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Wikipedia related words
If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.
Spa(Onsen) isUndergroundからHot water(Hot spring) Is a term that indicates the phenomenon or place that is springing up, or the hot water itself. I used the hot springbathingFacilities and areas where they are gathered (Hot spring town,Hot spring village) Is also commonly called a hot spring.Artificial hot springIn some cases, it is also called a "natural hot spring".
When classified by heat source,VolcanoUndergroundmagmaVolcanic hot springs that use heat as a heat source, regardless of the volcanoGeothermalBy etc.groundwaterIs divided into non-volcanic hot springs.. Depending on the ingredients contained, various colors,smell, There is an effective hot spring.
Broadly defined hot spring (legally defined hot spring) : Japan OfHot spring methodIn the definition ofWedEven if the temperature of the water is not highMineral water) AndgasIt is considered to be a hot spring when it springs up (see "Definition of hot springSee). It is said that the hot spring is genuine or not,Hot spring methodIt is common to discuss whether or not it is a "legal hot spring" that applies to the definition of (is sometimes used in discussions that do not fit the image).
Welling upHot springWhether it feels warm or cold depends on individual differences and the environment, and around the world, the temperature of whether or not to make a "hot spring" is determined based on the average annual temperature of the country. There is. in JapanHot spring methodIs 25 degrees. In other countries,South AfricaThen 25 degrees,The United States of AmericaThe standard is 70 degrees Fahrenheit (corresponding to 21.1 degrees Celsius) and 20 degrees in Britain, France and Germany.
Origin of hot springs
GeothermalThat the groundwater heated byボ ー リ ン グWhat is artificially springed or pumped bySeigen OnsenHowever, both are hot springs if they comply with the hot spring law. When hot springs are classified by heat source, the magma beneath the volcano is used as the heat source.Volcanic hot springWhen,VolcanoUnrelated toNon-volcanic hot springDivided into The temperature of non-volcanic hot springs becomes higher deeper underground.Geothermal gradientIt is divided into so-called deep hot water that has reached a high temperature, and those whose heat source is unknown. And as a special example, it was deposited in ancient timesplant ligniteIt became a hot spring due to the heat when it changed toMall fountainIn HokkaidoTokachigawa OnsenExists in.
The volcanic hot springs are naturally close to the volcano,Volcanic gasContains ingredients of origin. Deep hot water平野,basinOften taken by boring in deep underground,seawaterThe salt contentorganic matterMay be included.
Some non-volcanic hot springs have high temperatures that cannot be explained by normal geothermal gradients (Arima Onsen,Yunomine hot spring,Matsunoyama Onsen, Etc.), several theories about the origin of the heat and components have been proposed, but all are hypothetical stages.
Jumping earthquakeA hot spring with a hot spring temperature of 70 degrees spouted later in Tateyama.Shinyu,Great East Japan EarthquakeLater the temperature of the spring roseSplit stone hot springChanges in hot springs due to earthquakes may be seen.
Japanese hot spring
Ministry of the EnvironmentAccording to Japan, there were 2016 hot springs in FY3038 (sourceThere are 2).. Hot springsEuropeHowever, in Japan, there is a strong aspect of being positioned as part of medical practice, but in JapanTourismDoubled asEntertainmentIs often the case.Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular OfTraining camp,School excursionThere are many examples of incorporating it into. of course,Hot springThere are still customers visiting.
There are many volcanic hot springs in Japan because there are many volcanoesmyth,Open hot water legendThere are many kinds of fish. Many myths are regarded as hot spring godsSuperpowerとShokoIt is related to. For exampleJapan's Sankoyuone ofDogo Onsenabout,"Iyo countryFudoki] In the bunbunMt. Tsurumidake(CurrentOitaBeppu) From the foot of the mountainHayami no Yu(CurrentBeppu hot spring) Is led to Dogo Onsen through a pipe on the sea floor, and the myth that he healed the illness of Shoko's famous life is described.
The hot springs that have been discovered have a long history of use and have been left in the literature. As a reference,Japanese calligraphy''Japanese sequel''Manyoshu''CollectionToSakakiShintoEmperorHot springYukiyukiAs used inTamazo Onsen,Arima Onsen,Dogo Onsen,Shirahama Onsen,Akiu hot springThe names such as are left. Of the Heian periodEnki ceremony god name book] Enshrines the god of the hot springOnsen ShrineSeveral company names such as are listed. Japanese hot springJapanese innOut ofKeiunkan (Nishiyama Onsen), "Menen no Yu Koman" (Kinosaki Onsen),"Houshi" (Awazu Onsen)Are bothAsuka PeriodIt is said to have been founded and is the oldest existing accommodation facility in the world.
archeologyFrom the perspective ofsaltFor salt in hot springs containingHerbivoreGathered together andhuntHumans gather around the hot springs, people's activities are born, and people get to know the hot springsJapanese cultureIs inferred that was born.
Six countries historyDescription of hot springs
- Japanese calligraphy
- Emperor Shumei3 years(631) September 9: "KoboshiSettsuArima hot spring'
- December 12 of the same year: "Emperor Solstice Hot Water"
- Emperor Shumei 10 years (638) October: Koarima Onsen Yunomiya
- Dahua3 years(647) October 10: Yuma Yuma Hot Water
- Emperor Saimei3 years(657)September:Prince ArimaSex wasteMumu hot waterMedical treatment (WakayamaNanki Shirahama Onsen）
- Emperor Saimei 4th year (658) October 10: YukioKionyu(Nanki Shirahama Onsen, Wakayama Prefecture)
- Emperor Saimei 5th year (659) January 1: Emperor Zhizi hot water
- Japanese sequel
- Sequel to Japan
- Acceptance4 years(837) April 4:MutsuWord Tamatsukose OnsenIshigami Resonance vibration (MiyagiNaruko hot spring）
- Seven years of peace (840) September 9:Iyo countryHot springsFixed amount templeTamtendai Betsuin (EhimeDogo Onsen）
- Seven years of peace (843) September 9: Hokoku Mutsuku Mugen Tamakuzo Onsen God (Naruko Onsen, Miyagi Prefecture)
- Japan's third generation
- Virtue2 years(860) February 2: SusumuHizen countryHot spring godandXNUMXth(NagasakiUnzen Onsen）
- 5 years863) October 10: PresentationShimono countryXNUMXth placeHot spring godSubordinate(TochigiNasu Yumoto Onsen）
- 9 years867) April 2:DazaifuWord Fifth place upper fire man god Fifth place lower fire sale god two companiesOnBungoHayami-gunTsurumi mountain range Summit Yu Miike Ichiike mud light bluetag Ichiike Black Ichiike"Red" Last month's day Hatsuneike quake Sojo Ryorai Jijo Ryu Huang Yanman Domestic rock stone disturbance Up and down innumerable stones Large people Small Jin Jin Ji Black Cloud Steam Night Flame Fire Sasa mud snow Dishes Boiling Voluntary river flow mountain pedestrian road Onsen no Sui Iryu popular style Three days of the history of earthquake and deathOitaBeppu hot spring）
- 11 years869) February 2: SusumuShimono countrySecond servant, fourth grade, second rank, second rank, Kamasa, second rank, second servant, fourth rank, Shimokara, fifth grade hot spring godXNUMXth place above(Nasu Yumoto Onsen, Tochigi Prefecture)
- 15 years873) October 6: PresentationDewakuniXNUMXth place aboveSugawa Onsen GodFive subordinates (YamagataZao Onsen）
Kamakura PeriodAfter that, the hot springs, which had been vaguely religious until then, were used more medically and became practical and profitable.All overDo the monksBathingBathing has become popular due to such reasons. Beppu hot spring in the middle of KamakuraOtomo YoriyasuThe hot spring magistrate was placed byMasterThere is a record that the injured warriors came to the resort. In addition, during the Warring States periodShingen Takeda,Kenshin UesugiIs said to have paid particular attention to the effects of the hot springs.
Edo PeriodBy the time of the farm seasonHot springAs the guests come to visit, there is an accommodation facility where these hot spring guests can stay.Hot spring innBecame. The form of the hot spring treatment has changed from a long stay type to a short stay type of XNUMX days and XNUMX night, and a form close to the current bathing type has been completed.
Kaihara Ekiken,Mt. Goto,Udagawa EnanDue toSpa therapyThe hot springs have become popular with the general public due to the publication of books on books such as books on hot springs and guidebooks for hot springs. In this era, there were miscellaneous baths for the general public to take a bath.Activist,Deputy official,LordThere was a distinction between Tonosama-yu and Kagi-yu, which were called "Machijin-yu" and "Samurai-yu." In each clanBathhouseI made a hot spring, put a hot spring service, a hot spring bath, etc.
As a custom of the general public, seasonal hot springs such as New Year's hot springs, cold hot springs, flower hot springs, and autumn hot springs were mainly visited. Also, in the Edo period, the "hot spring customs" that still exist today were born.Sand bath,Hitase hot water, Steamed hot water, and soaking hot spring, the hot spring customs were created by taking advantage of the characteristics of each hot spring.
AndKazusa DiggingTo sayボ ー リ ン グBy technologysourceExcavation of "boiled pond"19st centuryBy the explosive spread toward the end,MeijiSince then, the hot spring resources have become fully available. Beppu City, Oita Prefecture, which holds about 1/10 of the total hot spring sources in Japan,1879Around this time (Meiji 12), this technology was introduced and hot spring drilling became popular and developed.
Hot springs and medical treatment
Use hot waterbathIs not common,healthKnowledge aboutMedicalIn times when there was not enoughinjury,sickHas amazing efficacy, thank youSacred placeMet. The origin legend of each hot spring isdeer,craneAnd heronsAnimalHealed the woundLegendAndBathingEncourage bathing throughBuddhismUnder the influence ofKobo DaishiHigh profileMonkThere are many legends discovered by. Places like thistemple,ShrineOwned by or nearbycommunityIt was a shared property of
Meiji EraThen, the scientific research on hot springs gradually became popular.ShowaAfter that, hot spring medicine andAnalytical chemistryThe medical effects of hot springs have been proved by the progress of, and the users of the hot springs have spread to a wide range.
1931(Showa 6),Kyushu UniversityBeppu hot spring blessed with abundant hot spring resourcesHot spring therapeutic research instituteIncluding the installation ofSpa therapyResearch spread to six national universities and flourished. The Japanese Society of Hot Spring Climate was established in 6 (Showa 1935), and academic research on hot spring climate and its medical applications has progressed. Renamed from Japan Hot Spring Climate SocietyJapan hot spring climate physics societyIt is,Spa therapy doctor・We are certified as a spa therapy specialist.Misasa OnsenThen, pay attention to the effect of radium1939Research on hot spring therapy that links hot springs with modern medicine has been conducted, such as the establishment of a hot spring sanatorium in (Showa 14). AlsoPacific WarAfter thatAtomic bomb survivors Beppu hot spring recuperation research instituteWas opened, and research on hot spring therapy was conducted in the support of A-bomb victims.
JapaneseMinistry of the EnvironmentStipulates, in Article 18 of the Hot Spring Act, "adaptations" that are the effects of hot springs, and "contraindications" that may worsen the condition by entering a hot spring. Once妊娠InFemaleWhen you enter the hot spring,abortion,Premature birthThere is an opinion that it will invite, but there is no scientific basis,Pregnant womanIt is said that there is no health problem even if you take a hot spring.
Hot springs and health
At present, various efforts are being made in hot spring areas throughout Japan from the perspective of preventive medicine. The areas where hot springs and health are studied are:Yubara hot spring(Okayama PrefectureManiwa) In collaboration with the hospital and hot spring accommodationComplete medical checkupHot springs are being actively used for health promotion and medical treatment in towns such as the "Accommodation plan" (steam dog). Of the hot springSpring qualityWe are encouraging citizens to learn different bathing methods in an easy-to-understand manner.
Hot springs and leisure
Hakone hot spring(KanagawaAshigarashimoHakone town) AndAtami Onsen(Shizuoka PrefectureAtamiThere is also a large-scale hot spring town that is formed in a convenient transportation area such as ).Secret hot springThere is also a genre called Meguri.
In the 1950s, a temporary train for the hot springs was set up, and the number of customers who could afford to go to the hot springs gradually increased as they gradually escaped from the post-war turmoil. There are few passengers heading to Tokyo, and the temporary trains "Ikoi" and "Ideyu" that carried hot spring passengers from Tokyo to Izu on weekends (currentlyLimited express dancerWas the year before).
Use other than bathing
In the vicinity of volcanic hot springs, there are also examples of topographical features and phenomena associated with volcanic activity becoming tourism resources (Owakudani（Fumarolic area of Hakone volcano）And each placeJigokudaniSuch). There are hot springs that tourists can enjoy because the ingredients and hot water temperature are not suitable for bathing.Beppu Hell TourAnd all over the worldGeyserIs famous.
Collection of hot water flowers
The ingredients contained in the hot springDeposition-PrecipitationWhat you didYunohana". CollectBath additiveSome hot springs are sold as.Alum OnsenFrom Yunohana in "Yu no Hana Goya" in Beppu CityAlumManufacturing technologyImportant intangible folk cultural propertiesIs specified in.
Example of use for food processing
- Hell steamed -Beppu cityKannawa OnsenIs famous. Utilized steam heat from hot springsHell kettleSteam the fish and vegetables. The feature is that the ingredients do not escape.
- Hot spring egg -Boil the eggs in a hot spring.
- Nozawa Onsen(Nagano), after the harvestNozawanaThe hot springs are used to prepare the trees and to boil the frozen Nozawana in the winter. It is also known to use a public bath in a public bath as a place for preparation.
- SpaNatto - Kuroishi Hot SpringsAndShiman OnsenSeen at.
- fertilizer - ToyamaTonamiThen,magnesiumHot spring water containing minerals as fertilizerShogawaGrowing "onsen vegetables".
Other hot spring heat utilization
Use of hot spring mud
- Fangogotica-In Beppu, use the colorful hot spring mud found in various spring sourcesOita UniversityMedical school,Hiroshima University,Nippon Bunri University,University of Padua(Italy),Oita Industrial Science and Technology CenterAnd others have jointly researched and developed a hot spring mud beauty fangotica.
Hydrogen sulfide danger
2014,HokkaidoAshoro TownAt a hot spring facility inHydrogen sulfideByUnconsciousnessBecame a serious body. It was done after an accidentMinistry of the EnvironmentIn a national survey, 4,438 out of 33 facilities detected hydrogen sulfide in an amount exceeding the national standard..
Whether to re-inject the water once poured into the bathCirculation typeとFlowing overare categorized. In the circulation type, hot water used once is filtered and heat-treated and then re-injected. In recent years, depending on the preference of users who prefer free-flowing, there are also places that advertise with a catch phrase such as "free-flowing source".
Various hot water temperatures
- Time bath - Kusatsu Onsen(High temperature bath (42 degrees Celsius or more))
- Nuru/Continuous Hot Water-Dead Temperature Bath (34-37 degrees Celsius), Low Temperature Bath (37-39 degrees Celsius)
- Cold spring bath Masutomi Onsen(Yamanashi Prefecture),Hell hot spring in the cold(Oita Prefecture)
Reference 105℃:Obama OnsenNumber one in Japan and number one in the world
Various bathing methods
- Hitase hot water -Utase public bath (of Oita prefectureMuscle hot spring),Hyotan Onsen(Oita Prefecture'sKannawa Onsen）
- Standing hot water- Lead hot spring(Iwate Prefecture)
- Sleeping water- Yunotani Onsen Village
- Foot bath -Many places are free outdoors.Road Station TarumizuThe one installed in (Kagoshima) is the longest in Japan.
- Steamed water
- Sand bath-Tsukizawa hot spring "Sand Yukko" (IwateNishiwaga Town OfYuda Onsen Gorge),Ibusuki Onsen(Kagoshima prefecture),Takegawara hot spring(Oita Prefecture'sBeppu hot spring),Beppu beach sand bath(Oita Prefecture'sKamegawa OnsenKaminigahama)
- Bedrock bath - Tamagawa Onsen(Akita)
- Mud bath-hot spring resort land (Oita PrefectureAlum Onsen), Suzume no Yu (Kumamoto Prefecture)Hell hot spring),Misasa Onsen(Tottori prefecture),Afternoon hot spring(Akita)
- Drinking fountain -There are cases where it is contraindicated in various places, so be careful when drinking.
Concentrated hot spring water
Concentrated hot spring water is sold by each company so that the hot spring water can be enjoyed at home and at other places. For the production of concentrated hot spring water, evaporationUltrasonic atomization separationThere is a device utilizing.
Definition of hot spring
Hot spring elements
The hot spring has the following elements.
- Izumi temperature
- The temperature of the spring is the temperature of the hot spring water at the outlet (usually the surface of the earth). As a classification of spring temperatureCold mineral springs, fine hot springs, hot springs, high hot springsIt is classified into four types.
- Izumi temperature classification isCountryThe names and ranges of hot springs vary depending on the classifiers, so they are not globally unified.
- Dissolved component (Spring quality）
- Dissolved components are classified based on artificial regulations. In Japan, it is regulated by the hot spring law and the mineral spring analysis law guidelines. In the Spa Analysis Method Guidelines,SpaOf the eight that have been identified, those that can be used for the purpose of treatment are defined as medical treatment springs.materialIs further specified. Classification of dissolved components is based on the amount of dissolved substances in 1 kg of hot springs.
- Amount of discharge
- The discharge is the amount of water continuously extracted from the ground to the surface,powerIt is also included when it is pumped out by an artificial method such as.
- The three elements of hot springs are useful for understanding the characteristics of hot springs, but in detail, various classifications and regulations are made based on physical and chemical properties.
- Osmotic pressure
- In the SPA analysis method guidelineOsmotic pressureOnsen based on 1kgInTotal dissolved substancesNoFreezing pointIt is also classified as hypotonic/isotonic/hypertonic by freezing point.
Definition of hot springs according to the hot spring method
in Japan,1948(23) Onsen Law was enacted on July 7. According to Article 10 (Definition) of this Hot Spring Act, a hot spring is defined as "hot water, mineral water, steam, and other gases (natural gas containing hydrocarbons as the main component) that emanates from the ground that satisfies one or more of the following: Is defined as (excluding hot springs in a broad sense by legal definition).
- The water temperature at the source isCelsius25 degrees or more. (For those below 25 degrees Celsius,Cold springOr sometimes called a spa)
- Includes one or more of the following components, regardless of water temperature: (The content is in 1kg)
- Dissolved material (gasExcluding sex. ) Total amount of 1000 mg or more
- LiberationCarbonic acid(CO2) 250 mg or more
- lithiumion(Li+) 1 mg or more
- strontiumIon (Sr2+) 10 mg or more
- bariumAeon (Ba2+) 5 mg or more
- Ferro or ferriIon (Fe2+, Fe3+) 10 mg or more
- the firstmanganeseIon (Mn2+) 10 mg or more
- hydrogenIon (H+) 1 mg or more
- bromineIon (Br-) 5 mg or more
- iodineIon (I-) 1 mg or more
- FluorineIon (F-) 2 mg or more
- Arsenic acidHydrogen ion (HAsO42-) 1.3 mg or more
- Meta-arsenous acid(HAsO2) 1 mg or more
- Totalsulfur(S) [HS-,S2O32-,H2Corresponding to S] 1 mg or more
- Metaboric acid(HBO2) 5 mg or more
- Metasilicic acid(H2SiO3) 50 mg or more
- Sodium bicarbonate(LVDS3) 340 mg or more
- radon(Rn) 20 x 10-10%CiAbove
- radiumSalt (as Ra) More than 1/1 mg
Classification according to the spa analysis method guidelines
The mineral spring analysis method guideline established by the Ministry of the Environment distinguishes between "normal water" and "mineral water." If the temperature at the time of seepage is 25 degrees Celsius or higher, or if the specified component is higher than a certain value, this is classified as "mineral water" ("Spa"and"Spring qualitySee also).
- Izumi temperature
- It is classified into the following four types depending on the temperature at the time of seeping or sampling.
- Cold spring-less than 25 degrees Celsius
- Micro Onsen-Izumi 25 degrees Celsius or more and less than 34 degrees Celsius
- Hot springs-34 degrees Celsius or more and less than 42 degrees Celsius (hot springs in a narrow sense)
- Hot springs-42 degrees Celsius or above
- Liquid classification- pHvalue
- Classification by pH value at the time of seepage
- Acidic-pH <3
- Weakly acidic-pH 3 or more and less than 6
- Neutral-pH 6 or higher and less than 7.5
- Weakly alkaline-pH 7.5 to less than 8.5
- Alkaline-pH 8.5 or above
- Osmotic pressure classification
- Classification by total dissolved substances and freezing point (freezing point)
- Hypotonicity-total dissolved material <8 g/kg, freezing point -0.55 °C or higher
- Isotonicity-Total dissolved substance 8g/kg or more and less than 10g/kg, freezing point-less than -0.55℃-0.58℃ or more
- Hypertonicity-total dissolved substance 10g/kg or more, freezing point-less than -0.58℃
The Spa Analysis Method Guideline specifically identifies those that can be used for therapeutic purposes.Therapeutic springAnd further stipulates the eight substances identified.
If the temperature of the spring source is 25 degrees Celsius or higher, or if 1 kg of the hot spring contains one of the following components in excess of the specified amount, you can claim the therapeutic spring in the guidelines for the analysis of mineral springs.
- Total dissolved substances (excluding gas)-1000mg
- Free carbon dioxide-1000 mg
- Cu2+ -1 mg
- Total iron ion (Fe2++ Fe3+)-20mg
- Al3+ -100 mg
- H+ -1 mg
- Total sulfur ([HS-,S2O3--,H2Corresponding to S)-2 mg
Furthermore, therapeutic springs are classified as follows according to the components and amount of dissolved substances.
- Salt spring-Dissolved substance amount (excluding gaseous substances) 1g/kg or more
- Simple hot spring-Amount of dissolved substances (excluding gaseous substances) less than 1g/kg and hot water temperature of 25 degrees Celsius or more
- Rejuvenation springs containing special ingredients-those containing special ingredients above a certain value
Types of hot springs
Medical treatment springs are classified according to the components they contain. In addition, there are three types of names, such as the name of the spring for notice, the name of the old spring, and the name of the new spring. The following is the classification of the quality of the spring for the notice. The types of hot springs areSpring qualitySee also. It should be noted that the effects listed for each spring quality are guidelines only and do not guarantee the effects to everyone.
Simple hot spring
Hot springs with a low content of minerals and gas (less than 1g in 1kg of hot springs). There is little irritation and it is gentle on the skin. Colorless and transparent, tasteless and odorless.
Containing 1 g/kg or more of dissolved substances (excluding gaseous substances). Any temperature.
Carbon dioxide spring
Free in 1 kg of hot spring waterCarbonic acidA hot spring containing more than 1g.
SulfateIs included. A bitter taste.Glauber's saltFountain,石膏It is divided into Izumi and Seibitterizumi. This is a safe spring quality with no harmful effects except for those who are prohibited from bathing in hot springs.
Treatment spring containing special ingredients
Those that contain special components above a certain level. The temperature does not matter.
aluminumA hot spring whose main component is. Former spring quality names include alum and spring.
Copper containing-iron spring
copperAnd hot springs containing iron. The color of the hot water is yellow because the metal content in the water is oxidized by contact with the air. Similar to the iron-containing springs, there are hydrogen carbonate type and sulfate type.
Hot springs that are not therapeutic springs
Although there are hot springs defined by the Hot Spring Law, some hot springs (mineral springs) do not fit into the above 11 categories. Specifically, the spouting temperature is less than 25°C, the content component contains 1000 mg/kg or more, or the metasilicic acid, metaboric acid, etc., contains more than the specified amount, but the specified component of the therapeutic spring contains more than the specified amount. There is no hot spring. The quality of these springs cannot be classified, and for convenience, they are commonly referred to as "Hot springs on the hot spring", "Fluorine-containing springs", "Metaboric acid springs", "Metasilicic acid springs", "Simple springs", "Cold mineral springs" Named according to characteristics. Formal indications cannot be posted, but if you want to warm and batheGeneral indicationThe same effect as can be expected.
Hot springs in the world
The usage patterns of hot springs are roughly divided globally,Take a bath and rest(This is the mainstream in Japan),Take a bath and recuperate,Take a bath and enjoy(Swim, etc.), andto drink(Drinking spring),Use steam(sauna,Steam bath).Bathing and resting is a unique Japanese culture that reflects the humid climate (exceptionally, Japanese bathing is widespread in parts of Asia), and is enjoyed, recuperated, or drunk worldwide. It is recognized as a thing, a thing to steam.However, due to today's boom in Japanese culture and the penetration of onsen culture (described later), Japanese-style bathing is spreading all over the world.
Historically, hot springs were in the 3000s and 4000s BCEgyptIs used inEtruscanAlso built a hot spring facility around the source and had a system for investigating and managing the mineral springs.Ancient greeceIn the times, the use of hot springs for the treatment of illnesses had already been established, and the mysterious power of hot springs was linked to faith,pilgrimageAnd developed as a place of treatment.Ancient romeDuring the era, the construction of recreational facilities connecting hotels and hot springs was further promoted, and it was constructed in a wide range from luxurious resort facilities for the affluent to ordinary people. Amusement facilities appeared in the hot spring town and flourished as a place of entertainment and entertainment.Roman EmpireBecame lonely with the decline of.キ リ ス ト 教In the early days, in order to eradicate the Roman belief in hot springs, the hot spring facilities were demolished, and instead churches and other Christian facilities were constructed. In the 13th centuryCrusaderThe medical use of hot springs started again from the information on the baths in the east reported by, and in the 15th century, the hot springs returned to activity due to the community's efforts to manage hot springs. In the latter half of the 19th century, hot spring resort heat revived and became a hot spring town.casino,VillaHas been actively built, and it has reached the present.
日光浴,Air bathIt has been developed as a resort area with the addition of. Even nowSpaDrinking water, bathing in hot water for a set time, and taking a massage while taking a shower is a recognized medical practice.
Whereas Japanese hot springs have evolved for bathing, especially in modern Europe, "drinking hot springs"Drinking fountainIs deeply rooted in the hot spring culture.Karls Hot SpringsThe origin of the famousCarlsbadIs a hot spring resort for drinking springs.
Until the 15th century, bathing was the main activity,Volcanic beltThe hot spring area did not develop because the amount of hot water was small and the hot spring temperature was low. In addition, the disorder of the disciplinesyphilis,PlagueSuch asEpidemicBathing was considered to be harmful to the body due to the prevalence and social background due to religious reasons, and the practice of bathing was shunned (see "bathingSection). On the other hand, in Europe, the quality of drinking water was poor, so that some bathers were drinking hot spring water. The hot spring resort with this in mind was bottled and put on the market, and it received a great reputation. famousEvian,VichyIs also hot spring water. In Japan as well,Wilkinson""Ginger ale, Etc.soda drinkWas initially made from carbonated spring water.
In addition, since the medical effect was clear by directly drinking the hot spring water, the drinking spring and medicine were immediately linked. This is because hot springs in Japan hindered the influx of Western medicine and for a whileSpa therapy Folk remediesThis is in symmetry with the delay in research due to the fact that there was a large injured facility of the Army and Navy.BeppuAndMisasaSome hot springs were established and connected with neighboring universities, and research was conducted steadily).
Today known as a hot spring townバ ー ス,CarlsbadIsResort areaIt will also develop and will be equipped with hot spring hospitals and retirement facilities. It is the same as Japan in terms of recreation by hot springs. There are also hotels and restaurants built, but there are no hot springs for bathing (Europe, especially Western Europe and Eastern Europe, are not as wet as Japan, which is a major reason why the bathing culture did not develop). Fountains and fountainsbarIs provided.
forBaden Baden,SPAThere are a few hot spring areas formed for bathing, such as. However, none of them have the concept of "immersing" like Japanese hot springs. Baden-Baden in Germany accompanies rather than as a hot springcasino,boutique, Jewelry stores andLuxury hotelDue toResortIt developed as a land. The hot springs are used not only for saunas and showers, but also for public baths, where you can use a large bathtub of hot spring water.PoolMany people swim like their senses (in JapanMannersViolation). Also, there is no custom of bathing naked like in Japan,SwimwearTo wear. Therefore, it is often not separated from the men's and women's baths.温水 プ ー ルIt is a place where you can get to know the hot water in a way like. An example of this is New Zealand, which will be described later.
It also became a fixed name for an international hot spring resortベルギーIs a hot spring resort developed for medical treatment. The hot spring town is small in size,BathtubThe atmosphere is similar to hot springs for Japanese hot springs. However, since entering the bathtub is for medical purposes only, there is no concept of "relaxing and soothing" as in Japan.
ハンガリーA public bathhouse has been built since ancient Roman times, and has a hot spring culture for almost 2000 years.Budapest Theチ ェ スMixed bath (wearing a swimsuit))ofSzechenyi hot springThere are more than 100 hot springs such as. It is also a warm water lakeLake HevizAlso exists.
Historically, European hot springs were once abandoned after the fall of the Roman Empire, but revived around the 15th century. Back thenGermanyとイタリアHot springs were preferred, but it was a social gathering place for European aristocrats and royaltyスイス OfBadenWas the most popular hot spring resort. In the 16th century, the upper-class hot spring town of Suzume began, and hot spring tours scattered throughout Europe became popular..
Hot spring facilities were built in various places under the rule of the Roman Empire. The place whose name is Les Bains is a hot spring area that has been developed since ancient times.Henry IVIn 1605 of the era, the hot spring spa supervisor system started, and this was the first national hot spring policy in France. The general director was the doctor of the king, who had his disciples manage the hot springs in each region. While hot spring treatment by aristocrats and royalty became popular, free hot spring treatment facilities for the poor were also built in each hot spring area. There were 1650 hot springs in 60 and 1785 in 100, with more than 1,000 hot springs. In some of these hot spring resorts, monarchs, royal families, and celebrities visited the area, and the reputation of the hot springs increased. The number of medical care workers gradually increased, and in the latter half of the 18th century, accommodation facilities such as hotels and hospitals were built in hot spring areas. In 1772, the Royal Medical Commission (later the Royal Academy of Medical Sciences) was established to conduct a comprehensive survey and management of hot springs.
French RevolutionAfter that, the hot spring supervising doctor system started in place of the supervisor system of the royal era, and in the 19th century, staying in the hot spring area, which was a recreation and social activity, became popular, and the hot spring area became a resort. In 1806, hot spring gambling was officially allowedcasinoHas appeared. Since the industrial revolution has improved transportation and hot spring towns, and the number of wealthy people has increased, in the latter half of the 19th century, construction of large-scale hotels, publication of hot spring guides, upsurge of hot spring doctors, hot spring development investment boom, hot spring areas Tourism of hot springs has been rapidly promoted, including the activation of advertisements organized by. Also, the stay of hot springs by the royal family became very popular, and hot spring diplomacy was frequently performed. At the beginning of the 20th century, the number of authorized hot springs was 1400, and the number of hot spring resorts was 130.Mineral waterWas a big source of income for hot springs.World War IISince then, the treatment of hot springs has been incorporated into social security, and has rapidly become popular..
According to data from the 2000s, there are about 1200 certified hot springs and about 100 hot springs... Since the source spring is located in the mountainous area, it is mainly concentrated in the Pyrenees, Auvergne, Alps and Vosges. As a hot spring area,Aix-les-Bains,Evian-les-Bains,Ducks,Vichy,VittelIncluding famous places such asBagneres de Bigorre, Coature, luthon,Ax-les-Thermes,Le Mont-Dore, La Bourboule,Roya,Chatel-Guyon, Nellis, Pougues-les-Bains, Divonne, Ulinage, Bourbonne-les-Bains, Plombieres-les-Bains, Luxeuil, Contrexéville, Saran du Jura,Bagnoles de Lorne, Forge Resor, Santaman Resor, Balaruc, Lamar,Aix en ProvenceThere are many, such as Greu.
ジ ョ ー ジ ジ
ジ ョ ー ジ ジThe capital ofTbilisi OfAbanotsubanani (Georgian(Meaning hot spring town) is a famous hot spring town and was the origin of the name of Tbilisi.[Annotation 1].1829Toロシア OfpoetsIsAlexander PushkinAre also visiting the Orbeliani Baths in Abanotsuvani.
The United States of America
Although not as good as Japan in the Americas,Alaska mountains,Rocky mountainsNatural hot springs are scattered around some volcanic zones. Among them, especially famousWyomingNorthwest (partMontana-IdahoStraddle)Yellowstone National ParkThere are many hot springs (sources) in the parkGeyserAre scattered around. But,CaliforniaCalistogaHot spring areas that have been transformed into tourist destinations likeColoradoGlenwood SpringsLike hot spring waterPoolWith a few exceptions, most of them are natural open-air baths, and the development is not so advanced.
The most famous example of a hot spring resort developed in the United States isArkansasHot springsCities. The hot springs in the area are1541To spanish explorerHernando de SotoHowever, it is said that the discovery of a hot spring that the natives have been using for a long time is the beginning... This area has abundant hot water and is a relatively humid area in the United States, but as in Western Europe, there was basically no custom of "immersing in hot water", so it is used only for medical and medical purposes. Stayed in and scattered throughout the citycasino,boutiqueResort facilities such as these will support the development of the resort area. In addition, because of its nature as a hot spring resort,Second World WarDuring the time, treatment and health facilities for the injured were also set up. Today it is the number one hot spring resort in the United States, visited by 300 million people annually.
eastInAppalachian MountainsHot springs are scattered along the way. Since the eastern part of the United States is the earliest land of European settlement,George WashingtonIt is a hot spring area related toWest VirginiaNoya,Thomas JeffersonIs said to have visited and passedVirginia OfJefferson Pools, A luxury resort located in the neighborhood and visited by many celebritiesHomesteadThere are also hot spring resorts with a long history.
South Koreaandnorth koreaIn Japan, there is an "immersive" hot spring culture that is similar to Japan, and it is because the Japanese developed a hot spring on the Korean Peninsula with the annexation of Japan and South Korea. Both have few volcanoes, but there are many hot springs that emit high temperatures. However, there are cultural differences from Japan, and the first-time Japanese may experience culture shock (for example, have nothing when taking a bath). There is also a traditional steam bath called sweat steam.
TaiwanThe history of hot springs inBeitouで1894It is said that German German Quely discovered the hot spring.1896In theBeitou Hot SpringToOsakaGengo Hirata, who was born there, built a ryokan called "Tenguan" and surrounded the Army.SanatoriumEtc. are constructed. These are the ones that were recorded, but in the explanation that the effect of the hot spring was written,Chimoto hot springlikeIndigenous people of TaiwanThere is also a description and hearsay that he used it.Pingtung CountyKurashiki Township OfSijukei Hot SpringIsTakamatsunomiyaThe bathtub used by the couple remains today.Era of Japanese ruleToPolicemenThe hot spring inn built as a resort forChiang Kai-shek OfEra of reignAs "Kemitsu Sanso"Taiwan policeIt is now available to the general public. The hot springs in Taiwan are generally used in swimwear, but they represent Japanese-style hot springs.Japanese-styleIt means that you can use it without wearing anything like a Japanese hot spring... In some hot springsHot spring eggThere is also a place to boil.
Famous hot spring powers in OceaniaNew ZealandSince there are many volcanoes in Japan, there are many hot spring areas. AboriginalMaoriPeople also knew of the effects of hot springs and used them for medical treatment. However, in the first half of the 20th century, we tried to develop a stay-type hot spring resort by focusing on the abundance of hot spring water throughout the country. It didn't make much progress. Today, New Zealand's hot springs are tied together in terms of health such as sports and exercise, and are developing as a recreational facility for sweating after sports and outdoor activities. The hot spring pool that uses hot spring water is very popular and is the main facility in the hot spring area.
Hot spring symbol/hot spring mark
- ^ One dayKingdom of IberiaRoyalVaftung IIs huntingPeregrine FalconWas hurtpheasantHave been caught. Then as the king walked, his falcon and pheasant suddenly fell into the water and died. When the king confirmed, there was a boiled falcon, a pheasant, and warm water, a hot spring. Then Vaftung I went to the capital of the Kingdom of IberiaMushhetaMoved to the location of Abanotsubanani,GeorgianMeans "warm" and "warm place"Tbilisi(Asom Tavruri:ႲႡႨႪႨႱႨ, Muhedli: Tbilisi) Was named.
- ^ Electricity is generated when pressure is applied to crystals such as quartz (Piezoelectric effect). When the ground is strained, crystalline rocks in the ground cause a piezoelectric effect and store electromagnetic energy. The stored electromagnetic energy is emitted as electromagnetic waves,microwaveSame asMicrowaveWhen it is emitted at the wavelength of, it becomes hot water because it heats the water contained in the ground like a microwave oven. In addition, it is known that when a voltage is applied to a crystal that causes a piezoelectric effect, distortion is caused on the contrary (inverse piezoelectric effect).
- ^ Kanagawa Hot Spring Geological Research Institute,(1) Definition of hot springs according to the hot spring method, Viewed May 2020, 8.
- ^ Data about hot springs Ministry of the Environment (browsed on July 2018, 7)
- ^ "Thermae Nippon: Relationship between hot springs and archaeological sites... Archaeological research advances". Mainichi Newspapers(July 2014, 2) 2014/2/23Browse. [Broken link]
- ^ "Pregnant women take hot spring baths OK for the first time in 32 years from "contraindications" Ministry of the Environment". MSN Sankei News (February 2014, 4). As of February 3, 2014オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2014/4/4Browse.
- ^ Media events and hot springs-hosted by "Kokumin Shimbun -Bulletin of the Faculty of Education, Gunma University Humanities and Social Sciences Volume 54 67-83 2005 Akiko Sekido
- ^ "Onsen trains are closed on weekends at the end of the year and the beginning of the year" "Asahi Shimbun" December 25, 12, 2 pages
- ^ <Tamagawa Onsen> Sweat soaked in hot water"Kahoku Shimpo』April 2017, 7 (viewed June 22, 2018)
- ^ [Food frontier] "Onsen vegetables" are popular and used as fertilizer "Sweet up" "Nikkei MJ] December 2018, 12 (food side).
- ^ [Eco live plus] Town development with hot spring heat Shrimp farming and snow melting..."Asahi Shimbun" evening edition May 2018, 5 (viewed July 15, 2018)
- ^ Hot spring hydrogen sulfide exceeds the standard in 7 locations in Hokkaido 33 in Japan Doshin web Hokkaido Shimbun (January 2017, 1) Read January 17, 2017
- ^ "Nano mist, ultrasonic hot spring water concentration equipment sale for inns”. Nihon Keizai Shimbun electronic version (November 2012, 11). 2017/1/30Browse.
- ^ a b c d e History of France hot spring resort Hiroyuki Narizawa, "Economics" Vol. 9, No. 1, Miyazaki Institute of Management, Economic Association, 2000
- ^ How to walk the earth Szechenyi hot spring "Swimwear is worn not only in the pool but also in the hot springs."
- ^ Hot spring circumstances in modern France Hiroyuki Narizawa, "Economics" Vol. 9, No. 2, Miyazaki Institute of Management, Economic Association, 2001
- ^ "Abanotubani -Tbilisi's Historical Sulfer bath quarter". Georgian Tour. 2020/2/9Browse.
- ^ "Soaking in Sulfur: A History of the Tbilisi Bathhouses". theculturetrip.com. 2020/2/9Browse.
- ^ Paige, John C. and Laura Woulliere Harrison. Out of the Vapors: A Social and Architectural History of Bathhouse Row, Hot Springs National Parkp.24. US Department of the Interior. 1987. (PDF file)[Broken link]
- ^ Nikkei BP"Travel Expert Books Taiwan Hot Springs & Spa"
- Mud volcano
- Hot spring method
- Drinking fountain
- Hot spring analysis report
- Amount of discharge
- Japan hot spring climate physics society
- Open hot water legend
- List of hot springs in Japan
- public bathhouse
- Communal bath
- Hot spring town
- Hot spring village
- Hot spring inn
- Day trip bath facility
- Hell kettle
- Around the hot water
- 100 hot springs in Japan
- Kurort -Medical facility that uses hot springs as medical treatment by doctors in Germany
- Hot spring egg
- Onsen daughter