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Appetizers that look bright are young corn, wheat, carrots, broccoli, and rapeseed jelly.
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corn(Tama corn, corn rice, scientific name Zea mays subsp. mays (L.) Iltis) IsPoaceae OfAnnual plant.穀物AsA humanFood and家畜 OffeedBesidesStarch(Cornstarch) Andoil,Bio ethanolIt is also important as a raw material for the world, and the annual global production was 2009 million in 8.TReachThe world's three largest grainsone of..It is cultivated in sunny fields.Native to the Americas, discovered the New World at the end of the 15th centuryColumbus EuropeIt was brought back to Japan and spread to Japan, and it was introduced to Japan at the end of the 16th century and spread all over the country.
corn (corn) Also called.In the English-speaking world, the term originally meant grains in general, but nowadaysNorth America-AustraliaIn many countries, such as corn, unless otherwise noted.However,The United KingdomLet's have corn Maize (maize), Which refers to grains in general corn (corn) Is common.
熱 帯AmericaOrigin..NumerousVarietyFor food and feed作物Widely in the fieldCultivationHas been.. ManyJaponicaAlthough it is sex, although it is a very small numberWaxySome are sexual..Large-scalePoaceae OfAnnual grassso,StemIs single and upright, height 2MetersGrow nearby.leaf TheMutualityAnd the bottom issheathWrap the stem..As a gramineous family, it has wide leaves.The number of leaves and height that can be attached in a lifetime are almost determined by the variety, and the earlier the variety, the shorter the height and the smaller the number of leaves..
Thin due to tropical origincarbon dioxideHas a C4 circuit for concentratingC4 type photosynthesisIt is a plant.Prefers a slightly hot environment with multiple sunshine.Because it is a large crop, 10 throughout the growing periodR350-500 perTNeed water.
Hermaphrodite..Male flower (male) about 3 months after germinationSpikelets) And female flowers (spikelets) occur separately.The spikelets extended higher than the leaves from the tips of the stemsPanicleThen, densely attach spikelets with only male flowersSusukiIt looks like an ear of..The spikelets are around the lower nodes of the stemLeaf axilCylindricalSpike inflorescenceAnd the female flowers are bracts as a whole (Bracts), And from the top is a long called silk threadPistil OfFlower pillarOnly a long beard-like bundle that stretches out and reveals its face..The whiskers of corn correspond to this pistil.
pollen TheAir mediumWhen pollinated, the base of the female flower swellsseed(Edible part) is formed..Seeds (rare in the grass family)fruit) Ripe, he appears from the inside of the sword.Seed colors are yellow, white, reddish brown, purple, blue, dark blue, etc.
Cultivation and breeding in sunny fields, Seeds are sown from spring to summer..The season as a crop is summer,JapanThen, it will be shipped around June-September, and especially around July.Typical of corn in JapanpestIt is,moth OfLarva"Awanomeiga" tends to gather in male flowers, so if you cut the male flowers by artificial pollination, feeding damage will be reduced..
Corn has a wide variety of uses in its long history of cultivation.Cultivar,First generation hybridHas been developed.Hybrid stressHybrid varieties that utilize (combination of mating in which the growth of the child becomes active when different varieties are crossed)1920 eraからThe United States of AmericaIt was developed in Japan, and the yield has increased dramatically since then.Also, in recent yearsgene recombinationThe cultivars that have been cultivated are also expanding.
Intragrain is commonly used to classify corn.StarchIt is a grain classification that determines the species according to the structure of..There are differences in usage and cultivation method depending on the species.
scientific nameIs "Zea mays subsp. Mays (L.) var. ~", So it is written as "ZmL var. ~".
Variety for food use
Sweet corn (ZmLvar.saccharata)
- Edible varieties.boil,Bake(Grilled corn),SteamCooking methodThere is.
- It is also a material for processed foods, for exampleCorn flakes,CornmealIt can also be used as a material.The seeds contain a large amount of sugar and have a strong sweetness, but the taste deteriorates after harvesting and is exhausted by respiration, and the taste deteriorates in a few hours at room temperature in summer.Countermeasures include thorough low temperature control or heating immediately after harvesting to hold breathing.
- Baby corn (young corn)
- Boiled young ears of the second sweet edible varieties,saladIt is used for stewed dishes.
- Sweet yellow grain seeds
- A variety with a lot of yellow fruit and sweetness.
- A pioneer of raw edible varieties that have been on the market since the 1990s, with an average sugar content of 12 degrees.
- Can be eaten raw with a sugar content of 15 degrees or more.
- gold Rush
- A variety with soft fruit and high sugar content.Can be eaten raw.
- Miel Corn
- A variety with a thin grain skin and a high sugar content.Can be eaten raw.What is Miel?Frenchso"honeyIt means "sweetness like".
- Picnic cone
- An improved version of Ajirai with a high average sugar content of 18 degrees or more, and a small variety.Can be eaten raw.Seedling companies publicize that the sweetness is increased by cooling after cooking, and recommend that you eat cold after cooking..
- Sweet bicolor grain seeds
- A mixed variety with a mixture of colors such as white and yellow.
- Honey bantam
- The first variety cultivated and distributed in Japan.After that, since the appearance of "Phi Ta Khon" due to breeding, production has decreased and it is disappearing from market distribution.
- A variety with a soft grain skin and a high sugar content.Softer and sweeter than honey bantam.
- Dream corn
- A variety with soft fruits and high sugar content.Can be eaten raw.
- Cocktail corn
- A variety with a mixture of yellow and white grains (cocktail), soft fruit and high sugar content.Can be eaten raw.
- Sweet daughter (Kankan Musume)
- A variety that has a high sugar content and can be eaten raw.The decrease in sugar content over time is slow.However, it has a low germination rate and is a difficult variety to cultivate.
- Sweet white grain seeds
- A variety with white fruits and a lot of sweetness.
- pure white
- It is also called white corn or phantom corn, and is touted as having an average sugar content of 17 degrees or more.Raw food is also possible, but when cooked, the taste is slightly inferior to that of sweet yellow and bicolor varieties.
- Snow fairy
- An improved version of pure white.Raw food is also possible with an average sugar content of 17 degrees.
- White chocolate
- An improved version of pure white.Raw food is also possible with an average sugar content of 17 degrees.
Although the classifications shown above are based on color and taste, many genes related to them have been identified.Among the genes related to sweetness, the su gene, se gene, sh2 gene, etc. are particularly important, and depending on their combination, there are types such as sweet, super sweet, and ultra super sweet.The combination of genes makes a difference in sugar content and sugar type (flavor).Sweet varietiescanningIt is for processing such as, and is rarely distributed as fruits and vegetables.Super sweet varieties and ultra super sweet varieties are used as fruits and vegetables, but some people find the ultra super sweet varieties to be too sweet.
Hard grain type (Flint corn) (ZmLvar.indurata)
- Mainly used for food, livestock feed and industrial raw materials.
Explosive species (popcorn) (ZmLvar.everta)
Waxy corn (ZmLvar.seratina)
- Ripe seed surfaceワ ッ ク スThis name was given because it is slippery as it was done.Because starch is sticky,Glutinous riceUsed as a processing raw material as a substitute for.
Soft grain (soft corn, starch sweet corn) (ZmLvar.amyrae-saccharata)
- The grain is formed of soft starch.
- Giant corn
- seedIs large.
Varieties mainly used as livestock feed
- Dent corn (ZmLvar.indentata)
- When grown, the sugar contained in the fruit is mostly converted to starch, so it is not normally edible.Mainly for livestockfeed,Starch(Cornstarch) Raw material, used for ethanol production.Speaking of corn production in the United States, the production of dent species is usually about the same for feed and ethanol, and these account for more than 7% of the total, and about 1 to 2% are for export to overseas. In addition, the remaining 1% is for industrial use, etc., and is stable without major increase or decrease..
- USDAAccording to the Federal Grain Inspection Office (FGIS), there are two categories of dent corn hybrids, classified by grain color (yellow or white).Yellow dent species are mainly animal feed andethanol,Edible oilUsed for industrial purposes such as.. FGIS says "Food (processed meat,tortillaChips,Snack food,Corn grits), White dent species are generally used for edible grade cornstarch, paper, etc. "..Depending on the starch content, the yellow dent species alsoHuman capitalUsed in the production of foods consumed by.
Genetically modified crops(Genetically modified organism) A general term for corn.
Comparison of corn grains (bags, silos, shavings) and crushed products (crushed grains such as corn grits, corn flour, corn meal, etc.) with the endogenous gene corn SSIIb (starch synthase IIb). so,PCRQuantitative inspection using a method or the like.The permissible value for unintentionally mixed recombinants is soybeans, and corn can be traded with a guideline of 5% or less..
Ministry of AgricultureJAS Analytical Examination Handbook "Genetically modified food inspection / analysis manual(3rd edition,HeiseiSeptember 24, 9) and Consumer Affairs Agency"Inspection method for genetically modified foods that have been tested for safety" AttachmentGenetically modified food labelingThe system specified in is as follows.However,Minister of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries-Minister of the EnvironmentSince then, it has continued to approve "use, cultivation, processing, storage, transportation and disposal for use as food or feed, and related acts".Ministry of the EnvironmentBiosafety Clearing House (J-BCH)Genetically modified organism search system approved based on the Cartagena method As of August 2019, there are 8 GM corns registered in (including progeny strains and expired corn).
For details on the GM cone systemGM Approval Database(International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications, ISAAA).
- Cauliflower mosaic virusRecombinant strain incorporating the derived 35S promoter 9 (P35S, CaMV35S)
|OECD name||Product Name||開 発 者||Pest resistance||Herbicide resistance||Other||Host|
|Event176||NaturGard KnockOut, Maximizer||Syngenta||Cry1Ab||PAT||bla||Lancaster CG00526|
|Bt11||Agrisure CB / LL||Syngenta||Cry1Ab||PAT||E89 system|
|T25||Liberty Link Maize||BayerCrop science||PAT||bla||Tissue culture-derived strain He / 89|
|NK603(French)||Roundup Ready 2 Maize||Monsanto||aroA: CP4||AW x CW|
|MON863||YieldGard Rootworm RW, MaxGard||Monsanto||Cry3Bb1||nptII||Self-breeding line A634|
|DAS-01507-1||Herculex I, Herculex CB||Dow AgroScience,DuPont Pioneer Hi-Bred International||Cry1F||PAT||Self-breeding line A188 x B73|
|MON810(English)||YieldGard, MaizeGard||Monsanto||Cry1Ab||aroA: CP4, glyphosate oxidase||nptII||A188 X B73|
|DAS-59122-7||Herculex RW||Dow AgroScience, DuPont Pioneer Hi-Bred International||Cry34Ab1, Cry35Ab1||PAT||A188 X B73|
|MON88017||YieldGard VT Rootworm RR2||Monsanto||Cry3Bb1||aroA: CP4||A x HiII|
|MON89034||YieldGard VT Pro||Monsanto||Cry2Ab, Cry1A.105||A188 X B73|
- Recombinant line without P35S sequence
|Name||Product Name||開 発 者||Pest resistance||Herbicide resistance||Other||Host|
|GA21||Roundup ReadyMaize, Agrisur GT||Monsanto||mepsps||AT system|
|MIR604||Agrisure RW||Syngenta||mCry3A||SMEs||NP2499 / NP2500 system|
|MIR162||Agrisure Viptera||Syngenta||vip3Aa20||SMEs||NP2499 / NP2500 system|
- 注 釈
- All hosts are dent speciesBelongs to (var. Indentata)
- Cry1Ab delta-endotoxin
- modified Cry1F protein
- Cry2Ab delta-endotoxin
- Cry1A.105 protein which is the Cry1Ab, Cry1F and Cry1Ac proteins
- vegetative insecticidal protein (vip3Aa variant)
- Western corn root worm resistance
- Cry3Bb1 delta endotoxin
- Cry34Ab1 delta-endotoxin
- Cry35Ab1 delta-endotoxin
- modified Cry3A delta-endotoxin
- phosphinothricin N-acetyltransferase (PAT) enzyme- GlufosinateResistance
- strain CP4 herbicide tolerant form of 5-enolpyruvulshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme, cp4 epsps; aroA: CP4--- GlyphosateResistance
- modified 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme; mepsps --glyphosate resistance
- glyphosate oxidase --Glyphosate decomposition
- Selectable marker
Currently the most popularTheosintoOrigin theoryAnd it is supported by the results of genetic analysis etc...The theory that originated from the genus TripsacumMicrosatelliteAs a result of analysis, it is denied..In addition, the divergence age of theosinto and corn is said to be about 9200 years ago..
As a theory that once fought for origin,
- メキシコからEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euTheosinto native to the areateosinte) [Annotation 1], CornSubspeciesIt is assumed Zea mays mexicana or Euchlaena mexicana, Japanese name Buta Morokoshi) is the theory that it originated.However, theosinto produces only about 10 small inedible fruits, and its appearance is clearly different from that of corn.
- Two seedsmatingThe theory that it was created by letting it.Candidate ancestors include the extinct wild ancestors and the genus Tripsacum, and the genus Tripsacum and theosinto.
5000 BCBy that time, it was cultivated on a large scale and was a major part of the Americas.Agricultural products(However,CassavaWas the staple foodAmazonexcept for).In the new continentAmaranth,QuinoaIt is the only grain that can be the main grain except for minor grains such asMaya civilization,Aztec civilizationAlso in Japan, corn was cultivated on a large scale and formed the basis of both civilizations..South America OfAndesIn the areapotatoCentered onpotatoMaize has been a staple food crop, but corn is also an important crop, especially.RitualSake used for ceremoniesChicha) Has been consumed in large quantities as a raw material.Inca EmpireThen, a stepped farmland was constructed and corn was cultivated in large quantities..
Propagation within the New World (Americas)
After diversification from the place of origin to the highlands of Mexico → "Western / Northern Mexico → Southwestern North America → Eastern North America → カナダOr "Southern / Eastern Mexico → Guatemala → Caribbean → South American lowlands → Andean highlandsIs believed to have propagated to.
Propagation to the old world
1492 years,Christopher ColumbusBrought back corn grown by the local Caribbean when he discovered the Americas.EuropeWas transmitted to(Columbus exchange).Cultivation began almost immediately, and in 1500SevilleThere is a record as a cultigen plant in..The background is unknown, but the first large-scale cultivationトルコ(Ottoman Empire) And was called "Turkish wheat".A novel plant, corn, until the early 18th centuryTithe taxNot subject tomilletRapidly propagated in the form of conversion.
In the middle of the 16th century地中海Spread over the coast, by the end of the 16th centuryThe United Kingdom,Eastern EuropeCultivation has expanded throughout Europe.Initially accepted as food for the poor in Europe, the overwhelmingly high yield rate compared to previous grains is "17rd century crisisIt was decided to ease the increasing population pressure.. Also,Age of DiscoveryThis grain was quickly spread all over the world by the trade ships of European countries.AfricaIn the 16th century on the continent,AsiaIt reached the beginning of the 16th century, and also to Japan at the eastern end of Asia in 1579.This spread was rapid, in 1652 at the southern tip of Africa.Cape TownToDutch East India Company Cape colonyAlready on-site when theKhoekhoeThe corn that propagated from the north of the land route was widespread in.
Although spread in Africa, until the 19th centurySorghumThere were also many cultivations of traditional crops.However, since the latter half of the 19th century, the demand for corn has increased as food for miners, and the workers have been increasing.MigrantEven after returning to his own village after finishing the above, he began to like the familiar taste of corn.In addition, corn ripens faster than sorghum, so it could be harvested even during the traditional off-season...For this reason, especiallyEast Africa,Southern AfricaThe conversion from sorghum to corn progressed in.However, corn was more vulnerable to high temperatures and dryness than sorghum,SahelIn hot and dry areas such as zones, it was not possible to destroy traditional grains..
Generally by Christopher Columbus mentioned aboveOld worldIt is said that it was brought back to Japan and spread, but it already existed in the Old World before Columbus, and it was in Africa in the 12th century and in the 13th century.Iberian Peninsula(スペイン,PortugalThere is a study that it was cultivated in)..AncientPolynesianThere is also a theory that corn was included in the movement of American products and technologies across the Pacific Ocean to Africa..
Propagation to Japan
There are three routes to Japan, but the oldest route is called the southwestern route, which was transmitted by Europeans.There are several theories,De CandreIs from 1573 to 1591 (Tensho era)PortugalDepending on the person, tropical hard grain species (flint species)NagasakiIt is said that it was brought to.milletAt that time, it was also called "Nanban millet" in addition to the name "corn" because it resembled.漢字Then.NanbanWritten as corn or corn (ball is beautiful, corn means foreign).
after that,Mount AsoAt the foot of the mountainShikokuIn the mountains ofFoot of Mt. FujiIt spread to areas that are not suitable for rice cultivation in terms of climate and water use, and at the end of the 18th centuryEzoMororan (currentHokkaidoMuroran) Has been reached..However, at that time, there were only hard grain species, so to the lastMilletIt was treated and was often mixed with porridge and rice cake to add bulk..Edo PeriodCooking book "Book breakfast book"Eat it on the fire, or dry it and grind it into powder.MochiIt is good to make it, "and it was eaten as a processed product..
Since the Meiji era, American early-maturing dent and flint species made by modern breeding methods have been introduced to Hokkaido.PioneerStarted large-scale upland farming.Corn became established as raw food and feed, and eventuallyTohoku region,KantoSpread to.This propagation route is called the Hokkaido route, and along with the southwest route, it became the main transmission route to Japan..
Second World WarLater, there were increasing cases where hybrid varieties produced by seedling raising companies and agricultural experimental stations by ordering seedlings from all over the world were widely introduced, and such introduction routes are called free routes... The "Golden Cross Bantam" developed in 1950 was the first example.
Production and distribution
|Top 2009 corn producers in 10|
|Country||Production volume (t)||Remarks|
|Unmarked = public numbers, A = total (including public, semi-public, and inference data).|
Most of the foods eaten in Japan are sweet varieties, but in the world, processed varieties of dent corn (dent corn) are cultivated more often..
Global corn production was about 2009 million tonnes in 8, of whichThe United States of AmericaProduces more than 3 million tons and accounts for about 3000%, the largest in the worldCountry of originIt has become.The United States is also the world's largest exporter, with a market share of over 6%.For this reason, the world's inventory and prices are affected by the weather in major production areas in the United States.Futures tradingIt is also the target of.In recent years, to be resistant to pestsgene recombinationThe varieties that have been used are spreading.Corn is a strong hybrid, and the development of hybrid varieties using this has led to a rapid increase in yield, but since it is a FXNUMX hybrid, growers cannot prepare seeds for the next year after harvesting, and seeds are harvested from seed companies every year. Must be purchased.This allowed seed companies to make huge profits every year, which triggered the agribusiness to grow huge..
In the middle of the 20th century, increased yields from improved hybrid varieties spread from developed to developing countries.So-calledGreen revolutionIs.This further increased corn production, but the development of new varieties was centered on feed corn, and not so much on the main food corn used as a grain.For this reason, corn productivity has not improved significantly in Mexico and African countries, which eat corn as their staple food... In the 21st century, it will spread to the inhabitants of underdeveloped countries as the yield increases.Vitamin A,NiacinHybrid varieties have been developed to meet the shortage, and attempts are being made to introduce them to Nigeria and other countries..
Japan depends on imports for most of its corn.Ministry of Agriculture,Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications,Ministry of FinanceIn statistical classification such as cornCerealsMost of them are processed as feed, and some of them are processed as starch and fat raw materials.The amount is about 1600 million tons per year, which is JapanRiceIt is about twice the annual production of.Japan is the world's largest importer of corn, and 2% of its imports depend on the United States.In addition, 9% of the consumption in Japan is used for livestock feed."Blue-cut corn (corn), which is a roughage for feedsilage) ”,“ Corn that uses grains, etc. ”, which is a concentrated feed, is produced by domestic dairy farmers.The annual yield is about 450-500 million tons, but most of them are self-consumed and not "distributed", so the self-sufficiency rate is statistically 0.0%.
On the other hand, sweet varieties harvested in an immature state, which are generally retailed and consumed at home and restaurants, are statistically called "sweet corn".VegetablesIt is classified as (vegetables).Imports of fresh sweet corn are in the 25t range, while annual domestic production is 30-10t., Almost all of the raw edible sweet corn sold in stores is domestically produced.However, in addition to this, there are about 9 to 10 tons of imported frozen and prepared sweet corn...The gross domestic product of sweet corn in 22 was 23 tons, and by prefecture, Hokkaido had the highest production of 4700 tons, accounting for about 10% of the total domestic production.The next largest production isChiba1t,Ibaraki1t,Gunma1t,NaganoIt is in the order of 9400t..What is produced domesticallycanningSome are edible as they are.
Imported genetically modified corn is a vegetable oil contained in foods generally marketed in supermarkets, etc.High fructose corn syrup,alcohol,spices, Starch,fructoseIt is distributed in Japan as a raw material such as (In Japan, only 8 kinds of agricultural products such as corn and 33 kinds of processed foods made from this are subject to labeling obligations, and labeling obligations on the above mentioned items. Not).Commercial cultivation of genetically modified crops has not yet begun in Japan.
In 2007, the world consumption of corn was the highest at 64% for livestock feed, followed by industrial use such as cornstarch production at 32%, and direct consumption was only 4%...As shown in the figure above, the consumption of corn as a direct food is highly uneven depending on the country.Many countries, such as the United States and China, are large producers but do not use them for food.The most edible consumption is made from corntortillaMexico, Pap, Saza andUgaliIt is a region from eastern Africa to the southern part of Africa where foods made from corn flour are the staple food (see the figure on the right).
As mentioned above, since the varieties of main food corn and feed / industrial corn are different, it cannot be said that it is generally possible to reduce the consumption of feed corn and divert it to main food (main food is for feed). Can be diverted to industrial use).OnceKenyaLargedroughtWhen the situation occurred, the United States provided food assistance for corn flour, but the Kenyan government provided assistance because the flour was not edible white corn that was used as Ugali in Kenya, but yellow corn that was not used for food in Kenya. I once went back to America.
In recent years, corn is used as a raw material in the United States, which is the largest producer.Biomass ethanolDemand for corn increased rapidly, and demand for corn for ethanol surged from 1998 million tons in 1300 to 2007 million tons in 8100...This expanded the demand for corn, but on the other hand, the production could not keep up with it, and the price soared because it was in a form of competing with the demand for food and feed so far.2007-2008 World Food Price CrisisThere is also a theory that it became one of the causes that caused.
Corn fruits are edible and the nutritional content isStarch qualityThere are many,Vitamin B1-B2,potassium,protein,Dietary fiberEtc. are included, as other active ingredientsXanthophyll,MelatoninIs included..The exodermis of corn has a lot of water-soluble dietary fiber, and it is in the intestine.cholesterolKeeps blood vessels young and drains them out of the body.ArteriosclerosisHelp prevent..In addition, the yellow pigment of corn is derived from xanthophyll and has the effect of keeping blood vessels soft.Corn whiskers are called Nanban hair and have long been associated with acute nephritis.SwellingIs used to take.
Fruits are staple foods,Confectionery,liqueurIs important as a raw material for..Raw fruits can be eaten by baking or boiling in salt water.SoupThere are various usages such as..As a processed product, it is edible in powderCornmeal,Corn grits,Cornflower,CornstarchAnd so onSweet bread,CuisineWidely used in.
Corn was cultivatedMesoamericaSo corn has been important since ancient timesStaple foodIt was a crop.Dried seedslimeBoil in water withalkaliAfter processing, grind,MasaA kind ofBreadIt was processed into dough and used for various cooking.A typical example is the thinly rolled and baked nothing that is eaten in Mexico.fermentationA kind of breadtortillaIs. thisalkaliProcessing is nowNixtamalizationIt is called.South America OfAndesIn the area, it is often boiled and eaten as grains without alkali treatment, but various potatoes such as potatoes are more important as the staple food crop in this area, and corn is germinated in addition to being boiled and eaten as described above. Boil the corn, saccharify it, and ferment it further.ChichaTo sayliqueurOften.
Since ancient timeswheat,MilletWhen corn was introduced into Europe, Asia, Africa, etc., where corn was milled and used, it was also milled and cooked.Things that are kneaded and baked with water like in the United States,イタリア OfPolenta,Eastern Europe OfMamariga,East Africa OfUgali,NshimaPut it in boiling water and knead it while boiling.PorridgeAnd solids,ChugokuLike the wort ()Steamed breadThere is something to make into a shape.
In modern Japan, such use as a staple food is not very familiar,High economic growthPreviouslyYamanashiFuji Hokuroku region, etc.In cold regions and mountainous regions where the yield of rice is low, the ripe grains of hard-grained corn are either raw or coarsely ground and boiled to make porridge or milled with a stone mill.OyakiThere were not a few areas that were used, such as by making.
Immature ears are used as vegetables by baking or boiling.Sweet varieties are often used for these purposes.Baby corn (young corn) is a little special as a vegetable.This is a young and boiled second ear of a sweet edible variety, which is used in salads and stewed dishes.As a more special thing, in MexicoUstilaginomycotaA type of fungus (Ustilago maydis) Infected ears are called "Huitlacoche" and are edible, making them high-class foodstuffs.
In addition, it can be used as a food ingredient in a wide variety of ways.corn soup(Western cornPotage, Chinese foodCorn soup・), Butter corn,popcorn,Corn flakesAnd so on.Also as a corn puffSnacksIt is also widely used as a raw material for.Dried corn flour in southern Africa, especially in South AfricaMielie-mealBoiled after dissolving in water or hot waterThe texture between rice cake and porridge, such as white mashed potatoes, is the staple food mainly for black people.Pap is one of the causes of obesity in these areas because the corn component is concentrated and more than 7% is sugar.The slightly fermented product is called sour pap.
Corn nuts cannot be synthesized by the bodyEssential amino acidsone ofTryptophanLess is.Therefore, it is synthesized in the body from tryptophan in South America, the southern United States, the mountainous regions of Europe, and parts of Africa, where corn has been a staple food since ancient times.B vitaminsone ofNiacinDeficiencyPellagra(pellagra, Popularly Italian leprosy), and there are still some areas where this continues.In Mesoamerica, it is said that the above-mentioned alkaline treatment has been used to prevent deficiency since ancient times.
Fruit (seed / germ)
Corn nuts are not only for human consumption, but alsoAnimal husbandryIt is consumed in large quantities as feed in Japan.In addition, starch (Cornstarch),Salad oilUsed forCorn oilIt is also used as a source of supply. In 2007, livestock feed accounted for 64% of the world's total consumption, and industrial use for cornstarch production and corn oil accounted for 32%.Also,carp,Black snapperThere is also a demand as a fishing bait for fishing.
Since corn can efficiently obtain high-purity starch, it occupies an important position.Starch obtained from endospermPapermaking,pasteBesides being used for, etc., by fermentationsugar,ethanolIt has been converted into various chemical substances.Made in this wayCorn syrupIs important as a sweetener.in recent yearsEnvironment issues,Sustainable societyFrom interest inBiodegradable plasticIsPolylactic acidAndBiomass ethanolAsBrazilThen, the application to automobile fuel etc. is expanding.
Especially in the United States, it has attracted attention as a raw material for biomass ethanol, and its price has skyrocketed.soyAlthough cropping from soybeans is progressing, lack of water resources is becoming a problem in some areas because it consumes water for growth compared to soybeans and wheat...In addition, the deterioration of profitability caused by the mismatch between the ethanol market and the corn market and the inadequate infrastructure for transportation and supply.Demand for biomass ethanol has been sluggish due to the small number of models that support ethanol, and the price of ethanol produced due to oversupply has remained flat despite the sharp rise in gasoline prices..
Fruits have the medicinal properties of gastrointestinal tonecornCalled (Gyokushokusho)Crude drugIt also becomes boiled and eaten.GermFat oil squeezed from is also used as a solvent for medicines and as a base for ointments..
In addition, it is also called "Indian corn" for cultural purposes.Flint cornSpecies in North AmericaThanksgivingDuring (or during the harvest season), on doors and tablesdecorateHave a habit of.
The axis (hump) after harvesting the fruit isSynthetic resinMaterialFurfural,Furfuryl alcohol,sweetener OfXylitolIt becomes a manufacturing raw material such as.The crushed powder is calledmushroom OfCulture medium,Building materialsmaterial,Abrasive materialIt is also used for such purposes.
Since the core is soft and easy to process into a cylindrical shape, smoking equipment (Corn pipeUsed as).Second World WarIn postwar processingAllied Supreme Commander General CommandBecame commander-in-chiefDouglas MacArthurOften in photosCorn pipeYou can see the figure in hand.Today's corn pipes are made from corn pipe varieties developed in 1946 for the purpose of using wicks..
Stems / leaves
Stems and leaves are for livestock feed and plowfertilizer(compost), And some green-cut corn is cultivated for that purpose...It can also be left unattended after being pulled out, cut withered and plowed into the soil, and used as fertilizer.
If the seeds are hard and beautiful in color, remove the bracts or peel them off like banana peel and dry them for ornamental use.The removed bracts may also be used as a substitute for fiber or cloth (such as baskets with bracts).
When the style of the pistil (beard) turns brown and dries, the one collected and dried in the sun isCorn corn(Corn),Tama rice cornIt's called (Gyokubeishu), and in JapanNanban hairDistributed as (Nanban Moku / Nanban Mou)Crude drugso,Diuretic effectThere is..This diuretic effect is due to potassium, which is abundant in southern barbarian hair., Because it is combined with salt and excreted outside the bodySwellingTori,blood sugarHelps stabilize the valuecalorieWithoutdietCan be drunk as tea..Nanban hair is the first edition of "Japanese PharmacopoeiaThe diuretic that was listed inPotassium acetateWas devised as a substitute for.Folk remediesSo diuresis, acute nephritis, pregnancyedema,CystitisIn addition, buds (beard-shaped part) 5-10GThe water 300-600㏄It is known how to infuse with and take it in 1 divided doses a day..
In modern Chinese studies, descendingblood sugarAction,bileSecretory action, hemostatic action, etc. have been confirmed, and due to these effects,Diabetes mellitus,hepatitis,Urethral stones,nosebleedIs used as a medicine for.
The name "corn", which is the standard name used in Japanese, means that tow is a Chinese nation.唐In addition, sorghum is a plant that was introduced from sorghum.SorghumIs derived from.KansaiSuch asdialect"Namba" is an abbreviation for Nanban millet, and there are some areas called Goryeo or Goryeo millet, but these are all exotic plants.This is the same situation in Europe,FranceThen "Turkish wheat",TuscanyThen "Sicily corn",SicilyIn (Sicily), it was called "Indian corn" and other names that were roughly common to mean "foreign grain".
The Chinese plant name is "corn".
- Aburiki- FukuiOno-gun
- Wart- KagoshimaKoshiki Island
- Urandafuin- OkinawaTaketomi Island(Meaning "Dutch sorghum")
- Millet- NiigataChuetsu region,Sado Islandな ど
- Millet- NaganoSouth,Tottori,Kochiな ど
- You-Southern Hokkaido, Aomori Prefecture,Iwateな ど
- Gyoku- ChibaA part of
- Gushintojin- Okinawa main islandSouthern etc.
- Korai- GifuPart ofFukuiPart ofMiePart ofShigaA part of
- Koraikibi- AichiOwariRegion, Gifu Prefecture
- Koryan- KagawaOkawa District
- Satsumakibi- OkayamaBizenRegion
- Sankaku- KumamotoA part of
- Setaka millet-part of Niigata prefecture,WakayamaHidaka-gun
- Takakibi-Kagoshima PrefectureTanegashima
- Corn / Tokibi-Hokkaido,YamagataNorth,Ishikawa, Fukui prefecture, Kagawa prefecture,Ehime,Yamaguchi Western,Kyusyu,Gunma,Saitama, Aichi PrefectureOkumikawaRural etc.
- (First half of Showa period[When?]Until then, this "toukibi" was commonly used nationwide. )
- Tokimi-Southern Hokkaido (Southern Hokkaido)Oshima area), Southern Yamagata Prefecture,FukushimaWestern part, northern part of Gunma prefecture, etc.
- Totakakibi-Kagawa PrefectureTakami Island
- Totoko-Northern Shimane Prefecture, etc.
- Tounawa-Gifu Prefecture,Toyama
- Beans-Niigata PrefectureJoetsu region, Part of Nagano prefecture, etc.
- Tomigi- Miyagi,Fukushima Prefecture,Tochigi,Ibarakiな ど
- Tomugi-Southern Tochigi Prefecture
- Corn-Kanto region, Okinawa prefecture, eastern Shimane prefecture, etc.
- Tokkibi-Part of Yamagata and Akita prefectures
- Tokimi- Akita
- Millet-Akita Prefecture
- Nakigin-Part of Tottori Prefecture
- Namba- Kinki,Mie PrefectureIga region,Okayama Prefecture,Tokushimaな ど
- Namba-Aichi PrefectureMikawaRegion
- Nanban / Nanban Millet-Eastern Aichi Prefecture,KyotoNorthern part, eastern part of Yamaguchi prefecture, etc.
- Hachiboku-Mie PrefectureIse Region, Part of Gifu prefecture, Part of Shiga prefecture
- Fukurokibi-Part of Nagano Prefecture, Part of Wakayama Prefecture
- Magojo-Part of Miyazaki Prefecture
- Mamekibi-Part of Niigata Prefecture, Gifu Prefecture(I.e., Part of Nagasaki Prefecture, etc.
- Marukibi-Part of Gifu Prefecture
- Manman- Hiroshima, Southern Shimane Prefecture, etc.
- Sorghum-Nagano prefecture, Yamanashi prefecture, etc.
- Yamato Tonchin-Okinawa PrefectureShuri(Meaning "Yamato corn")
- Daughter-in-law (Yomejokibi)-"Kojien』Also known as
- ^ a b c d e f Hiroko Hayashi 1998, p. 116.
- ^ "Fig. 182 Corn (Tama 蜀黍), Fig. 183 Togarashi (Chilli), Fig. 184" Comprehensive map of "corn" (Fig. 182) and "Togarashi" (Fig. 183) "" Linguistic Map of Japan. Vol. 4 " 30 (4),National Institute for Japanese Language<Report from the National Institute for Japanese Language>.two:10.11501/8799784.National bibliographic number:75008617. Attached (separate volume 104p 26cm at the end of the book): Commentary, National Diet Library / Library transmission participation hall open to the public.
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- ^ a b Ukiyo Kuruma (September 2014, 8). "" Corn "that was introduced in the Tensho era. Until the latter half of the Meiji era, hard-grained seeds (flint corn) were used.". Diamond Company 2019th of February 6Browse.
- ^ a b "What do you read "Tama corn"? A new plant carried by a Nanban ship during the Azuchi-Momoyama period.". Japan fray trayLtd.. 2019th of February 6Browse.
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- ^ (PDF) Whole farm
- ^ https://www.alic.go.jp/content/000127160.pdf "Supply and Demand Trends of Sweet Corn" p28 Research Information Department --Agriculture and Livestock Industries Corporation ("Vegetable Information" No. 2016.8) Retrieved August 2019, 8
- ^ https://www.alic.go.jp/content/000127160.pdf "Supply and Demand Trends of Sweet Corn" p28-29 Research Information Department --Agriculture and Livestock Industries Corporation ("Vegetable Information" No. 2016.8) Retrieved August 2019, 8
- ^ "Crop Statistics Survey Crop Survey (Vegetables)> Confirmation> 22 Vegetable Production and Shipment Statistics Vegetable Survey 3 ・ Planted area, yield, and shipment amount by prefecture Sweet corn item”. E-Stat General Counter for Official Statistics (June 2011, 12). 2013th of February 2Browse.
- ^ a b Status in Japan Alter Trade Japan
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- ^ "Required amount of protein / amino acid WHO / FAO / UNU Joint Expert Council Report" Translated by the Translation Subcommittee of the Amino Acid Society of Japan,Medical and dental drug publishing<WHO Technical Report Series 935>, May 2009.ISBN 978-4-263-70568-1.
original: (PDF) , Report of a Joint WHO / FAO / UNU Expert Consultation, 2007 (English)
- ^ a b c Sumiko Koike 1998, p. 103.
- ^ "Encyclopedia to know Latin America] P.264
- ^ Motoyama Ogifune 1958, p. 410.
- ^ Corn tea that you want to keep drinking every day! What is the effect of drinking corn tea?Livedoor news (October 2018, 10) Retrieved February 18, 2020
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- ^ Weekly diamondEditorial department Takuro Kono (August 2008, 8). “Soaring corn screams bioethanol producers”. Diamond Online (Diamond) 2015th of February 1Browse.
- ^ Thanksgiving 11th Thursday of NovemberUS Embassy Viewed September 2019, 9
- ^ Indian Corn: A Fall Favorite | A & E Television Networks, LLC Retrieved February 2019, 9
- ^ Everything You Ever Wanted to Know About Indian CornHowStuffWorks Retrieved September 2019, 9
- ^ Kanji Okano, Reiko Kitao, Satoko Miki "King trumpet (Eringi)Pleurotus eryngii) And Tokiirohiratake (Pleurotus salmoneostramineus) Cultivated corn cob meal medium digestibility and changes in fiber composition"Journal of the Japanese Society of Animal Science, 2004, Vol. 75, No. 4, p.551-557, two:10.2508 / chikusan.75.551
- ^ a b Japan Pipe Club Federation ed. "Pipe Taizen" 3rd Edition Unknown Valley 2009,ISBN 9784896422696 pp. 151-152.
- ^ Traditional crafts related to horses (Kimigara slippers / Yawata horse)A trip to visit Aomori Prefecture's lifestyle (viewed February 2020, 2)
- ^ Bonjin Izawa, Renzo Hirayama, Kazumitsu Izawa et al. "Japanese herbal medicine therapy that is easily confused with Chinese medicine herbal medicine therapy-Japanese law (special feature: Knowing Chinese medicine)" "Science of Health" Vol. 43, No. 8, 2001 8 Month, p. 607, ISSN 0018-3342.
- ^ "Original Landscape of Performing Arts-Taketomi Island, Okinawa Prefecture Seedtori Festival Script Collection", edited by National Taketomi Island Cultural Association, Mizuki Shobo, 2003 (first edition, February 1998), p.ISBN 978-4-87449-028-0.
- Hirohiro Enomoto, Naoki Abe, "Mechanism of Food Business in Pictures", supervised by Akio Shibata, JMA Management Center <Picture Series>, August 2008.ISBN 978-4-8207-4525-9.
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- Keiji Kainuma, Teruo Nakaku,Kenichi Otsubo"Science of corn"Asakura Shoten<Series << Food Science >>>, February 2009.ISBN 978-4-254-43074-5.
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- Tatsuya Shimizu "(PDF) , "Food Crisis and Supply and Demand of Corn in Developing Countries," Tatsuya Shimizu, Asian Economic Research Institute, 2010
- Corn types, product characteristics and uses --Agriculture and Livestock Industries Corporation
- Corn --Nutrition column "Nadeshiko Tsushin" (Hyogo Nutrition Cooking Confectionery College)
- About the result of "26 corn growth fact-finding survey" --Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (press release dated June 2015, 6)
- Theosinto-Let's see the original corn species! --Tsukuba Experimental Botanical Garden (National Science Museum)
- (PDF) --"Agriculture and Forestry Finance" August 2006 (Norinchukin Research Institute)
- Magazine articles on soaring corn prices, etc. -Reference collaborative database