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🍴 | Paper craft is more realistic "Tomica biscuits" renewal


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More realistic paper craft "Tomica biscuits" renewal

 
If you write the contents roughly
The size of paper crafts (6 types of ladder cars, ambulances, police cars, taxis, sports cars, and trucks) has increased, and it has evolved into a more realistic shape.
 

Nissin Cisco (Taito-ku, Tokyo) will renew the "Tomica Biscuits" and release them on March 2021, 3. ... → Continue reading

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sports car

sports car(sports carWhat isAutomobile OfCategoryIt is one of the practical use, and it puts more emphasis on "enjoying sports driving" rather than transporting means of transportation and goods in practice.design-development ofIt is a car that has been used, and is a car that is taken out of the garage not only as a daily foot but also for enjoying driving.

Overview

In a broad sense, it is not fixed to a specific body shape, but traditionally it is a sports type2 doors・ Two-seater cars are often talked about as sports cars.Lightweight sportsIs a typical example, and is mainly excellent in exercise performance at high speeds.On the other hand, even if it has the performance and style that can be called a sports car, if it is designed to emphasize comfort and ride quality rather than mobility, "Grand tourer"Sporty car", "Sporty car", "Sporty car", "Sporty car", "Sporty car", "Sporty car"Specialty carIs sometimes called.

4 doors for passengerssedanOr almosthatchbackCentralCompact carHowever, there are cases where driving performance is more important than practicality, and grades based on specifications for motor sports are included in sports cars (in this case, ""Sports sedan"Or"Hot hatchAlso called).

There are no clear rules regarding the criteria for such distinction, and it can be said that it is basically left to personal preference and the discretion of the automobile manufacturer.And therefore, there is constant debate among car enthusiasts about the definition of a sports car.

Especially in the present age when development costs are soaring due to stricter exhaust gas regulations and safety standards, it has become difficult to develop traditional two-door sports cars, which are expensive to develop despite the fact that many sales cannot be expected. There is.Therefore, the definition of sports car tends to expand, and it was tuned exclusively.Minivan,Crossover SUVIn some cases, automobile manufacturers and journalists call it a sports car, or describe it as "just like a sports car."However, among the conservative enthusiasts who know the radical sports cars of the old age, modern sports cars are not enough, and considering the background of the times and pricing, the performance that seems to be enough to be a sports carcoupeHowever, many criticize that "this is a sporty car, not a sports car."

When it comes to opinions that have expanded the definition to a greater extent, "light truckEven if it is used for motor sports, if you think of it as a sports car, it is a sports car. " I don't call it. "For the time being, there is a seemingly plausible saying that "sports cars start at the end of passenger cars and end at the beginning of racing cars."[1]However, what is meant by the "passenger car" in this case is debatable.

It is a standard unique to JapanLight carAccording to the statistics by car type in Japan,MinivanAll light vehicle standards such as "light vehicle" may be categorized as "light vehicle", and the driving performance was emphasized.Honda S660,Suzuki Alto Works, The Alto Turbo RS,Daihatsu Copen(Including Copen GR SPORT, which is also sold by the parent company Toyota), may be classified as a light vehicle instead of a sports car.[2].

Off-roadDeveloped for sports driving inLadder frameStructure +Four-wheel driveIs not a sports carCross countryEnter the car (black) group. AlsoSUVThe official name of the is ``Sport Utility Vehicle'' (multipurpose vehicle for sports), but in this case it is a car for comfortably performing sports such as hunting and outdoor activities, and it is distinguished from sports cars that do sports driving. There is.

History

Sports cars are one of the oldest in the car category.1913 OfHispano SuizaThe 3.5-liter car is said to be the first car in the world to be called a sports car.[3].. As a sports car of the same period,Bugatti Type 13,Boxhole・There is Prince Henry[4].

Car competitionIn the early days of the race, sports cars were sometimes called "sports cars," but in reality, race cars and sports cars had not yet been clearly classified.Most of the racing models these daysroofAnd againボ デ ィからタ イ ヤCalled an open wheelDesignHowever, the tire was integrated with the body later.fenderThe format covered by will appear. The open wheel type race category isGrand Prix"(AfterF1) Has already been established, and for the purpose of distinguishing from these, competition vehicles other than open wheels have begun to be called "sports cars".

Initially, the car race itself (especially for long distances)Public roadIs often held incircuitIt was not necessary to distinguish between sports cars and competition vehicles since it was common for competition vehicles to run on public roads up to the circuit and participate in the competition as it was after the construction. ). After that, as the performance and speed of automobiles increased, so did the sophistication of automobile competition and the tightening of safety standards for ordinary cars, and the gap between the structure of competition cars and ordinary cars became larger. Eventually, the competition vehicle is "Racing car(Racing car), "race car", "racer", etc.As the difference with the competition vehicle became clear, mass-produced vehicles that were supposed to be applied to the competition vehicle changed to be called sports cars, but as the times went down and the specialization of racing cars progressed, sports Cars and racing cars have less in common.

From these circumstances, a sports car in motor sports refers to a two-seat vehicle manufactured for racing, and two seats for public road operation, which is generally regarded as a sports car.Passenger carIs a Grand Touring (GT) car in motorsport.Ferrari BBAnd many moreFerrariThis is why passenger cars call themselves GT. In contrast, the "S", which means a sports car in a Ferrari car, is given125S,159S,512SIsSports car racingIt is a competition car manufactured for.[Note 1]

*For the definition of "sports car" in motor sports, see "Sports car (motor sports)See.

Of the cars that emphasize exercise performance, the "sports car" is currentlyPublic roadThe "racing car", a car designed primarily for running incircuitA car used in a car competition held in.

Sports car in Japan

In Japan after the Second World War, practical cars such as auto tricycles and trucks were mainly made, but in the 1960s of the high economic growth period, consumers began to develop their tastes, and domestic manufacturers started full-scale production. Is said to be a sports carHonda S500,Toyota Sports 800,Toyota 2000GT,First Mazda Cosmo Sports,Nissan Fairlady Z S30 type,Mitsubishi Galant GTOStarted to appear.

In the 1970s, many manufacturers developed and manufactured sports cars, and as a famous model in the 1980sNissan skyline,Nissan Silvia,Mazda RX-7,Toyota Celica,Mitsubishi StallionIt was manufactured and sold, and became a car that young people at that time would prefer. They areBubble economyIt was one of the popular models until around 1992 when the car collapsed.

However, in Japan, after the collapse of the bubble economy (after 1994)Kyoto ProtocolDue to changes in environmental awareness, such asToyota Supra,Nissan Skyline GT-R,Mazda RX-72-door coupe style with an emphasis on hobbies[Note 2]The model that belongs to falls to the bottom in terms of sales. In addition, 12Exhaust gas regulationsAs a result, sports cars were forced into a harsh environment. Of whichHonda NSXAlthough there were some cars that cleared the emission regulations at the time through minor changes, as a whole, it was a minority. Of these, Toyota2002Since the sale of A8 type Supra in August2012April ZN4 type86Approximately 10 years before the start of sales, Mitsubishi chose to temporarily withdraw from the sports car business,Lancer EvolutionOther sports cars were abolished for the same reason. Other cars were forced to reduce their size and take environmental measures[Note 3].Although the lineage of sports cars did not completely disappear, in terms of sales, it was treated as cold as a sedan andLine of deathTreatedCategories(Genre) And for sports carsUnfavorable age (winter age)WelcomeThat will be the case today.

Background of unfavorable sports car

The fundamental problem isYouth away from carHowever, the concept of "youth away from the car" itself has not been established to satisfy everyone. Therefore, the following contents are not specific to sports cars, and there are some points that overlap with the contents found in a survey on young people leaving their cars.

Financial reason
Instability in employment of young people, which is the main target (= instability of income,povertyBecomingEmployment ice age(See ), etc., and the cooling of the demand for purchasing the car itself also had an effect. Also,Driver's licenseEven with the acquisition, the number of people who give up on purchasing costs or simply do not own a car (not even the concept of buying a sports car) is increasing.
Even if you decide to buy it, even if you compare only the price of the car itself, the price is getting higher. For example, we adopt an ear model system that evolves every yearNissan GT-RTake (R35) as an example[Note 4],
December 2007 model--Approximately 12 million yen
December 2010 model--Approximately 11 million yen
December 2013 model--Approximately 12 million yen
December 2016 model--Approximately 7 million yen
December 2019 model--Approximately 6 million yen
However, this time every 3 years, but even if you compare only by price (without taking into consideration the secondary factors such as the inflation rate and the difference in design changes due to the year model system), the price tends to increase overall. It is also true that the number of people who cannot afford to buy sports cars is increasing due to the high cost of purchasing sports cars.
However, this is a tendency of the automobile industry as a whole;Compact carIs no exception. The same sports car and light carDaihatsu CopenTake for example[5],
Released in June 2002 Active top (6 MT) About 5 million yen
Released in June 2014 Robe (6 MT) About 5 million yen
Therefore, even for light vehicles, which are treated as relatively cheap vehicle types, prices are rising, although not significantly.
Even if the purchase cost can be increased by using a loan, for example, it is often the case that the maintenance cost is abandoned. Appeared in 2003Green tax systemInfluence of2004One of the factors is the rise in gasoline prices due to the rise in global crude oil prices, which is becoming more noticeable around the world, but the tax burden is likely to increase.[Note 5]However, due to the high accident rate and theft rate, the premium rate for voluntary insurance is set to a high level, and the maintenance burden due to the use of parts specific to sports cars is large. It has also been shunned in terms of maintenance costs when owning it.
In connection with this, maintenance costs will always be incurred just by owning it, so if we focus on just one means of transportation, the percentage of people choosing light vehicles, compact cars, and other vehicles with low maintenance costs will increase. Therefore, it can be said that the popularity of sports cars has decreased relatively.
Changing consumer values ​​for cars
In the era of high economic growth, the economic power of Japanese people is increasing year by year, and the performance of cars is also improving year by year.Even if you own a coupe that has very few seats and loading capacity, ``I will replace it in the near future, so in the future For many people, the car is "for a short period of time," and because there were often differences in the performance of the car, we bought a new one for the purpose of the performance of the car. I was able to buy and buy it (for about 1 to 4 years), so even if I own a sports car, I didn't care much. Until the 1990s, it was practical (=LifeThere was also a status of purchasing sedans, coupes, sports cars, which are more admired than the ones that were actually easy to use, and the ones that were bought on the way home from shopping can be loaded (loading capacity).
On the other handVolkswagen Golf,Rover MiniAlthough there was a modern model such as a hatchback with practicality that appeared in the 1980s, they were imported cars and were not appreciated by consumers other than car enthusiasts. In addition, there were many Japanese cars with such a concept, but there were quite a few cases where it would end in one generation. Therefore, there were candidates at this time, but they were not willing to buy, and in addition, the sedans and coupe were able to meet the required practicality at the time, and as a result, those cars were bought. It was also.
However, after the collapse of the bubble economy, the number of people who own cars has decreased. Higher than the criteria for those who want to buy a car, it is possible to continue riding without buying or buying even if children are born or increased (= there is a rear seat, it is easy to get in the rear seat) and the practicality of the car itself Became important. Along with this, it has become conscious of owning one unit for a long time. In such a situation, it was remade to fit in the frame of a mini car, and it appeared after the bubble burstSuzuki Wagon RWith the practicality of light vehiclesLight tall wagonThe concept of was established. Also, the minivanMitsubishi Delica(First generation, second generation) etc.Commercial vehicleBased on the cab over styleOne box carAs seen from later years, there was a car model called a type of minivan from the later years, but the first generation in 1990Toyota EstimaAs a result, the concept of practical minivans that consumers want was established, and the genre of minivans appeared in the market.
Various factors overlap,RV(SUV,MinivanEtc.) orStation Wagon, At the endhatchbackOriginating of compact cars and light carsLight tall wagonBegan to flourish, and the choices other than sedans and coupes increased dramatically. As a resultSpecialty CarCoupe-type passenger cars, includingSUV-Minivan-hatchback-Tall wagonThe proportion of people who ask for such things has greatly increased. In addition, the number of cases where the performance of the car has improved significantly compared with the past has decreased, so the number of people who replace by other reasons such as deterioration over time due to the age of the vehicle and changes in user's hobbies and preferences is also affected. did.
In fact,The fact that when you ask modern young people to think about future cars, there are many ideas that you can think about dancing in the car, chatting, or as a space rather than a machine.The change in values ​​can be seen from[6].. Therefore, the manufacturers who sell the products are shunned from developing sports cars (and coupes and sedans), which are fields that cannot be sold, and SUVs and minivans that sell reliably and stably.Light car,Compact carTended to concentrate on the development of. There are people who argue in the streets that "the youth's leaving the car is because car makers don't make affordable sports cars," but in fact, the causality is the opposite: "Youths are positive even if they make sports cars. It is a situation that we do not buy it”, even if we look at it by purchase classYoung people with poor financial resourcesThanAn elderly person who has a relatively large amount of financial resourcesAre willing to buy a sports carThere are quite a few car types. Therefore, it can be said that the young people have just preferred minivans and minicars to sports cars.
Even if I own another one,Car sharingOr a car that can be used for a monthly fee including voluntary insurance and maintenancesubscriptionService (eg ・KINTO) Is starting to improve, and the number of registered sports cars is increasing. The fact that the number of registrants is increasing[7]Therefore, there is an increase in the number of people who like driving but do not own it.Therefore, there is also a view that the number of individuals who own cars is decreasing, rather than leaving cars including sports cars. There is also a view that the formula "=car leaving" is not correct.

21st Century Sports Car Culture

Although cars belonging to sports cars were developed in the early 2000s, they are no longer the models that contribute to sales as they used to be, and the lineup has become very limited. In connection with it,Sports sedan,Sports wagon,Hot hatchA model that appealed to the existence of a sports car through minor changes and re-introduction as[Note 6]However, the effect was limited and it did not lead to leveraging sales. For ToyotaMR-SSince the number of vehicles sold fell to around 1000 a year, the coupe disappeared from the lineup. In addition, since the appearance of new coupe sports cars was small, it is in the area of ​​sporty cars and family cars in the market against the backdrop of the dramatic decrease in coupe and the shift to FF.Mark IIThree brothersLaurel,CefiroThe number of cases in which such a car model has become a base for tuning cars has increased due to its excellent features and the large number of vehicles in circulation.

But shouted out loudYouth away from carManufacturers could not overlook the absence of flagship coupes such as sports cars and sports cars, and they started leveraging sports cars again since the 00s. Carry out multiple world championships especially in motor sportsToyotaToyota is known for its car enthusiasts who participate in the raceAkio ToyodaWe are actively promoting sports cars under the president,LFAIn addition to the development of the new model, in 2009, the sports-grade "G's" and the complete model "GRMN" were launched. In 2017, we launched the sports car brand "GR", like Vitz GRMNHot hatchIn addition to the lineup of many tuning cars centered around the, it also suggests the development of hypercars. Also in 2012Fuji Heavy Industries(Subaru) Of a lightweight sports car jointly developed withToyota 86とSubaru BRZIn 2019, in collaboration with BMWGR SupraAlso released.

HondaAlthough there was a period when sports cars were not produced for a while, they have been regularly introducing sports cars to the domestic market since the 2010s. It was a monopoly overseasCivic OfType RIn addition to domestic sales of the light weight hybrid coupe ahead of other companiesCR-ZDeveloped. In addition, a light coupe whose youth in his 20s was the development chiefS660Of the new hybrid supercarNSXAre born one after another.

Suzuki will be the 8th generationSuzuki AltoAfter the release of the model, the hot hatch models "turbo RS" and "works" were released as additional models, and the mini hot hatch that had been discontinued after the production of the 5th generation Alto was revived.NissanIs also newGT-R(R35) was introduced and gained high acclaim worldwide, and the fair lady also continued. furtherAutechWas developed as a tuning car brand in 2017. Other MazdaRoadster, SubaruWRX STi, DaihatsuCopenHas survived. Only,Mitsubishi TheLancer EvolutionWas discontinued and completely withdrawn from this field.

hybrid OfCompact carWas tuned forG's aquaSold more than 1 units a year[8]As can be seen from the above, sports cars since 2000 are required to have low fuel consumption and practicality as well as running performance. Therefore, like the GT-R, 86/BRZ, NSX, and CR-Z, the number of coupe-equipped vehicles with 2+2 seaters (with rear seats) and hybrid systems is increasing. The efforts of manufacturers to adapt to these trends in the world have gradually brought the Japanese sports car market back to life.

Manufacturers and brands that manufacture sports cars professionally

Manufacturers and brands that only manufacture traditional 2-door sports cars

Manufacturers and brands that also manufacture sports cars other than 2-door

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
注 釈
  1. ^ The name "S" in Ferrari passenger cars is based on the Berlinetta (as in the relationship between GTB and GTS).coupe) Spider on "B" (Roadster) Is used.
  2. ^ Strictly speaking, it is a 2-seater 2-door coupe model.
  3. ^ In the two-door coupe at NissanFairlady ZCorresponds to "a sedan treated as a high-end sports car"Mitsubishi Lancer Evolution,Impreza WRX STiThe model has been remodeled and production continues, and Mazda has a 4-door (strictly 2+2 door) specification.Mazda RX-8Was produced as a successor model.
  4. ^ Since the calculation becomes complicated and the name has been changed a little, standardize on the lowest price of information posted on the Goo-net source.Nissan GT-R(GTR) Catalog/Spec Information/Model/Grade ComparisonRetrieved November 2019, 11.
  5. ^ The Japanese automobile tax system is such that the larger the displacement, the higher the tax rate.
  6. ^ Subaru ImprezaWas mainly sedan and coupe until the second generation, but from the third generation mainly hatchback.
Source
  1. ^ Commentary on the complete encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika)
  2. ^ Statistics by Park 24[1]
  3. ^ Automobiles of the World ISBN-0 671-22485-9 P235
  4. ^ GAZOO.com 1912 Hispano Suiza 15T Note: GAZOO.com describes the 15 "Alfonso XIII" model of the Hispano-Suiza model 1912T as the world's first sports car. This is different from 3.5L.
  5. ^ Daihatsu Copen (COPEN) catalog, spec information, model, grade comparisonRetrieved February 2019, 11
  6. ^ A car writer gives a quick explanation! The latest trends in automobiles that can be seen in 3 minutes There is no car that the times demand for a sports car that is reviving!
  7. ^ Is it a lie to leave the car? Why Japanese people, especially young people, stop buying new cars (1/2 page)
  8. ^ The reason why the popularity of Toyota "Aqua" has not declined at all

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