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Bingo Tokotoko is a web media that Fukuyama, Onomichi, and Kasaoka send out "the charm of becoming more fond of".
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French cuisine(France French: French cuisine) IsFranceAlthough it is a food culture and cooking technique that originated in France, it is not grouped under the national name of France, but the definition as a general term for the local food culture that exists in each region of France is emphasized.In modern timesThe world's three major dishesIt is counted as one of. In 2010French Gastronomy (French gastronomy) TheUNESCO OfIntangible cultural heritageRegistered in.
Medieval French cuisine was a court-only food culture.There was no clear method yet, and even in the waitperson, miscellaneous menus with no particular regularity were lined up on the table one after another or all at once.It seems that the meat was often cooked and then thickly sliced and seasoned with a rich mustard-flavored sauce.It seems that the use of tableware was rare, and hard flat bread was used as a plate.The use of knives and forks was also uncommon, and it was common to eat directly by hand.Soups and stews were poured into special depressions on the table, which were either soaked in bread or dexterously scooped directly in the palm of the hand.A typical chef of medieval French cuisineGuillaume TyrrellIt is said that he summarized his recipes that were active in the 14th century.Although some of the creations of posterity are suspected, it is positioned as the source of French cuisine that leads to the present.
Early modern period (16th-18th centuries)
16th century French cuisineItalian foodIt is also reported that it was almost integrated under the great influence of.this isFlorenceFromCatherine de MedicisBut,Valois Dynasty OfHenry IVIt is said that it was caused by the Italian cook who brought him when he put it in.Renaissance periodThere is also a view that it was naturally brought about in the cultural exchange between the two countries...Due to the influence of Italian cooking culture, the dietary method using knives and forks has become common in France.
In the 17th century, the revival of Frenchism was valued, and a movement to reform French cuisine was started in a direction away from the influence of Italian cuisine.The result is "Haute cuisine (Supreme cuisine)Has become established as a formal style of French court cuisine and is nowadays recognized as a traditional French fine-dining model.WineとcheeseCulture andPatisserieThe world of the world has also reached a full-scale opening. A famous chef of the 17th centuryWas published in 1651 by "Le cuisinier françoisAs France's first formal recipe book, it conveys the circumstances of court cooking at that time to the present day.French foodValois DynastyからBourbon morningAlthough it developed gorgeously throughout the era, it was still a monopoly patent in the court for the royal aristocrats.At that timeGuild (trade association)Due to the restrictions on the commercial activities of food vendors and cooks, the spread of French culinary culture to the general publicFeudal systemI had to wait until the disappearance of.
Modern (19th century)
Outbreak at the end of the 18th centuryFrench RevolutionWas a major turning point for French culinary culture.Ancien RegimeMany chefs who lost their jobs in the court due to the collapse ofguildWith the disappearance of the system, restrictions on commercial activities were also abolished.With the freedom of court-born chefs to open on the streets, the city is lined with unprecedentedly sophisticated restaurants, where revolutionary and wealthy citizens rush. As a result, French cuisine has entered an era of popularization at the citizen level.Charismatic chefs began to appear in such a free spirit, and it was especially famous.Antonin KaremWas hailed as the chef's emperor.CurryHaute cuisineFurther enhances the artistry and gastronomy ofL'art de la cuisine française au dix-neu vième siècleIn his books, he introduced a number of sophisticated menus and elaborate recipes, which greatly contributed to the modern development of French cuisine.
Modern (around 1900)
French cuisine in the second half of the 19th centuryAuguste EscoffierFormal systematization was promoted by, and it developed into an unprecedented academic cooking culture.The theoretical formalization of cooking techniques by Escofier was also advantageous during the global movement of exporting culinary culture, with French cuisine aside from Italian cuisine.The world's three major dishesIt is said that it was largely due to his systematization that he was placed in the position of.French cuisine has become synonymous with fine cuisine, as it has become popular at formal banquets and banquets in various countries.EscofierCurryThe skillfully overrunning parts of the numerous recipes devised by have been skillfully simplified and reconstructed for a more practical cooking process.Also"Brigard de CuisineWe introduced a tissue structure called "" in the kitchen to improve the efficiency of cooking work.Originally meaning "chief"chefWas synonymous with Western cooksBrigadeIt is derived from the fact that the chef's name was given to each person in charge of cooking.Escofier also emphasized moral education in the kitchen, and was enthusiastic about improving the social status of chefs by spreading discipline and etiquette.The body of knowledge of French cuisine formalized by Escofier is published in 1903.This is the bible of French cuisine.
Contemporary (20st century)
In the 1930sInterwar periodIs said to be one of the three major chefsFernand Point,,,,,EscoffierWhile inheriting the cooking system of, it has evolved into a shape that suits the times. In the 1960s, the problem that many simple home-cooked dishes and local dishes were left behind from Escoffier's cooking system became pointed out, and in order to dispel the image of traditional high-class cooking, it became a country side. A movement has begun to introduce the true nature of French cuisine to the world.Among them, a lot of gastronomy tours (gourmet trips) are planned to actively appeal the local cooking culture and let you experience it.Michelin GuideEtc. played a big role. In the 1970s, Pointe's disciple was a cooking technique that tried to take advantage of the fresh ingredients-based flavor by deliberately avoiding the rich seasoning of traditional sauces.Vocues,Chapel,Troisgros BrothersIt became oriented around us, and this was "Nouvelle cuisine (new cuisine)It became a new trend of French cuisine. In the mid-1980s, the classic regression cooking technique, which emphasizes rich sauces, was reviewed.Haute cuisineThe traditional cooking style represented by is once again supported.Among them, cooking techniques that try to mix traditional techniques with modern science and technology were born.Robuchon,Gagner,Dukas,LoiseauChefs like that became the bearers.Chefs continue to explore new cooking techniques, with classic-oriented maintainability and freedom and flexibility.Avant-gardeThe French culinary culture has a never-ending evolutionary aspect.
Hors d'oeuvre (hors d'œuvre)
Plastic plan sipal (plat principal）
- Provence cuisine
- ProvenceLocal cuisine.South ItalyCookingCataloniaLike cookingTomato,Olive oil,oliveBesides using a lot ofHerbes de ProvenceWe use a mixture of many local herbs called.地中海FacingMarseilleIn towns such asbouillabaisseThere are also many fish dishes such as.Camargue OfThere are also traditional dishes that are handed down only in a few areas.この他Besides thisAio resourceIs also one of the characteristics of Provence cuisine.
- Basque cuisine
- Basque CountryAlso uses a lot of tomatoes like Provence, but likewiseEspeletteTo sayRed pepperIs often used.カタルーニャ料理やその他のCatalan food and otherSpanishThere are many things in common with.
- LanguedocThe regionFoie grasBecause the production ofガ チ ョ ウThere are many dishes, andBoletus edulis(Cep mushroom),ArmagnacEtc. are used.CasuleIs famous.
- AlsaceLocal cuisine.Choucroute because it overlaps with the German cultural regionShoe Clute),Kugulovな どGerman foodThere are many things in common with the borderRhine RiverOn the other side ofBlack forestIt's similar to local food.
- Picardy,NordBorders the northern borderBelgian foodIs influenced by.Andive OfgratinThere are also common menus such as.beer,potatoIs also used.
- NormandyIs north大西洋Facing theMont Saint-MichelIn the vicinity, I grew up on grass blown by the sea breeze.Lamb meatIs a specialty.cider,CalvadosIt is also the production center ofAppleThere are also many seasonings using.バ タ ー,Fresh creamThe amount used is also large.
- Breton cuisine
- BrittanyDue to the cool climate, crops are poor.BuckwheatOf powderCrepe(Galette) AndKouign-amannIs famous,CelticSystemBretonCulture remains in cooking and is of the same Celtic originWalesIt also has something in common with local cuisine.
- Auvergne's cuisine
- AuvergneLocal cuisine.食材としてはシンプルなものが多くMany of the ingredients are simple,sausageOr localIs a traditional dish..これらの付け合せとしてはAs a garnish of theseAligotWith cheeseMashed potatoesThere is a dish like.
- BurgundyRepresents French home cookingBuff Bourguignon, Beef stewed in red wine) It is also the birthplace.
- Loire ValleyThe region is a production center of white wine, and fish dishes using white wine are characteristic.
- Savoyard food
- SavoieThe region is a mountainous areaスイスClose to the borderFondue au fromage,RacletteThere are many dishes that make heavy use of dairy products.
Form of restaurant
- There are more than XNUMX houses in Paris, divided into intermediate to highest ranks.The prices and quality of the menus vary widely, and the uses for visiting the store vary from daily eating out to special supper specialties.Specially trained waiters and waitresses will be on hand to order from the menu book.Ordering options are effectively limited to course meals.
- It is a so-called popular dining room, and the menu is often written in chalk on the blackboard, and the waiters also respond casually.Common dishes are served, and local dishes that make use of local specialties are often offered.
- Bistro Avant (Wine Bistro)
- cabaretorTavernIt is a restaurant similar to, mainly offering cheap alcoholic beverages, and you can also enjoy special wines listed in the production area.Light meals that go well with wine are also served.
- A set of restaurant and accommodation.This is also from intermediate to high class.
- In the 19th centuryAlsace-LorraineA restaurant opened on the street corner by refugees from rural areas, originally intended for Germans.Beer and German grape wine are served.もっぱら軽食が出されてOnly light meals are servedAlsatian ChoucrouteIs famous.
- Lyon regionTraditional Lyon cuisine is served in the dining style that was born in.Mainly rich meat dishes such as sausage, duck pate, and roast pork.
- Nord-Pas-de-Calais regionIt is a traditional restaurant of origin, and it has a style that doubles as a bar and a restaurant.The customer base is mainly blue-collar workers, and local dishes are often ordered.
- Coffee and alcoholic beverages are provided.Facing the street, tables and chairs are lined up on the sidewalk.It usually opens early in the morning and closes around 9 pm.Clock monsieur,Moules Frites, Salad and other light meals are served.
- Salon de tee
- It is a so-called teahouse, similar to a cafe, but often does not have alcoholic beverages, and hot chocolate is served in addition to coffee and tea.Light meals such as sandwiches and salads and cakes are served.It often opens in the morning and closes in the evening.
- About the guidebook
- Tire companyMichelinGuidebook "Guido MichelinThe Red Guide (Guido Rouge) has had a great influence on restaurant indicators in France, and now publishes hotel and restaurant guides not only in France but also in cities around the world.The rating is displayed by the number of stars, and the highest is 3 stars.Gault MillauThe restaurant guide is also famous.This is a 20-point system, but there is also an index based on the number of hats up to four.
- About wine and cheese
- French wineとFrench cheeseHas various characteristics in each region and small region,AOCQuality is guaranteed by various standards including.Wine is drunk in most parts of France.ワイン以外の酒では、ノルマンディー地方のシードルおよびその蒸留酒であるカルヴァドス、アルザス地方のFor non-wine liquors, Cider in Normandy and its distilled liquors Calvados and AlsacebeerIs mentioned.
- About bread
- French breadAlso occupies an important position that characterizes the French dining table.代表的なTypicalbaguetteBesides, it means "country-style bread"Pain de campagne,Whole grainUsedBread Comple,RawOysterBe attached torye breadA kind ofAnd so on.Bread doughButter andmilkTo useCroissant,BriocheEtc.Viennoiserie(Sweet bread)are categorized.
- Nouvelle CuisineAbout (new cuisine)
- It is a cooking style that has been popular since the 1970s, and aims to maximize the flavor of the ingredients by almost denying the rich sauce that traditional French cuisine emphasizes.The feature is that the use of butter and cream is suppressed, the heating time is reduced as much as possible, and spices and various seasonings are carefully used.Its novelty was highly evaluated, and it dominated the world mainly in the 70s.As a prominent chef in this field,Paul Bocuse,Troisgros Brothers,,Alain Senderens,,Alain ChapelCan be mentioned.
- About Cuisine Moderne (modern cuisine)
- The novelty of Nouvelle Cuisine, which is the opposite of tradition, caused boredom after a while, and in the 1980s, the return to tradition of classical cuisine, which emphasized the original rich sauce, came to be supported. ..In this process, a cooking style was born that has both conservativeness and avant-gardeness by mixing modern new techniques while following the tradition of French cuisine.It was the bearerJoel Robuchon,Pierre Gagnaire,Alan Ducasse,Bernard Loiseau,They were young chefs at that time.They are re-analyzing old recipes from a scientific point of view, discovering better material allocation and processing timing theories one after another.In addition, new cooking equipment such as microwave ovens are being effectively utilized after adding scientific proof.Their cooking system has come to be criticized as modern.
- napkinEveryone is seated, and after the guest of honor picks it up, others take it.Place the napkin on the chair when sitting in the middle.
- knife,forkEtc. are used in order from the outside (when they are lined up in multiple tables).
- If you want to put a knife or fork on the plate for the time being, make it in the shape of a figure eight.
- When you have finished eating, place the knife on a plate with the blade inside and the fork with the tip up.
- When you're done eating, don't fold the napkin, roll it up a little and place it in the upper right corner of the table.
Kitchen staff list
|Total chef||General manager of the kitchen|
|Sous-chef de cuisine||Deputy chef||In a French-style kitchen that emphasizes vacations, it is often the case that the kitchen is run by a three-legged race, a general chef and a deputy chef, rather than an assistant.|
|Chef de partie||Department chef||From here, he will be in charge, but he is still in this position without being nominated.|
|Demi-chef de partie||Department Demi Chef||Assistant to the department chef.When the role is assigned, it becomes the person in charge.|
|Aboyeur||Avoyur||We will respond to guests and explain the menu and finish it in front of the guests.From department chefs and deputy chefs|
|Sausier||In charge of making sauces and finishing main dishes.It is regarded as an honorable role.From the department chef|
|Rôtisseur||Roti sur||In charge of meat cooking.From the department chef|
|Grillardin||Greyardin||Grill clerk.From Demi Chef|
|Friturier||Friturier||Fly clerk.From Demi Chef|
|Fishmonger||Poissonier||In charge of fish cooking.From department chefs and demi chefs|
|Entremetier||Entormetier||Warm appetizer charge.From the department chef|
|Vegetable garden||Potager||Soup clerk.From Demi Chef|
|Legumier||Regumir||Vegetable cook.From Demi Chef|
|Garde Manger||In charge of hors d'oeuvres and cold appetizers.From the department chef|
|Delicatessen||Charcutrie||Meat processed goods clerk.From Demi Chef|
|Pastry chef||In charge of dessert in general.From the department chef|
|Confectioner||Confizur||Sweets clerk.From Demi Chef|
|Glacier||Glacier||Ice cream and cold sweets clerk.From Demi Chef|
|Decorator||Decorator||Craft confectionery clerk.From Demi Chef|
|Baker||Boulanger||Bread making.From Demi Chef and Komi|
|Tournant||Tornan||Cook in various departments.From Komi.Synonymous with chasing after the board.|
|Butcher||Boucher||Carving and preparing meat.From comics and apprentices|
|Communard||Communicator||The kitchen staff's meals.From comics and apprentices|
|marmiton||Marmiton||Wash the pot.From apprentice|
|Garçon de cuisine||Garcon||Chores.From apprentice|
- ^ "Gastronomic meal of the French”. UNESCO. October 2013th, 10Browse.
- ^ Matsumoto and Mochida (2003)
- ^ "Rendez-vous in Auvergne”. Official website of the French Tourism Development Organization. 2013/2Browse.
- ^ "Salers, village restaurant”. GramXNUMX. 2013/2Browse.
- ^ Mostly in the Alsace region.
- ^ Buddha: pain au seigle
- Takanori Matsumoto, Akiko Mochida "Italian influence on Renaissance French food culture--through the marriage of Catherine de'Medici"Bulletin of Faculty of International Cultural Studies, Kyushu Sangyo University" No. 24, Kyushu Sangyo University International Cultural Association, March 2003, pp. 3-129, ISSN 13409425, NOT 110006178810.
- (New Year's Eve)-Francophone Christmas and New Year's Eve dinner that lasts until midnight or dawn.
- French cuisine and the story of the chef-Toshikatsu Aoyama, Research Institute for Economics and Business Administration, Kobe University Newsletter, June 2012
- Satoru Udagawa "150 years of French-Japanese exchange between Japan and France (15th International Japanese Studies Symposium: Longing for France: Comparison of Life, Art and Thought between Japan and France)-(Lifestyle Culture)"Ochanomizu University Comparative Japanese Studies Education and Research Center Research Annual Report" No. 10, Ochanomizu University Comparative Japanese Studies Education and Research Center, March 2014, pp. 3-6, NOT 120005425838.