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canning(Kanzu) is generally high in waterFoodTheMetal canAfter filling and sealingmicroorganismbycorruption.Heated and sterilized to prevent deterioration.. Strictly speaking, a product in which a product such as dried food is simply packed in a metal can and sealed is "CannedIt is called and is generally distinguished from canned food.. Canned foods other than food are also manufactured (#Canned food other than food).
Food cooked for long-term storage is placed in a metal container (can), sealed, and heat-treated.Preserved FoodsIs a kind of. It may refer to products that are widely enclosed in metal cans, but as mentioned above, products that are simply filled with metal such as dried food in metal cans are sealed.CannedIt is called "" and is distinguished from ordinary canned food.. "Canned goods" are those that have undergone a sterilization process even in Japan's quality labeling standards (JAS method).. Since the canned food is sterilized with high heat, no germicide or preservative is used... For business useCan of canCalled 18literSome are large, and are mainly edibleoilOr liquidseasoning,Bamboo shootEnclosed with large ingredients such as boiled water. Drinking cans with a mouthpiece are called “canned coffee”, “canned juice”, and “canned beer”, respectively.
Canned food is basically調理It's already done, so open it immediately (orHot waterYou can eat it as it is, just by simple heating. If you open and eat immediatelyFood poisoningWill not cause. However, it is usually not possible to store any food because it has weaknesses due to the manufacturing process, such as the need to enclose the solid matter with the seasoning liquid. As an exception, ferment in cans without sterilizationSurrealismThere is also a can of[Note 1].. Also, it was called a dry pack can and was reconstituted with water.soy,HijikiHigh without adding liquidvacuumThere is also a product in which the product is packed in a can in a state and steamed moderately by convection of steam in the can during heat sterilization.
The material of the can is mainly used in Japanaluminumor鉄And the aluminum onesAluminum cans, Made of ironTinplateCan orSteel canCalled. Steel canmagnetStick toempty canCan be recycled by collecting them.
With this method, canned foods have a unique taste, such as "canned fish can be eaten crisply to the bones" and "canned fruit has the syrup taste throughout". For that reason, there are some movements such as the intention of using fruit cans instead of raw fruits for desserts, and the opening of a "canning bar" with canned snacks and side dishes.
- Suitable for long-term storage because it has a large barrier against water and gas and undergoes deaeration, sealing, and sterilization processes..
- High heat conductivity enables efficient heating/sterilization/cooling of contents.
- Metals are generally excellent in rigidity and elasticity, so they are easy to handle..
- Metals are rich in extensibility and can be subjected to various processing with high accuracy, and standardization is easy..
- Can be surface-coated or printed on cans in the manufacturing process.
- Direct printing on cans in JapanPrewarWas not done. On the outside of the canPrintThe wrapped paper was stretched around to show the contents. This method is simple and convenient when exporting canned foods with the same contents to many countries.21st centuryEven at the beginning, some canned foods are still used, and in JapanImported goodsOften found in canned foods. However, this paper-wrap type display is apt to deteriorate and may be torn or weathered, so it is not suitable for use in products intended for extremely long-term storage.
- Used for printing on cansinkIt is called "ha", and it is often transparent to make the most of its metallic luster.
- You can buy a large amount of raw materials, process and store it, can distribute it at room temperature, there is no waste part in the contents, you can also get cheap food ingredients with large price fluctuations, cooking Economical in that it requires less effort.
- There are many types of staple foods, side dishes, desserts, etc., and it is possible to eat foreign ingredients and seasonal ingredients..
- Less loss of nutritional value.
- If the inner surface of the can is not coated, corrosion can easily occur from the inner surface of the can during storage..
- Depending on the contents, canstinThe alloy is used to prevent the contents from spoiling and discoloring.However, there are cases where tin melts and affects the human body. Tin melted inside in a can of tomato juice in 1969 and in a can of peach in 1970.Food poisoningOccurs.製品が回収された出来事もあったThere was also an event where the product was recovered..錫の代替物としてAs an alternative to tinEpoxy resin,Phenolic resinPaints are sometimes used, but these resins are endocrine disrupters.Bisphenol AThere is a problem of elution.
- crab,ScallopAcid perch for cannedParchment paper) Is laid out, but it is included in shellfish and shellfishsulfurMines combine with tin or iron in tinTin sulfide,Iron sulfideIt was said that it was to prevent the meat from being colored black. This method was invented by a trader in Hokkaido around 1900. Now that the paint is applied to the inside of the can, there is less concern about blackening. In addition, crab andsalmonGlass of cannedcrystalIs a component of crab and salmon meatmagnesium-Ammonium-phosphoric acidCrystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate combined with[Note 2]Is a phenomenon that occurs, and this cannot be prevented even with acidic perch.
- For openingcan openerMay be required.
- Today, the canned can lid itself is processed so that it can be opened without a can opener.Easy open endThe number of (EOE) is increasing.In Japan, most canned beverages are of this type.In addition, many canned foods such as meat and fish have a deep scratch-like line called a score on the surface to open them wide.A can with a can lid as an easy open end is called an easy open can.The storage stability of easy open cans is the same as conventional ones,Since the strength is low, there is a possibility of opening the can when there is a strong impact such as when dropped from a high place. For this reason,SDF OfBattle rationEasy-open cans are not used for the canned foods used in.
- In the Disaster Countermeasures Division, Security Department, Metropolitan Police Department, "Please rub the edge of the canned lid onto the concrete or asphalt. The canned lid is structurally removed when the joint part of the edge is scraped." doing.
- When fish are stuffed with oil, some of the omega 3 fat mixes with the stuffed oil and is lost when the oil is drained..
- Heavy compared to paper and plastic containers.
- Taste is monotonous and lacks change.
The contents are washed and the non-edible parts are removed. Depending on the contents, cooking or the like is performed, and the contents are put in a can, and a seasoning liquid is put in some cases. It is sealed when the air inside the can is removed. After this,Clostridium botulinumHeat sterilized to prevent breeding.
SterilizationThe temperature and time also differ depending on the contents. In the case of canned fish, it is sterilized under high temperature and high pressure at 120 degrees Celsius for about 1 hour (this process softens the bones of the fish)... Finally, tap the ball with a tap to check the content. In this, the inspector uses a sound to grasp the state of the contents. A qualification test for percussion engineers1976(Showa 51) Since it has not been conducted since June, there are few qualifiers in Japan.
Had trouble with food supply in the expeditionNapoleon BonaparteIn response to a sweepstakes by1804ToFrance OfNicola AppelCan be stored for a long timebottledWas invented, Since the glass bottle was heavy and easily damaged,1810ToThe United KingdomBy Peter Durand(Peter durand) In a metal container (tin can)FoodInvented "canned food".. This makes it easy to store and carry food for a long time. However, the early ones have problems with the method of sterilization, and the contents oftenfermentationThis caused an accident in which the can burst (which was later improved).Also for sealingSolderToleadIs included in a large amount,Lead poisoningThere was also an accident that caused him to die.
In 1812, Brian Donkin (Bryan Donkin) And John Hall (John Hall) Built the world's first canning plant in the UK based on Durand's patent, and started delivery to the Army and Navy in 1813... Initially the seal was manuallySolderingBecause of this, we were able to produce only 60 to 70 pieces per person per day.. 1833The French company Ansilbert devised a method to open the can by soldering around the lid of the can and melting it with heat.
Canned food is mainlyExplorerFor carrying food and shipsEmergency food,Military foodWas used as. Especially,The United States of America OfCivil WarWas often used in. It was later manufactured for the general public, and is now also used as food for emergency storage (emergency food) for disaster prevention.
Initially, the can opener was not invented and was openedGold hammerとchisel(Only) was used[Note 3]..On the battlefieldbayonetI pry it open or shoot it with a gun, The contents were limited to solids, and liquid drinks were not included. 1858 by Ezra J. Warner of the United Statescan openerWhen was invented, liquids and the like could be put in, and the variation of the contents expanded.Furthermore, after that, it can be opened without a can opener.Easy open endWas invented.
At the end of the 19th century, the production of canned food got off the ground,Campbell,HeinzCanned food became a sort of status symbol when quality products that could become an everyday food, such as other soups, began to appear.
Japanese canned food
The first production in Japan was in the 4th year of Meiji (1871)NagasakiBy (Matsuda/Gaten)FrancePeopleLeon DuryLeon DuryUnder the guidance ofイ ワ シIt is said that a trial production of canned oil was done.(At this stage the word canned does not exist).
The start of full-scale production1877(10th year of Meiji)May 10,HokkaidoIshikari cityIt is due to the establishment of the Ishikari Canned House. In the beginningAmericaUlysses S. Treat and Trescott SwertUnder the guidance ofsalmonThe cans were manufactured. From this, the Japan Canned Foods AssociationMay 10Is defined as the day of canning. Initially cannedPipe plugWas spelled out.
Meiji EraIs mainly for export to outside Japan and for domesticMunitionsBecause it was produced for commercial use, it did not spread to the common people. At that time, the price of canned food was 1 to 20 yen per can, and 35 rice bowl was 1 yen, so you can see how expensive it was..
As a special example,Second World Warof timeMetal donationThe pottery substitutes developed in response to this include canned foods, and many pottery containers with a lid sealed with rubber were distributed under the name "" at that time. However, due to lack of food itself to be canned, production was eventually discontinued... It should be noted that there was no problem in the quality of the food inside even if I opened the one that was more than 60 years after the war..
Throughout the Taisho era and Showa era, crab, salmon, and canned goods were exported brilliantly, but in 51 (1976) To 52 (1977The export of these canned foods was devastated by the establishment of the 200-nautical mile fishery exclusive area decided byIt became a thing.
The consumption of canned food in Japan isJapan Canned Bottled Retort Food AssociationAccording to the report, it is 406 million tons (2017 estimate).However,Canned coffeeIncludes canned drinks of fruit juice, but cansbeerとsoda drink,Sports DrinkKind is excluded. 250 cans per person equivalent to 127g cans,Beverage33 excluding the types.Retort pouchSales of canned foods are increasing, and the consumption of canned foods is slightly decreasing.
Display on canned food
For Japanese canned food
Regarding display, quality display standards andFood Sanitation ActAre subject to regulations such as.. In addition to the collective display using labels, etc., a "canned goods name symbol" (Popular name can mark) Etc. are stamped. Originally, the canned goods name code was obligatory to export canned foods overseas under the Export Control Law, but now the legal obligation is abolished with the abolition of the Export Inspection Law in March 9. However, it is often the case that food cans are customarily stamped with the product name symbol. The canned product name symbol indicates the type of raw material and cooking method in the upper row, the expiration date in the middle row, and the manufacturing plant in the lower row. However, since the product name and factory code are listed separately, many can lids have only the expiration date displayed on them..
- Raw material type name (2 letters combining the XNUMXst and XNUMXnd letters from the top left)
- Cooked state (in principle, 3 letter from the top left from the 3rd place, but 4 letters combining the 2rd and XNUMXth place letters only in cooked state that does not require distinction of form, size, or added auxiliary materials)
- Form/Small/Additive supplementary raw material (4st character from the upper left to the 1th place)
- L-Oyster,Greenpeace, Mandarin orange, peach,CherrySize (large)
- M-Size of oysters, green peas, oranges, peaches, cherries, etc. (Medium)
- S-Size of oysters, green peas, oranges, peaches, cherries, etc. (small)
- T-Size of oysters, green peas, oranges, peaches, cherries, etc. (extra small, quartered)
- ・- King crab, Whale meat,サ バ,AbaloneFlake, etc., mandarin orange broken
- :- mushroom, Slices of fruits, bamboo shoots, etc.AsparagusBoiled headless cut
- Expiration date display (display in the middle row)
- The middle part of the three-column string isexpiration dateIn the display, "041010" means that the expiration date is October 2004, 10. The date may be omitted and "10" (meaning the expiration date for October 0410) may be displayed.1999(11)May 3Up to the manufacturing date, this display may include the manufacturing date (day). There was also an era in which very old canned foods were represented only by the last digit of the manufacturing year, with October manufacturing as "1", November manufacturing as "Y", and December manufacturing as "Z". (Example: Manufacturing November 10, 0 = "11Y12"). This was because there was a limit to the marking ability of the can making machine.
- Manufacturing plant (display at bottom)
- As a general rule, use a combination of alphabets and Arabic numerals for each company and factory, and apply within XNUMX characters. Since it was an application system, there are symbols of different companies and factories even with the same symbol.
Canned size standard
For Japanese canned food
- Can No. 1, Can No. 2, Can No. 3, Can No. 4, Can No. 5, Can No. 6, Can No. 7, Can No. 8
- Flat No. 2 can, Flat No. 3 can
- Crab No. 2 can, Crab No. 3 can
- Small No. 1 can, Small No. 2 can
- Mushroom No. 2 can, Mushroom No. 3 can
- Cone No. 4 Can, Cone No. 7 Can
- Tuna No. 1 can, Tuna No. 2 can, Tuna 2 kg can
- Pocket No. 4 cans, mobile cans, etc.
As an inspection method to judge the quality of canned food,sensory testThere are three.. However, in order to conclude that it is a defective product, it is necessary to perform an in-laboratory test by an expert..
When inspecting the appearance, it is necessary to pay attention to the deformation of the winding part first... If the body hook and cover hook are of the proper length and there is improper tightening such as not being able to secure sufficient overlap, a gap is likely to be created by the impact... If there is a void in the can, bacteria will enter the inside of the can, regardless of its size.corruptionConnected to.. If the contents of a canned food rot, the gas pressure inside the container may increase due to the gas produced by bacteria, and the can may expand... If there is a fragile part in the winding part, the juice leaks from it and gives off a bad odor..
There are several types of expansion. The protrusion on the bottom of the lid due to insufficient degassing during manufacturingFlipperTo say.One side expansion (Springer)Is a phenomenon that one side of the lid bottom protrudes, and the cause is insufficient deaeration and chemical change of the can material and contents.Hydrogen gasIs overfilled.. Also, make sure that both sides of the can do not swell.SwellTo say.. Expanded cans are treated as defective.
The percussion inspection is an inspection method that estimates the inside condition from the feel of the pitch, the stain, and the vibration when the can lid is tapped with a percussion rod... This inspection reveals the generation of gas, the volume of the space above the can (head space) being too large or too small... Appropriate skill is required for percussion inspection.
sensory testThen, smell, color, taste, honeycomb (Tuna,salmon,イ ワ シMany small holes are opened in pieces of fish meat such as,honeycombTo look like) Etc... For seafood cans, odor is the most powerful means.. Honeycombs can be seen not only when raw materials with reduced freshness are used, but also when frozen raw materials are used, but in the latter case even if a piece of fish meat is put on the tongue, it does not have an unpleasant taste... Sensory testing by taste should not be done on anything apparently rotting.
Canned food other than food
SouvenirsjokeCanned products are sometimes used as products.
Manga"Doraemon]HawaiiThere is a scenario "air relay satellite" in which canned air comes in. Canned air is not something that you can enjoy by opening it, but you can only imagine the atmosphere of the land with the air contained.
In Tarumizu City, Kagoshima Prefecture, a souvenir "Ash Canned ~High! Please!~" containing Sakurajima volcanic ash accumulated on the roof of the city hall is on sale..
Confining a person to a closed room for a long time by doing so is referred to as "making a candy" or "being made a candy".
The meaning is
- Run away from the manuscript promptsNovelist,manga artistThe publisher's editorJapanese inn,HotelMid in a roomArrestStay in the state and devote yourself to manuscript writing without any thought.
- A group of people with some demandActivistAnd the crowd confined the person responsible for the problem to a room or surrounded the office or residence.HoistingNegotiate with each other and try to meet your demands with all your might.
- A large number of people are confined in a small space.
- ^ a b c Japan Food Conservation Science Society "Food Conservation and Distribution Technology Handbook" Kenshasha p.38 2006
- ^ a b c d e f "Canned, bottled, retort food Q & A (production / consumption)”. Japan Canning Association. 2013/3/6Browse.
- ^ Hayato Kurokawa, Canned Book, page 26.
- ^ a b c d e f g h Japan Food Conservation Science Society "Food Conservation and Distribution Technology Handbook" Kenshasha p.39 2006
- ^ a b c d e "Cook Cooking Complete Works 9 Kanzume and Frozen Foods" p.176 Senshukai 1976
- ^ a b c d "Kanzume Handbook 6. Canned food features”. Japan Canning Association. 2013/3/2Browse.
- ^ "Tin detected in Tokyo Canned tomato juice" Asahi Shimbun, August 44, 1969, morning edition, 8th edition, 29th page
- ^ "200 people addicted to tin-melted lunch with momokan" "Asahi Shimbun" March 44, 1970, morning edition, 3th edition, 7 pages
- ^ Canned Handbook Japan Canned Goods Association August 2009, 8 Read
- ^ @ Disaster Prevention Section, Security Department, Metropolitan Police Department. "In a disaster, how can I open a non-pull-top can with no tools? To do this, rub the can lid with concrete or asphalt. The can lid is structurally bordered. It is designed so that it can be removed by scraping the joint part of. It is easy for women and children." (Tweet). TwitterThanRetrieved February 2018, 10.
- ^ Publishing, Harvard Health. “Ask the doctor: Is canned fish good for the heart?". Harvard Health. 2021/1/30Browse.
- ^ a b Hiroshi Kanno, "Interesting Encyclopedia," p.38 Nitto Shoin 1991
- ^ “Japan Canned Food Association, commemorative project for 200 years of canned food, restore 5 inventor menu items”. Japan Food Newspaper(Nippon Shokuhin Shimbun). (April 2004, 4)
- ^ a b Fuji Television Trivia Dissemination Committee "Trivia Fountain: Hee no Hon 6" Kodansha, 2004.
- ^ a b c "Birth of metal cans (change in can manufacturing technology, history of metal cans)”. Japan Can Association. 2016/8/22Browse.
- ^ Janet Clarkson Written by Sachiko Tominaga "History of Soup", Hara Shobo, 2014, pp102-106
- ^ a b "Canned Label Museum," supervised by Japan Canning Association, June 2002, p.6
- ^ "80th anniversary of the establishment of the Japan Canning Association History of the canning industry and group activities, Japan Canning Association, 2007. Retrieved September 2010, 9.
- ^ Ceramic products manufactured during the war (2)
- ^ Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.series Good luck! 2017 year 8 month 1 day broadcasting
- ^ Japan Canning Inspection Association Twenty-five Year History, May 1980
- ^ Japan Canned Bottled Retort Food Association (August 2018, 8). “03. How much domestic consumption of canned, bottled and retort foods?". Japan Canned Bottled Retort Food Association HP. 2020/3/18Browse.
- ^ a b "Canned, bottled, retort food Q & A (display)”. Japan Canning Association. 2013/3/6Browse.
- ^ a b c Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 168.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 172.
- ^ a b c d Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 169.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, pp. 169-170.
- ^ a b c d Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 170.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, pp. 170-171.
- ^ a b c d Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, p. 171.
- ^ Food Health Study Group (ed.) 1989, pp. 171-172.
- ^ Reference example details Tokyo Metropolitan Edo Tokyo Museum Library What is "Great Tokyo specialty, canned air" and when was it released? -Reference collaborative database
- ^ Ash canned ~ high! here you go! ~ (Tarumizu City)
- ^ Can trains get canned due to heavy snow, will JR pay hotel cancellation fees, etc.? Read March 2013, 3
- ^ Heavy snowfall in the prefecture caused by heavy snowfall, traffic network disorder Yamagata Shimbun (February 2013, 2)
- ^ Story about aluminum recycling -Asuka industry
- "Food Sanitation Sixth Edition you should know", Food Health Study Group (ed.),Ministry of Health and WelfareLife Sanitation Bureau Food and Health Division (supervised),Ministry of Finance Printing Bureau, 1989.ISBN 978-4-17-217507-0.
- Sue Shepard "Conserved Food Development Story" Translated by Yoko Akane ISBN 4167651157
- Hayato Kurokawa "Canned book" Tatsumi Publishing, 2011.ISBN 978-4-777-80947-9
- can opener
- Clostridium botulinum
- Easy open end
- Crab boat
- Toyo Food Industry Junior College -A junior college mainly providing specialized education on canning.