96,691 Yen3141623XNUM X housesKishimen and miso stewed udon
09Tochigi106,576 Yen136765XNUM X housesEar udon
28Hyogo116,559 Yen978134XNUM X houses
16Toyama126,472 Yen282899XNUM X housesHimi udon
17Ishikawa156,367 Yen203517XNUM X housesKomatsu Udon
36Tokushima196,063 Yen322526XNUM X housesNaruto Udon/Tara Udon
27Osaka275,713 Yen4134131XNUM X housesKas udon
14Kanagawa215,993 Yen5118536XNUM X houses
22Shizuoka225,901 Yen1076017XNUM X houses
18Fukui245,834 Yen233143XNUM X houses
13Tokyo365,408 Yen1290115XNUM X housesMusashino Udon
12Chiba385,245 Yen6101229XNUM X houses
40Fukuoka414,987 Yen799621XNUM X housesHakata Udon
45Miyazaki454,375 Yen2928410XNUM X housesFish udon

Acreage of wheat for udon

Acreage of wheat for Udon (2005)[20]
RankingUdon wheat brandMain production areaCropping area (unit: ha)
1HokushiHokushinHokkaido100,847
2NouriNorin 61Ibaraki and 16 other prefectures39,305
3ShirogaWhite wheatIshikawa and 7 other prefectures18,931
4ChikugoChikugoizumiYamaguchi and 8 other prefectures12,804
5WhatNambu WheatAomori and 5 other prefectures2,948
6ShiraneShiran wheatMiyagi and Nagano Prefectures2,294
7StickyStickinessAomori, Iwate, Akita, Yamagata prefectures1,714
8WowIwaino DaiichiTochigi, Gifu, Aichi, Fukuoka prefectures1,396
9AyahiAya HikariSaitama and Mie Prefectures1,360
10NishihoNishihonamiFukuoka1,355
11HoroshiWhite wheatHokkaido1,241
12HoroshiSanuki's Dream 2000Kagawa1,235
13TsurupiTsurupikariGunma1,139
14Has it comeKitami wheatAomori and Iwate Prefectures1,098
15KitaimoKita MoeHokkaido897
16KinuWave of kinuIbaraki and Gunma prefectures862
17FukusaFukusayaShiga and Hiroshima prefectures772
18ImportantThai Settsu WheatHokkaido396
19ShirasaWhite Egg WheatOkayama and Tokushima prefectures386
20ShiyuyoShunyouNagano368

Other

At stores that also offer buckwheat noodles, there is a risk that buckwheat flour will adhere during the noodle processing and boiling process.Allergic substanceSince there is a possibility that you may be ingested, some stores have a warning sign to that effect (Buckwheat allergyreference).

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ The right half of the character "饂" "𥁕 (昷)" is the orthodox character of the warm character.The sound is un or on ("Shin Meikai Kan-Wa Dictionary"Sanseido). "饂" isnative scriptTherefore, it is difficult to determine the character sound. Being "Undong" or "Udon" means "Japanese-Japanese dictionary], And says, "Vndon, but pronounced udon."
  2. ^ Food vending machine: Vending machineJapan Beverage GroupHP (viewed January 2017, 1)
  3. ^ "Hot udon vending machine, how does it work? Take a look inside the machine"Asahi Shimbun digital(Viewed January 2017, 1)
  4. ^ "Event in Nara on the 13th, calling itself the birthplace of udon"[Broken link]"Asahi Shimbun"
  5. ^ "Taste the roots of noodles-Nara Park Nara Park Festival""Nara newspaper』April 2014, 9 (viewed June 14, 2020)
  6. ^ "Ancient people ate !? Udon reproduction showcased at an event in Nara Park"[Broken link]"Sankei Shimbun"
  7. ^ Hakata, the birthplace of udon, soba and bunsThe charm of Hakata (viewed May 2020, 5)
  8. ^ "A new theory for the roots of udon"[Broken link]"Shikoku Shimbun"2009(21)May 3Browse
  9. ^ Later, udon came to be distinguished by the Japanese Agricultural Standards.
  10. ^ Shinichi Suzuki "Tabemono no Akira" (平凡 社, 1986) p.72
  11. ^ [Outing report along the railway line] 12th Musashino Udon to taste the tradition JR East Hachioji Branch(Retrieved September 2020, 5)
  12. ^ Kagawa Prefectural Office Homepage[Broken link]
  13. ^ Soup in Osakasoup stock(Dashi), But what is soup stock?Kelp,BonitoからUmamiIs extracted, and the soup stock is used for soup stock.Soy sauce,sweet sakeIt is the one to which seasonings such as are added. It can be seen that they are confused in some areas such as Osaka.
  14. ^ [Article] Wheat for udon / Local individuality Wide-area distribution"Japan Agricultural Newspaper』June 2020, 7 (8 pages) Viewed June 3, 2020
  15. ^ a b Dried noodle quality labeling standards (PDF)
  16. ^ a b c For round noodles, it refers to the diameter of the cross section, and for square noodles, it refers to the width.
  17. ^ Fair competition agreement for labeling raw noodles (PDF)
  18. ^ Fair competition agreement for labeling raw noodles (PDF) Except for some special products, there are no "standards based on specific numerical values ​​for thickness" or "specific rules for shape", so "udon", "thin udon", "hiyamugi", "somen noodles", etc. look good. Depending on the shape and the intentions of the manufacturer / distributor, the name can be freely selected and named within the range that is not misunderstood by general consumers.
  19. ^ "Army cooking method] P.382
  20. ^ a b "Udon Taizen" Asahiya Publishing, 2006.ISBN 9784751105696. 
  21. ^ The word "ball" is a measure of quantity and is used in expressions such as "1 ball, 2 balls".
  22. ^ "Udon Taizen" Asahiya Publishing, 2006.ISBN 9784751105696. 
  23. ^ [Exploring] Knead the udon noodles strongly / The two proteins are intertwined with each other "Yomiuri Shimbun』Morning edition March 2018, 3 (living side)
  24. ^ Maruten UdonUdon Museum (Fukuoka) Retrieved January 2017, 1
  25. ^ Japan Noodle Industry Association Homepage / Soba Promenade - Tail
  26. ^ Japanese dictionary, Shippoku udon
  27. ^ The bobbin (spinning wheel) used when spinning hemp thread
  28. ^ Toshiyuki Otake "Nagoya Men", June 2012, 6, pp. 3-68.ISBN 978-4434166655. 
  29. ^ Taro Sato (October 1999, 10). "How can curry become a national dish? The roots that have spread to Japan". Aera: p. 50. https://publications.asahi.com/ecs/detail/?item_id=5076 
  30. ^ "Curry industry". 2020th of February 5Browse.
  31. ^ “The taste of Hakata, which originated in Ogura, is infiltrating. Dokidoki Udon is opening one after another.. "West Japan Newspaper"(November 2009, 6). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2009, 6.. https://web.archive.org/web/20090619105454/http://www.nishinippon.co.jp/nnp/item/102868 2017th of February 11Browse. 
  32. ^ Himeji's specialty gourmet 8. Yakisoba and yaki udon are combined! Champon-yaki Dainippon Tourism Newspaper (accessed May 2020, 5)
  33. ^ Star anise Co., Ltd. --- Udon Yokocho's champon-yaki is now "Kanjani Eight Yokoyama-kun's favorite local udon noodles".
  34. ^ a b c Udon Encyclopedia A large collection of "local udon" from all over Japan!Udon Museum (viewed May 2020, 5)
  35. ^ a b c d e f g As a taste of hometown that is handed down in various places2007(19),Ministry of AgricultureBy "Hundred selections of local dishes in rural areasWas selected as one of.
  36. ^ a b Toyo University Research project "Activation of udon culture"
  37. ^ a b Noodle Town "Udon no Tatebayashi" Promotion Association
  38. ^ a b c Hachioji Cityformulaサイト Machiokoshi case study by "food" (PDF) Than.
  39. ^ Udon Dictionary: Nationwide Local Udon <Part XNUMX> (Kintobi Shiga)
  40. ^ All About Gourmet Udon "Cold Soup Udon"
  41. ^ Musashi Murayama Udon Commentary
  42. ^ a b References: Masami Kageyama "Bait", "Yamanashi Prefecture History and Folklore"
  43. ^ Fukaya City Tourist Association Nibouto
  44. ^ Mainly headed by those who are good at "hotou" and "niboto"
  45. ^ Chushin regionA long-handled bamboo basket for local cuisine in the mountainous areasJapanese buckwheat noodlesThere is something called "Toji Soba" (boiled soba) that is boiled, and it seems to be related. Both are high altitude cold regions, and they share the same method for eating warm noodles.
  46. ^ Himi Udon Takaokaya HonpoThan.
  47. ^ Yoshihiro Uehara"Dining Table" (Shinchosha, June 2005) ISBN-4 10-610123-8
    This is the literary and artistic book editorial department (SOFTBANK Creative) e-mail magazine "Weekly Visitor News" July 2005, 7Than.
  48. ^ Bukkake udon story
  49. ^ [Local food trip] Soybean udon (Etajima City, Hiroshima Prefecture) Crunchy and healthy/sweetness to soupNihon Keizai Shimbun] Nikkei +1 (Saturday morning edition reprint) April 2020, 4, 11 pages
  50. ^ Column-Naruto Udon - Ministry of AgricultureChushikoku Agricultural Administration Bureau Retrieved February 2019, 6
  51. ^ Naruto Udon Naruchuru ~ Naruto B-grade gourmet ~ - Naruto City Uzushio Tourism Association Retrieved February 2019, 6
  52. ^ Naruchuru.com Retrieved February 2019, 6
  53. ^ Column-Tara Udon - Ministry of AgricultureChushikoku Agricultural Administration Bureau Retrieved February 2019, 6
  54. ^ Oh, tadotsu "nabe-hol udon(Retrieved September 2020, 5)
  55. ^ A small partHakataPeopleDull soundSome people pronounce "Uron" because of their tendency to dislike.
  56. ^ Japan Konamon Association: Kona Mosaic (Konamon Encyclopedia) "Hakata Udon"Than.
  57. ^ Hasegawa Hosei("Hakatakko Junjo"author,Hakata Machiya Hometown MuseumDirector) ・Chairman of Fukuoka City Noodle Cooperative ConversationThan.
  58. ^ Daily jp 2008(20)May 1Published Gourmet city Fukuoka: "Udon and Manju originated" Miss Fukuoka promoted eventThan.
  59. ^ Fukuoka Udon DB "Fukuoka Udon"Than.
  60. ^ a b Nisshin Flour MillTokyo Sales Department Deputy General Manager"Counterattack of Hakata udon that waits in Sanuki""JMA Marketing eNewsletter" No. 167 (2005(17)May 6) ・Marketing Horizon (Japan Marketing Association) May 17 issue
  61. ^ a b Kenji Toyoda, “Kyushu Takagozenmonogatari Delicious Local Cuisine Encyclopedia,” Nishinihon Shimbun, 2006, page 45.
  62. ^ Nagasaki Prefecture Goto Tenobe Udon Promotion Council "History of Goto Tenobe Udon"Than.
  63. ^ Nagasaki Tenobe Udon "History of Nagasaki and Udon"Than.
  64. ^ Miyazaki Prefecture Official Website: Miyazaki Taste and Flowers 101: 61 fish udon
  65. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute “Japanese-Korean Public Attitude Survey” “Broadcasting Research and Survey” November 2010 issue
  66. ^ Is Nani the most satisfying Japanese food you ask foreign tourists?ITmedia

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