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🍽 | The strongest hardware store kitchen utensil "multi-pot" is super convenient Biryani can be cooked easily


The strongest hardware store kitchen utensil "multi-pot" is super convenient Biryani can be cooked easily

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The finish is the same as the biryani eaten at an Indian restaurant, and the slightly uneven color invites appetite.

Indian food Biryani is super easy!Multi-pot is too convenient For those who start living alone in April, the family will pull ... → Continue reading


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Biryani,Biryani(Biryani.birianiOrberiani) IsIndian subcontinent OfMuslimIt is a mixed rice dish that has its origin.spicesRice(NormalBasmatiRice),meat,Fish,egg,VegetablesIt is a rice dish cooked from. Is the same rice dishPraoThe difference between the biryani and the biryani is that the plao is cooked by fried raw rice and cooked together with ingredients such as seafood and vegetables (about raw or lightly fried) and soup, while the biryani is cooked in half (details are described later). The point is that the cooked rice is mixed with the ingredients cooked separately.

Biryani History

The origin of biryani is authenticPakistanHowever, there are various theories, and one theory is Biryani (BiryaniThe name ") refers to this dish in Persian"beriani"There is a theory that was translated.[1][2][3].

Biryani recipe


Commonly used for biryanispices,seasoning TheGhee,nutmeg,mace,cumin[4], pepper,cloves[4], cardamom,cinnamon,Laurier,coriander,mint,Ginger,onionAndgarlicAnd so on. It is also a high quality spiceΛ 繝 ΛMay also be used[4].. NonVegIn the case of biryani thesespicesWithbeef,chicken,Goat,LambSuch asmeat,FishOrshrimpSuch asseafoodIs used. Biryani is not aloneDahiChutney,lighter,Colma, SoureggplantStarting with currycurryKind,Boiled egg,saladSometimes it is served with.

Biryani heating method

When making biryani, a heating method called a dam is used.[5].. this is,handyIt is a method of cooking the ingredients over a low heat for a long time after putting the ingredients in a special biryani pan and sealing it.[6].. Although this method is usually used for biryani, some recipes clearly state the name of this heating method (such as chicken dam biryani).

Biryani recipe

There are three main cooking methods for biryani: using a pack, using a catch, and using raw rice.


PakkiCookedMeaningHindustaniIs. This is before the dam cooking in this type of biryanigravyIs cooked by heating. First, make a gravy consisting of meat, etc., boil about half of the rice, and cook it in alternating layers of gravy and rice. There are also vegetarians who only use vegetables, rice and spices without using meat. Most biryanis fall into this category.HyderabadIn most areas except Kutch Biryani, it is not known as "Pakki Biryani" because it is not known.


Kutch means "raw"HindustaniIs. Kutch Biryani (Kacchi Biryani) Is "MarinatedMeans "meat"Kacchi YeqniIt is also written as ". Biryani peculiar to the city of Hyderabad, which is famous for Biryani.YogurtspicesTheMarinatedIt is cooked by letting it stand overnight and laying it on the bottom of the pan, and layering half-boiled rice on top of it.potatoMay be added under the rice. The pot is usually (typicallyWheat flourUsedClothIt will be sealed until finished. The secret of cooking Kutch Biryani is to cook it thoroughly until the meat is tender without overcooking the rice. It is also a chef's skill that the right amount of rice and meat is mixed from the upper and lower layers of the pan for serving.Boiled egg,saladOften accompanied with. However,BengalBe careful because Katch Biryani means "Kacchi Chawal ki Biryani".

Raw rice

PraoIt is a recipe to cook from raw rice in the same way as. The difference from Prao is that the amount of spice is large and the color of cooked rice is other than white.Lahore,Tamil NaduThis is Biryani.BengalThis is called Katch Biryani.

Biryani in each region

Biryani in South Asia

Lucknow (Awadi) Biryani

cityLucknowAnd Biryani have a deep relationship that is not an exaggeration to say that it is a symbiotic relationship. Lucknow (Mughal EmpireThe old name of the period isAwadi) BiryaniMughal Empire OfMuslimWeNorth IndiaIt is a souvenir when the swine is swept. Lucknow is the place where the basis of the cooking method of biryani leading to the current recipe such as dam cooking was established against the backdrop of the spread of Mughal court culture.[7].. It is also one of the typical biryani cooking methods,PukkaHas its origins in Lucknow,AwadiBiryaniPukkaIt is used as another name for biryani.

Hyderabad Biryani

NonVeg Of Hyderabad BiryaniIs eaten all over India,Indian cuisineHas become an indispensable existence.Mughal EmpireOf the eraHyderabadLordIn the kitchen,Fish,Quail,shrimp,Deer,Rabbit49 kinds of biryani were made using such materials.HyderabadThe most famous of the biryanis is "Katch BiryaniIs called,MarinatedWas donemeatRiceIt is made by steaming together.North IndiaThen, in various typesPraoBiryani was not well known until recently because it was cooked as a traditional dish.

Calcutta Biryani

Third most famous in IndiaCalcuttaBiryaniLucknowIt was developed from Biryani and the lastAwado TamoriWazid Ali Sha in 1856CalcuttaBrought in when exiled to nearby Methiabri[6].. He was noisy about food and took his own chef when he was banished. Biryani then penetrated into the poorer households, but the expensive and hard to find meat waspotatoWas replaced by Now with meatpotatoIs includedCalcuttaIt is a characteristic of biryani. AlsoCalcuttaOne of the features of Biryani is that the amount of spices used is modest compared to other biryanis.[8] .

Morada Buddy Biryani

This biryaniIndia,Uttar PradeshIt exists only in Moradabadi in the province, and is also known as "Moradabadiyakuni Biryani". This name is called Yakney (meaning soup stock)spicesCooked inmeatComes from being used for this biryani.DelhiEven a little differentspices,RiceThere is a very similar biryani using.DelhiMorada Buddy Biryani's features compared to those of the one are not common in Delhinutmeg,mace, Butter chili (locally called pyrimylchi) is to be used.

Batukar Biryani

BatukaruNon ofVegBiryaniKarnatakaWith the characteristic biryani eaten in the coastal areas of the state,NawayatIt occupies an important position in cooking.BatukaruBiryaniBombayIt is an improvement of biryani by adding a unique color and flavor. [Source required]BatukaruFor biryaniMutton,Fish,chicken,beefAndshrimpVarious ingredients are used as the main ingredients. In addition, a large amount of this biryanionionCan also be usedIndiaIt can be mentioned as a big difference from Biryani.BatukaruBiryani put in the bottom of the biryani potmeatonionBased ongravyCooked by thickly laying rice on top.RicemeatAre mixed just before being served, and againBatukaruThe unique fragrance of biryani can be collected locallycardamom,cloves,cinnamonSuch asspicesIt is due to.

Thalasserie or Canoe Biryani

There are many types of Thalasseries or Kanur Biryani, a very popular Kerala dish introduced by Muslims. This dish is famous in the coast of Kerala, especially in the Malabar region. Beef, chicken, mutton, or fish is used as the main material. This biryani is quite different from other biryanis in India in that it generally mixes rice with ghee to create a rich flavor. In addition to using local spices such as nutmeg, cashews, cloves, and cinnamon, a small amount of chili (or chili powder) is used, but it is a very mellow biryani when compared to other Indian biryanis. This biryani is also known as Malabar Biryani and is made as a rare and light biryani from Kozykodu (Kalicut) to Casalgott throughout Malabar, Kerala.

Dindy Guru Biryani

Dingy Guru Biryani is made around Dingy Ghul in Tamil Nadu, India, using small rice called Seragasamba and special ingredients.

Cindy Biryani

Cindy BiryaniPakistani foodIt is one of the most popular menus in Pakistan and is eaten all over Pakistan, let alone all over the world.This type of biryani is very popular, especially in Karachi, Pakistan and Hyderabad, India.Chicken biryani is especially preferred in these two cities.There are other types of biryani in Pakistan, but they are mainly based on Cindy biryani and have some things in common, such as the use of yogurt.It is also a representative airline in PakistanPakistan International AirlinesTreats foreign tourists with Pakistani food, so you can enjoy biryani on almost all flights to Europe.In-flight mealHas been adopted for.

PunjabLocal and northern Pakistan also have meat-free versions, which are very popular due to their religious taboo. Yogurt and vegetables are used in this dish to reduce spice irritation.

Memoni biryani

Memoni Biryani is very similar to Cindy Biryani and was created by. Like the other Biryanis, the Memoni Biryani has a wide variety of variations, but the bancha Memon recipes are known to be typical. Memoni biryaniLambMade with ingredients such as, yogurt, fried onions, potatoes, tomatoes. Tomato content is modest compared to Cindy Biryani. Memoni Biryani is less colored than other Biryani, and you can enjoy the rich colors of various kinds of meat, rice, and vegetables without losing their orange color. Memani Biryani is especially famous in Pakistan from Karachi.

Sri Lanka Biryani

Sri LankaBiryani is by far the most popular dish among Muslims, usually chicken, beef and mutton. Also, in many cases, Sri Lankan biryani is more spicy than Indian biryani. For garnishAcharAnd malay-style pickles, cashew nut curry, and mint sambal.

Instead of riceHopperThe recipes used in are also popular. This dish is often accompanied by scrambled eggs and vegetables.


Tahari (or Tehari) is a vegetarian version of the Biryani, a popular name for households in Pakistan and India.[9].. on the other handバングラデシュIn contrast to the traditional biryani rice added to the meat, the biryani made by adding meat (mainly beef) to rice is called Tahari. In Kashmir, Tahari is served outdoors along the way. This is because when a traveler is hungry, he eats so that he can fill his hunger.

Biryani in Southeast Asia

Burma Biryani

MyanmarBut Biryani (“ဒန်ပေါက်” in Burmese) is also famous. The main ingredients are cashew nuts, yogurt, raisins, beans, chicken, cloves, cinnamon, saffron and bay leaf. In Burmese Biryani, chicken is cooked with rice. This biryani is commonly eaten with sliced ​​onion and cucumber salad. In Yangon, some chain restaurants exclusively handle biryani. It is also often eaten at religious ceremonies, festivals and luncheons. Biryani in Myanmar often uses special domestic rice rather than basmati rice.

Thai Biryani

ThailandThen, Biryani is called "Khao Mock"MuslimIt was popularized by many people and is famous all over Thailand. Using chicken (Khao Mock Guy) Is the most common, but among Muslims, goat versions are also eaten.Massa Man curry,SatayAlong with that, Biryani is also one of the notable Thai Islamic dishes. Biryani is also used to refer to henna.

Malaysian Nasi Biryani

In Malaysia and Singapore, Nasi Biryani ("Nasi Beriani"Or"Nasi Beryani","Nasi Briani","Nasi Minyak") etc. It is often eaten with Rundan or Bandung, which is a common combination especially at Muslim wedding receptions."Nasi Beriani GamThe special Nasi Biryani called "" is very famous and is the dish of choice in the southernmost state of Johor, Malaysia, especially Maua and Badupah.


In Singapore, Biryani is said to be from MalaysNasi Briyani"Called simply by Indians"BriyaniThis dish is very popular with locals, especially Indian and Malay residents. It is also common as a dish for Indian and Malay wedding receptions. Indian towns and Arabs There are specialty restaurants in the city, and you can also find several Indian and Malay-style biliani in the Indian and Muslim food corners of coffee shops throughout the island. The most common types are chicken, mutton or fish. In IndiaAchar(Cucumbers, onions, red peppers, pineapple pickles)lighter, And often eaten with hard boiled eggs (South Indian version only). There are also restaurants serving Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkish-style biryani.


Pampanga Province, Luzon in the Philippines, Muslim-dominated areas in Mindanao in the south,Sulu IslandsThere is also a biryani. The Pampanga word “Nashin Biryani” is related to the Malay word “Nasi Biryani” (Kampang Phangan foodSee). On Mindanao, Biryani-style rice dishes are lined up during the big festivities.

IndonesiaPear burrs

IsIndonesia Ofspices,GoatSoup,Coconut milk,GheeIt means steamed rice usingIndonesia OfArabCommunity,JakartaFavored by The origin of pearMiddle EastDating back to the food culture ofYemenWith arabIndiaIt is often influenced by the food culture of the ancestors and is thought to have something to do with Biryani or be derived from it.[10][11].

Biryani in the Middle East

Biryani is in the Middle East, especially(I.e.Is popular with. Iraqi biryani is usually based on saffron-flavored rice and lamb or a favorite type of bird meat. When it comes to using spices, Iraq Biryani is a very modest seasoning compared to Southeast Asian ones. Also sometimesVermicelliIs sometimes used, and mixed nuts and raisins are sometimes scattered. Biryani in Iran is also particularly important in considering the history of Biryani transmission and development [12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20].

Iran biryani

In IranSafavid dynastyIn the ageBerian Polo"(Nasta leak bodyso: "بریان پلوThere was a dish called "). This dish used yogurt, herbs and spices, lamb and chicken marinated overnight with dried fruits such as grapes, prunes and pomegranates.TandoorWas used. And the meat cooked in the tandoor was placed on the table together with the steamed rice.[21].

Even now, in some cities this dish is "dam pokht"Or"dam-pokhtakIt is popularized under the name "and still retains its original shape. This is a Persian word meaning "steamed and cooked", which refers to steamed rice, which is an important part of this dish. There is this againdam pokht"Ya"dam-pokhtakThe name "is"beriani"It is often used in Iran alongside the name. And it is derived from this old Persian in South Asian countries such as Myanmar."danpaukThe term "is commonly used.

またIsfahanTo say(I.e.In the central city of, it is cooked by boiling and then finely choppingMutton,LambIn a special round and shallow frying pan,ovenOr by heating with an open flame"Berian"Cook. The finished meat iscinnamonSprinkle with powder, then "nan-e taftoun"Sometimes"nan-e sangakSuch asIrannanIt is common to eat between sandwiches.

Biryani with ingredients other than meat

Non-vegetable biryani is often used with chicken or lamb, but other ingredients are also used to cook biryani.

Shrimp biryani

This biryani brings out the soft and delicate aroma of shrimp. Shrimp biryani is quick to cook and does not require complicated and long-time marinating unlike other ingredients. Shrimp Biryani is usually accompanied by vegan massaredar[22][23].

Fish biryani

Fish biryani uses the same spices as Cindy biryani and shrimp biryani, but uses a variety of fish instead of shrimp, beef, mutton and chicken. Salmon biryani is popular in Europe and North America. Also in the UKKjallyKnown as.

Dar Biryani

Dar Biryani is a material for vegetable biryaniDhal (bean) Is added. It is popular among vegetarians because it allows you to get protein by using dhal.


Variant of biryani

Other rice dishes


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ http://www.business-standard.com/article/printer-friendly-version?article_id=111051400071_1
  2. ^ http://www.hindustantimes.com/lifestyle/food/everything-you-want-to-know-about-biryani/article1-513542.aspx
  3. ^ https://www.indiacurrents.com/articles/2011/05/26/tracing-history-biryani
  4. ^ a b c Brown, Ruth. (8/17/2011.) "The Melting Pot-A Local Prep Kitchen Incubates Portland's Next Generation of Food Businesses." Volume 37, #41. Willamette Week.
  5. ^ "Dum Pukth". 2012/3/4Browse.
  6. ^ a b "Of biryani, history and entrepreneurship". 2012/3/1Browse.
  7. ^ "Biryani, History, Recipe". 2012/3/6Browse.
  8. ^ "History of Biryani”. As of May 2012, 2オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2012/3/1Browse.
  9. ^ Marks, Gil (2006). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. John Wiley and Sons, 2010. p. 53. ISBN 0470391308,9780470391303. http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=ojc4Uker_V0C&dq=biryani+origin&source=gbs_navlinks_s 
  10. ^ pt. kompas cyber media. “Nasi Kebuli Gaya Betawi-KOMPAS.com”. Travel.kompas.com. 2012/1/16Browse.
  11. ^ Nasi Kebuli Kismis. “Nasi Kebuli Kismis”. Tabloidbintang.com. 2012/1/16Browse.
  12. ^ "WhatisAl-Biryani”. McClatchy Newspapers Baghdad. 2012/3/1Browse.
  13. ^ "Where did Briyani, the indian rice dish originate from ?!". 2012/3/1Browse.
  14. ^ "The Biryani Trail". 2012/3/1Browse.
  15. ^ "Of biryani, history and entrepreneurship". 2012/3/1Browse.
  16. ^ "India Curry History of Biryani”. As of May 2012, 2オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2012/3/1Browse.
  17. ^ "The Malabar Biryani". 2012/3/1Browse.
  18. ^ "Chicken Biryani Story". 2012/3/1Browse.
  19. ^ "Thacholi Chicken Biriyani”. As of May 2011, 8オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2012/3/1Browse.
  20. ^ "History Of Biryani”. As of May 2012, 2オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2012/3/1Browse.
  21. ^ Farhang-e Iranzamin by w: Iraj Afshar
  22. ^ Baingan Masaledar Eggplant Masala Recipe
  23. ^ SinfulCurry: Shrimp Biryani Recipe

Related item

外部 リンク

Indian cuisine

Indian cuisine(Indian Ryori)French cuisine-Italian food-Chinese food-Japanese cuisineIt is one of the world-famous cooking styles along with.One of the features is variousspices,HerbsIs to be used a lot,IndiaIs vast, and there are many variations depending on the region, ethnicity, religion, hierarchy, etc.

Classification by region

North Indian food

North IndiaThe food is(I.e.,アフガニスタンな どMiddle EastStrongly influenced by the food culture ofNan (Hindi: नान),Chapati (Hindi: चपाती),Rorty (Hindi: रोटी) As a staple foodmilk,Dahee(Hindi: दही:Yogurt),Panille(Hindi: पनीर: Fresh cheese),Ghee(Hindi: घी: Clarified butter) and other dairy products as spicescumin,coriander,cinnamon,cardamomAnd these were mixedGaram masalaAnd so on.RiceIs fragrantBath MattySeeds are preferred.Murgu TandooriSuch,TandourThe cooking method using is also one of the characteristics of North Indian cuisine.

Indian restaurants outside IndiaPunjabi foodMughal EmpireCourt food (((en)) Most of the North Indian restaurants offer.

South Indian food

South IndiaRice is the staple food of the dish, rather than dairy productsCoconut milk (Hindi: नारियल का रस) Is used a lot.Also spices are from North Indiacumin (Hindi: ज़ीला) Instead ofBlack mustard(Hindi: सरसों) Seeds and curry leaves (Curry treeLeaves) are preferred.OilGheethanMustard oil,Sesame oilIs often used.vegetarianVegetables and beans are well-developed because there are many dishes, but there are also many dishes that use fish.Long grain species in North IndiaIndica species) Is used, while South Indian rice is round and looksJaponica seedsIt's similar to.However, the stickiness is low, and the rice cooking method with less stickiness is preferred.The food is relatively light because it uses less fat and oil than North India.Lunch (Meals) isbananaUse the leaves as a plate, rice,Sambar,Latham,Yogurt,Achar,ChutneyAnd so on, mix by hand and eat.

Bengali food

to East MalaysiaIndia OfBengalandバングラデシュThe food that is eaten at.Fennel seed,(English editionSeeds[1],Fenugreek, Black mustard seeds,cuminCombinedPanch phoronIn addition to using the spice that is often used for flavoring, it is white.PoppiesOften the fruit (posto)BraisedCookingChutneyIt is characterized by being used for such purposes.Freshwater fish ThecasteIt is very popular regardless of (jhol)SoupOr,Dar(Small grains that have been peeled and split in twobeansStew with kind).Other specialties include the bitter-tasting simmered vegetables "" (shukto) or "shukta"ChhenaConfectionery using (छेना, chhena) (Cham Cham /Bengali language: চম চম, Rasgulla /Bengali language: রসগোল্লা, Chandesh /Bengali language: সন্দেশ Others) and so on.

Goan food

Goa CatholicThe food of the former suzerainPortuguese foodIs strongly influenced by.Unusual in India豚 肉Is flourishingLinguiçaYou can also eat.Meat is one of Goa's famous dishesvinegargarlicStewed inVindaloo(Vindaloo),chicken,LambStewed dishShakti(Xacuti), of pigs and sheepHoldStewed (sarapatel),drumMoldedBread, Poee,cakepuddingDessert like the middle ofBevinka(Bebinka) and so on.

Vegetarian and non-vegetarian

Because of the commandmentsHinduTop ofcastePeopleJainism OfVegetarianThe food for is well developed from ancient times.Besides,Hinduism,Buddhism,Jainism,SikhismThere are many religions that eat vegetarian food.Eid al-Adhaな どmeatConsumption occupies an important position in religious ritualsIslamThen.CarnivoreIs affirmed.Also,SlaughterDalit involved in the business (Untouchable people) Society has a long tradition of incorporating meat into its diet.In this way, Indian vegetarian and non-vegetarian traditions are closely related to religion and caste, and in the cityRestaurantThe vegetarian and non-vegetarian seats are clearly separated, and they will not be present.

In Indian vegetarian food, fatgelatinWithout using any animal meat or ingredients made from animals, includingeggDo not use.But obtained without damaging the animalDairy productsIs commonly used, and most Indian vegetarians are vegetarians (lactovegetarians).In addition, various beans, grains,nutsNo carnivorous food is required nutritionally because it is also used.Hinduism,SikhismThe sacrament served free of charge to worshipers at the temple is a vegetarian dish.

The most devout believers in Jain eat only leaves, stems and beans, even plants.carrot (Hindi: ग़ाजल) AndRadish (Hindi: मूली),garlic (Hindi: लहसुन),onion (Hindi: प्याज़),potatoDo not eat the root part such as.One of the reasons for this is "to not kill creatures such as insects in the soil."Furthermore, from the idea that "that part corresponds to the" body "", that is, the idea that it leads to killing the main body part instead of the branches and leaves, it is by avoiding killing even plants as much as possible.SimilarlyBeeGreat risk of killinghoneyI don't even take it.Onions, garlic, etc.Five 葷The habit of avoiding ingestionBrahminIt can also be seen in.on the other hand,West Bengal,AssamThe vegetarians in East India are often pescutarians who also eat fish.

There are many types of non-vegetarian dishes,Central AsiaからMuslimMany have been conveyed by the conquerors of.According to the law, all HindusNot eaten as holy, all MuslimsDream PorkGenerally, they are not used because they are not eaten as dirty.chicken,Lamb,Goat meat,seafoodAre the main ingredients for non-vegetarian dishes.The most commonly eaten meat is relatively cheapgoatMeat, in IndiaMuttonThere is a convention that is translated into EnglishsheepIt's not meat.Chicken is relatively expensive.Meat consumption is increasing as the income of the Indian people increases[2].

"Curry" and Indian food

The word "curry" ("curry") in India is a loan word.For IndiansSpicesThere are many stewed dishes using, and each is called by the name of each dish.SpicesAll Indian dishes that make heavy use of food are called "curry".Japanese cuisineIn other words, it is a rough name that calls all side dishes using soy sauce with the same name.Of curryEtymologyThere are various theories,TamilThe theory that "kaRi" means "meal" is influential.

People who are familiar with such situations may say, "There is no'curry'in India."However, in the Great OneThe United KingdomBut some Indian food is called curryBritish foodIt is also a fact that it has spread all over the world by incorporating it into.Indians themselves have come to use the word "curry" to explain it to people in countries other than India in an easy-to-understand manner, and the menu says "ingredients + curry" at Indian restaurants inside and outside India. There are many examples of doing so.For exampleLars Behari BoseWas the person who introduced the authentic "Indian curry" as different from the original Indian curry at that time, but did not say "the name curry is wrong".

Curry powderIs also an invention by an Englishman (see the relevant item for details).There is another spice compound in South India, which is sometimes translated into English as "curry powder", but the taste and ingredients are different.

"Pure" and "Unclean"

The general Indian sense is that the right hand is "purified" and the left hand is "unclean".Therefore, only the right hand that has been washed clean can directly touch the food during meals, and because it is unclear whether it is really clean or not to enjoy the texture of the cooked ingredients, spoons, forks, knives, etc. I basically hate using it.The left hand is also used for processing when the toilet is used, so it is limited to touching the outside of a plate or a glass of water at best.In the traditional method, instead of using a spoon, you can either tear the bread directly with your right hand and soak it in the soup, or mix the rice with the soup and bring it to your mouth.At that time, it is more elegant to use the second joint of the fingertips up to the thumb, index finger, and middle finger.However, urban people who are accustomed to Western customs tend to be comfortable with using spoons and knives.Also, if you have to use both hands, such as when peeling a boiled egg, you may use both hands.[Needs verification].

The sense of cleanliness and uncleanness is also thorough, and it is a characteristic of Indian cuisine that many dishes are fried or stir-fried.This is based on the idea that cooking with oil purifies food.Also, the reason why metal tableware is preferred over porcelain and pottery is that the latter is cleaner than the former made of soil.Foods that others have modified are considered to be tainted.

Furthermore, in Hinduism, the concepts of "purity" and "impure" are traditionally linked to the concept of caste.Water and watery foods touched by people belonging to the lower caste are considered to be contaminated, and in the past, people belonging to the higher caste and people belonging to the lower caste should not eat at the same seat, but hand over water. Even was repelled.Traditionally for professional cooksBrahminMany people come from Japan, and the custom of bringing homemade bento boxes for vacations and travel is deep-rooted, and the family-made bento boxes are delivered to the workplace.DabbawalaIt is for this reason that the industry is established.Only in recent years by Dalit womenCateringAlthough there are examples of successful businesses, food discrimination is still reported today, when caste discrimination has become illegal.[3].

Ingredients and dishes

Ingredients for Indian food

  • Curry leaf (Hindi: कढ़ी पत्ता Curry Putter)-Leaves of Curry Tree.Stir-fried with spices, mainly in South India, to flavor dishes.
  • Drumstick tree (Tamil: முருங்கை Murunkay) --Scientific nameMoringa oleifera..Fruits are used as fruit vegetables as ingredients for sambar and rasam.
  • Tamarind (Hindi: tamarind Imree) --- Melt the pulp in boiling water to make sweet and sour chutney.It is also used to sour sambar and rasam.
  • Cluster beans --Also known as guar beans.Use young pods for vegetable dishes such as sabji.
  • Vigna mungolia(Hindi: उड़द दाल Urad) -Remove the skin and divide it in half to make a dal, and with riceDosaIt is also the main ingredient of the dough.
  • Pearl millet(Hindi: बाजरा Vergeler) --Mill the seeds to make bread such as roti.Haryana,Gujarat,Rajasthan,Madhya PradeshIt is often eaten in.
  • pomegranate(Hindi: अनार Annales)-Dried grains are Annales Darner (Annales)Hindi: अनार दाना), Stewed dishesChutney, Add to Garam Masala.
  • Red peppers - Nineteenth centurynew worldA relatively new spice that was introduced to the Eurasian continent in Europe after its discovery and was introduced via the United Kingdom during the colonial era of the British East India Company.It was not used in earlier Indian cuisine.
  • - Sun showIt is a genus and is used because it has a spicy taste and aroma like Japanese pepper.ネ パ ー ル-In the area around North IndiaRed peppersIt was mainly used as a spicy food before it was introduced.
  • ginger/Galangal --Used to add spiciness and flavor.
  • Long pepper - Deccan PlateauIn the areaRed peppersIt was mainly used as a spicy food before it was introduced.
  • Fenugreek(Hindi: मेथी Mate)-Use seeds as spices and leaves as leafy vegetables.
  • Adan(Hindi: केवड़ा Kewra) -Make a fragrance (essence) from flowers and use it to flavor sweets.
  • (British: Besan,Hindi: बेसन) - ChickpeaGround powder.PakoraUsed for clothes and desserts.
  • Masala(Hindi: मसाला) --A general term for mixed spices.Flavored vegetables such as ginger and garlic may be added.
  • Garam masala(Hindi: गरम मसाला)- cinnamon,cloves,nutmegMainly, to thiscumin,cardamom,pepperCombined spices with such ingredients.Mainly used in North India.
  • Chhena (Hindi: छेना) --Acid milk protein (Lemonjuice,limeJuice,wheyCoagulated with),fermentationDon't let meFresh cheese..It is mainly used as a material for confectionery.
  • Panille --ChennertofuIt is compacted into a shape.There are many vegetarian dishes made with paneer.
  • Dahee (Hindi: दही) --Made in IndiaYogurtA kind of."Card" in the field (English: curd) Is often expressed.Besides eating it as a side dish,Russie, Used for stewed dishes.
  • Ghee (ghee, Hindi: घी) --Heat butter over low heat to remove sugarCaramelizationAnd strained only milk fatClarified butterA kind of.With waterproteinBecause it is removed, it does not easily rot even in hot regions, and the unique aroma of caramelization is preferred.In addition to being used as cooking oil, it is often eaten with bread or melted and sprinkled over rice.
  • Malai(Malai)-IndiaClotted cream..Used for stewed dishes and desserts.
  • Bombay duck --Fresh fish should be battered, and dried fish should be stewed or pickled.


  • Chapati (Hindi: चपाती)-"Arter (Hindi: आटा) ”wheat OfWhole grainUnfermented lightly baked bread made with.It's brown and flat.It is the most popular staple food in North India.
  • pulley (Hindi: पूरी) --Fried chapati.Freshly fried is inflated like a balloon.
  • Bhatoora (Hindi: भटूरा) --The point of frying is the same as the pulley mentioned above, but it is pearled.Wheat flourThe difference is that it is made from curd, kneaded with curd and butter, and left to rest for a certain period of time.Especially in North IndiaChana masalaEat with (Punjab-style chickpea stew) "Chole bhature (Hindi: छोले भटूरे)"ButbreakfastPopular as an open-air snack for.
  • Nan (Hindi: नान / Urdu: Nan) --Bread made from fermented wheat flour dough baked into leaves.The official tandoor naan is baked in a kiln called tandoor, but it can also be baked in the oven.
  • Rorty (Hindi: रोटी) --In a broad sense, it is a general term for Indian breads.However, the same name refers to various types of bread depending on the region.In most cases, it is made by baking the same dough as naan into a disk shape.
  • Parator (Hindi: पराठा) --Chapati dough is spread, oiled, and folded repeatedly to knead the oil into layers, spread it thinly, and bake it.Sometimes crushed potatoes and cauliflower are sandwiched or kneaded before baking.Also known as paratha or parrota.

Rice dishes

  • Chawal (Hindi: चावल) --White rice cooked with salt and oilfood..The varieties that are originally less sticky are boiled and spilled, so they are very light.
  • Saffron rice (Hindi: केसरिया चावल) - Λ 繝 ΛRice cooked with and dyed in bright yellow.It is eaten locally during celebrations.
  • Prao (Hindi: पुलाव) --Seasoned cooked rice.pilafEtymology.Like white rice, it is mixed with soup and stir-fry.
  • Biryani (Hindi: बिर्यानी / Urdu: بریانی) --Takikomi gohan with lots of ingredients.You may eat this alone without mixing it with the juice.JapaneseRed riceA dish to eat at each celebration, like nuts,Dried fruit, Colorants,rosePetals, varq, Urdu: ورق) Can be eatenGold leaf,SilverBeautifully decorate with foil.In North IndiaBath MattySeed rice is preferred.
  • Ideapa(Tamil: I) --South IndiaRice noodles.

Vegetable dishes

Meat dish

  • Tanduri Murgu (tandūri murgh, Hindi: तंदूरी चिकन / Urdu: تندوری مرغ) --Spice chicken with bones,Yogurt,saltEtcMarinatedA savory chicken dish baked in tandoor.At the restaurant, for garnish,mintFlavored yogurt and onion slices are often served.
  • Murgu Tikka (मुर्ग़ टिक्का) --Boneless chicken marinated, skewered and baked in tandoor.With tomatoescreamChicken tikka masala is stewed in a sauce based on.
  • Seek kebab (Hindi: सीख़ कबाब / Urdu: سیخ کباب) --Skewered mutton and goat meat.
  • Kofta (Hindi: कोफ़्ता / Urdu: کوفتہ)-Spicymeatball..There is also a vegetarian kofta made from vegetables, nuts and chainers.
  • Colma (Hindi: क़ोरमा / Urdu: قورمہ)-A dish of meat stewed in cream and nut sauce.There is also a vegetarian korma that uses vegetables instead of meat.KashmirVarious stewed dishes in rural areas.
  • Keema (Hindi: क़ीमा / Urdu: قیمہ)- Minced meatStir-fried and stewed dishes.
  • Haleem (Urdu: حلیم)-A stewed dish made from meat, wheat, beans, etc. of Arab origin.HyderabadHaleem is famous.
  • Chicken 65 --Spicy chicken from South Indiafried.


  • Russie (Hindi: लस्सी) - Dahi(Yogurt) -based drink.
  • Chai (Hindi: चाय) --Tea.In a narrow sense, it is sweet made by boiling tea leaves in an Indian style.Milk tea..However, it is often served in English style in high-end stores and hotels.Masala・ Chai is a basic chai with spices added.
  • Indian coffee --Indian style preferred in the southCafe au lait..Like chai, it may be drunk with spices.

Snacks (North India)

  • Samosa (Hindi: समोसा) --Stir-fried vegetables wrapped in flour rind in a triangle and fried.
  • Pakora (Hindi: पकोड़ा) --Basan was dissolved in water and battered with spices and salt and fried.tempuraWind dishes.Vegetables are mainly used as ingredients,ScrapingIt may be in the form.
  • Panipuri (Hindi: पानीपूरी, Panipuri) --A snack that is eaten by making a hole in a bite-sized pulley and putting seasoned chickpeas, potatoes, and soup inside.

Snacks (South India)

  • Dosa (Hindi: डोसा / Tamil: தோசை) - Vigna mungoliaRice is soaked in water and ground, fermented for about half a day, and then on an iron plate.CrepeThinly baked.It has a mild acidity.Stir-fried vegetables with spices wrapped inside is called masala dosa.
  • (Hindi: इडली / Tamil: இட்லி) --Convex lens type steamed bread made from the same dough as Dosa.
  • Parpad (Hindi: पापड़) - lentil, Bassan, Vigna mungoliarice flourMade with thincrackerFood in shape.It is also often eaten in North India.
  • ARPA(Tamil: அப்பம்)-A crepe-like dish made from rice flour and coconut milk.

Indian Chinese food

IndianChinese cuisine TheKolkataLive inChinese peopleIt is said that it was introduced by.Chinese food is very popular in India, especially in big cities.Cumin and coriander,turmericIt is seasoned to the taste of Indians, and pork and beef are rarely used, and on the contrary, there are cases where Indian food ingredients such as paneer are used.At a Chinese restaurant in IndiaFried Rice,炒 麺,Spring roll,Chapsui,Sweet and sour chicken,PeachEtc. can be eaten.In some cases, Chinese food such as chow mein is sandwiched between dosa.


Impact on world cuisine

Indian immigrants and Indians abroadAs a result of the activities of, Indian cuisine has become established all over the world.In particularThe United KingdomAnd the former British territoryMalaysia,Singapore,Fiji,Persian Gulfshore,Kenya,South Africa,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,ガイアナIndian food blends into the local food culture.Chicken tikka masalaIs an Indian food born in EnglandNational foodIt is called one of.Goan cuisine spread to Portugal and its colonies,Macau foodAnd so on.In addition, curry dishes are being produced all over the world due to the spread of curry powder.Originating in IndiaMurtavaIt is,TradeThroughSoutheast AsiaIt was transmitted to the area and nowArabian PeninsulaIt is eaten at.In Japan, curry rice has become a national dish along with ramen, such as curry being used for school lunches due to the influence of Chandra Bose and the Royal Navy."Local curry" that uses local seasonings, ingredients, and concepts has appeared in various parts of the country, and is becoming a food culture unique to Japan.

Indian cooking expert


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Called black cumin seed in the West
  2. ^ "India's Changing Appetites for Meat Challenges Traditional Values". New York Daily News (September 2013, 2). 2013/4/26Browse.
  3. ^ "Caste Discrimination and Food Security Program”. Economic & Political Weekly (September 2005, 9). 2013/4/26Browse.


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