Enjoy authentic Italian food at home, such as "Mushroom Pastor Sauce" using mushrooms in Funagata Town, Yamagata Prefecture ...
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Porcini mushrooms, which are indispensable for Italian cuisine, are called the king of mushrooms because of their characteristic shape and rich flavor.
Following the popular pasta sauce tomatoes from Saison Factory (Yamagata Prefecture), "mushroom pasta sauce", "... → Continue reading
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In a narrow senseBoletus edulis(scientific name : Boletus edulis) Only, and in a broader sense, it is a closely related species similar to it.Boletus reticulatus(Scientific name:Boletus aestivalis [= B. reticulatus]), Boletus reticulatus (scientific name:Boletus hiratsukae Nagasawa), Boletus violaceae (scientific name:Boletus violaceofuscus Including Chiu),Artificial classificationIt is a general term for the above.
In italian porcine (Porcino), the meaning is "PigletIt is.Plural formで porcini Say (porcini)EnglishName of porcini (Poccini) AndJapaneseThe name "porcini" is derived from this. In addition, it should be notedEnglish-speaking countriesAnd in Japanese-speaking countriesFrenchFirst name cèpe Also known as (Cep). Stein Pilz in Germanmushroom, <Stone mushroom>). This is the name given to the fact that the meat is stuffed and hard like a stone.
PolishAnd the porcini is Borovik (boletus). In Poland, boletus (so-called book porcini mushroom) is Borovik shrahetny (so-called book porcini mushroom)borowik szlachetny), Which means <noble porcini>.
Biological features and utilization
Most of the boletaceae mushrooms, including various porciniMatsutake mushroom,TruffleSimilarly, on the roots of treesMycorrhizaMakeSymbiosisToMycorrhizal fungusSo pureculturebyCultivationIs difficult and has not yet succeeded. Therefore, all the porcini distributed is a collection of natural products.
In Europe20st centuryIn the second half(I.e.Such asEnvironmental destructionThe forest is declining due toMycorrhizal fungusThe amount of generation has decreased. That has a big impact,21st centuryIn China, many porcini (Pennybus violaceae, a closely related species of Boletus violaceae) are distributed all over the world. Yamadoritake, a porcini in a narrow sense, is subAlpine belt OfConiferous forestIt is rarely seen anywhere else.
Sliced dried products in Yunnan, ChinaDry matter) Is also on sale, but the ones that are common locally are rawStir fry,SoupOften used in cooking. As mentioned above, the mushrooms that are considered to be Porcini are, in principle, Boletus reticulatus, but Boletus reticulatus, Boletus reticulatus, and Boletus reticulatus may also contain this, and it is said that especially dried products from China are mostly Boletus reticulatus. There is.
JapanThe distribution form of porcini in Japan is mainly sliced dried products, and some frozen products are also available. Since there is no choice but to collect naturally occurring products, the time when they are born is limited. While porcini imported from Italy is prized, it is also closely related to Boletus edulis in Japan.Boletus reticulatusIt is not well known that (flavor and crispness are slightly inferior to that of Boletus edulis), and the fact is that it is not used on a commercial basis.
JapanThen "Italian""Ita rice(Stir-fry)[Note 1]It is popular with names such as ".One of the characteristics recognized in Japan isOlive oil,olive,TomatoCan be mentioned frequently.But this isNaplesSuch asSouth ItalyIs a feature ofNorthern ItalyThen adjacentFrance,スイスAs wellバ タ ー,Fresh creamThere are many dishes that use.In eastern Italyオーストリア,スロベニアThe influence of is seen.AlsoSicilySuch asNorth africaIn areas close toArab,BerberInfluenced by the cuisine ofCouscous,Arancini(Spry) And other dishes can be eaten.
地中海There are many dishes using seafood in the area facing the sea, other than the Mediterranean countries.EuropeCan't be eatenOctopus,squidIs used as an ingredient.On the other hand, in the northern and inland areas, many dishes using meat and dairy products can be eaten.As a whole, there is a tendency for many simple dishes to make the best use of the ingredients.
In this way, Italian cuisine has its own characteristics in each region. There is also a view that "Italian food does not exist"..This is because Italy, which is long from north to south, has various geographical features.Italy kingdomMany until unification byIndependent stateThere are, and each country has completely different characteristics, for example,Neapolitan food, Genoese food, etc.local cuisineIs well developed.
pastaIs popular throughout Italy and is cooked in various forms.One of the characteristics is the heavy use of tomatoes, but tomatoesLatin AmericaIt was native and spread to Italy16st centuryAfter that.As a feature before thatAnchoviesIn the form ofFish sauceWas used a lot, and the appearance was simple.The influx of tomatoes increased the variety and made the colors brighter, but it has been pointed out that many of the characteristics before that were lost.
The foundation of modern Italian cuisine is very oldAncient Roman EmpireIt goes back to.Romans at that time valued the time they spent eating very much, and from that time they had a habit of taking three meals a day, making one meal a course meal and spending two to three hours eating.Also, when they are full, they stimulate the throat with bird wings, artificially.VomitingHe said that he ate again when he was hungry.セ ネ カ"Romans vomit to eat, eat to vomit," he said.It was fashionable among the wealthier Romans to invite skilled cooks to show their food to their guests.As the chefs competed to improve their skills and work hard to create new dishes, an excellent food culture unrivaled by the surrounding countries was born, which spread throughout Europe with the development of the Roman Empire.To give a few specific examples, it was carried as a source of stamina for Roman expeditionary soldiers and spread throughout Europe as well.cheese,melon,OysterAnd so on.
Italian foodFrench cuisineIt is also the prototype of.1533,FlorenceIs a prestigious aristocratMedici family OfKaterina France OfHenry IVMarried toParisWhen I moved to Italy, I took a lot of Italian chefs and perfumers to cook Italian food.Frozen dessert,knife-forkBrought to France such as the use of.With that as a trigger, the crude French court cuisine and table manners at that time were refined.By the wayforkThere are 4 claws, but this isKingdom of NapleskingFerdinand IAt the courtpastaIt is said that the number of claws has been increased to make it easier to eat.
Thus, on behalf of the WestThe world's three major dishesFrench cuisine, which is counted in the list, grew under the influence of Italian cuisine.It can be said that this history is the reason why the Italian food culture that has continued since Roman times is said to be the mother of Western cuisine.
The tomatoes used in spaghetti sauce and pizza sauce are native to Mexico, and it is said that tomatoes were introduced to Europe in the 16th century, and they began to be commonly used for food in the 18th century.Before that, spaghetti was eaten with cheese.
The act of taking out the seeds and skins of the fruit once put in the mouth is bad impression.
It is also bad manners to eat by clinging to fruits and bread, and watermelons served in large chunks are cut into small pieces with a knife before eating.
Bread is served for retouching when eating and wiping the sauce on the plate.Generally, pizza is not included in course meals, and bread is not served when eating pizza.However, there are many restaurants that have both pizza and course meals on the menu below the trattoria rating, and customers can freely ask the waiter which dish to eat and in what order they want to be served.
RestaurantSo you don't have to order all of these.In restaurants, it is common for waiters to come back to order desserts and coffee after meals.
There is a traditional order in which dishes are served in the Italian cooking course.Menus are also generally listed in this order.
- 1. aperitivo
- 食 前 酒..To increase appetiteAmaroSake with herbs, such as (Italian for "bitter")Campari,SpumanteDrink (sparkling wine) etc.Before going to the restaurantbarIn many cases, beer etc. is taken to Aperitivo.
- 2. Antipasto (antipasto)
- AppetizerThere are many pre-made dishes.Ham,cheese,Smoked,CarpaccioSuch.It can be said that it is a time-saver until the Primo Piat is made.
- 3. Primo Piat (it: primo piatto)
- Main dish.Translated literally, it is the first dish, but it is not limited to just one dish.Salad andpasta,risotto,Polenta,SoupEtc. are classified.SardiniaThen.CouscousIs also served as Primo Piat.
- 4. Second Piat (it: secondo piatto)
- Main dish.Translated literally, it is the second dish.It is roughly classified into two types, fish dishes and meat dishes.fish dishes,Meat dishIf both are included in the course, the fish will be served first.
- 5. Contrno (it: contorno)
- side dish(Non-staple food), Side dish.minisaladAnd vegetables (grilled vegetables and boiled vegetables).Garnish.Normally, second piat dishes don't come with vegetables like Japanese garnish, so if you want to get vegetables, you need to order Contrno separately.Many of them are simply cooked, such as boiled, baked, fried, boiled, and marinade.On the traditional menu with Second PiatsaladIs supposed to come out.Some items are on the same plate as the Second Piat.
- 6. dolce
- Dessert(sweet taste). fruit,Dolce (confectionery),cheeseIs offered.
- 7. caffè
- coffee.. fundamentallyespresso・ Coffee.If you order Cafe Lungo (long coffee), you will get something that is divided with a little hot water (about the same strength as Japanese blended coffee).CappuccinoMilky foods such as (espresso coffee topped with frothed milk) and latte makiat (stained milk, non-whipped warm milk topped with espresso coffee) mean that you are not full. It's safe to avoid.Italians don't drink cappuccino after a meal, but Cafe Machiat (stained coffee, espresso coffee with a small amount of frothed milk) is often ordered after a meal.
- 8. Digestivo
- After dinner drink.Grappa,LimoncelloSuch asliqueurA small glass is served.
Relationship with the day of the week
Especially in Rome, there is still a culinary tradition to eat depending on the day of the week.In particular, the customs of Thursday, Friday, and Saturday are still unevenly distributed, and some restaurants in the city adhere to them.The same can be said about Friday customs throughout Italy.
- Monday- it: Carne bollitoとit: BrodoAnd minestrone.
- Tuesday- it: Polpette di bollitoSuch.I often use the surplus meat on Mondays.
- Wednesday-Visceral dishes and
- Thursday- Gnocchi..Gnocchi is hungry because it is a rough meal on Friday.
- Friday- Bacalhau..Because meat is taboo because of the day of the week when Christ died.
- Saturday - Tripper
- Sunday- LasagnaSuch asit: Pasta al fornoSystem dishes.
Types of restaurants
There are various types of Italian restaurants, and the order is roughly as follows, starting from the high-end restaurants.
- リ ス ト ラ ン テ(Ristorante)
- A high-class restaurant that focuses on course meals.Today, although it is a luxury restaurant in the Ristorante class, Osteria Trattoria,EnotecaSometimes they call themselves (Izakaya) and give them a casual impression, making it difficult to judge by the store name alone.
- Popular dining room.A privately-owned or home-owned restaurant that serves local and home-cooked dishes.You can also enjoy alcoholic beverages, mainly à la carte dishes.
- A light dining room, izakaya, and a high-class restaurant with a long history.You can also enjoy alcoholic beverages, mainly à la carte dishes.
- Bettola (tavern)
- Almost the same as Osteria, it means dining room and kitchen in Italian.
- Almost the same as a trattoria.There is also a simple store that serves cooked menus.
- All stores
- In addition to the following pizza, pasta and wine specialty stores, there are also beer, cocktail and gelato specialty stores.
- A specialty store centered on pizza.
- A specialty store centered on pasta.
- A wine-centered specialty store.Izakaya. Also called "Enoteca".
- (it: Bacaro)
- Sandwich shop
- (it: Birreria)
- Beer bar
- (it: Tavola calda)
- A side dish shop where you can eat and drink in the store
- A light meal restaurant with counter seats.Not limited to alcohol, there are also shops that serve light meals, espresso, bread, gelato, etc.
- Coffee shop.Some forms are mixed with crowbar.
- it: Cucina abruzzese
- it: Cucina lucana
- it: Cucina calabrese
- it: Cucina campana
- it: Cucina emiliana
- Cucina del Friuli-Venezia Giulia
- Cucina laziale
- it: Cucina ligure
- it: Cucina lombarda
- it: Cucina marchigiana
- it: Cucina molisana
- it: Cucina piemontese
- it: Cucina pugliese
- it: Cucina romagnola
- it: Cucina sarda
- it: Cucina siciliana
- it: Cucina toscana
- Cucina del Trentino-Alto Adige
- it: Cucina umbra
- it: Cucina valdostana
- Cucina veneta
Classification and list of Italian food
pastaThe dishes are classified in the first dish.With various forms of noodles (pasta) made by kneading wheat flourソ ー スThe combination of is basic.Pasta is also used in salads and as a soup ingredient.Gratin is also a type of pasta dish.Some desserts have the name "pasta", which means pasty confectionery (pastareference).
pizza(pizza= Pizza) is a dish that is baked with ingredients placed on a flat dough.Light mealIn Italy, there are many restaurants that are not commercialized as restaurants.Speaking of cheap, easy and quick meals in ItalyPeatzeriaIt is common to eat pizza at.The most traditional pizzaNeapolitan pizzaIs.There are differences in seasoning and dough throughout Italy, and Milan's pizza is the thinnest.RomePizza is often half-thick between Naples and Milan.In addition, it should be notedAmericaThe seasoning and ingredients of this pizza are very different from those of Italy.
Risotto is famous when it comes to rice dishes, but rice is often treated like small pasta.It is also common to use rice for dessert.Italy is the best rice in Europe, and the best type of rice is used for each dish.
- risotto --Broad with rice and ingredients ("dashi" in Italian.BouillonBoiled in (see).
- it: Risi e bisi
- it: Venere (riso)
- Arancini(Spry) --Italian ricecroquette.
- --Rice salad.
It is used to relieve hunger until the food is served, to retouch with meals, and to wipe the sauce on the plate.As a light meal, you may put ingredients on it or sandwich it and eat it as a single dish (Panino).
- Grissini - TurinElongated and hard bread famous for.
- Focaccia --Flat bread.
- Piadina, Piadina- Emilia-RomagnaFlat unfermented bread.
- Pane carasau --Sardinian traditional thin fermented bread.
- - TuscanyA large bread without salt.
- Gnocco frit
- it: Pane di Altamura ――Called "City of Bread"Altamura of,DOPBread certified by.
- Panzerotti --Pizza-style fried bread
- Panini (Panino) --Put the ingredients in the breadsandwich.
- minestrone --A simmering soup with vegetables, beans, pasta, etc.
- Acquacotta ――It is a soup dish that uses vegetables and leftovers, originallyTuscany Oflocal cuisine.
- ――Boiled fish.
- --Soup with bread.
- it: Buridda
- it: Stracciatella (zuppa)
- it: Brodetto di pesce
- it: Pappa al pomodoro
- Bistecca alla Fiorentina (it: Bistecca alla fiorentina)- FlorenceWindsteak
- Carpaccio --Sliced raw beef.ヴ ェ ネ ツ ィ アCooking.
- Cotoletta alla Milanese- MilanWindcutlet.
- Saltimbocca - RomeCooking.VealWrapped grill.
- Ossobuco --Veal bone-in sneak meatBraised.
- (it: Carne cruda all'albes) --A meat appetizer that represents Piedmont.Beef tataki.
- it: Cotoletta alla milanese
- it: Trippa alla romana
Bistecca alla Fiorentina (it: Bistecca alla fiorentina)
Meat products such as salami and ham
- (it: Capocollo)
- Bresaola --Beef ham
- it: Speck Alto Adige
- Culatello di Gibbello
- it: Mortadella Bologna
- Aqua Patazza
- Frit --Fly.Usually, squid and shrimp are used.
- it: Cacciucco
- it: Insalata di mare
- it: Baccalà alla lucana
- it: Sarde a beccafico
- it: Frittura di paranza
- Squid fly
- Baba (sweets)
- Panna cotta
- Ladyfinger Savoyardi
- Monte Bianco
- Biscotti With Vin Santo or (it: Sciachet rà)
- Ferrero Rocher
- it: Colomba pasquale
- it: Panforte
- it: Zuppa Inglese
- it: Zeppole
- it: Bocconotto
- it: Crostata
Mena Blair (it: Birra Menabrea）
Messina (it: Birra Messina）
Ikunusa (it: Birra Ichnusa）
Dreher (it: Dreher）
Other alcoholic beverages
- Mineral water
- Naturale without gas, Frizzante with gas.
- Soft drink
Italian food researcher
Italian food in Japan
The oldest Italian restaurant in Japan was in 1880NiigataPietro Miriore opened inItalia KenIs.The Italia Ken is considered to be the oldest existing Western restaurant in Japan.Also, for the first time in the late Meiji eramacaroniThere is also a record of imports.However, the spread of authentic Italian cuisine was carried out by former Italian soldiers and civilian employees left in Japan after World War II.They opened a restaurant when they married a Japanese and lived permanently in Japan...It is said that pizza and pasta became popular nationwide as Italian food from the 1970s, when it became popular with Japanese noodle tastes..
Italian restaurant chain in Japan
- Denominazione di Oligine Protetta(DOP, DOP)
- Denominazione di Origine Controllata(DOC, DOC)
- Denominazione di Oligine Controllata e Galantita(DOCG, DOCG)
- it: Indicazione geografica protetta(IGP)
- it: Special ità tradizionale garantita(STG)
- it: Vino da tavola(VdT)
- it: Indicazione geografica tipica(IGT)
- --Father of Italian foodPublished in 1891 by.
- The world's three major dishes
- Gambero Rosso --In ItalyRestaurantGuide book
- May 9(Italian Cuisine Day) --Established by the Italian Cuisine Association of Japan.From the pun of "cucina" which means "cooking" in Italian.
- Slow food
- Ochiai --Chairman of Japan Italian Cuisine Association
- Roman cuisine --Ancient food.
- (Coperto) --Charge (bread fee)
- etto --Meaning 100g
- MOI (Italy)
- ^ Nobuo Nishimura, ed. Kawade Shobo Shinsha, 216, 1990.ISBN 4-309-47194-3.
- ^ "Encyclopedia of French Food (Popular Edition)" edited by the French Cuisine Association Baishuishe, 2007, 45 pages.ISBN 978-4-560-09202-6. .. “There aren't many dishes that can be called'Italy'.”
- ^ Restaurante in Italianrestaurant).It has the same etymology as the English word "restaurant".
- ^ Fumiyo Kawakami (2007-07), Ichiban kind Italian cooking textbook, Shinsei Publishing, ISBN 4405091528
- ^ Keiichi Sawaguchi (2012) "Industrial History of Italian Cuisine in Japan and Life History of Cooks: An Introductory Consideration", Bulletin of Taisho University, 97: 143-154
- ^ Hoshi Satoshi Kido (1988) "Italian Cuisine" "Encyclopedia of the World" Heibonsha