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Wikipedia related words
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Environment issues(Environmental issues,British: Environmental threats, Environmental issues, Environmental problems) Is(I.e.Surroundings derived from the activities ofEnvironmentIs a general term for problems caused by changes in地球BesidesSpaceIt is a problem that extends to.
Basics of environmental problems
With regard to environmental issues, the parties take full responsibility, including the impact on others who are not burdened.Polluter pays principleThere is an idea. However, there is no problem as long as the adverse effects such as pollution are small, but if the adverse effects are large or if the parties that are impacting the environment are not known, the burden on the parties may be too heavy and the measures may not be taken. In that case, we take responsibility for society as a whole, for exampletaxOf damage caused by pollutioncompensationSupport the parties and those affected.
In some cases, there are cases where the parties do not take voluntary measures, and there are many parties where cooperation is difficult.Community,AdministrationIt is necessary to take measures centered on the entire society.JurisprudenceIn general, environmental issues that affect human survivalRight to life,Moral rightsThe liability of the parties is legally stipulated as an infringement of. In recent years,Environmental rightsThere is a movement to recognize that, but there are differences between countries.
There are two main types of measures for environmental problems. Standards to prevent health effects from environmental pollution (Environmental standardsEtc.) and make plans based on this, and monitor and regulate pollution,top downThis is a typical type countermeasure.組織To voluntarily set policies and goals regarding the environment, and to carry out activities and evaluations in line with them.Environmental management(Environmental management)Bottom upThis is a typical type countermeasure.
However, since measures against environmental problems are made on a political organization (national, prefectural, municipal, etc.) basis, pollution in other areas where the measures are not effective can reach your area. There is also the problem of crossing borders. Private sector activities cannot keep up with this, and political action and international discussion and consultation are needed.
To protect the environment for the purpose of solving environmental problems or in the background of ideasEnvironmental protectionIt is said that doing this continuously (CitizenshipIf you try)Environmental protection activitiesOr (Social movementIf you try)Environmental protection movementIs. Among environmental protection,NATURETargetingnature conservationCall. To promote and promote environmental protectionEnvironmental protection groupEspecially those that target natureNature conservation organization(See each item for details).
As a word similar to environmental protectionEnvironmental protectionThere is. Although they are almost synonymous, they may be used properly.
An international organization that manages environmental issues covers the entire worldUnited NationsとUnited Nations Environmental ProgramStarting with (UNEP),European Union(EU) orAsia-Pacific Economic Cooperation ConferenceAs an organization that handles regional unions such as (APEC) and specialized fieldsIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change(IPCC) etc.
Academic fields for environmental issuesEnvironmental studies.Environmental chemistry,Environmental sociology,Environmental economics,Environmental ethics,Environmental policyEtc., dealing with the environment and its effects, and the issues surrounding it.
Environmental thoughtsEcology,Gaia theoryand so on. Some of them are widespread in general, but some have their own ideas. The idea is to promote environmental protection based on these ideas.EnvironmentalismAnd most environmental groups advocate this principle.
Initiatives for "environmental problems"
There is an important way of thinking when considering measures for environmental problems.sustainabilityIs a term that refers to the possibility that an object or activity can sustain and sustain human activity.Sustainable development(Sustainable development, sustainable society) is to promote development with the utmost respect for sustainability. While maintaining sustainabilityresource,EnergyA society that usesRecycling societyResource saving,Energy Conservation,Zero emission,3RThere are various shapes.
There is no doubt that industrial activities are the main cause of environmental problems, but civilian activities such as individuals are another main cause. Regarding industrial activities, taking uniform measures by taking advantage of its organizational characteristics,PenaltiesIt is easy to define such things. However, as for individuals, it is difficult to take uniform measures because there are various ways of thinking and lifestyles (lifestyles), and it is not easy to set penalties, so each person is left with their own way of thinking and actions. The part is large. Therefore, environmental protection activities have a large influence on the private sector.
Citizen activities that are not for profitNPOAs a result, a system for preferential treatment has been established.Car sharing,Shopping bagEfforts to protect the environment at the grassroots level such as self-restraint (Grassroots livelihood) Is also becoming popular.
Along with the growing environmental awareness of citizens, a monitoring system such as environmental monitoring was born.TransportationIn the fieldMobility managementThere are also movements to promote voluntary environmental measures.
Nongovernmental organizationIn the formCitizenshipIn addition,CountryEfforts (Emission regulation,Environmental standards, Research) and efforts by companies (Environmental technologydevelopment of,Zero emissionThe pursuit ofRecyclingEtc.) are being promoted in various ways.
For activities related to overall environmental protection and reduction of environmental impact,Green purchasingAnd assist itEnvironmental labeling system,3RThere are such things as institutionalization and support from the government and the private sector.
As for institutionalization, it covers all areasEnvironmental lawThere is a field calledEnvironmental standards,Environmental taxThere is a method such as.Environmental consultant,Environmental counselorAre experts who deal with environmental measures in general, but institutionalization varies from country to country.
For companies and groups,Environmental accountingOperation ofEnvironmental management systemThe introduction of will lead to comprehensive measures. There are many companies and organizations that take measures to deal with environmental problems as an opportunity, mainly in "environmentally advanced countries".Environmental businessAnd environmental markets are emerging.
While grassroots activities, steady activities with good intentions, and activities with a sense of crisis are expanding, in order to solve environmental problems,poverty,Population problemIt has been pointed out that large-scale measures are necessary, such as measures to prevent the change in ideas, such as measures to improve profitability and the idea of pursuing only self-prosperity.
Living environment innovation
2006,United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) reports that animal husbandry poses a major threat to environmental damage, so production methods need to be improved... Statistical results show that livestock has “high” greenhouse gas emissions, gas is a cause of acid rain, many forests are cut down to produce feed, and is a major cause of water wastage and water pollution. This is because it was obtained. Livestock is only one of the causes as a whole, but there are other causes as well, but it is rapidly increasing in Asia and elsewhere.LifestyleIs changing,meat,Dairy productsThis is due to the fact that environmental problems have become apparent due to the rapid increase in consumption of water.
Such changes in lifestyle are due to the economic development of emerging and developing countries, and if these people with a huge population live like developed countries, in addition to environmental problems, resources and resources will increase.food-WedSupply shortages such as these are expected to become serious. In light of these facts, there is an increasing demand for developed countries to undergo a major review of their lifestyles and for developing countries to improve their lives without relying on economic development. However, disagreements are still big.
Noise, vibration, comfort issues
aircraftTake off during takeoff and landingLoud soundIt is,空港,baseIn the vicinity, etc., it may reach a level that interferes with daily life. Measures such as restricting takeoffs and landings at night at the airport have been implemented due to the problems related to land acquisition at the airport, etc.Noise problems TheOkinawaHowever, it is still serious.
Development issues/nature conservation/ecosystem issues
For nature conservation,World Wildlife Fund(WWF) andInternational Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) and various sizesNature conservation organization, Individual activists are engaged in activities.
development ofbeforeEnvironmental assessmentThe method of doingNature reserveWhile the establishment of the policy is being actively promoted, there are some areas where the protection is not adequate due to political or economic reasons. However, there is no room for people's lives and no financial room.Poor countryAlsoAfricaThere are many regions and there are strong claims from those countries that development and improvement of people's lives are necessary before environmental protection.
Focusing on the individualNational trust movementIs also being developed in some areas.
Global warming and climate change issues
1997(Heisei9 years)Japan Of京都AtFramework Convention on Climate ChangeThe 3rd Conference of the Parties was held. hereKyoto ProtocolBycarbon dioxide,methane,Freon gas such asGreenhouse gasIt was agreed to reduce the total emissions of. Reduction targets are assigned by country,Developed countryOverall2012until1990It is required to reduce 5.2% from the total amount of COXNUMX emitted. this is2050This is a small amount compared to the long-term target of halving the total amount of emissions, but there is a certain meaning in the agreement to reduce emissions.
Just as the efficiency and efficiency of the industry will increase, the consumption of energy will increase due to the introduction of machinery and so on. The development of industry, the improvement of living standards, and the increase of environmental load are inseparable. There is a strong belief that if we try to reduce the environmental load, it will hinder the development of industry and the improvement of the standard of living, which is a major stumbling block to the current measures for environmental problems.
Environmental markets andEnvironmental businessIs expanding, and the number of products and companies with the theme of environmental protection is also increasing. While the private sector mainly conducts devoted environmental protection activities and environmental measures that do not reduce their own losses, environmental protection activities and environmental measures for profit are also implemented.
In considering measures for all environmental problems, measures for one problem may adversely affect other problems, and measures for each environmental problem may be mutually exclusive. In Europe, for example, due to low greenhouse gas emissions,Diesel carHowever, due to the large amount of air pollutant emissions, it is subject to regulation in Japan.
The original meaning is "EcologyHowever, the meaning has expanded and now it is used to mean "environmentally friendly", "environmentally friendly", and "environmentally friendly". For shortエ コOften called. Because the meaning and definition are ambiguous, the meaning may be expanded to "healthy" and "natural".
Natural regression/Civil denial
Development andCleaning upFrom the pursuit flow,NATUREThere is an idea to solve the environmental problem by returning to.文明Since there is a close relationship between and environmental problems, there is also the idea of trying to solve it by avoiding or retreating civilization. This flow isLadditeExercise and in JapanEnvironmental loadLowVegetarian food-Edo PeriodYou can look at the movement to re-examine traditions such as the lifestyle of. The idea that nature is idealAnarchism,RousseauAnd someRomanticismCan be seen inAsconaThen there was a case where a community of that kind was tried.
In lifeNATUREThere are also efforts to address environmental issues that are deeply related to lifestyles, such as adopting lifestyles and living in an environment-friendly manner. "Eco-life" and "LOHASThere are various things. Some have contributed to the reduction of the environmental load, but some have simply taken in nature and have no effect on the reduction of the environmental load, and there are persistent criticisms.
Various environmental problems
Major environmental issues
- Global environmental problems
- natural environmentproblem,Destruction of nature
- Ecosystemproblem,biodiversityLoss ofextinction,Mass generation
- Complex pollution
- The problems listed here are environmental problems caused by human factors, and include environmental problems that may occur even without human factors.
- Water pollution
- Air pollution
- Soil contamination
- Soil runoff
- Electromagnetic pollution
- Garbage problem
- Radioactive contamination
- Light pollution,Sunblock
- Ground subsidence
- Salt damage,Accumulation of salt
- Barren land(Desertification)
- Global warming,Climate change
- Expansion of the desert(Desertification)
- Heat island
- deforestation,Compensated vegetation,Seaweed Denudation (Isoyake),Bald mountain
- EcosystemDestruction of
- Animal damage,Insect damage,Bird damage,Damage
- Emerging infectious disease,Revival infectious disease,Biological disaster
- development ofProblems with
- Landscape destruction
- Environmental refugees
- Tourism pollution
- Those closely related to environmental issues
- poison-MedicinePollution by
- Water crisis
- Food crisis
- Food safety
- Chemical fertilizer
- Allergies,Chemical hypersensitivity,Electromagnetic hypersensitivity,Pneumoconiosis
- Urban problems
- Population explosion
Environmental issues and initiatives in each country/region
JapanThen in the latter half of the Showa periodFour major pollution diseasesWith the increase in the number of people on the surface, social concern about environmental problems has increased. 42 (1967)ofBasic Law for Pollution Control,1993 OfBasic Environmental Law,1997 OfEnvironmental impact assessment methodAs a result, legal regulations are gradually expanding.1990 era(1997)Kyoto ConferenceIs being heldKyoto ProtocolWas adopted. In the early Heisei periodDioxinThe issue was greatly highlighted and regulation was advanced.
- JapanFor more informationJapanese environment and environmental policySee.
- People's Republic of ChinaaboutEnvironmental issues in ChinaSee.
In Europe,(I.e.Measures have advanced due to the widespread effect of[Source required].. Water and air pollution regulations, regulations on garbage, etc. began relatively early,Germany,スウェーデン,デンマークIt is said that citizens are highly aware of the environment in many countries including Japan.[Source required].EURegulations and policies based on a wide-area framework are also being implemented.
United NationsThen.Ban KibunSecretary-GeneralIs directly led bySE4ALL(Sustainable Energy for All) As part of the aim of building a "Global Energy Efficiency Accelerator Platform",Energy efficiency improvement cityThe selection of the above was started at the 2014 United Nations Meteorological Summit.
- List of articles related to environmental issues
- Environmental movement
- Environmental education
- Environmental protection
- Environmental technology
- Environmental philosophy
- Impact of humankind on the environment
- National Conference on Countermeasures against Dioxins and Environmental Hormones
- International Association for Environmental Studies
- Environmental Society of Japan
- Japanese environment and environmental policy
- Natural education
- External diseconomy
- Eco terrorist
- Green conservatism
- Shinto greenness
- Sustainability science
- Sustainable engineering
- List of pages starting with "Environment"
- (Order of publication year)
- Co-authored by Barbara Ward Rene Dubos, "Irreplaceable Earth", co-translated by Institute for Environmental Science, Human Environment Working Group, co-supervised by Fujiyoshi Sakamoto, Nagamune Soda, Japan General Publishing Organization, 1972, ASIN B000J9N80G
- Yonemoto Shohei "What is the Global Environmental Problem?" Iwanami Shoten, 1994, ISBN 4004303311
- Shuichi Kito, "Reconsidering Nature Conservation: Environmental Ethics and Network," Chikuma Shobo, 1996, ISBN 4480056688
- Ernst Ulrich "Factor 4-Double the richness and halve the resource consumption" Energy Saving Center, 2, ISBN 4879731846
- David Arnold, Environmental and Human History, New Review, 1999, ISBN 479480458X
- Kazuko Toyama "What is an Environmental Problem?" PHP Research Institute, 2001,ISBN 4569618464
- Bjorn Lomborg, "The Reality of the Global Environment: Don't Touch the Environmental Crisis," Bungei Shunju, 2003, ISBN 4163650806
- Dennis Meadows, "The Limits to Growth, The Choice of Humanity," Diamond, 2005, ISBN 4478871051
- Kunihiko Takeda "Why lie passes environmental problems?" Yosensha, 2007, ISBN 4862481221
- Al Gore "Inconvenient Truth ECO Primer: Global Warming Crisis" Random House Kodansha, 2007, ISBN 4270002263
- Christopher Frevin "White Paper on the Earth" World Watch Japan, 2007, ISBN 4948754285
- Rachel Carson, Silent Spring, ISBN-978 4102074015）