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Dietary habits based on plants and vegetables have been receiving particular attention these days from the viewpoint of environmental protection and animal protection.

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Environmental protection

Environmental protection(Environmental protection) is by individuals, organizations and governmentsnatural environmentIt is a practice of protection.[1] Its purpose is to conserve natural resources and the existing natural environment, repair damage if possible and reverse the flow.[2]

OverconsumptionとPopulation growth,Science and technologyDue to the pressure ofBiological / physical environmentIs sometimes permanently deteriorating.This has been recognized and the governmentEnvironmental destructionI have just begun to limit the activities that cause. Since the 1960sEnvironmental movementIs variousEnvironment issuesHas brought more awareness to.Environmental load due to human activityProtective measures are sometimes debated due to disagreements about the degree of.

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外部 リンク

Animal welfare

Animal welfare(Animal welfare) is generally the pain that humans give to animals.stressPsychological of animals by activities such as minimizing pain such as幸福It refers to the idea of ​​realizing. From the word "animal welfare", emotional "protection"Nursing care-MedicalIncluding社会 保障Reminiscent of "welfareBecause it may be misunderstood as "", do not translate it into Japanese in Japan.Animal welfareMay be written as[1]..Conversely, animal welfare is often translated into Japanese as "animal welfare" or "livestock welfare."Animal Sanctuary (Animal Sanctuary)Animal sanctuary) Called.

Animal welfare is an idea born in the West since modern times[2].. Animal welfare is an improvement in the treatment of animals centered on the "3 Rs (3R principles)" and "5 freedoms" to reduce experiments on animals.[3].


Zoo,aquariumRaised in, etc., used industriallyDomesticated animals, Used scientifically in research facilities, etc.Laboratory animal, Keeped in ordinary householdsPet animals,FurthermoreWild animalsMany animals, including those, have their own characteristics and behaviors for the benefit of humans.lifeEtc. are often heavily regulated. While allowing such use, animal welfare is an idea to give as much consideration as possible to avoiding and eliminating the pain felt by animals at the site.[4].

Animal rightsUnlike animal welfare, humans do not deny the use or killing of animals[4].. However, if it is unavoidable to kill the animal, use the least painful technique possible (Euthanasia) Is required[4].. The specific method is銃,Decapitation,Electrocution,MicrowaveThere are irradiation, killing traps, etc., but it is necessary to kill them instantly by either method.[5].

On the other hand, there are criticisms that animal welfare may give the false impression that exploitation of animals is declining, provide a way to alleviate the moral anxiety of citizens, and may justify exploitation from animals.[6].


Animal welfare is difficult to define scientifically[4].. The reason may be that there are many factors such as health and happiness that differ in importance and meaning depending on individual values, and therefore it is required to present a reference value.[7].

Basically, the following three concepts are used to explain animal welfare.[7].

Subjective experience
Considering the decline in happiness due to pain, fear, and frustration[7].. Applies only to organisms that can experience subjective emotions[7].
Biological functionality
Emphasis on reducing biological functionality due to illness, injury and malnutrition[7].Ethologyof,Physiologyof,PathologyDepending on the target index, there are many cases where stress is used as an index.Anterior pituitaryとAdrenal cortexActivation,GlucocorticoidShown by increased secretion, etc.[7].
Original nature
Based on the idea that animals should have the freedom to perform most of their natural behaviors naturally[7].. One of the drawbacks of this concept is that animals in nature are always struggling to survive with problems with their natural nature, and it is pointed out that the natural state does not always satisfy animal welfare.[7].

In animal welfare of domestic animals, in 1922The United KingdomProposed by the Livestock Animal Welfare Expert Committee ofFour freedomsIs internationally recognized[4].

  • Freedom from hunger and thirst (securing feeding and water supply)
  • Freedom from discomfort (supply of appropriate breeding environment)
  • Freedom from pain, injury and illness (application of prevention / diagnosis / treatment)
  • Freedom of normal behavior (appropriate space, stimulus, presence of peers)
  • Freedom from fear and suffering (proper handling)

In terms of animal ethics, the term animal welfare sometimes includes the meaning of animal welfare. The Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary describes animal welfare as "breeding environment, diet, routine care, disease prevention and treatment, guarantee of relief from pain, protection of animals from unnecessary discomfort and pain, human abuse and animals. Is defined as "avoidance of selfish use"[8].

実 例

Domesticated animals

The idea of ​​animal welfareAnimal husbandryHas a great influence on Japan, and activities and research are active mainly in Europe and the United States.[9].. As a specific example, avoid breeding in a narrow enclosure where you cannot move,slaughterIn, a method that does not bother as much as possible is implemented.

Temple Granding, a prominent animal behavior expert who tried to reform the slaughterhouse to create a humane slaughterhouse, designed half of the slaughterhouses in the United States and was asked about the contradiction between humanity and slaughter. They say that it makes sense to make animals as comfortable as possible during their lives, similar to giving morphine to end-stage patients.[10].

Exhibited animals

Basically, it is a general principle to keep animals until the end of their lifespan (lifetime breeding).[11].. In addition, in public breeding facilities such as zoos and aquariums, there is an active movement to review breeding and exhibition methods by incorporating the concept of animal welfare. Such "attempts to improve the living environment by promoting the expression of species-specific behavior and improving biological functions such as health and reproduction"Environmental enrichmentTo say[12].. It's done at the zooEcological exhibitionIs an example[13].

In addition,TV programAnimals that appear in etc.ChimpanzeeEtc.) has become a big problem in animal welfare because it impairs the original habits of the species due to overproduction of the program.[14].

Laboratory animal

In life science tests, "Replacement" is a method that does not use animals, the number of animals used is reduced (Reduction), and the pain caused to animals is reduced (Refinement).3R principlesIs being promoted[15].. This is also recognized in the Boronia Declaration adopted at the 1999rd International Conference on Alternatives to Animal Experiments held in 3.[15][16].

学会Some research papers that do not mention that consideration is given to animal welfare will not be accepted.[17].

Pet animals

Animal welfare problems are caused by the frequent breeding boom of specific animals and the incomplete breeding of animals by breeders, which causes unplanned breeding of domestic animals and sometimes poor breeding environments.[11].

In Japan, from June 2012 to pet dealers at night from 6:8 pm to 8:XNUMX amDog,catExhibition was banned[18].

Wild animals

Alien Biological LawThen.Exotic speciesIt is stipulated that euthanasia should be done in a way that is as painless as possible when exterminating.[19].

whalingFrom that point of view, the electric harpoon, which takes a short time to die, has been revived.

Animal Welfare Act

Established comprehensive measures necessary to promote animal welfarelaw.The United States of AmericaIt exists as a law in (1966) and the United Kingdom (2002). In addition, there are many countries that operate laws that require animal welfare in a narrow sense. in Japan,Animal crueltyForbidAnimal protection lawEtc. are applicable. However, in Japan, under the Act on Welfare and Protection of Animals, consideration for pets is advancing, but there is also a name for livestock, so understanding is not progressing, and there are calls for a change in the name and a new legal system. There is also.

2019 ,British labor partyIs one of the promises from the perspective of animal protectionlobster,crabI put up the contents that went into the cooking method that prohibits boiling alive[20].

Criticism of animal welfare

It is generally believed that animal welfare regulations should be in place, but the regulations give consumers who could choose a vegetarian diet the false image that they are ethically made because of the regulations. It has been pointed out that regulations are not good because they make things easier, help advertise the livestock industry and boost consumption of livestock products.[21]

There is nothing humane in the reality of animal slaughter, which kills hundreds of millions of animals while being aware of costs. It has been pointed out that those who appeal for animal welfare will implicitly understand that they will raise livestock.[22]

Francion says animal welfare is more likely to make the livestock industry more efficient, to make it more acceptable to society, and to contribute to expansion than to eliminate livestock.[23]

It has also been pointed out that if animal welfare options are added to factory livestock or abolition options, the abolition options are likely to be overlooked.[24]

Furthermore, it has been pointed out that slaughter is a betrayal of animal trust, even if animal welfare is thoroughly implemented.[25]

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  1. ^ Shusuke Sato "With Supervision" "Science of Consideration for Animals Aiming for Animal Welfare" Chikusan Publishing Co., Ltd., April 2009, 4.ISBN 978-4-88500-428-5.
  2. ^ Akihiko Hirasawa (2014). “Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries 25 Overseas Agriculture and Trade Situation Survey and Analysis Project (Europe) Report Part III Outline of Animal Welfare Policy in EU (PDF)”. Norinchukin Research Institute. October 2018th, 7Browse.
  3. ^ Tetsuji Iseta"Animal welfare and memorial ethics (PDF) "Kansai Experimental Animal Research Association Bulletin" December 2016, pp. 12-6.
  4. ^ a b c d e So Ishikawa "What is animal welfare"Journal of the Japanese Society of Wildlife Medicine," Vol. 15, No. 1, 2010, pp. 1-3, two:10.5686 / jjzwm.15.1.
  5. ^ American Veterinary Medical Association (2007) (PDF). AVMA Guidelines on Euthanasia (Report). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of 2012-7-12.. https://web.archive.org/web/20120712174941/http://www.avma.org/issues/animal_welfare/euthanasia.pdf October 2012th, 6Browse.. 
  6. ^ Sue Donaldson, Will Kymlicka, Political Community of Humans and Animals, Shogakusha, 2017, p. 5.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Ian JH Duncan, David Fraser, "Chapter 2 Understanding Animal Welfare," "Science of Animal Welfare, Aiming for Animal Welfare," Chikusan Publishing Co., Ltd., April 2009, 4.ISBN 978-4-88500-428-5.
  8. ^ Animal --Medical Dictionary. The Free Dictionary.Retrieved January 2010, 11.
  9. ^ Shusuke Sato, Tomoo Tanaka, Mitsuru Fukasawa "European Union Aims for Animal Welfare Livestock: EU funded project Welfare Quality Final Report Meeting Participation Report" "Study of Livestock" Vol. 64, No. 6, June 2010, 6- Page 599.
  10. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, pp. 216-217.
  11. ^ a b Ministry of the Environment "Explanation of standards for breeding and storage of exhibited animals (PDF) "October 2012th, 6Browse.
  12. ^ Katsuji Uetake and Toshio Tanaka "Environmental enrichment and its effects in industrial animals"Journal of the Japan Society for Livestock Management," Vol. 39, No. 1, 2003, pp. 5-8, two:10.20652 / jjlm.39.1_5.
  13. ^ Yoshikazu Ueno "Report of the 3rd International Conference on Environmental Enrichment: Global Situation of Environmental Enrichment"Animal Psychology Research," Vol. 48, No. 1, 1998, pp. 65-68, two:10.2502 / janip.48.65.
  14. ^ Daisuke Fukui "Animal welfare on display: Health management incorporating wildlife medicine to attract people"Japanese journal of zoo and wildlife medicine," Vol. 15, No. 1, 2010, pp. 15-24, two:10.5686 / jjzwm.15.15.
  15. ^ a b Yasuo Ohno "Importance and Issues of Alternatives to Animal Experiment Research-Problems of Animal Experiments at the Society of Pharmacology-"Journal of Pharmacology, Japan, Vol. 125, No. 6, 2005, pp. 325-329," two:10.1254 / fpj.125.325.
  16. ^ Yasuo Ohno "Animal Experiments Recommended by the Japanese Pharmacological Society-Evaluation and Relief of Pain- "Introduction" and New Animal Experiment Guidelines of the Japanese Pharmacological Society"Journal of Pharmacology, Japan, Vol. 129, No. 1, 2007, pp. 5-9," two:10.1254 / fpj.129.5.
  17. ^ Tetsuro Matsuzawa "Psychological well-being: Thinking about a new perspective on animal welfare"Animal Psychology Research," Vol. 46, No. 1, 1996, pp. 31-33, two:10.2502 / janip.46.31.
  18. ^ Pamphlet "Partially revised the Ministerial Ordinance of the Act on Welfare and Management of Animals" Animal Protection Management Office, General Affairs Division, Natural Environment Bureau, Ministry of the Environment
  19. ^ Gen Asano "Euthanasia of wild animals (euthanasia)"Japanese Society of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine," Vol. 15, No. 1, 2010, pp. 5-8, two:10.5686 / jjzwm.15.5.
  20. ^ "Resumption of commercial whaling stopped = British opposition announces promise”. Jiji Press (August 2019, 8). October 2019th, 8Browse.
  21. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, p. 215.
  22. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, pp. 218-219.
  23. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, p. 220.
  24. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, pp. 220-222.
  25. ^ Sherry F. Cove, Chapter 13 Answering Questions about Vegetarians, New Review, 2016, p. 223.

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