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🍴 | [Hotto Motto] “Kyushu Chicken Nanban”, which has been loved for over 35 years, is finally in Kanto!


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[Hotto Motto] "Kyushu Chicken Nanban", which has been loved for over 35 years, is finally in Kanto!

 
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* Not sold at "Hotto Motto" stores in Shiga, Nara, Wakayama, Okayama, Hiroshima, Shikoku, and "Hotto Motto Grill".
 

In the take-out lunch "Hotto Motto", from April 2021, 4, "Kyushu Chicken South ..." → Continue reading

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Shiga

Shiga(Shigaken,British: Shiga Prefecture) IsJapan OfKinkiに 位置 す るPrefecture.Prefectural office location TheOtsu City.

Overview

Regulatory country OfOmi country(Jiangzhou) exactly matches. The prefecture name is the name of the county to which Otsu belonged.ShigaWas adopted from. The pronunciation of "Shiga" is "shi" in the common language.accentIs placed (head-height accent), but in the local area, an accent is often placed on "ga" (tail-height accent) (when "Shiga prefecture" is used, the common language and the local dialect are the same).

"Omi" originated from "Chichitsutankai", and Shiga Prefecture still has "Lake countryBiwa lakeIs a symbol of the prefecture. ,drinking waterIts existence is large as a source of tourism and tourism resources, and its regional characteristics differ across Lake Biwa.Only inland prefecture due to Lake BiwaFishing portAnd also the number20 portsAnd many. In the Middle Ages and early modern times when water trade was popularWakasa BayAboveAs a connecting point connecting Otsu andKatataA number of important inland water ports have developed.Tokaido-Higashisendo(Nakasendo)・Hokuriku RoadIt is also an important point of land transportation where theThose who control Omi control the world[1]Was often set in a war.

The convenience of transportation led to the outflow of human resources, and before the war, Shiga Prefecture had more outflow population than inflow population. Many people from the Middle Ages to the modern ageOmi MerchantAs a result, he made a foray to all over the country, and even came to the saying that "ayu from Lake Biwa goes out and grows."[Note 1].. After the Pacific War, the convenience of transportation was re-recognized due to the development of highways and the rise of truck distribution, and distribution centers, factories and R&D facilities have advanced one after another.JR West Japan OfUrban networkWith the expansionKyoto,Osaka OfBed townAs a result,Capital AreaIn regions other than Japan, it has become one of the few prefectures with population increase[2].. Development is progressing in the southern part of Kyoto and Osaka, and there is an economic gap with the northern part. In the southern part, there is a new residential area and in front of the station, there are lively apartments, while in the northern part and the western part, the rural scenery spreads out and there is a peaceful atmosphere. However, even in the Hubei and Koto regions where the population is stagnant,Regional regenerationActive discussions and practices[3].

Shiga PrefectureKinkiIt has a strong cultural and economic ties with Kyoto and Osaka,Chubu regionThe exchange with is also active.Kinki Area Improvement Law"Kinki area" defined inCentral Region Development and Maintenance ActIncluded in both of the “Chubu area” defined byKinki Block Governor's AssociationChubu Governor MeetingAttended both (as well as Fukui and Mie). In addition, together with Fukui prefecture, Gifu prefecture, Mie prefectureJapan Manaka RepublicWas established and is engaged in governor summits and cultural exchange projects.Aichi ExpoNow with 8 prefectures in ChubuChubu Millennium Symbiotic VillageWas jointly exhibited. The north is the intersection of Kinki, Chukyo, and Hokuriku,工場And logistics center installation plans also progress.

Incidentally,NHK Nagoya Broadcasting StationThe weather forecasts for the three Tokai prefectures produced by will always display forecasts for Shiga prefecture. Also, once broadcasted on the TV Tokyo series,Biwako BroadcastingBut it was broadcastMega TON News TODAYLast weather forecast[4] Then, at least after October 1985, when reporting the weather in each place after the national weather forecast, it was reported in the "Shiga / Tokai region" category, and the next "Kinki / Setouchi region" was reported to be west of Kyoto prefecture / Nara prefecture. Only was displayed.

With Lake Biwa, the people of the prefecture and the government are highly aware of the environment, and because of the concentration of environment-related companies and human resources, it is one of the best in Japan.Environmentally advanced prefectureKnown as[5][6].

This prefecture has Lake Biwa and the surrounding mountains (Hiei-san, Hira-san, Mt. Ibukiyama, Suzuka-san), and since the capital was established early on, it was an important hub for transportation from ancient times and the Middle Ages.Japanese historyThe above relationship is extremely strong, and there are abundant natural, historical, and cultural resources throughout the prefecture (see below).

Geography/Region

AroundMountains-MountainIs surrounded by Lake Biwa and the Omi basin.areaIs the 10th narrowest in Japan. More than half of the area is mountainous, and about 6/1 is Lake Biwa,Residential area TheOsakaNarrower than.

terrain

climate

The whole areaInland climateHowever, the north is of the Hokuriku/San'in typeSea of ​​Japan side climate, In the southPacific climateandSeto Inland Sea climateAlso has. Unlike other regions, there are no mountains at the boundary between the climate on the Sea of ​​Japan side and the climate on the Pacific side, and the major feature is that the climate gradually changes in the same flat land extending along the lakeshore. However, due to Lake Biwa, summer heat and winter cold are rather mild compared to other basins. Most of Kosai and Hubei are in heavy snowfall areasHeavy snowfallHas been designated asYogo TownIs the only region west of Kinki and is the southernmost special heavy snowfall area in Japan.

Record of deepest snowfall and snowfall in the past

At Mt. Ibukiyama on February 2, 2, 14MetersI observed the snowfall. This is the world record for officially observed snowfall[7].The main heavy snowfall areas in Shiga Prefecture are divided into four regions: Kuchiki Village in the western part of the prefecture, Makino Hara in the northwestern part of the prefecture, Yogo Town in the northernmost part of the prefecture, and Maibara Kotsuhara in the northeastern part of the prefecture.[Source required]

Above all, former Yogo-cho, Nagahama CityKataoka-Niu VillageHas recorded high numbers of snowfall. Nakagawachi, located in the northernmost part of the town, in 1981Heavy snowfallSometimes 6 meters 55centimeterRecorded[8].. Especially in 1936, when it was said that there was a lot of snow, none of them came from an official meteorological observation facility, but it recorded 7 meters and 30 centimeters at Obari and 7 meters and 20 centimeters at Nakagawachi. "The Cruel Story of Japan, Part 4 Society without Security" (Heibonsha, 1960) states that the northern part of Niu is a disaster of snow: "In this area, there are 20 shaku (about 6 meters) normal and 30 shaku (about 9 shaku). It piled up more than 30 shaku in the heavy snow this year. That place is like a village in Okugawa.”[9].. Also at the eastern foot of the Hira MountainsHira gratedNorthwestLocal windAnd the one that blows in late March is "Hira eight lecturesIt's called "" and has become a feature of the coming of spring.

Normal values ​​in various areas of Shiga Prefecture (statistical period: 1981-2010)[10], Maibara 2001-2010)[11]
Average price
(Monthly)
HubeiKotoWestern OmiSouthern OmiHigashiomiKoga
NagahamaMaibara
Asahi
HikoneTakashima
Imazu
Otsu CityOmi HachimanHigashiomi City
Sakuragawa East
Koka City
Yogo Town YanagaseTang GuoMinami KomatsuKayanouraShigarakiTsuchiyama
average
temperature
(
Warmest month26.3
(May)
25.8
(May)
27.1
(May)
25.9
(May)
26.6
(May)
27.1
(May)
26.1
(May)
24.3
(May)
25.0
(May)
Coldest month2.6
(May)
2.0
(May)
3.7
(May)
2.5
(May)
3.6
(May)
3.9
(May)
2.8
(May)
1.4
(May)
1.9
(May)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
Most months320.1
(May)
189.9
(May)
260.1
(May)
217.7
(May)
208.6
(May)
242.1
(May)
229.2
(May)
204.2
(May)
194.4
(May)
207.7
(May)
212.1
(May)
Minimum month159.1
(May)
96.1
(May)
94.2
(May)
84.5
(May)
112.3
(May)
100.9
(May)
50.4
(May)
70.5
(May)
64.1
(May)
53.6
(May)
56.7
(May)
precipitation
Number of days
(Day)
Most months21.8
(May)
17.6
(May)
17.4
(May)
14.1
(May)
19.2
(May)
15.8
(May)
12.6
(May)
12.4
(May)
12.7
(May)
13.1
(May)
13.7
(May)
Minimum month10.0
(May)
8.0
(August)
9.2
(May)
8.7
(May)
8.8
(May)
9.0
(May)
7.1
(May)
7.8
(May)
8.4
(May)
8.2
(May)
8.4
(May)
Normal values ​​in various areas of Shiga Prefecture (statistical period: 1979-2000)[10]
Average price
(Monthly)
HubeiKotoWestern OmiSouthern OmiHigashiomiKoga
Yogo Town
Yanagase
Torahime Town
Tang Guo
Mt. IbukiyamaHikoneImazu TownShiga Town
Minami Komatsu
Otsu City
Kayanoura
OmihachimanGamo Town
Sakuragawa East
Shigaraki TownTsuchiyama Town
average
temperature
(
Warmest month25.9
(May)
18.1
(May)
26.7
(May)
25.6
(May)
26.3
(May)
26.9
(May)
25.8
(May)
24.0
(May)
24.7
(May)
Coldest month2.6
(May)
−5.2
(May)
3.6
(January/February)
2.5
(May)
3.5
(May)
4.0
(January/February)
2.8
(January/February)
1.3
(May)
1.9
(January/February)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
Most months299.8
(May)
189.9
(May)
204.5
(May)
215.8
(May)
259.2
(May)
244.5
(May)
218.0
(May)
205.9
(May)
223.4
(May)
221.4
(May)
Minimum month161.2
(May)
96.2
(May)
83.1
(May)
106.0
(May)
97.3
(May)
41.1
(May)
58.2
(May)
51.9
(May)
42.9
(May)
46.2
(May)
precipitation
Number of days
(Day)
Most months21.7
(May)
17.2
(May)
13.5
(May)
19.1
(May)
16.4
(May)
12.9
(May)
12.6
(May)
12.6
(May)
13.5
(May)
14.0
(May)
Minimum month9.7
(May)
7.8
(August)
8.2
(May)
8.7
(May)
9.0
(May)
6.8
(May)
7.6
(May)
8.5
(May)
7.5
(May)
9.0
(May)
Average annual number of days for each element of the prefecture (statistical period: 1981-2010[12])
Extremely hot day真 夏日SummerTropical nightWinter day真 冬日
Nagahama3.645.9109.14.459.50.4
Imazu0.637.0100.42.957.40.4
Minami Komatsu2.243.7107.64.940.40.2
Hikone2.048.3110.411.829.70.1
Higashiomi6.253.6117.61.472.10.3
Otsu5.956.8121.85.938.60.0
Shigaraki0.233.899.90.0117.00.6
Tsuchiyama0.532.695.00.288.61.1

nature Park

The ratio of natural park area to total area is 37.6 %(Average of 14.5%)2007As of (19), it was number one.

Prefectural nature park
  • Mikami/Tagami/Shigaraki Prefectural Natural Park
  • Kuchiki/Kuzukawa Prefectural Natural Park
  • Koto Prefectural Natural Park

Area classification

Location map of each municipality

: Otsu area : Southern area :Koka area
: Higashiomi area :Koto area :Hubei area :Takashima area

There are 13 cities, 3 districts, and 6 towns (all towns are read as "cho"). Also, the village disappeared in 2005. During the Edo period, it was divided into three parts: Konan (present-day Konan), Kosai (present-day Konishi), and Koto (present-day Koto/Hubei), but since the Meiji era, there was mainly Konan/Koto (mainly around Lake Biwa). It has become common to divide it into four categories: Koto, Kohoku, and Kosei.[13].. There are cases where it is divided into other than these four divisions, for example, as of 4, Shiga Prefecture is divided into seven areas: the Otsu area, the southern area, the Koga area, the Higashiomi area, the Koto area, the Hubei area, and the Takashima area.[14].. The municipalities belonging to each are as follows. The county is1878(11th year of Meiji)Asai DistrictEast-west division of1897Other than the transfer of Nishi-Asai-gun to Ika-gun (Meiji 30),Great treasure lawSubsequent county names and divisions were largely followed until the Great Showa period.[15].

*Population is as of June 2021, 4

TaiziThe municipality ofPrefectural office(Joint Government Building)

湖南

National Route 1(OldTokaido) Is a key point of transportation and there are many plains,Emperor TenchiBy the timeOtsuDevelopment has progressed since ancient times, including the capital city.Kyoto CityIn addition to Otsu City, which has effectively formed a twin city, and Kusatsu City, which was the traditional satellite city of Otsu, there is now a strong connection with Keihan as a commuting and commuting area.Shiga citizenIt has become a region with many. Koka is located across the prefectural borderMieIgaAlongside the regionNinja(mercenary) And the town of pharmaceuticals. Once in a short time in the Koga regionShikakura PalaceHas been placed, and is still highly regarded in terms of culture as a Shigaraki ware village.

Koto

Along with the Hunan region, the plain area is wide open, prospering as an important part of the granary and transportation, and beef cattle breeding is also active. It is also the region that produced the most Omi merchants.

Hubei

It is the region farthest from Keihan, is the eastern end of the Kansai Cultural Area, and is a buffer zone with the Hokuriku and Tokai regions. In modern timesSericultureHowever, the development of housing sites and offices and the advancement of factories are now delayed compared to the Hunan and Hudong regions (so-called “North-South disparity”). However, this preserves the traditional culture and landscape.

Huxi

It is a highway that connects Kinai with the Wakasa Bay and Hokuriku regions, and has a strong connection with Kyoto along with the Konan region. It was left out of development because it was off the main transit network in modern times. Except for the Azumigawa Fan and the Ishidagawa Fan, there are few plains and the mountains are close to Lake Biwa. Historically and culturally, the northern part of Otsu City is also included in Kosai.

Abolished municipality

mergerBy2004The municipalities that were abolished after (16) are as follows.

History

Due to its geographical characteristics, Shiga Prefecture has developed as a supply source and supply point for goods and human resources to Nara, Kyo, and Osaka, or as an important point connecting Kinai with Eastern and Northern countries, and has been greatly involved in the central history of Japan.

Shirasu MasakoDescribed in the essay “Omi Yamakawasho” as “Omi is the backstage of Japan”. Also for historiansAkira ImayaSaid in his book "Rereading Japanese History from Omi" that "writing the history of Omi is the same as writing the history of Japan", and whether the historical value and importance of Omi are equivalent to those of Nara and Kyo. I highly appreciate it.

From ancient times to the Middle Ages

National constructionWere separated, Shiga PrefectureTamami KunizoAnkuzukuWas the realm of. Due to its proximity to the city, development proceeded early and manyMigrantWas settled. In the Asuka periodOmi Otsunomiya, In the Nara periodShikakura Palace,HoramiyaWas placed.Rebellion,Fujiwara Nakamaro RebellionIt was often the stage of a war.

Monk from OmiClearest TheMt. HieiToEnryakuji TempleWas invented. Enryakuji produced a number of famous monks and greatly developed the modern Japanese Buddhist culture.

From the middle Heian periodMr. SasakiHappened to Omi. Mr. SasakiYoritomo Gengen Kanto regionWhen he got up in, he actively participated in this and gained the guardianship of Omi Ikuni. Or later,Mr. Rokkaku,Mr. KyogokuWhile being divided intoSengoku periodDominated Omi Province. In the Northern and Northern DynastiesBasaraFamous for daimyoMichiho Sasaki(Takashi) came out and extended the power of the Kyogoku family.

Hongwanji TempleLotusWhen the evangelism started,Ikko SectThe color became stronger. For this reason, Mt. Hiei, who was not pleased with this, often made attacks. On the eastern foot of Mt. Hiei坂 本Is of Ikko MuneKatataSince they were in economic conflict with each other, conflicts between them were frequent. After this, Renyo set up the Ikko Municipal Office in Otsu.

Sengoku period

Sengoku periodOnce you enter, in the northMr. AsaiEmerges. Mr. Asai who served Mr. Kyogoku on the shape occupies the southMr. RokkakuConflict with.Oda NobunagaTied withAsai NagamasaIn order to destroy Mr. Rokkaku, he later joined the general Nobunaga siege network and resisted Nobunaga.Battle of Otari CastleBy1573It died in (Tensho first year).

Nobunaga, who put Omi in the area of ​​control,Omi BasinToAzuchi castleBuild a castle. After Nobunaga's death, the ground is in KinaiHideyoshi HashibaWhen,Echizen countryNorth ShoTo the groundKatsuie ShibataWas held in the northBattle of Mt.It was settled by Hideyoshi's victory in. Hideyoshi’s first territoryNagahamaBecause of this, many Omi country residents were mainly appointed as clerical workers.Mitsunari IshidaIs one of them. Also Hideyoshi's nephewToyotomi Shuji TheHachimanyama CastleThe canal that builds the castle town and its castle town and connects to Lake BiwaHachimanboriTo improve commerce and promote commerce.

In addition, from OmiGamo Ujisato-Takato Todo-Yoshitsugu OtaniProduced many famous military commanders. In Koka-gun from the Warring States period to the Edo periodKoga styleNinjaWas active.

The early modern period

Tokugawa IeyasuIt is,TokugawaLeading elite troops inMr. IiClose to SekigaharaHikoneTo keep it from being held in western countries, and most of the northHikone clanBecame the territory of. The Hikone clan is the only large clan that has been gathered, and the others areZensho Clan,Mizuguchi Clan,Omizohan,Nishioji Domain,Miyagawa Domain,Yamagami Domain,Mikami domainA small clan, Omori Jinya of the Mogami family of the alternation, Kuchiki Jinya of the Kuchiki family of the alternation, and other territories and Tenryo of other countries are mixed, and the territory of Omi country in the Edo period has a complicated appearance. It was In the early Edo period, the shogun's Kamakuro palace was Mizuguchi Castle, Nagahara palace, Iba palace, and Kashiwara palace, but the third shogunIemitsuAfter that, both Kamakuro and the palace gradually deteriorated and became obsolete.

In terms of culture, the Confucian scholar who was also known as the saint Omi in the early Edo periodNakae FujikiIs active in JapanPositive studyDeveloped.Matsuo Basho(Ginji TemplePrefer to call Omi as a former village.HaikuAlong withOmi BamonHas produced a large number of people called.

In the Edo era, the commerce and industry that continued from the Kamakura era has developed dramatically, and the counties of Inugami, Aichi, Kanzaki, Gamo and Takashima, especiallyHachiman-Hino-GokasoFromOmi MerchantProduced many. Although some merchants fell from the end of the Edo era due to the turmoil of the Meiji Restoration, many Omi merchants continued to play an active part in the modern era and contributed to the development of the Japanese economy to this day.

Modern

Meiji RestorationByShogunate-Flag territoryToOtsu prefectureAfter is installed,Abandoned DomainEach clan was moved to each prefecture by the newOtsu prefecture(Shiga-gun and Gamo-gun south)Nagahama(North of Takashima and Kanzaki counties). The following day, on January 1872, 1, Otsu PrefectureShigaTo[21], Nagahama Prefecture on February 2InugamiThe two prefectures were merged on September 9th, and Omi Province and a new area with the same area as the presentShigaWas established. afterwards,1876From December 81881Four and a half years until February 2th, the currentFukuiReinanRegion (TsurugaWest)[22].. During this time, Shiga PrefectureWakasa BayWas facing[23].. When separating the west of Tsuruga City, an opposition movement happened locally, Shiga Prefecture's order at the time,Kageta StableHowever, in February 1881, an opposition document (a proposal for the Wakasa/Echizen four-gun departure)[24]),MinisterMimi SanjoLord of the InteriorMasayoshi MatsukataSent to. The main government building was placed in Otsu, but because it is unevenly distributed in the southwest, Hikone, which was the largest castle town in Omi, was also selected.18911936Twice, there was a movement to move the main government building from Otsu to Hikone.[25].

population

Although close to Kyoto and Osaka, it has abundant nature and relatively low land prices, so there is high demand for housing as a commuting school area for Kyoto and Osaka, and housing development is active. The population has continued to grow in rural areas, with the continued improvement of manufacturing bases and the opening and expansion of commercial facilities based on the improvement of transportation convenience.2010Carried out inCensusAccording to Shiga Prefecture, the population growth rate is +2.20 %So, the 47th place in 5 prefectures.KinkiThen with Shiga PrefectureOsakaOnly increased.Moriyama City's + 8.10%, Kusatsu City's + 8.00%, and Ritto City's + 6.32% are among the top 100 municipalities nationwide. The population growth rate in 2011 was + 0.31%, the third highest in Japan after Okinawa and Tokyo.

As the prefecture's population in the 2010 census increased by 2005% from the 2.20 survey, the total population ranks 28th in the nation and three places higher than the 2005 survey (31st in the nation). ..2008(20) As of August 8, the census started1960It has exceeded 35 million for the first time since (Showa 140).2009(21) According to the demographic bulletin as of September 9NaraIt is the fourth largest in the Kinki region after Osaka, Hyogo and Kyoto. According to the prefecture's estimated population as of April 4, 2012, the population of Shiga prefecture isNagasakiNo. 27 in Japan, which is higher thanEhimeOvertaken and climbed to 26th place nationwide.

National Institute of Population and Social Security ResearchAccording to the future estimation (announced in March 2013), the population index from 3 to 2010 (the population in 2040 when the population in 2010 is 100) is 2040, which is nationwide.Okinawa-TokyoIt is expected that the rate of decrease will be the next slowest. In particular, the three cities of Kusatsu, Moriyama, and Ritto have a population index of more than 3 between 2010 and 2040, reaching outstanding levels.[26].


Changes in the population of Shiga prefecture
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Statistics by municipality

Local government codeEvery市町村Are listed below. Currently, there are 19 municipalities (13 cities and 6 towns).Legal populationIs 2015 (Heisei 27)May 10ImplementationCensusThe value of the,Estimated populationIs the value as of June 2021, 4.The population densityIs the estimated population/area.

Population by municipality in Shiga Prefecture (13 cities and 6 towns)
MunicipalityGroup codecountyLegal population
(Man)
Estimated population
(Man)
area[27]
(km2)
The population density
(People/km2
Rate of change
(%)
Otsu City25201-8City340,973342,271464.51737+0.38
Hikone25202-6City113,679112,924196.87574-0.66%
Nagahama25203-4City118,193113,384681.02166-4.07%
Omihachiman25204-2City81,31281,452177.45459+0.17
Kusatsu City25206-9City137,247143,44167.822,115+4.51
Moriyama25207-7City79,85983,52055.741,498+4.58
Ritto City25208-5City66,74969,42252.691,318+4.00
Koka City25209-3City90,90188,363481.62183-2.79%
Yasu25210-7City49,88949,95880.14623+0.14
Hunan25211-5City54,28954,32870.40772+0.07
Takashima25212-3City50,02546,011693.0566-8.02%
Higashiomi City25213-1City114,180112,365388.37289-1.59%
Maibara25214-0City38,71937,303250.39149-3.66%
Hino Town25383-9Gamo-gun21,87320,905117.60178-4.43%
Ryuo Town25384-7Gamo-gun12,43411,76444.55264-5.39%
Aisyo-cho25425-8Aichi-gun20,77820,92537.97551+0.71
Toyosato Town25441-0Inukami District7,4227,3357.80940-1.17%
Kora Town25442-8Inukami District7,0396,35513.63466-9.72%
Taga Town25443-6Inukami District7,3557,227135.7753-1.74%
Shiga25000-7Prefecture1,412,9161,409,2534017.38351-0.26%

Politics

Prefectural government

Successive governors

Excerpts from successive governors (public elections)

finance

  • 2011 Year
  • 2010 Year
  • 2009 Year
  • 2008 Year
  • 2007 Year
  • 2006 Year
    • Fiscal Power Index 0.51-I Group (Fiscal Power Index 0.5 or more, less than 1.0) 16th out of 15 municipalities
    • Standard financial scale-2798 million yen
    • Current account ratio -91.8% (prefecture average is 92.6%)
    • Real balance ratio-0.38% Slightly in the black
    • Personnel expenses, property expenses, etc. per person per person-1 yen (prefectural average is 13 yen, slightly high)
    • Number of employees per 100,000 population-1,285.89 (prefectural average is 1,173.11, somewhat high)
      • About 75% of the total number of staff is faculty and police officers
    • Laspeyres index <p>2019<p>
    • Real debt service ratio -13.6% (prefecture average is 14.7%)
    • Municipal debt present per capita-1 yen (prefectural average is 65 yen)
      • Only local bond balance for ordinary account
  • Balance of local bonds
    • Current amount of local bonds for ordinary account-9022 million yen
    • Current amount of local bonds for special accounts other than the above-1057 million yen
      • Main breakdown Basin sewer accounting-585 billion yen Hospital business 246 billion yen Water supply business 182 billion yen
    • Third sectorDebt status (such as debt balances related to debt guarantee)-616 million yen
      • Main breakdown: Shiga Prefectural Forestry Corporation 106 billion yen Biwako Forestry Corporation-337 billion yen
    • Debt balance of Shiga prefecture-1 billion yen (consolidated accounting)
    • Debt balance per citizen of Shiga prefecture-1 yen
  • 2005 Year
    • Fiscal Power Index 0.45-II Group (Fiscal Power Index 0.4 or more, less than 0.5) 8th out of 6 municipalities
  • 2004 Year
    • Fiscal Power Index 0.44-II Group (Fiscal Power Index 0.4 or more, less than 0.5) 10th out of 8 municipalities

National politics

House of Representatives OfSmall districtIs 4.House of CouncilorsThen, 1 ward is constructed in all prefectures.

Economic and industrial

Shiga Prefecture was an agricultural prefecture supporting Kyoto and Osaka, which are Japan's leading consumers. Agriculture in Shiga Prefecture is centered on rice cultivation, and paddy fields occupy most of the cultivated area in the prefecture (the second largest rice field rate in 2011 in Japan).[29].. Rice produced in Shiga Prefecture is "Jiangzhou Rice" or "Omi riceKnown as. With the development of secondary and tertiary industries after the war, most of the farmers in the prefecture are part-time farmers (the third largest farming rate in Japan in 2).[29].. In addition, Shiga PrefectureJapanese teaIt is said to be the birthplace and during the Edo periodGovernment office teaBecame famous as a brand tea alongside Uji tea, and is still in Tsuchiyama-cho, Koka city (Tsuchiyama tea.. The largest cultivation area and production volume in the prefecture and Shigaraki Town Asamiya ("Asamiya tea". Cultivation is centered around one of Japan's five major teas)[30].. In addition, in the primary industry, the fishing industry in Lake Biwa (Sweetfish-Loquat・SetaShijimi, Etc., mainly in the Koto regionOmi beefProduction is active.

Today it is one of the leading industrial prefectures in western Japan[31],2010(22) industrial production shipment value reaches 6 billion yen[32].. Major industrial products include pharmaceuticals from the Hino and Koka regions, which are traditional industries from the early modern period (especiallyMedicine),2011The value of pharmaceutical production in (23) is 2,506 billion yen (11th place in Japan, 3.6% share).[33].. In Shiga prefecture, there are 9Local industryExists[34].

It is also known as an "environmentally advanced prefecture" and within the prefectureNew energy-Energy saving-Storage battery-Water treatment-BioIn addition to the accumulation of environment-related companies, technologies, human resources, and educational institutions such as[35].. In addition, the number of workers in the prefecture is increasing consistently, mainly in the tertiary industry.

2012 in Shiga GDP(Gross product of the prefecture) exceeds populationKagoshima-KumamotoGreater than that of[36].. Prefectural income per capita (Prefectural economic calculation) Was also ranked 2013th in 4, making it the top class in Japan.[37].. Regarding the medium-term economic growth rate, according to a private think tank, “Solid demographics and high proportion of young people”, “Keihanshin and Nagoya location and transportation convenience as an intermediate economic zone”, “Industrial concentration and Promotion of industry-academia-government collaboration, etc.[38] Is predicted.

According to a report by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, “27 Labor Economy Analysis”, the number of professional human resources per number of employees in Shiga prefecture as of 2012 (researchers, engineers, doctors, accountants, teachers, etc. The ratio of employees is the second highest after Tokyo, Kanagawa, and Kyoto prefectures, and human resources in specialized and technical occupations are concentrated in this prefecture.[39].Unemployment rateIs less than the national average[40] And is relatively solid.

Regarding the third industrial activity in Shiga prefecture, it is slightly biased towards the Hunan area centered on Otsu city, where the prefectural capital is located, and Kusatsu city, where the population is dense. AlsoLake Biwa Environmental Business MesseAnd economic events such as Shiga business partners are held, and at the Shiga economic clubOmi MerchantActivities to protect and expand the philosophy and spirit of

The company that has the head office

Companies related to Shiga Prefecture

Many others.

Life and transportation

Policemen

Transportation

空港

Currently, there is no airport in the prefecture. Before and during the war, the Imperial Japanese ArmyYokaichi Airfieldexist. After the war, around Hino TownBiwako AirportThere was a plan to make. The main airports around the prefecture are as follows. Public transportation that directly connects the prefecture with each airportKansai Airport StationKusatsu StationandMaibara StationLimited express train connectingHALCA"Only. As of 2016Limousine busThere is no such service.

Railway line

Excluding Shigaraki Kogen RailwayElectrificationAnd all JR lines areMain line.

bus

Business operators operating general route buses

道路

High standardization is delayed even on major national and prefectural roads, and congestion is occurring everywhere. In particular, national highways 1 and 8 still have many 1-lane sections on each side of the prefecture, causing chronic congestion due to traffic concentration.

Route

Centering around Otsu Port and Takebujima PortLake Biwa Kisen(Keihan Group)WhenOhmi Marine(Omi RailwayThe group's Omi Travel operation) has opened a sightseeing tour boat,OkishimaWith Okishima and the ferry that connectsChomei-ji TempleConnect the harborFerryExists. Below is a list of regular sightseeing routes by Lake Biwa Kisen and Omi Marine.


License plate

Cars registered in Shiga PrefectureLicense plateIs all "Shiga",Shiga Transportation BureauIssued at. From other prefecturesGejiIt is sometimes ridiculed as "Nan", "Gejigeji", or "Inazuma number", which is associated with the "jumbo" part of "Shigeru". From YasuNishikawa TakanoriAt the call of2009Large outdoor music live "(21) held in Kusatsu City"Inazuma Rock Festival"Inazuma" was named after the popular name for the license plate[41].

Medical and welfare

Education

2013As of (25), there are 13 universities and junior colleges, and the number of university students per capita is the third largest in Japan after Kyoto and Tokyo.[42][43].. With elementary school KyotoLanric(Run backpack) is very popular. Also for the safety of childrenJump out boyThere are many installations ofJun MiuraIs also receiving attention from[44].. Shiga Prefecture's original education business is held on Lake Biwa for fifth grade elementary school studentsShiga Prefectural Lake Biwa Floating School(Received the 24th Prime Minister's Award of the 5th Maritime Nation Promotion Merit Award[45]).

Mass media

broadcast

Prefectural broadcasting station

tv set
radio
Community FM
National broadcasting and network stations
tv set

About TV broadcasting, this prefectureBroadcast target areaAsKinki wide area(OsakaOsakaThe key station in Osaka, which has its main station in the broadcasting area covering the entire Kinki region)Every day broadcasting-Asahi Broadcasting TV-Kansai TV-Yomiuri TelevisionFor, there is a relay station in the prefecture. Depending on the area, it is located on Mt. Hiei.KBS KyotoFrom the TV transmission towerSpilloverbyKyoto broadcastingIs available for viewing (KBS Kyoto official coverage map[48][49].

radio

AM radio can be received by both stations in Osaka and the name. However, in the past, NHK Kyoto Broadcasting Station and Pyongyang Broadcasting of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea broadcast on the same frequency (both 621 kHz) Was used, and there was a lot of interference from overseas stations.

About FM radio in KyotoFM KyotoBesides, in OsakaFM Osaka,FM802Is partially audible. AlsoNHK Kyoto-OsakaCan also be heard.

News (Chinese)

Culture/Sport

Belonging to the cultural areas of Kyoto and Osaka, the influence from Kyoto is particularly great. Gifu PrefectureSekigahara TownFrom Maibara City, Shiga Prefecture, forms the boundary of East-West culture (Are you stupid?,Zoni is a round rice cake or a square rice cakeSuch). The Hubei region is also a buffer zone for the culture of the Hokuriku and Tokai regions. For example, the seasoning of ozoni is Hokuriku-style clear soup (mainly miso tailoring except in the Hubei region), and the block papers of the Tokai 3 prefectures.Chunichi ShimbunAre widely delivered (Maibara City has a market share of over 6%)[50]).

Prefectural character

In the Kadokawa Japan Geographical Name Dictionary, he says, "Gentle, not thorough, bright in counting, sensitive to interests, and prosperous in saving money. Even though it is a sentence, Take is not that much." "Solid, steady, gentle and tenacious efforts Yes.”[51].. Shrine (in Shiga prefectureJodo ShinshuIt has been pointed out that it is conservative and closed because it is a traditional land-based society centered on many people.[52].Takao SobueSays that the image of Shiga prefecture's citizenship is largely due to the stereotype of Omi merchants.[53].

dialect

The dialect spoken in Shiga PrefectureKinki dialect(So-calledKansai dialect),Kyoto languageHas many features in common with Omi-kuni in the early modern period restricted domestic exchanges due to the geographical factors of Lake Biwa in the center and the political factors of the small clan, while the development of highways allowed each region to interact with neighboring countries (Mino, Wakasa, etc.). Because it has a small area, there are small regional differences despite its small area, and the dialect of the Hubei region is particularly unique. The dialect of Shiga Prefecture is characterized by the heavy use of third-party treatment expressions and the beginning of "so".DirectiveThe cueing sound (eg, it → hore), the final particle "hon" (Koto, Hubei), etc.

Food culture:

Traditional crafts

Traditional performing arts, festivals, and other major events

Sports

There are no outstanding sports in Shiga Prefecture,2008(20)B League(at that timebj league)ofShiga Lake StarsThere was no professional sports team based in Shiga until the establishment of. Since 2017, Shiga United Baseball Club (currentlyOcean Ocean Shiga Blacks) Is an independent leagueBaseball Challenge LeagueParticipated in.high school baseballBut I'm the only Kinki member who has never wonHigh school baseball in Japan # Shigareference). On the other hand, the level of soccer has improved in recent years,2005(17)Shiga Prefectural Yasu High School National High School Soccer ChampionshipHas won the championship. As a soccer club based in Shiga Prefecture,Japan Football League (JFL)To the powerhouseSAGAWA SHIGA FC(Headquarters:Moriyama)When,J LeagueAim to enterMIO Biwako Shiga(Headquarters:Kusatsu City) Exists. Besides, in Ritto cityJapan Central Horse Racing OfRitto Training CenterIs located.

Tourism

Biwa lakeToKaizu OsakiThere are many scenic spots, among othersOmi HakkeiWas known as one of Japan's leading scenic spots since the early modern times. further,Hikone clanMaster/Koroku MorikawaThe selection of "genre and literature" (published in 1706 (Hoei 3))[54]In the section of "," the historical sites of Omi are described in detail.

Even in recent yearsLake Biwa Eight ViewsHas been set up and is known both inside and outside for its scenic beauty. In addition, since the capital was placed early in history, it was an important hub for transportation from the Middle Ages to the early modern times, and there were relatively few war disasters and post-war developments in the Pacific War. Is also rich in historical tourism resources. In the depths of those natures, cultures, and cultures,Matsuo BashoBut even in modern timesRyotaro Shiba,Shirasu MasakoFascinated and deeply loved the land of Shiga[55][56].

Famous nationally as a major tourist destinationNagahama-Hikone-Omi Hachiman-ShigarakiIn addition,world HeritageHiei, which is a cultural heritage siteEnryakuji TempleIt has the largest scale and history of lake countries, including numerous temples and historic sitesOgoto OnsenAnd so on. In the natural environment of Lake Biwa and its surroundings, fishing, boating, yachting,MichiganCruise, skiing, mountaineering, camping, bicycle biking around Lake Biwa (commonly known asBiwaichi) And other outdoor activities and leisure activities are popular, and tourism resources are extremely rich in nature, history, culture, etc.Keihanshin-Chukyo area-Hokuriku areaMany tourists are visiting from such places. In 2011, the total number of tourists in Shiga Prefecture reached a record high of 4,735 million in XNUMX.[57].

In recent years, in natural environments other than Lake BiwaSatoyamaOr countryside,CabataetcGreen tourism-Eco tourismIs being reviewed from the perspective of. It is one of the largest opera bases in western Japan as other notable cultural facilities and events.Biwako HallThere is also a large outdoor typeRock festivalof"Inazuma Rock Festival] Of HikoneYuru Chara"Hikonyan"The beginning of the boomYuru Chara Grand Prix], traditionalOtsu Festival, One of the three Mt. Ooyama car festivals in JapanNagahama Hikiyama Festival,La Folle Journey Biwako,Bird human contest,Lake Biwa Fireworks FestivalMany people from outside the prefecture also visit these events.

One of the finest Japanese beef brands in gourmetOmi beefOmi riceSalmon sushi・Ayu rolls and HieiYuba-Duck food・Uvagamochi・Red konjac・Grilled mackerel somenIn addition to traditional food such asClub HarrierBaumkuchen is popular. More recently, Lake Country Black and OmiChampon, And other up-and-coming individual ramen shops are competing with each other, and it is showing excitement both inside and outside Shiga as local ramen.[58].

The above-mentioned “Biwaichi” (a nickname for one round of Lake Biwa) is highly recognized mainly by bicycle enthusiasts, and in recent years, visitors can experience and experience the abundant natural, historical and cultural resources scattered around Lake Biwa and its surroundings. The tourism planning brand "Biwaichi's Journey" has been sent to the outside of the prefecture[59]National cycle routeCertified by[60].

Cultural property

As of September 2012, 9 world heritage (cultural heritage), 1 national treasures, and 55 important cultural properties have been designated in Shiga Prefecture.

The number of national treasures designated is 5th after Kyoto, Tokyo, Nara and Osaka, and the number of designated important cultural properties is 4th after Tokyo, Kyoto and Nara, especially 22 national treasure buildings. Nara prefecture (64 cases) and Kyoto prefecture (48 cases) are ranked 3rd, behind Hyogo prefecture (4 cases) and 11th place.[61].

In recent years, a lot of historical cultural assets, historic sites, and excellent scenery have been used to actively attract foreigners as filming locations for movies and dramas.

Foreign relations

The friendship cities are as follows.

Works set in Shiga Prefecture

Comic

classic

literature

essay

TV drama

Television Animation

movies

Music

People from Shiga Prefecture

Opened Otsunomiya as a person who is not related to Shibuya and is related to Shiga PrefectureEmperor TenchiLost in Awazu (now Otsu City)Minamoto Yoshinaka, Of Otsu City where Yoshinaka sleepsGinji TempleAs the graveMatsuo Basho, In OtsuEnjoji TempleI was warned and made Homeiin a graveErnest FenollosaWith Omi Hachiman as an activity base, many famous buildings were left in the prefecture.William Merrell VoriesAnd so on.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Sweetfish on Lake BiwaRemains large in Lake Biwa and does not grow significantly. In the same way, it means that Omi merchants can succeed if they leave Omi.

Source

  1. ^ "“What controls Omi controls the world” Nobunaga and “Yoshikuni” “Kuni no Kuni”… excavating buried mountain castles to “local revitalization””. Sankei WEST (October 2015, 3). 2017th of February 1Browse.
  2. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications2010(22)Censusaccording to,2005From (17)2010The population change rate for 22 is 47th among 5 prefectures (excluding the Tokyo metropolitan areaOkinawaSecond after)
  3. ^ From the new review "Regional Revitalization Shiga's Challenge" (edited by Minoru Morikawa).
  4. ^ However, it is unknown whether Biwako Broadcasting has posted the weather forecast section online.
  5. ^ Company "Advancement to advanced environmental prefectures is an advantage"(Yomiuri Shimbun)[Broken link]
  6. ^ Japan WPA "Shiga Prefecture is an environmentally advanced prefecture!"
  7. ^ Tanaka, Masataka (February 2014, 2). “Shiga Prefecture in terms of numbers: World record for snowfall 19 meters / Shiga”. Mainichi Newspaper Local Edition / Shiga (Shiga: Mainichi Newspaper): pp. 27 
  8. ^ National Diet Library Reference Joint Database
  9. ^ "Biwako Research Institute Report (1986)" Read the basin (Anekawa) 2 - Lake Biwa Environmental Science Research Center, Shiga Prefecture
  10. ^ a b Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Meteorological Agency, meteorological statistics
  11. ^ The observation point name is “Hikone Local Meteorological Observatory”Point name used in disaster prevention informationBased on.
  12. ^ Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Meteorological Agency / Meteorological Statistics / Past Meteorological Data Search
  13. ^ Kadokawa Japan Place Name Dictionary 25 Shiga, 1979, Kadokawa Shoten, 24 pages.
  14. ^ List of municipalities in the prefecture / Shiga
  15. ^ Other than the change of Asai-gun and Ika-gun,1950(Showa 25) As of April 4, the following areas differed from counties and areas since the Taiho Ritsuryo.
    Kanzaki-gunHaedami VillageTransition (now Hikone City) to Aichi-gun (1896)
    Transition of Sakata-gun Sumo Garden (now Nagahama City) to Higashi-Asai-gun (1889(Meiji 22)
    Otsu City (1898(Meiji 31) Transition to the city system, leaving Shiga-gun.1950As of (Showa 25), it does not include the north of Sakamoto and the east of Setagawa) ・Hikone City (1937(Showa 12) Transferred to the city system and left Inukami-gun.1950As of (Showa 25) Toriimoto/Takamiya and Kojinyama/Kawase south)/Nagahama City(1943(Showa 18) Transition to the city system, leaving Sakata-gun.1950Withdrawal from the county due to the transition of the municipal system (as of 25)
    Kurita-gunMonobe Village(Current:Moriyama) To Yasu-gun (1921(Taisho 10)) etc.
  16. ^ Previous name was Otsu/Shiga area
  17. ^ The former name was Hunan area.
  18. ^ The former name was Chubu area.
  19. ^ It is sometimes called the northeastern region together with the Hubei region.
  20. ^ The former name was Kosai area.
  21. ^ Beginning of Shiga Prefecture - Shiga Prefecture
  22. ^ Abolition of Tsuruga prefecture, transfer of Tsuruga county in Echizen and Wakasa to Shiga prefecture -Shiga historical document [Bright 81(3)]
  23. ^ Shiga Prefectural Government Archives Room -Shiga Prefecture (Map of Shiga Prefecture facing the Sea of ​​Japan)
  24. ^ Wakasa/Echizen four counties departure proposal -Shiga Prefecture Historical Document [Myo 76 Cooperative 5(31)]
  25. ^ [Column 1] Shiga Prefectural Government Office Relocation Disturbance-Shiga Prefecture
  26. ^ National Institute of Population and Social Security Research Japan's estimated future population by region (March 25 estimate)
  27. ^ The municipalities facing Lake Biwa include the area of ​​Lake Biwa.
  28. ^ Financial status of Shiga prefecture compared to other countries[Broken link]Than.
  29. ^ a b Agriculture in Shiga, JA Shiga Chuokai, read January 2014, 1
  30. ^ Omi Tea, Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Fisheries, Shiga Prefecture, read January 2014, 1.
  31. ^ Cabinet Office2006According to the prefectural economic calculation (18), the ratio of secondary industry to total production was 2%, which was the highest.
  32. ^ 22 Shiga Prefecture Industrial Statistics Survey by.
  33. ^ Amount of pharmaceutical production by prefecture of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Than.
  34. ^ Local industry in Shiga
  35. ^ Designated by Shiga Special Zone for Healthy Creation
  36. ^ Prefecture Rating Research Institute Than
  37. ^ Cabinet Office 25 prefectural economic calculation per capita income per capita Than
  38. ^ Nissay Research Laboratories Growth Prediction by Prefecture by 2020
  39. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare 27 Labor Economy Analysis-Labor Productivity and Response to Employment/Labor Issues-(Chapter 4, Section 3)
  40. ^ Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, Labor Force Survey (basic aggregation) Results by prefecture
  41. ^ Shiga Furusato Tourism Ambassador Takanori Nishikawa announces a large outdoor festival, title, and second performing artist!(Prefectural government e-shin)
  42. ^ University of ShigaShiga Prefecture, viewed October 2020, 10.
  43. ^ Number of four-year university students by prefecturePrefectural citizenship as seen by prefecture statistics and rankings, viewed October 2020, 10.
  44. ^ Almost daily itoi newspaper"Ask Miura Jun!-This Island Country-, Retrieved June 2008, 6, June 15, 2010.
  45. ^ Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism announced Prime Minister Award Than.
  46. ^ Educational TV is under the jurisdiction of the Osaka Broadcasting Bureau. There is an educational television relay station in the prefecture.
  47. ^ The second broadcast is under the jurisdiction of the Osaka Broadcasting Bureau. Direct reception from the transmitting station in Habikino City, Osaka Prefecture.
  48. ^ As of September 2014, viewed on September 9, 2015
  49. ^ Initially, although it was possible to receive terrestrial waves due to the problem of the broadcasting license range, retransmission was not permitted on the cable TV station at the beginning.
  50. ^ Kyoto Shimbunby Data on the number of morning editions of each newspaper by city and district in Kyoto and Shiga prefecturesShare data of newspapers in Kyoto and Shiga prefectures From this, you can see the number and share of the Chunichi Shimbun (former data “other” and latter data “F paper”) in Shiga Prefecture and each prefecture in the prefecture.
  51. ^ Kadokawa Japan Place Name Dictionary 25 Shiga, 1979, Kadokawa Shoten, 25 pages.
  52. ^ According to the "National Survey of Prefectural Citizens" conducted by NHK in 1996, "the word "outside" is still alive in this area."
  53. ^ Takao Sobue "Popularity of Japan/Popularity of Japan" Kawade Shobo New book edited/published (Kizugawa Kei "To Inclusive City" pages 61-62)
  54. ^ "Genre literary selection (Koroku Morikawa selection), Japanese and Chinese literary work (editing each affairs), Oi (Yayoi Yokoi)" Shikage Fujii, Takeshi Sansho various editions, Aritomodo bookstore (Aritomodo Bunko) 1918 (Taisho 7) 38)
  55. ^ From Shinchosha "Omiji Walk"
  56. ^ Ryotaro Shiba "From the Highway" "I like this country so much that I have already started poetry just by humming this fluffy country called Omi."
  57. ^ Kyoto Shimbun article “Shiga Prefecture, 23, the most tourists last year”
  58. ^ Kyoto newspaper article "Lake Country Ramen To Sengoku Period"
  59. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun article "Travel planning, brand recognition by prefecture"
  60. ^ We have designated the XNUMXst National Cycle Route!
  61. ^ Agency for Cultural Affairs "Number of cultural property designations'

Related item

外部 リンク

Predecessor:
Otsu prefecture-Inugami
Changes in administrative districts
1872 -
(* To be exact, renamed Otsu Prefecture)
Next generation:
-----

Shikoku

Shikoku(Shikoku) isJapanese archipelagoCompose(I.e.one of[4].

Hokkaido-Honshu-KyusyuIt is also one of the four major islands[5], The smallest of these[6][7].. The highestelevationIs 1,982 m of Mt.Ishizuchi, and it is at the border of Fukui, Ishikawa and Gifu prefectures.Ryohaku mountainsSannomine It is the highest in western Japan west of (2128m).areaIs 18,297.78 km2[1],世界 Of(I.e.InBrazil OfBanana islandIt is the 50st largest size after[8].

Shikoku and its associated islands (Shodoshima,Omishima,(I.e.,,Hakatajima,TeshimaEtc.)Shikoku regionSay[9].. If you want to emphasize not including these associated islands,Mainland Shikoku"Or"Shikoku IslandSometimes called.
(Geography of Japan and Shikoku,Region of Japan・See also Shikoku region)

In Shikoku,Tokushima,Kagawa,Ehime,KochiTwo ofLocal governmentThe total population of the four prefectures is about 4 million, which is generally横 浜 市Equivalent to the population of[Note 1].. (See also Shikoku region in the lower right of the table)

The ancient name of Shikoku is "Iyo no two islands"Iyo Two Meizu"(Iyo no Futananoshima).

Overview

Among the four prefectures that make up the Shikoku region, Tokushima prefecture, Kagawa prefecture, and Ehime prefecture, together with the island exchange,Honshu-Shikoku connecting bridgeThere is also a (four bridges)HonshuThe exchange with is also active.

The whole of Shikoku except the southwestKinkiTokushima Prefecture in the eastern part is culturally strongly influenced byPolitics-EconomyThe effect is also remarkable in.Kagawa prefecture in the northeast has a deep connection with Okayama prefecture in terms of both culture and economy,Takamatsu ExpresswayKobe Awaji Naruto ExpresswaySince its opening, exchanges with the Kinki region have become more active as in Tokushima Prefecture.Ehime prefecture in the west is Hiroshima prefectureKyusyuYou can see the exchange with Oita prefecture.On the other hand, Kochi Prefecture has a steep land route and developed traffic by ship, so it is said that Kochi Prefecture has a strong influence from Edo in the early modern period, and has a high awareness of political and cultural centers.In recent years, due to the development of the expressway network, the orientation toward Shikoku has become stronger.[Source required].

KukaiShikoku opened uppilgrimage-Eighty-eight places ThePilgrimfamous for.

Only among the four major islands in JapanGovernment-designated cityDoes not exist.

History title

The process of Japanese creation by the godsRecord of Ancient Matters"ofDomestic productionmythThen ShikokuAwaji IslandFollowed byJapanese archipelagoIs the second created island in[10].. Kojiki says "Iyo no two islands(Iyo no Futananoshima)"[10].. Also"Japanese calligraphy』In "Shikoku" "Iyo Two Meizu(Iyo no Futanomashima)" is written. ThereforeAncient timesIn "Iyo no two islands", "Iyo two islands", or simply "Iyo island", "Iyoshima" (Iyonoshima, Iyoshima), "Ninoshima", "Ninoshima" (Futanashima) , "Futanashima)" and so on ("Futana" means two lines).

The early modern periodLater,Goki Shichido OfNankaidoOut ofKii countryAwaji countryExcludingAwakuni-Sanuki country-Iyo country-Tosukuni Of4 つ のRegulatory countryIt was called "Shikoku" because it existed. It's not a history book,16st century OfSengoku periodPaintedMilitary storyKnown asYinde Taiheiki』(Kyoho2 years(1717)Publishing) In the beginning, there is a description of "San'in Sanyo Shikoku Kyushu".The early modern periodThe name "Shikoku" can be clearly found in the book.

Geography

With the birth of the Japanese archipelago about 1900 million years ago, the predecessor of Shikoku was born.Seto Inland SeaAcross the Kinki regionSanyo region・It is located on the three sides of Kyushu. In the central part of the island, in a form that divides each prefectureShikoku Mountains,Sanuki MountainsThe mountains are soaring, and this terrain made communication between regions difficult until recent years.

Central structure line YoshinogawaFrom the north coastCape Sada PeninsulaIt runs through east and west. In the region corresponding to the inner zone north of the Tectonic Line (inner zone of Southwest Japan)Igneous rockAre distributed. In the region corresponding to the outer zone south of the structural line (outer zone of southwestern Japan), the mesozoic and paleozoic layers are arranged in order from the north side to the south side.

Japan Of(I.e.InKyusyuSecond place after[6], In the islands of the worldBrazil OfBanana islandHas the 50th largest area after[8].. The highest altitude isMount Ishizuchi1,982 m in Mt. Tengudake (Ehime prefecture).

Wide skirt

Northern end
34°24′1′N 134°8′11′E
West end
33°20′38′N 132°0′52′E
Center point
33°33′39′N 133°22′56.5′E
Eastern end
33°50′2′N 134°45′1′E

Southern tip
32°43′17′N 133°0′26′E

The surrounding sea

Main cape

Mountains/Mountains

Rivers and lakes

Plains/Highlands

Geology

ShikokuGeologyIn general, from the northSanbagawa belt(AlmostYoshinogawaThere is)Chichibu belt(Shikoku Mountains),Shimanto(Shimanto River) Is distributed almost from east to west, and between themCentral structure line,Buddha structure lineIs running[12][13].

climate

The climate conditions in Shikoku areShikoku MountainsThe difference is very different.

Seto Inland Sea region

Tokushima prefectureYoshinogawaNorth of the basin, the entire Kagawa prefecture, Ehime prefectureToyo district,Chuyo districtof,Seto Inland SeaThe north side facingSeto Inland Sea climateThe climate is mild and rainy,typhoonThere are relatively few direct hits. for that reason,olive,OrangeCultivation is thriving. On the other hand, large scaleRiver TheThe Pacific Ocean,Kii ChannelSince it has been flowing into the sea, it has suffered from several water shortages in the past due to lack of water resources. For this reason,Manno PondBeginning withReservoirHave been built. In particular, Kagawa Prefecture has been suffering from water shortages since ancient times, and as a drought countermeasure,YoshinogawaFor sending waterKagawa waterIs being built.

From winter to spring,Mainland ChinaFlows in fromYellow sandIs often observed. In winter(I.e.,Light snow(Sleet) There are days when it rains, but there are basically many sunny days. Heavy snow is rare in the plains, but temperatures are low in the mountains and there is a lot of snow in winter.

Incidentally,Pacific highIn the summer covered by the sea,calm], over the Shikoku MountainsFern phenomenonDue to the influence of the air flow,Extremely hot day,Tropical nightThere are many days when

Pacific Ocean side

Most areas of Tokushima prefecture and Ehime prefectureNanyo district・ The whole area of ​​Kochi prefectureThe Pacific OceanThe south side facingPacific climateBelong to. Flowing off the Pacific OceanKuroshioInfluenced by, it is warm even in winter, and there are some frost-free zones. Spring comes early and is the first on the mainlandCherry BlossomsThe flowering declaration ofKochiorUwajima CityIt is often the case. Therefore, especially in Kochi prefectureForcingIs popular,Professional baseballTeamキャンプThere are industries and events that take advantage of the warm climate, such as the ground.

YearPrecipitation amountBecause there are manyforestryIs also popular, but on the other hand, in Kochi prefectureMuroto CapeCape AshizuriThen,typhoonBecause it is easy to attackTyphoon ginza"It is called.For this reason"Muroto TyphoonA large typhoon such as洪水Has been damaged.In "Muroto Typhoon", the central pressure at the time of landing at Cape Muroto is 911.6.hPaIt was the typhoon that landed on mainland Japan and had the lowest central pressure at the time of landing in the history of observation. This is the lowest record of central pressure in a typhoon of the same latitude (the official typhoon statistics are1951(Showa(26 years), so this record is treated as a reference record), has not been broken yet. In addition, Nanyo district of Ehime prefecture and Kochi prefectureHata regionIn winter, however, the number of cloudy, rainy, and snowy days is higher due to the influence of the monsoon from the Kanmon Straits than in other Pacific regions.

History

Ancient times

Shikoku isKinaiIt is located on the southwest side fromGoki ShichidoThen.Nanki,Awaji Islandalong withNankaidoWas included in.Kinki-KyusyuLocated in the northwestern part of Shikoku, which was a key point of the routeIyo country OfDogo OnsenEtc.Emperor Shumei,Emperor SaimeiBathing record of (Japanese calligraphy),Red man Yamabe-NunodaoBathing record of (Manyoshu) Is also believed to have flourished since ancient times.

中 世

TairaWhen the city fellEmperor AndeHoldingYajimaAs a temporary base for the war, the Genpei army fought here.Muromachi Period TheMr. HosokawaAre the three countries of Sanuki, Awa and Tosa,Mr. KonoProtected Iyo respectively.

Sengoku periodAs a daimyo of Shikoku,MiyoshiBased inAwakuniからYamashiro8 countries in the same areaNagayoshi Miyoshi, "Tosa'sLittle KyotoIs also calledBased inIchijo Tosa,Iyo countryDogo OfYuzuki CastleBased inNaval forceMr. Kono, who ownsMr. Kagawa,TosukuniIs the champion of ShikokuFormer parents of ChosogabeAre famous, but after a long tumult, they started to converge and at one pointMr. NagasokabeUnified Shikoku, but eventuallyHideyoshi ToyotomiWas settled by. Was the daimyo of TosaNagasokabe Morikachi TheBattle of SekigaharaThe West Army was revamped.

The early modern period

Edo PeriodWhen that happened, until then, I had governed all parts of ShikokuSengoku DaimyoWas exterminated from Shikoku, and Tokugawa, the shogunate's credible general, was to be sealed in this area. At first, he allowed Ikoma to Sanuki, Hachisuka to Awa and Yamauchi to Tosa to control the whole country, but Sanuki was ruled in two parts when he was upset after a turmoil. Iyo had a small daimyo assigned from the beginning and was not governed by a single country. The Shodoshima and Shiozawa Islands in the Seto Inland Sea were placed under the control of the Kurashiki Daikan Office as Tenryo. To the representative clan of Shikoku,AwakuniAwaji countryIs the place of knowledge of Mr. InadaMr. Hachisuka OfTokushima Domain,Mito Tokugawa familyOf the branch houseTakamatsu Domain,Mr. YamauchiGoverned byTosa Domain,Mr. Kato,Hisamatsu Matsudaira family(Family)Iyo Matsuyama Domain,SendaiDateThe branch house ofUwajima DomainAnd so on.

Modern

During the Bakumatsu Restoration, the Tosa domain continued to be involved in the political affairs from beginning to end, and was born in the Tosa domain.Ryoma SakamotoThrough the mediation ofChief allianceI got angry.Boshin WarThe Tosa clan also succeeded in fighting in various places as a government army. Meiji periodFreedom Civil Rights MovementAlso a former Tosa clanItagaki RetirementThey happened mainly. Prior to that, the Shikoku Conference was advocated by the Tosa clan, which helped bring Shikoku together, but was ordered to disband in just a few years. From Ehime PrefectureShiki MasaokaA great literary writer was produced and contributed to the Meiji culture.

Economy

Historically, all prefectures were areas with strong ties to Kinai, but Tokushima Prefecture has become more active due to the activation of land exchanges and the decline of sea routes.KinkiKagawa prefecture has a lot of economic activities with Okayama prefecture, and Ehime prefecture has a lot of economic activities with Hiroshima prefecture.Especially in the coastal areas of Tokushima prefecture on a daily basisKeihanshinEconomic exchange with is active and has a great impact. In Kochi prefecture, which faces the Pacific Ocean and is surrounded by mountains on three sides, there was no region where foreign economic exchange was particularly active.

In recent years, due to the development of the expressway network, exchanges on the island have greatly increased in each prefecture, including Kochi Prefecture, and as of 2010, economic exchange has become the most popular on the island rather than in Honshu.[14].

Gross product

2017(HeiseiThe gross regional product of the four prefectures of Shikoku in FY29 was nominally 14 million yen.[15], Nationwide total product (JapanGDP), The economic scale was 2.60%.Comparing this with other prefectures,IbarakiLarger than (13.8 trillion yen)ShizuokaIt is smaller than (17.3 trillion yen).In addition, per capita prefectural income was lower than Japan's per capita prefectural income in all four prefectures.

Prefectural Accounts of Shikoku Prefecture (FY29)
RegionGross domestic product (thousand yen)Prefectural income (thousand yen)Prefectural income per capita (thousand yen)
Tokushima3,156,8842,297,2533,091
Kagawa3,845,9152,919,9523,018
Ehime5,149,7973,739,0762,741
Kochi2,429,4541,891,5102,650
Shikoku14,582,05010,847,7912,863
全国561,523,371418,620,4993,304

Industrial

Shikoku Seto Inland Sea sidePacific beltLocated in the zone,Sakaide-Marugame-Shikokuchuo City-Niihama-Saijo City-ImabariandMatsuyama CityCentered onSetouchi Industrial AreaAre formed.TokushimaSaijo CityIt is,New Industrial City Construction Promotion LawSpecified based onNew industrial city(Industrial development base area).

Manufactured product shipment value, etc.(2010 Industrial Statistics)

  • Shikoku: 8 yen
  • Ehime: 3 yen
  • Kagawa: 2 yen
  • Tokushima: 1 yen
  • 1. Imabari City: 8871 million yen
  • 2. Saijo City: 8113 yen
  • 3. Sakaide City: 7626 million yen
  • 4. Niihama City: 6150 million yen
  • 5. Shikokuchuo City: JPY 6068
  • 6. Tokushima City: ¥4902
  • Kochi: 4680 yen
  • 7. Matsuyama City: ¥4237
  • 8. Naoshima-cho, Kagawa-gun: 3454 million yen
  • 9. Anan City: 3345 million yen
  • 10. Takamatsu City: ¥3234
  • 11. Marugame City: 2422 yen
  • 12. Matsushige-cho, Itano-gun: 2218 million yen
  • 13. Mitoyo City: ¥1875
  • 14. Naruto City: 1696 yen
  • 15. Kanonji City: ¥1557 million

population

Population of each prefecture

Name of prefecturesISO-3166 2National rankingpopulationNationwide ratioShikoku ratio
TokushimaJP-3644755,7330.59%19.7%
KagawaJP-3739976,2630.76%25.4%
EhimeJP-38281,385,2621.08%36.0%
KochiJP-3945728,2760.57%18.9%
Total3,845,5343.00%100.0%

*Ranking, population and ratio are based on the 27 Census[16].

Age structure

Population by age group
Estimated population as of October 2004, 10
Total [Thousands]

agepopulation
0-4 yearsG30.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.png 176
5 - 9G50.pngG01.png 186
10 - 14G50.pngG01.pngG01.png 190
15 - 19G50.pngG05.pngG03.png 212
20 - 24G50.pngG10.pngG01.png 223
25 - 29G50.pngG10.pngG05.pngG01.pngG01.png 242
30 - 34G50.pngG10.pngG10.pngG05.png 273
35 - 39G50.pngG10.pngG05.png 237
40 - 44G50.pngG10.pngG03.pngG01.png 234
45 - 49G50.pngG10.pngG10.pngG01.png 258
50 - 54G50.pngG30.pngG05.pngG01.png 312
55 - 59G50.pngG30.pngG10.png 325
60 - 64G50.pngG10.pngG10.pngG05.png 271
65 - 69G50.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.png 249
70 - 74G50.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.png 247
75 - 79G50.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png 213
Over 80 years oldG50.pngG10.pngG10.pngG01.pngG01.png 262

Population by age group
Estimated population as of October 2004, 10
Gender [Thousands]

MaleageFemale
90 G10.pngG10.pngG03.pngG01.png0-4 yearsR10.pngR10.pngR03.png 86
95 G10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG01.png5 - 9R10.pngR10.pngR05.png 91
98 G10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG01.pngG01.png10 - 14R10.pngR10.pngR05.png 92
107 G10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png15 - 19R10.pngR10.pngR05.pngR03.pngR01.png 105
112 G30.pngG01.png20 - 24R30.png 111
120 G30.pngG03.png25 - 29R30.pngR03.png 122
134 G30.pngG05.pngG01.pngG01.png30 - 34R30.pngR05.pngR03.png 139
114 G30.pngG01.png35 - 39R30.pngR03.pngR01.png 123
114 G30.pngG01.png40 - 44R30.pngR03.png 120
126 G30.pngG03.pngG01.png45 - 49R30.pngR05.pngR01.png 132
154 G30.pngG10.pngG01.pngG01.png50 - 54R30.pngR10.pngR03.png 158
161 G30.pngG10.pngG03.pngG01.png55 - 59R30.pngR10.pngR05.png 164
128 G30.pngG05.png60 - 64R30.pngR05.pngR03.pngR01.png 143
114 G30.pngG01.png65 - 69R30.pngR05.pngR01.pngR01.png 135
108 G10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png70 - 74R30.pngR05.pngR03.png 139
88 G10.pngG10.pngG03.pngG01.png75 - 79R30.pngR03.pngR01.png 125
83 G10.pngG10.pngG01.pngG01.pngOver 80 years oldR30.pngR10.pngR05.pngR03.pngR01.png 179


Change in population

2010CensusThere were 95 municipalities in Shikoku at the time, but only 2005 cities increased in population compared to the 8 census, and all other 87 municipalities decreased. Therefore, not only in Shikoku as a whole, but also in prefectures, all four prefectures have decreased. By prefecture, Kochi prefecture had the highest decrease rate of -4%, followed by Tokushima prefecture -4.00%, Ehime prefecture -3.02% and Kagawa prefecture -2.47%. On the contrary, the increasing number of municipalities is 1.64 cities in Kagawa prefecture, 3 cities in Tokushima prefecture, 3 city in Ehime prefecture and 1 city in Kochi prefecture. By prefecture location, the increaseTakamatsuMatsuyama CityAloneNorthern ShikokuMinamishikokuThe light and dark became different, but all of the three increasing towns in Tokushima PrefectureTokushimaIt is a bed town adjacent to. Other than the prefectural capital, it is the second largest city in Kagawa Prefecture, in addition to the above three towns in Tokushima Prefecture.MarugameAnd adjacent to itRyuta CountyUtazu Town,Kochi PrefectureKonan CityThe population has increased. In Ehime Prefecture, there was no municipality with a population increase other than Matsuyama City, which is the prefectural capital.

Kochi Prefecture with the highest rate of decreaseTosa DistrictOkawa VillageIs the only over 20%, and the top 6 are all municipalities in Kochi prefecture. Other municipalities with a high rate of decrease areThe Pacific OceanCoastal or centralShikoku MountainsThere are many local governments located in.

Increased municipality
Decreasing municipalities (△ 20% or more)
Decreasing local governments (-10%--19%)
Decreasing local governments (-5%--9%)
Decreasing municipalities (△ 4% or less)

Region

Shikoku has no outstanding big cities,Topographical constraintsIndependent from each prefectureMetropolitan areaExists. In addition, since the sea traffic has been active for a long time, exchanges with the opposite bank are active in various places.

The Shikoku region may be divided into two regions for convenience.

Connection with each region

The largest amount of flow from all points of origin is to Shikoku, with a minimum of 50% and a maximum of 95% of the total flow. By prefecture, the eastern part of Kagawa, where Takamatsu City is located, is the top destination for all destinations, and in connection with the outside of Shikoku, Tokushima is Kobe, and the eastern part of Kagawa is Minami, Matsuyama and Kochi in Okayama Prefecture. The 23 wards of Tokyo are the most numerous. From all departure locations, eastern Kagawa / Kochi central within 5th place, western Kagawa within 6th place, Niihama within 8th place, Matsuyama within 11th place, Tokyo 12 wards / Osaka / Okayama prefecture south, 23th within 14th place Within Tokushima, all destinations in Shikoku are destinations.

Long time ago,"Tokushima TheKinki(Osaka-Kobe),Takamatsu TheOkayamaFacing,Matsuyama TheHiroshimaFacing, andKochi TheThe Pacific Ocean(OrTokyo), and sometimes satirized as "Shikoku is one by one." However, since the end of the 20th century, the development of the expressway network has deepened mutual exchange among the four countries, and in the beginning of the 21st century, it surpassed the cities of Honshu, which had flourished until then.

As of 1990 (Heisei 2), Tokushima, Takamatsu, and Matsuyama had a large number of people who exchanged with Shikoku, and only Kochi had a large number of exchanges with Shikoku, but the flow rate itself was very small. It was In terms of connections with Shikoku, Tokushima was strong in Keihanshin, eastern Kagawa was south of Okayama, Matsuyama was Hiroshima/Osaka, and Hachimanhama was Oita.

The changes between 1990 (Heisei 2) and 2010 (Heisei 22) were the same due to the fact that Shikoku's mutual exchange became very active throughout Shikoku, and the flow as a destination was concentrated in the eastern part of Kagawa. The region has strengthened its character as the center of exchange. In addition, as a major change, the relationship between Tokushima and Okayama Prefecture in the eastern part of Kagawa was reversed, and the number of Tokushima in 1990 was larger than that in Okayama Prefecture in 2010, which is an overwhelming difference.

2010 (22) Annual ranking of all current transportation destinations by living area (migration across prefecture boundaries) (Unit: XNUMX people)[17]
Origin →
↓ Destination
Ranking
TokushimaKagawaEhimeKochi
TokushimaMiyoshiSoutherneastWestern partMatsuyamaNiihamaImabariUwajimaYawatahamaCenterHataTakahataAki
1Eastern Kagawa
405
Western Kagawa
99
Kochi Aki
24
Tokushima
390
Niihama
182
Eastern Kagawa
73
Western Kagawa
199
Eastern Kagawa
13
Kochi Hatata
98
Eastern Kagawa
12
Eastern Kagawa
73
Uwajima
119
Uwajima
29
Southern Tokushima
28
2Western Kagawa
92
Eastern Kagawa
33
Eastern Kagawa
22
Okayama Prefecture South
138
Tokushima Miyoshi
93
Kochi Central
61
Eastern Kagawa
81
Western Kagawa
11
Kochi Takahata
29
Kochi Takahata
9
Matsuyama
68
Eastern Kagawa
5
Yawatahama
6
Eastern Kagawa
6
3Kochi Central
54
Kochi Central
31
Kochi Central
16
Niihama
79
Tokushima
88
Western Kagawa
48
Kochi Central
54
Hiroshima Bingo
11
Kochi Central
13
Western Kagawa
8
Tokushima
56
Matsuyama
4
Niihama
5
Niihama
5
4Niihama
37
Niihama
26
Western Kagawa
2
Kochi Central
66
Okayama Prefecture South
70
Tokyo 23 Ward
28
Tokushima Miyoshi
30
Kochi Central
7
Eastern Kagawa
2
Kochi Central
8
Western Kagawa
51
Tokushima
2
Tokushima
4
Western Kagawa
1
5Matsuyama
29
Matsuyama
6
Osaka
2
Matsuyama
63
Kochi Central
52
Tokushima
25
Tokushima
28
Tokushima
6
Western Kagawa
1
Oita
6
Niihama
51
Western Kagawa
2
Eastern Kagawa
4
Tokushima
1
6Kobe
23
Okayama Prefecture South
1
Tokyo 23 Ward
1
Tokushima Miyoshi
49
Matsuyama
49
Hiroshima
25
Okayama Prefecture South
12
Tokyo 23 Ward
5
Oita
1
Tokushima
4
Tokushima Miyoshi
26
Yawatahama
1
Western Kagawa
4
Uwajima
1
7Okayama Prefecture South
22
Imabari
1
Kobe
1
Tokyo 23 Ward
36
Imabari
17
Osaka
14
Tokyo 23 Ward
8
Hiroshima
2
Tokyo 23 Ward
1
Okayama Prefecture South
1
Tokyo 23 Ward
19
Tokyo 23 Ward
1
Matsuyama
1
Tokyo 23 Ward
1
8Osaka
21
Osaka
1
Niihama
1
Southern Tokushima
31
Tokyo 23 Ward
12
Okayama Prefecture South
13
Kochi Takahata
5
Okayama Prefecture South
2
Hiroshima
1
Tokyo 23 Ward
1
Okayama Prefecture South
13
Niihama
9
Tokyo 23 Ward
1
Okayama Prefecture South
1
9Tokyo 23 Ward
20
Hiroshima
8
Higashi Osaka
1
Osaka
24
Osaka
10
Tokushima Miyoshi
10
Kochi Aki
5
Osaka
1
Kochi Aki
1
Osaka
1
Southern Tokushima
12
Imabari
9
Southern Tokushima
8
Matsuyama
1
10Awaji
12
Yawatahama
8
Hyogo Amagasaki
1
Hiroshima
17
Hiroshima
8
Yokohama
9
Osaka
4
Kobe
1
Fukuoka
9
Hiroshima
1
Uwajima
11
Okayama Prefecture South
8
Okayama Prefecture South
6
Osaka
7
11Hyogo Amagasaki
10
Kochi Aki
6
Matsuyama
1
Kobe
14
Kobe
7
Fukuoka
7
Hiroshima
3
Tokushima Miyoshi
1
Osaka
8
Fukuoka
1
Yawatahama
9
Osaka
4
Osaka
5
Kobe
7
12京都
9
Tokyo 23 Ward
5
Okayama Prefecture South
1
Imabari
13
Yawatahama
6
千葉
7
Kobe
2
Saitama Urawa
1
Okayama Prefecture South
8
Western Shizuoka
9
Osaka
9
Osaka Toyonaka
4
京都
4
Higashi Osaka
3
13Sakai
8
Tokyo Tama
5
Kochi Takahata
1
Yawatahama
11
Osaka Toyonaka
4
Kochi Hatata
7
Higashi Osaka
2
Yokohama
1
Kobe
7
Kochi Hatata
8
Hiroshima
7
Saitama Urawa
3
Osaka Toyonaka
4
Tokushima Miyoshi
3
14Osaka Toyonaka
7
Hyogo Amagasaki
4
Southern Okinawa
1
京都
9
Hiroshima Bingo
4
Kobe
6
Aichi Toyota
1
Higashi Osaka
8
Tokushima
7
Tokyo Tama
7
Yokohama
6
Tokyo Tama
3
Hyogo Harima
4
Imabari
3
15Higashi Osaka
6
Kochi Hatata
4
京都
8
Sakai
9
Higashi Osaka
4
京都
5
Hyogo Amagasaki
1
Tokyo Tama
6
Sakai
4
Tokushima Miyoshi
7
Imabari
5
Sakai
3
Imabari
3
Other
3 or less
Total87321090111867744847379161685021456453
Per population13.846.88.318.816.86.914.64.613.04.39.115.410.510.0
home
To Shikoku
6382017072449923140640147443661385846
73.1%95.5%78.7%64.8%73.7%51.5%85.7%50.3%91.2%65.4%73.0%94.8%90.1%87.0%
home
To big cities
1725131847412442187990544
19.8%2.6%14.9%16.5%11.0%27.8%8.9%22.8%4.4%13.7%18.0%3.6%6.5%8.6%
home
Other regions
613520810392252061344212
7.1%1.9%5.8%18.6%15.3%20.5%5.4%26.2%4.1%20.3%8.8%1.4%2.6%3.7%
TokushimaMiyoshiSoutherneastWestern partMatsuyamaNiihamaImabariUwajimaYawatahamaCenterHataTakahataAki
TokushimaKagawaEhimeKochi
  • “Total” is the number of people who cross the prefectural border, not between living areas.
  • “Per capita” is the number obtained by dividing the total by the population, and the higher this number, the more daily exchanges that cross the prefectural border.
Color coding
Living Area Classification-2010 (22) Census

Besides this,highwayThe destination of the most (the destination that most vehicles aim at) is Takamatsu in each prefecture of Shikoku, and mutual exchange centered on Takamatsu is rooted in the Shikoku region. In this way, the flow of people is concentrated in the representative cities of the regional blocks, and the tendency to increase centrality is becoming more prominent every year.[19](Detail is#highwaySee).

Regarding exchanges on Shikoku Island,X highwaySince then, the Shikoku Island League (currentlyShikoku Island League plus), etc., tend to strengthen the sense of unity, and we are now in the stage of deepening cooperation utilizing the history and roles of each prefecture. In the future, it is expected that the four prefectures of Shikoku will come together as one area to attract cultural and economic activities and attract tourists (“Blue Country Shikoku”).CampaignEtc.)

Metropolitan area

Urban employment areaThe "urban areas" based on[20].. *2010(22)CensusStandard

  1. Takamatsu metropolitan area : population820,190 people,area1,360.12 km²,The population density603 people/km². (August 2020, 9,Estimated population
  2. Matsuyama metropolitan area : population624,827 people,area957.14 km²,The population density653 people/km². (August 2021, 4,Estimated population
  3. Tokushima metropolitan area : population575,692 people,area2,159.94 km²,The population density267 people/km². (August 2020, 9,Estimated population
  4. Kochi metropolitan area : population497,762 people,area1,918.69 km²,The population density259 people/km². (August 2021, 4,Estimated population
  5. Niihama metropolitan area : population218,198 people,area744.48 km²,The population density293 people/km². (August 2021, 4,Estimated population
  6. Imabari metropolitan area : population148,668 people,area419.14 km²,The population density355 people/km². (August 2021, 4,Estimated population
  7. Uwajima metropolitan area : population82,348 people,area808.52 km²,The population density102 people/km². (August 2021, 4,Estimated population
  8. Shikoku central metropolitan area : population82,203 people,area421.24 km²,The population density195 people/km². (August 2021, 4,Estimated population
  9. Shimanto metropolitan area : population67,061 people,area1,295.39 km²,The population density51.8 people/km². (August 2021, 4,Estimated population
  10. Hachimanhama metropolitan area : population39,375 people,area226.66 km²,The population density174 people/km². (August 2021, 4,Estimated population

In the censusMinistry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics BureauTo defineMetropolitan areaAs for, Matsuyama metropolitan area is listed only in Shikoku. Other,East Seto Economic Area(Statistical name for economically uniting the area between Setouchi).

From the 2000 (12) survey to the 2005 (17) survey, there were cases where the framework of each metropolitan area changed. Specifically, a large-scale merger of Heisei merged suburban municipalities into the central city, and the urban area itself disappeared due to the suburbanization of other cities due to the penetration of motorization such as Marugame metropolitan area. Thus, there were some local governments that left the existing metropolitan area and formed a new metropolitan area.

Major cities

The major cities in the four prefectures of the Shikoku region are listed.

There are no big cities in Shikoku, but fourPrefectural office locationPopulation is concentrated to some extent in each prefecturePrimate CityHas become. Others were medium-sized cities, and even the cities with a population of over 10 had only two cities, Niihama and Imabari, for a long time.

Great Heisei mergerAs a result, Matsuyama City was on the pedestal of 50 people, Takamatsu City was 40 people, Saijo City and Marugame City were over 10 people, and Imabari City was increased to 17 people. However, the demographics of Matsuyama City, Takamatsu City, and Marugame City have been flat, while those of other cities have declined significantly.

Government-designated city
  • No applicable city
Core city
Special city at the time of enforcement
  • No applicable city
Other

Prefectural office locations other than the above

Display order of each prefecture

The display order of each prefecture has various display orders as follows. (In the encyclopedia, use the display order of the local government code)

  • National Local Government CodeNotation. This is mainly used officially.
    • Tokushima (36), Kagawa (37), Ehime (38), Kochi (39).
  • Utaka ferryNotation of the beginning of Kagawa because Kagawa Prefecture has been the gateway to Shikoku for many years since its establishment
    • In order of Kagawa prefecture, Tokushima prefecture, Kochi prefecture, Ehime prefecture. - clockwise(Zip Code(The first two digits are 76 to 79 in order)
    • In order of Kagawa prefecture, Ehime prefecture, Kochi prefecture, and Tokushima prefecture. -Counterclockwise (NTT Docomo ShikokuSuch)
    • Kagawa prefecture, Tokushima prefecture, Ehime prefecture, Kochi prefecture. -From the north
    • In order of Kagawa prefecture, Ehime prefecture, Tokushima prefecture, Kochi prefecture. -It was intended from the north, but I may have misunderstood the positional relationship between Ehime prefecture and Tokushima prefecture.
  • 4 Prefectural offices in order of population size
    • Ehime prefecture, Kagawa prefecture, Kochi prefecture, Tokushima prefecture in this order.
  • Other

The "center" of Shikoku

TakamatsuMatsuyama CityBetween the two, there has been a lot of controversy over the title of "central city of Shikoku," but especially in recent yearsPrefectural systemAccompanyState capitalThe controversy related to the attraction of (Michito. In the following, referred to as "Michito") is intensifying. The following cities are centered and compete with each other. (→Shikoku's dojo system debate,Japan's Doshu system debate

Central Shikoku

TokushimaMiyoshi
from long agoTransportationIt was called "Shikoku's navel" because it was a key point.MiyoshiIkedaTraverseYoshinogawaIs named after itbridgeIs hung over (Ikeda Hessoko Ohashi,Shikoku Chuo BridgeSuch). MiyoshiYamashiro TownThen, the Yoshino River that flowed from Kochi Prefecture came from Ehime Prefecture.Dozan RiverJoins.ShowaIn the beginningtobaccoIt flourished in industry and was one of the leading cities in Shikoku.
EhimeShikokuchuo City
Connect Shikoku 4 prefectureshighwaynetwork·X highwayIt was named at the time of the merger because it is located at the intersection of the X-shapes, is equidistant from Tokushima and Matsuyama, and was the only municipality in contact with the four prefectures including Ehime prefecture at the time of the merger ( Currently Miyoshi City is also a municipality that contacts the four prefectures of Shikoku). In the future, we aim to become the capital city when the state system is enforced. In addition, Niihama City, which is adjacent to Shikoku Chuo City and has a larger population, is aiming to become the provincial capital.

Entrance to Shikoku

TokushimaNaruto
After opening the Akashi Kaikyo Bridge,Naruto StraitSpanOnaruto BridgeTraffic has exceeded the Seto Ohashi Bridge, and is beginning to take on the side of a new Shikoku entrance. When entering Shikoku from three routes, the populations west of Hyogo (Kyushu, Kyushu) and east of Hyogo (other than the former) are 3%:17%, and the situation where the Kobe Naruto route is overwhelmingly selected in many cases.Kobe Awaji Naruto ExpresswayImmediately after all of theNaruto ICUse the nearby Tokushima truck stationTrackThe increase was remarkable. Also to the Keihanshin areaExpress BusIs increasing year by year, one of theDollar boxIt was growing up to the line, but in recent yearsETC significant discountThe number of flights has been reduced or abolished due to the impact of[21][22][23].. In recent years, since the expressway network in Shikoku has been enhanced, Matsuyama City,KochiLeaving Takamatsu cityKeihanshin,Capital AreaHighway bus toAgricultural productsIt is becoming more and more noticeable that a truck loaded with cargo passes through Naruto. Naruto may become an even more important gateway to Shikoku as the expressways in Tokushima Prefecture are improved and four lanes are developed. In addition, the movement between Hon-Yo before the Utaka ferry was opened,Osaka OfDeep sunBy boatAwaji Island OfSumotoCross over toAwaji RailwayEtc. to move on Awaji Island from Sumoto to Fukura.ferryThe most popular route was to cross to Naruto (between Fukura and Naruto, Japan's oldest ferry route). In that sense, it can be said that “Naruto has become the gateway to Shikoku again” rather than “Naruto has become the gateway to Shikoku.”

Honshu-Shikoku Connecting Bridge Public Traffic Page

KagawaSakaide,Utazu Town
With the opening of the Seto Ohashi Bridge, it attracted attention as a new gateway to Shikoku to replace Takamatsu. Along with the opening of the bridge, large-scale development such asBubble economyWas promoted in theAkashi Kaikyo BridgeWith the opening of theKobe Naruto routeThe tendency to move to is seen. However, on the railway, the skyscrapers are still visible in the train window as the gateway to Shikoku.
EhimeImabari
Compared to the two routes above, the traffic volume on the border between Hon Yokka prefecture is inferior,Setouchi Shimanami KaidoIs connected to Honshu by. In addition to the Shimanami KaidoAkinada Tobishima KaidoHas a prefectural border with Hiroshima Prefecture and is the only Shikoku prefecture to have multiple roads to Honshu. Although it prospered as the center of the Seto Inland Sea route in the olden days, the area around the port has lost its vitality due to the construction of the main four bridges and the reorganization of the route. Also, due to the large-scale merger, the depopulation of the surrounding area is intense. It has the largest population in Shikoku, the largest municipality except the prefectural capital, and the largest industrial shipment in Shikoku.Shipping-shipbuildingThe industry is one of the largest in Japan.

Largest city in Shikoku

KagawaTakamatsu
HonshuBeing close toUtaka ferrySince it was operating,High Court,High Public Prosecutors OfficeSuch asGovernment office OfLocal branch officeMost of the (government agencies that have jurisdiction over Shikoku) have gathered (partiallyMatsuyama City,KochiLocated in). Also, the entire Shikoku area will be the business area.Shikoku Electric Power,JR ShikokuHeadquarters of companies such as the Shikoku Headquarters, branch offices, and branches of large companies nationwide are often located in Takamatsu City. But,1988(63)May 4 OfSeto Ohashi BridgeOpening1998(10)May 4 OfAkashi Kaikyo BridgeThe functioning of Shikoku as a gateway is changing due to changes in the distribution network due to the opening ofChugoku / Shikoku regionAs a result, the number of bases in Takamatsu is shrinking.
recent years[When?]Then,Sunport TakamatsuConstruction andMarugame Town Shopping Street OfRedevelopmentIn businessMarugame Town Green』Construction of thePrefectural systemIt is trying to solidify its position as a base city by attracting the provincial capital after the enforcement.Great Heisei mergerAt times, it became a city with a population of 42 by incorporating the surrounding towns,Urban employment areaThe metropolitan population in Shikoku is also the largest at 84 (ChushikokuAlso in the third largest population). Also,Ritsurin Park The"Michelin Green Guide Japon"Has been selected as the highest rated 3 star.
EhimeMatsuyama City
Natsume SosekiNovel "BocchanMatsuyama City, which is the stage of ", was the city with the largest population in Shikoku from the beginning,Great Heisei mergerHas exceeded the population of 51 and is the only in Shikoku,Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics BureauByMetropolitan areaWas defined asMatsuyama metropolitan areaForming (72 people) (ChushikokuAlso in the third largest population). As a national officeShikoku General Communication BureauIn relation to this, NTT Group's Shikoku Branch, Japan Post Group's Shikoku Branch,NHK Matsuyama Broadcasting Station(Shikoku Regional Bureau) is located.
Matsuyama AirportHas the largest number of passenger users, freight handling, and operating routes,Chushikoku regionIt is also the most when seen in[24].. The number of users at railway stations, including JR Shikoku and private railwaysIyo Railway OfMatsuyamashi StationIs the largest number in Shikoku and forms a clear base in Matsuyama City. Sea traffic is also popular,Matsuyama PortThere are passenger ships from all over Hiroshima and Kyushu.[25].
In terms of tourism,"Michelin Green Guide Japon"Japan's oldest, selected as the highest rated 3 star inDogo Onsen Main Building[26][27]And has been selected as a 2 starExtant 12 castle towerone ofMatsuyama CastleFamous forTourist cityThere is a law from the countryInternational Tourism and Culture CityHas been designated.
Since the beginning of the 2010s, redevelopment of the city area has been carried out and hotel construction[28],JR Matsuyama StationSurrounding overpass maintenance[29],Outer ring roadStretching[30]Is progressing. Also of the tramMatsuyama AirportPlan to extend in the direction[31]The city's function as the largest tourist city in Shikoku is being enhanced as a result of full-scale operation.

Education

National university

Public university

private university

College of technology

Transportation

Shikoku has long beenKinaiGeographically located relatively close toboatHad to move in. Long time agoOsaka OfDeep sunBy boatAwaji Island OfSumotoCross over toAwaji RailwayFrom Sumoto usingGood luckMove in Awaji Island to, from Fukura by boat or ferry,NarutoThe most common route was to go to[Source required].. In connection with this, one theory of the origin of the name of Awaji Island,AwaThere is also a theory that it is "Awave Island" in the sense of going to[Source required].

IslandersHonshuWhen coming and going,Seto Inland SeaUntil the bridge was crossed toShowaAfter enteringAirwayAlso).

While making it inconvenient to travel to and from Honshu,landIn, the topography of the island prevented traffic on the island. To cross ShikokuShikoku MountainsIs running and longtunnelUntil the civil engineering technology was established, the construction of railways and roads was extremely difficult.

Rail trafficIs initiallyHonshu OfSanyo Main LineBy contactingIyo Railway,Sanuki RailwayEtc. were constructed and then each prefectureTosa Electric Railway,Tokushima RailwayWith the improvement of such routes, the prefectural offices of each prefecture became able to move to each other by rail.ShowaIt was around the beginning[Source required].

20st centuryAs the railway entered and the railway was improved, it became easier to reach both Shikoku and Honshu.TakamatsuThe Shikoku branch of the company was set up in. Since the end of the 20th century,highwayThe rapid development of the web and the threeHonshu-Shikoku connecting bridgeWas also hungmotorizationIs progressing, and the center of long-distance transportation is from the previous railwayPrivate car,Express BusChanged to. This makes it close to Keihanshin and AwajishimaNarutoIs becoming an important point of transportation again. On the other hand,ferryWas taken by a highway bus21st centuryAfter entering, reduction and abolition occurred one after another.

In addition, "of four prefectures of Shikoku"Light vehicle ownership share of all vehicles(As of the end of March 2016, the national average was 3%) was 39.0%, which is the only number by region.[32].Light carIs cheaper than regular cars, and is generally cheaper than regular cars.Fuel efficiencyBecause it is good, transportation by car is a well-established means of transportation in Shikoku.

Transportation methods used for commuting to work and school in Shikoku and neighboring prefectures (2010 census)
Name of a cityHuman power systemPublic transportPrivate car systemOtherSource
WalkBicycleTrainShared busCharter BusTaxiPrivate carオ ー ト バ イ
Tokushima5.51%26.13%34.64%1.54%2.58%0.40%0.24%4.76%57.31%6.21%63.52%5.06%[33]
Takamatsu5.44%23.43%28.87%7.95%1.82%0.41%0.16%10.34%57.45%6.60%64.05%3.17%[34]
Matsuyama City6.31%27.80%34.11%5.59%2.36%0.34%0.29%8.58%45.14%15.03%60.17%3.54%[35]
Kochi4.98%27.24%32.22%3.42%2.81%0.37%0.38%6.98%52.30%10.83%63.13%4.28%[36]
Okayama City5.02%24.85%29.87%7.45%4.63%0.43%0.23%12.74%56.91%4.43%61.34%3.76%[37]
Hiroshima city8.60%21.20%29.80%17.16%13.54%1.06%0.44%32.20%35.61%8.86%44.47%5.53%[38]
全国6.88%15.98%22.86%24.82%7.40%1.14%0.22%33.58%47.51%3.87%51.38%4.38%[39]

As a tendency of Shikoku as a whole compared with the national average,Public transport(Train-Electric train,bus,Higher-Taxi) Is extremely low, and relatively human-powered (Walk,Bicycle) And private car system (Private car,オ ー ト バ イ) Account for a higher percentage. The trend is most remarkable in Tokushima City, and Kochi City is close to the average value in Shikoku. Matsuyama City has a relatively high proportion of human-powered personnel, a higher than average proportion of public transportation, and a remarkably high proportion of motorcycles for privately-owned vehicles, while a low proportion of privately-owned vehicles offsets this. As a result, the proportion of private car systems is the lowest among the four prefectures. Characteristic is Takamatsu City, where the proportion of privately-owned car systems is as high as that of Shikoku and shows the highest value, while on the contrary to the tendency of Shikoku as a whole, the proportion of public transportation is also high and this is also the highest. It shows the value and absorbs the low percentage of human power system. In addition, the proportion of public transportation in Takamatsu is largely biased towards railways, and the proportion of buses and taxis is the lowest.

Train

JR ShikokuConnects Okayama with each line connecting Takamatsu and the cities of Matsuyama, Kochi, and Tokushima.Seto Ohashi LineIs the main route.ElectrificationThe section isYosan lineTakamatsu --Matsuyama --Iyo City and Seto Ohashi Line,Dosan LineTadotsu-Kotohira.Double trackThe section is only part of the Takamatsu-Tadotsu and Seto Ohashi lines on the Yosan line.

Only among the four major islands in JapanShinkansenIs not running.

National railwaySmokeless (replacement of steam locomotives with diesel vehicles) was promoted relatively early in the era, and automatic signalization was promoted, but after that, improvements in facilities and facilities were postponed, and until the last stage of the National Railways, the National Railways on Shikoku Island were used. There was no electrified section. Connects Kagawa and Ehime prefectures as of 2006Yosan lineMost of the JR lines on the island have not been electrified, except for the sections where the electrification and speedup have been actively promoted, such as some of the islands.

In addition, due to the limited vehicle width in some tunnels in the electrified section, vehicles of Honshu standard cannot be used, and there is inconvenience in direct operation with the Honshu line. Due to the adverse effect of the congestion of diamonds caused by the increase, many shunt lines are always evacuating trains waiting for exchange or honors. There were many difficult problems that had to be solved.

After the privatization, the speed of the routes between cities gradually increased, but due to the poor linearity of the mountainous terrain and the inability to increase the number of trains due to the single track, maintenance is progressing year by year.highwayUsing the netExpress BusIt is becoming impossible to counter. In addition to the fact that shipping is originally active and there is only one route for connecting the main line of the railway, there are three routes and the tourist routes are dispersed, so competition with each transportation system is extremely fierce. ..

There is a Shikoku Shinkansen plan as a drastic speedup, and since 2011,Basic surveyIn response to the results of the above, activities to attract people to upgrade to the maintenance plan are becoming active (see details).Shikoku ShinkansenSee page).Linear in 37 years at the earliestChuo Shinkansen OfShin-Osaka StationStretching is realized,Three major metropolitan areasIs expected to form a "super mega region" that integrates.The Shikoku Shinkansen Development Promotion Committee is aiming to open the Shikoku Shinkansen in 2037.

Private railway lines in each prefecture of Kagawa, Ehime, and Kochi are responsible for transportation in the suburbs of the prefecture capital (in Tokushima prefecture,Third sectorThere is no pure private railway line).

Shikoku Passenger Railway
Private Railway/Third Sector Line
Unfinished line(Routes that are planned or have been planned in the past)

bus

High-speed line
Due to the construction of the Honshi Bridge (described later) and the expressway on the island, many routes have been established between prefectures and between the island and Honshu.
In particular, the high-speed bus line connecting Tokushima and Takamatsu to Keihanshin has grown to be one of the best dollar box routes in Japan, with three to four hourly flights set during the day.
However, in recent years, the number of flights has been reduced or abolished due to the effect of a large discount on ETC.[21][22][23].
General route
For high-speed high-speed buses, all bus routes are abolished in the west of Tadotsu in Kagawa Prefecture, and it can be said that general bus routes in each city are in a difficult situation.
However, when it is limited to Ehime prefecture and Tokushima suburbs, along the Toyo and Shimanami KaidoSetouchi Transport(And theSeto Inland Sea Traffic), but only in Shikoku in ChuyoOmnibus townThe Iyotetsu bus centered around Matsuyama city, which is designated asUwajima MotorIyotetsu Nanyo BusHowever, in the suburbs of TokushimaTokushima Bus,Tokushima City BusEtc. are deploying high-frequency services.
Also in other prefectures with the assistance of local governmentsCommunity busThe situation of general route buses in Shikoku has been gradually improved, including the opening of routes.

Book bridge

Honshu-Shikoku connecting bridgeAs,Naruto~Kobe City,Sakaide~Kurashiki,Imabari~OnomichiThere are 3 routes. this house,Seto Ohashi BridgeIs a combined bridge of railway (double-track DC electrification) and highway,Onaruto BridgeIs designed for future use. Others are road-only bridges. Also,Setouchi Shimanami Kaido(Onomichi / Imabari route) also has a dedicated road for pedestrians, bicycles, and motorized bicycles (125cc or less).[40].

Initially, first completed,Utaka ferryThe Seto Ohashi Bridge was positioned as the main route between the Honshi and the 2019th due to the existence of (XNUMX suspension), but since then, the flow between Honshu and Shikoku is moving to the completed Kobe Naruto route. This is a major JapaneseBig cityMost of the area is located in the region east of Shikoku and is one of the metropolitan areasKeihanshinToKobe Awaji Naruto ExpresswayA major factor is that they are directly connected at the shortest distance. In the future, especially in Tokushima prefecturehighwayIt is expected that more vehicles will be shifted from the Seto Ohashi bridge to the Kobe Naruto route once the nets are maintained.

Also, in Ehime prefectureImabari Komatsu ExpresswayAnd Hiroshima prefectureOnomichi ExpresswayThe number of vehicles shifting from the Seto Ohashi Bridge to the Shimanami Kaido is expected to increase with the maintenance.

In addition to the above three routes, a road with a cross section of the prefectural border between Hon-yō and the Hiroshima-Ehime prefectural borderOkamura BridgeExists. This is a remote island bridge project in Hiroshima PrefectureAkinada Islands communication bridgeIt is part of the Aki Nada Tobishima Kaido and is connected to Honshu, but not to the mainland of Shikoku. However, because it must be connecting the Honshu and Shikoku regions, it is sometimes jokingly called the back Shimanami Kaido or the fourth Honshi Bridge Route.

Road network

highway

Shikoku is domestichighwayWas especially delayed in the area. The first highway planned in ShikokuTokushima ExpresswayAnd the first opening1985,Matsuyama Expressway OfMishima Kawanoe IC~Doi ICIn the middle (there is a sign along the road that says the birthplace of the highway in Shikoku). At the end of 1986, the expressway maintenance ratio was 34% nationwide, while Shikoku had a very low level of 2%.[41].

After that, as a result of rapid maintenance,2000In Shikoku 4Prefectural office locationAre connected by a highwayX highwayIs completed,2002At the end of the year, the maintenance rate reached 66% and finally exceeded the national standard of 63%.[42].. At present, the extension of the Matsuyama Expressway to the south direction,Kochi ExpresswayTo the western part of Kochi Prefecture,Shikoku Crossing ExpresswayTo the southern part of Tokushima prefecture (Naruto JCT~Anan IC), in addition, to eliminate highway blank areasAnan Aki Expressway,Kochi Matsuyama ExpresswayConstruction work such asShikoku 8-figure network"The aims.

Expressway network maintenancemotorizationWith the progress of the, the result was to activate mutual exchanges in Shikoku, which had been silent until then. As of 1990, the largest current destinations starting from Takamatsu City and Matsuyama City were cities outside Shikoku (Okayama City, Hiroshima City), but since 1995 cities in Shikoku (Tokushima City, Kochi City) Similarly, in Tokushima City and Kochi City as well, the total flow number itself is increasing toward Shikoku.[18].

Initially, as a side effect of these expresswayStraw effectbyOsaka metropolitan areaThe possibility of an economic outflow to the Osaka area was pointed out, and the actual direct access to the Osaka areaKobe Awaji Naruto ExpresswayIn Tokushima Prefecture, which was opened to the public, the use of highway buses to the area is growing, and as of February 2008, there are 2 daily flights.[43].. But this phenomenon was abolished in 2002 with ferriesTokushima AirfieldItami flightIt is the result of the user switching to the highway bus[41], The total number of flows to the Osaka area is flat or decreasing year by year, and conversely, the number of flows to Kagawa prefecture is increasing year by year[18].. This same concernTakamatsu roadItano IC~Takamatsu Chuo ICIt was also pointed out in Kagawa Prefecture at the time of its opening, and the demand for high-speed buses Kobe and Osaka is actually increasing, but the flow itself to the Osaka area has leveled off, and to Okayama Prefecture, which was the overwhelming majority until 1990. Flow has sharply decreased, and the flow to Tokushima has increased sharply and exceeded it.[18].

As a phenomenon that is occurring at the same time, the flow of people in Shikoku as a whole is beginning to concentrate in Takamatsu City, and it tends to increase its centrality year by year.[19].. The reason for this is the improvement of the expressway network and the progress of motorization. For example, the largest destination in Tokushima in 1990 was Keihanshin, but during the 1999 survey, it changed to Takamatsu.[44].

  • Sections open as of the end of March 2021
Highway national road(A route)General national highway dedicated to highways(A' route)
Sales route nameA route or A'route (italicized)Service section
E11 Takamatsu ExpresswayShikoku Crossing ExpresswayNaruto IC~Kawanoe JCT,

Sakaide JCT~Sakaide IC(Sakaide branch line)

E11/E32 Tokushima ExpresswayShikoku Crossing Expressway,Shikoku Crossing ExpresswayNaruto JCT~Kawanoe East JCT
E32/E56 Kochi ExpresswayShikoku Crossing Expressway, Shikoku Crossing Expressway,Susaki Road,Kubokawa Saga Road,Nakamura Sukumo RoadKawanoe JCT ~Shimantocho Chuo IC,

Shimantocho West IC~Kuroshio Kennokawa IC, Shimanto IC~Sukumo Wada IC

E11/E56 Matsuyama ExpresswayShikoku Crossing Expressway, Shikoku Crossing Expressway,Ozu Road,Uwajima RoadKawanoe JCT ~Tsushima Iwamatsu IC
E55 Tokushima Southern ExpresswayShikoku Crossing ExpresswayTokushima Okishu IC~Tokushima Tsuda IC
General national motorway(B route) andHonshu-Shikoku connecting road
Route nameBusiness location name or supplementService section
E76 Imabari Komatsu Expressway(General highway 196Imabari Komatsu RoadImabari Yunoura IC~Iyo Komatsu JCT
E55 Kochi Eastern Expressway(General highway 55Kochi Nankoku Road,Nankoku Aki RoadKochi JCT~Kochi Ryoma Airport IC

Konan Noichi IC~Geisei West IC

E28 Kobe Awaji Naruto Expressway(General highway 28(Kobe/Naruto route)Tarumi JCT~ Naruto IC[45]
E30 Seto Chuo Expressway(General highway 30(Kojima/Sakaide route,Seto Ohashi BridgeHayashima IC~Sakaide IC[45]
E76 Nishi-Seto Expressway(General highway 317(Onomichi/Imabari route, nickname: Setouchi Shimanami Kaido)Nishiseto Onomichi IC~Imabari IC[45]

General national road

Tokushima-Matsuyama-Takamatsu-KochiConnect the four prefectural officesNational Route 11-National Route 32-National Route 33-National Route 55-National Route 56Etc. form the core of the road network. AlsoNational Route 28-National Route 30-National Route 317 Honshu-Shikoku connecting bridgeThrough Honshu,National Route 197 National Route XNUMX FerryIt connects to Kyushu through.

Many of the routes that pass through the mountains are undeveloped,National Route 193-National Route 439I do not think it is a national road likebottleneck・Routes with bad roads still remain (often "Rough roadIs ridiculed as such). There are many mountainous areas and there is a small population in the inland area,Shikoku in generalRoad maintenance rateIs lower than other regions[Source required].

There is no single-digit national highway in Shikoku, and the route with the lowest number is national highway 11. The double-digit national highways are all in the 11s and 28s except the 30th and 50th, and the 190-digit national highways are all in the 300s, 400s and 200s. There are no 1 national highways.

List of general highways in Shikoku
National highway namestarting pointmain
Transit point
end pointDesignated sectionTotal extension[46]
(km)
Actual extension[46]
(km)
Actual extension
Proportion
National Route 11TokushimaTakamatsuMatsuyama CityWhole line272.7272.7100.00%
National Route 28Kobe CitySumotoTokushimaAll lines except the sea194.6157.881.09%
National Route 30Okayama CityTamano-shiTakamatsuAll lines except the sea97.459.961.50%
National Route 32TakamatsuMiyoshiKochiWhole line143.5139.797.35%
National Route 33KochiNiyodogawa TownMatsuyama CityWhole line129.3126.297.60%
National Route 55TokushimaMuroto CityKochiWhole line241.1232.496.39%
National Route 56KochiUwajima CityMatsuyama CityWhole line336.2332.598.90%
National Route 192Saijo CityMiyoshiTokushimaWhole line140.196.869.09%
National Route 193TakamatsuMimaKaiyo TownOverlapping section160.3149.593.26%
National Route 194KochiIno TownSaijo CityOverlapping section88.976.986.50%
National Route 195KochiNaga TownTokushimaOverlapping section178.3152.385.42%
National Route 196Matsuyama CityImabariKomatsu TownWhole line81.781.7100.00%
National Route 197KochiOzu CityOita CityOverlapping section275.7204.774.25%
National Route 317Matsuyama CityImabariOnomichiImabari-Onomichi192.1175.191.15%
National Route 318TokushimaYoshinogawaHigashikagawaOverlapping section43.723.854.46%
National Route 319SakaideMiyoshiShikokuchuo CitySakaide-Miyoshi131.161.346.76%
National Route 320SukumoUwajima CityOnikita TownOverlapping section90.636.139.85%
National Route 321Shimanto CityTosashimizu CitySukumoNone84.284.2100.00%
National Route 377NarutoKotohira TownKanonjiOverlapping section120.962.351.53%
National Route 378Iyo CityYawatahama CityUwajima CityNone123.5117.895.38%
National Route 380Yawatahama CityOzu CityKumakogen TownOverlapping section66.622.333.48%
National Route 381SusakiShimanto TownUwajima CityNone113.671.162.59%
National Route 436HimejiShodoshima TownTakamatsuOverlapping section99.833.633.67%
National Route 437Matsuyama CitySuo Oshima TownIwakuniNone87.562.070.86%
National Route 438TokushimaTsurugi TownSakaideOverlapping section175.0172.098.29%
National Route 439TokushimaTosa TownShimanto CityOverlapping section348.1242.369.61%
National Route 440Matsuyama CityKumakogen TownYusuhara TownOverlapping section89.335.339.53%
National Route 441Ozu CityOnikita TownShimanto CityNone114.697.484.99%
National Route 492TakamatsuMimaOtoyo TownOverlapping section133.530.723.00%
National Route 493KochiNahari TownToyo TownOverlapping section112.649.543.96%
National Route 494Matsuyama CityNiyodogawa TownSusakiOverlapping section114.480.670.45%
TaiziIn the non-overlapping single intervalDesignated sectionThe route where is present. *Diagonal lineIs a route that connects with outside Shikoku.
*The term "overlapping section" in the designated section is a route where only overlapping sections with other national roads are designated sections.

V-shaped route

Showa 40'sTourismIn advertising, as a route proposal to efficiently travel the major tourist destinations in Shikoku,Matsuyama City-Kochi-TakamatsuThe route connecting (National Route 32,National Route 33) Was considered, and because it is just the letter "V" of the alphabet, it came to be called the V-shaped root.

Route

RitsuryoToNankaidoIt was a corner of the area, and it was a region that moved by boat. The same situation continued after modern times,Honshu-Shikoku connecting bridgeThe number of regular passenger routes decreased drastically due to the service.

Main routes

空港

Book bridgeUntil then, the only means of mass transportation with Honshu is by ship, and JR Shikoku has many single-track sections and the number of trains is limited.ShinkansenToOkayama stationSince there is a need to change trains at the airport, there has been a high demand for aviation from the past, and medium-sized or larger aircraft can take off and land in the vicinity of the prefectural offices of 4 prefectures.空港Has been maintained. On domestic routes, Tokyo flights, which are in strong demand, are operating from all airports, and especially in Matsuyama and Kochi, which are geographically far from neighboring cities.Sanyo Shinkansen,Express BusSince the time required will greatly increase when you use, we have routes for short-distance flights such as the three major metropolitan areas and Kyushu. On the other hand, there are no regular flights from Kochi and Tokushima on international routes, but there are Asian flights from Takamatsu to Seoul/Shanghai/Taiwan and from Matsuyama to Shanghai/Seoul. In addition,Takamatsu AirportTokushima AirfieldThe straight line distance is about 55 km, and it isKIXIs about 65km, with Takamatsu AirportOkayama AirportIs close to 62 km.

List of airports by number of passengers in Shikoku region in 2013[47]
空港Total passengersDomestic flightsInternational flights
Number of passengersregular serviceNumber of passengersregular service
Takamatsu157Ten thousand2493148Ten thousand0667Haneda-Narita-Naha9Ten thousand1826Seoul-Shanghai-Taiwan
Matsuyama265Ten thousand9045262Ten thousand0362Haneda/Narita/Central part-Itami-Kansai-Fukuoka-Kagoshima·Naha3Ten thousand8683Seoul/Shanghai
Kochi133Ten thousand0150132Ten thousand4713HanedaNagoya・Itami·Fukuoka5437
Tokushima96Ten thousand918696Ten thousand5732Haneda·Fukuoka3454

culture

dialect

Southwestern Ehime Prefecture and Southwestern Kochi PrefectureTokyo accentHowever, other than that, in the wide area of ​​ShikokuKeihan accent,Tarui-style accentIs used in eastern Ehime and western Tokushima, mainly in Kagawa prefecture.Sanuki style accentIs used. OverallKansai dialectIn terms of vocabulary and vocabulary in the area facing SetouchiChinese dialectThere are many things in common with. Meanwhile, from the Nanyo district of Ehime prefecture to the western part of Kochi prefectureWeinan areaHas a light Kansai color and has a unique dialect in Shikoku.

  • Awaben: The most accent and wording in the Shikoku dialectKansai dialectHas a strong influence (however, the accent was used in the early modern KansaiKeihan accentIs). The widespread reception of TV in Osaka in Tokushima seems to promote proximity to Kansai. On the other hand, in the western part of the prefecture such as Ikeda, the Sanuki dialect has a strong influence,Sanuki style accentIs used.
  • Sanuki dialect: There is a feature in accent, which is different from the so-called Keihan style mainstream. It is said that the accent used in the upper part of the Middle Ages changed independently (Sanuki style accent). The vocabulary and wording have many similarities with the Chinese dialect.
  • Iyoben: Toyo district such as SaijoSanuki style accentThe Chuyo region such as Matsuyama is almost the same as the modern Kansai regionKeihan accentNanyo region such as UwajimaTokyo accentAnd, it is rich in variety. As with the Sanuki dialect, the vocabulary and vocabulary have many similarities with the Chinese dialect. The dialect of Nanyo has few Kinki elements and is also used in the western part of Kochi prefecture.Hata dialectBecause there are many things in common, the Minami Yoben and Hata Dialects are collectively called the Weinan dialect (Southwestern Shikoku dialect).
  • Tosa dialect: The same as the Awaben used in the early KansaiKeihan accentHolds strongly. Unlike other Shikoku dialects, in terms of vocabulary and vocabulary, there are many distinctive phrases.
  • Hata dialect : Tokyo accentIs used. There are also many unique vocabularies that Tosa dialect does not have. Western Kochi (Hata-gunandShimanto CityFormer Hata-gun area such as), because it has a lot in common with the dialect of Nanyo district of Ehime prefecture, it may be treated as a dialect of both.

Festival

Saijo Festival, Etc. are festivals whose main purpose is Shinto ritual, Awa Odori, Yosakoi Festival, etc.Three major festivals in ShikokuIs famous, but mainly danceShikoku four big festivalsIs also known.

Traditional crafts

TokushimaKagawaEhimeKochi

Food culture:

Each prefecture has many unique local products and local dishes. The specialty products that cross the prefectureUdon,Wasanbonand so on. Also, as foods sold nationwidePocari Sweat,Pon juiceAre typical. For the specialty products and local dishes of each prefecture, see the section of each prefecture.

Main sights and historical sites

Of the tourist destinations that represent ShikokuRitsurin Park(Special scenic spot)WhenJapan's Sankoyu OfDogo Onsen(Dogo Onsen Main BuildingIs an important cultural property) and has been selected as a 3 star by the Michelin Guide.

Shrine-Buddhist templeThen gather worshipers from all over the country before the Edo periodKotohira Shrine(Konpira-san)88 locations in ShikokuThere is a sacred place, and the entertaining culture where the pilgrims (pilgrims) are welcomed by local residents is rooted. Especially at the XNUMX sacred sites in ShikokuPilgrimageIn recent yearsworld HeritageActivities aiming for registration are underway.

cityThen.Extant 12 castle towerOut ofMarugame Castle,Matsuyama Castle,Uwajima Castle,Kochi CastleThere are four of them in Shikoku, and in addition to these,Imabari Castle,Takamatsu Castleand so on.

XNUMX famous castles in Japan

By train, run along the Shimanto RiverYodo LineThree brothers,Yosan line OfIyo Nada Monogatari,Iyo RailwayTourist trains such as "Bocchan train" are in operation. In addition to Shikoku, which is rich in nature,Iya ValleyThere are many scenic spots (see also the geography item for natural scenic spots).

Sports

Of the following items, the teams that are both management and professional players are the soccer J League, basketball B league, and baseball Shikoku Island League plus teams.

Ice hockey

J Ice West Division(West Japan League)

サ ッ カ ー

soft ball

basketball

Japan Professional Basketball League(B League)
BoysRegional league(Chugoku-Shikoku Kyushu League)
  • Shikoku Electric Power Basketball Club (Takamatsu City)
  • Toray Ehime Basketball Club (Matsumae Town)
  • Shodoshima Stones (Tonosho Town)
Women's Regional League (West Japan League)
  • Imabari Orange Blossom (Imabari City)

badminton

Japan LeagueWomen's 2nd Division

volleyball

Challenge league(Girl)

handball

Business woman

hockey

baseball

rugby

Top west

Athletics

From

See the list below for celebrities from Shikoku.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ [Reference] The total population of the four prefectures of Shikoku is generally the 4th largest in the prefectural population ranking.ShizuokaHas a population of approximately 376 million (Population list of prefectures # Census statistics (2010)).

Source

  1. ^ a b "28 Area adjustment by prefectures, cities, towns, and villages (PDF)". Geographical Survey Institute (September 2016, 10). 2017th of February 2Browse.
  2. ^ "Japanese Statistical Yearbook 26" (2013) p.17- 1986(Showa61 years),Japan Coast GuardMeasured by.
  3. ^ "27 Area adjustment by prefectures, cities, towns and villages (PDF)". Geographical Survey Institute. p. 5 (August 2015, 10). 2016th of February 2Browse.
  4. ^ Island country (territoryIs all(I.e.A country consisting of)JapanCompose6,852 Of(I.e.AgainstMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismAccording to ⇒ 6,852 islands(Native5 islands- Remote island6,847 islands). <Source> “Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism] Site Remote Island Promotion Division What is a remote island? (Basic knowledge of the island)[1] Retrieved November 2009, 11. However,(I.e.There is no such classification/division in terms of geography.
  5. ^ 【reference】 List of island countries(territoryIs all(I.e.Countries consisting of)
  6. ^ a b From the island area as of October 25, 10 (PDF) Geographical Survey Institute(Note: "Okinawa Island Okinawa" in the table is the common name "Okinawa main islandOfficial name)
  7. ^ 【reference】 Japanese(I.e.Top 10 islands in order of areaHonshu,Hokkaido,Kyusyu,Shikoku,Etorofu Island,Kunashiri Island,Okinawa main island,Sado Island,Amami Oshima,Tsushima.. [Source] National Observatory (Edit)Science chronology 19 version P565,ISBN 4621077635.
  8. ^ a b Of the world(I.e.Excerpt from the area ranking of List of islands by area((I.e. : Australian continentLess than the area of水域Land surrounded by
    1 Greenland

    6 Sumatra(Indonesia
    7 Honshu
    8 Victoria Island(カナダ* Population 1,707 (2001)
    9 Great Britain (The United Kingdom(England-Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu-Wales))

    20 Ireland island(Republic of IrelandandThe United Kingdom(Northern Ireland))
    21 Hokkaido
    27 Devon Island(カナダ* World's largestUninhabited island

    36 Spitsbergen (ノルウェー
    37 Kyusyu

    49 Banana island(Brazil* In the world's largest river(I.e.
    50 Shikoku
  9. ^ [Reference] Geographical Survey Institute Area of ​​main islands in Shikoku.. There is also a view that the four prefectures of Shikoku are designated as the Shikoku district. "Japan Place Name Encyclopedia" Shogakukan 4 p.1996 ISBN-4 09-523101-7
  10. ^ a b Hitomi Ito, "Solving the Mystery of Place Names," Shinchosha, 2017, p. 10.
  11. ^ Tanaka (2004) p.294
  12. ^ Journey along the Chuo Tectonic Line (4)-Tokushima Prefecture, Ehime Prefecture, Kochi Prefecture ---- Mountain Natural Science Series (12)
  13. ^ Geology of Shikoku (primary water system of Shikoku) River Department, Shikoku Regional Development Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, viewed January 2021, 1
  14. ^ Kakeda, Takeshi (August 2015, 8). “Three things found by analyzing the amount of mutual exchange in Shikoku”(Japanese). Ikimate @ Ehime. 2020th of February 5Browse.
  15. ^ Prefectural economic calculation (18-29) (2008SNA, 23 reference figures)
  16. ^ "Heisei 27 year census". Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau. 2017th of February 1Browse.
  17. ^ Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, 5th National Trunk Line Passenger Net Flow Data
  18. ^ a b c d e MLIT/National trunk line passenger net flow data
  19. ^ a b Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism / Trends in Area Development (PDF)
  20. ^ "Survey and research on future trend analysis of regional economy”. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (February 2015). 2018th of February 3Browse.
  21. ^ a b Naruto-Hanshin Line abolished on 21st The first high-speed bus route, "1000 yen" effect[Broken link](Tokushima newspaper 2010May 1
  22. ^ a b High-speed bus abolished Successive "upper XNUMX yen" influence[Broken link](Asahi Shimbun 2010May 1
  23. ^ a b The Naruto-Hanshin Line is abolished. Highway buses and other companies are also reducing routes., Tokushima Shimbun, (2010-01-22), オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2010, 1., https://web.archive.org/web/20100126095138/http://www.topics.or.jp/localNews/news/2010/01/2010_126412346131.html 
  24. ^ “Summary table of usage status of jurisdiction airports (26 preliminary)” (PDF) (Press Release), Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Osaka Aviation Bureau, https://ocab.mlit.go.jp/about/total/report/pdf/h26syuukei.pdf 2017th of February 10Browse. 
  25. ^ "Timetable >> Matsuyama Tourist Port Terminal". Matsuyama Tourist Port. 2015th of February 11Browse.
  26. ^ "Dogo Onsen|History & Culture|Tourism Information|Matsuyama Tourism Convention Association-Welcome to Matsuyama, a power spot full of smiles! ~”. Matsuyama Tourism Convention Association. 2017th of February 10Browse.
  27. ^ Dogo Onsen itself has also been selected as a 2-star star.
  28. ^ "Matsuyama/Okaido Laforet Ruins New Hotel Opened August 8". Ehime newspaper. 2015th of February 11Browse.
  29. ^ "Matsuyama outer ring road”. Matsuyama River National Highway Office. 2015th of February 11Browse.
  30. ^ "Continuous grade separation project near JR Matsuyama Station". Ehime Prefecture. 2015th of February 11Browse.
  31. ^ "Highway/tram plan". Matsuyama City. 2015th of February 11Browse.
  32. ^ As of the end of March 2016 Mini vehicles and automobiles Owned units and share by prefecture(Association of the Japan Light Car Association)
  33. ^ "22 National Census, Total population/industry, etc. by workplace/school attendance (male and female population, age, industry of employment (major classification)), prefecture results, 36 Tokushima Prefecture”. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (e-Stat) (October 2010, 10). 2014th of February 3Browse.
  34. ^ "22 National Census, Total population/industry, etc. by place of employment/school attendance (sex and age of population, industry of employment (major category)), prefecture results, 37 Kagawa Prefecture”. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (e-Stat) (October 2010, 10). 2014th of February 3Browse.
  35. ^ "22 national census, total population/industry, etc. by employee's/school attendance (male/female of population, age, industry of employment (major classification)), prefecture results, 38 Ehime prefecture”. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (e-Stat) (October 2010, 10). 2014th of February 3Browse.
  36. ^ "22 National Census, Total population/industry, etc. by place of employment/school attendance (sex and age of population, industry of employment (major category)), prefecture results, 39 Kochi prefecture”. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (e-Stat) (October 2010, 10). 2014th of February 3Browse.
  37. ^ "22 national census, total population/industry, etc. by employee's place of commuting/schooling (gender of population, age, industry of employment (major classification)), prefecture results, 33 Okayama prefecture”. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (e-Stat) (October 2010, 10). 2014th of February 3Browse.
  38. ^ "22 National Census, Total population/industry, etc. by employee's place of commuting/schooling (men and women of population, age, industry of employment (major category)), prefecture results, 34 Hiroshima prefecture”. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (e-Stat) (October 2010, 10). 2014th of February 3Browse.
  39. ^ "22 national census, total population/industry, etc. by work place/school attendance (male and female population, age, industry of employment (major category)), prefectural results, national results”. Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (e-Stat) (October 2010, 10). 2014th of February 3Browse.
  40. ^ "Bicycle pedestrian road”. Honshu-Shikoku Expressway. 2021th of February 1Browse.
  41. ^ a b Shikoku Railway Company (November 2006, 11). “About activation of railroads in Shikoku area (PDF)”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Transport Policy Council Regional Public Transport Subcommittee. 2010th of February 12Browse.
  42. ^ "Highway in Shikoku is being developed with the aim of building a recycling network that connects Shikoku as one”. Construction Graph (November 2002). 2010th of February 12Browse.[Broken link]
  43. ^ Tokushima newspaper(July 2008, 2) 
  44. ^ Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Current State and Issues of National Land (PDF)
  45. ^ a b c For convenience, the parts outside Shikoku are also shown.
  46. ^ a b "Road Statistics Annual Report 2014 Current State of Roads". Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 2015th of February 4Browse.
  47. ^ "Airport management status report by calendar year/year (PDF)". Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismAviation bureau (2013). 2015th of February 2Browse.

References

Related item