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🍽 | Maison Chef Rice ~ Exquisite omelet rice and rice bowl made by a French chef!For the body using carefully selected ingredients ...


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Maison Chef Rice-Exquisite omelet rice and rice bowl made by a French chef!For the body using carefully selected ingredients ...

 
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I mainly dealt with French cuisine, but for the first few years I had been laying down.
 

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French cuisine

Cooking Trois étoiles.jpg
Homard bleu rôti à la coriandre et tomate émulsion née.jpg
Jacques Lameloise DSCF6580.jpg
Mignon de veau confit au miel de lavande et son duo d'écrasé de pommes de terre.jpg

French cuisine(France French: French cuisine) IsFranceAlthough it is a food culture and cooking technique that originated in France, it is not grouped under the national name of France, but the definition as a general term for the local food culture that exists in each region of France is emphasized.In modern timesThe world's three major dishesIt is counted as one of. In 2010French Gastronomy (French gastronomy) TheUNESCO OfIntangible cultural heritageRegistered in[1].

History

中 世

Medieval French cuisine was a court-only food culture.There was no clear method yet, and even in the waitperson, miscellaneous menus with no particular regularity were lined up on the table one after another or all at once.It seems that the meat was often cooked and then thickly sliced ​​and seasoned with a rich mustard-flavored sauce.It seems that the use of tableware was rare, and hard flat bread was used as a plate.The use of knives and forks was also uncommon, and it was common to eat directly by hand.Soups and stews were poured into special depressions on the table, which were either soaked in bread or dexterously scooped directly in the palm of the hand.A typical chef of medieval French cuisineGuillaume TyrrellIt is said that he summarized his recipes that were active in the 14th century.(French versionAlthough some of the creations of posterity are suspected, it is positioned as the source of French cuisine that leads to the present.

Early modern period (16th-18th centuries)

16th century French cuisineItalian foodIt is also reported that it was almost integrated under the great influence of.this isFlorenceFromCatherine de MedicisBut,Valois Dynasty OfHenry IVIt is said that it was caused by the Italian cook who brought him when he put it in.Renaissance periodThere is also a view that it was naturally brought about in the cultural exchange between the two countries.[2]..Due to the influence of Italian cooking culture, the dietary method using knives and forks has become common in France.

In the 17th century, the revival of Frenchism was valued, and a movement to reform French cuisine was started in a direction away from the influence of Italian cuisine.The result is "Haute cuisine (Supreme cuisine)Has become established as a formal style of French court cuisine and is nowadays recognized as a traditional French fine-dining model.WinecheeseCulture andPatisserieThe world of the world has also reached a full-scale opening. A famous chef of the 17th century(French versionWas published in 1651 by "Le cuisinier françoisAs France's first formal recipe book, it conveys the circumstances of court cooking at that time to the present day.French foodValois DynastyからBourbon morningAlthough it developed gorgeously throughout the era, it was still a monopoly patent in the court for the royal aristocrats.At that timeGuild (trade association)Due to the restrictions on the commercial activities of food vendors and cooks, the spread of French culinary culture to the general publicFeudal systemI had to wait until the disappearance of.

Modern (19th century)

Outbreak at the end of the 18th centuryFrench RevolutionWas a major turning point for French culinary culture.Ancien RegimeMany chefs who lost their jobs in the court due to the collapse ofguildWith the disappearance of the system, restrictions on commercial activities were also abolished.With the freedom of court-born chefs to open on the streets, the city is lined with unprecedentedly sophisticated restaurants, where revolutionary and wealthy citizens rush. As a result, French cuisine has entered an era of popularization at the citizen level.Charismatic chefs began to appear in such a free spirit, and it was especially famous.Antonin KaremWas hailed as the chef's emperor.CurryHaute cuisineFurther enhances the artistry and gastronomy ofL'art de la cuisine française au dix-neu vième siècleIn his books, he introduced a number of sophisticated menus and elaborate recipes, which greatly contributed to the modern development of French cuisine.

Modern (around 1900)

French cuisine in the second half of the 19th centuryAuguste EscoffierFormal systematization was promoted by, and it developed into an unprecedented academic cooking culture.The theoretical formalization of cooking techniques by Escofier was also advantageous during the global movement of exporting culinary culture, with French cuisine aside from Italian cuisine.The world's three major dishesIt is said that it was largely due to his systematization that he was placed in the position of.French cuisine has become synonymous with fine cuisine, as it has become popular at formal banquets and banquets in various countries.EscofierCurryThe skillfully overrunning parts of the numerous recipes devised by have been skillfully simplified and reconstructed for a more practical cooking process.Also"Brigard de CuisineWe introduced a tissue structure called "" in the kitchen to improve the efficiency of cooking work.Originally meaning "chief"chefWas synonymous with Western cooksBrigadeIt is derived from the fact that the chef's name was given to each person in charge of cooking.Escofier also emphasized moral education in the kitchen, and was enthusiastic about improving the social status of chefs by spreading discipline and etiquette.The body of knowledge of French cuisine formalized by Escofier is published in 1903.(English editionThis is the bible of French cuisine.

Contemporary (20st century)

In the 1930sInterwar periodIs said to be one of the three major chefsFernand Point,,,,,EscoffierWhile inheriting the cooking system of, it has evolved into a shape that suits the times. In the 1960s, the problem that many simple home-cooked dishes and local dishes were left behind from Escoffier's cooking system became pointed out, and in order to dispel the image of traditional high-class cooking, it became a country side. A movement has begun to introduce the true nature of French cuisine to the world.Among them, a lot of gastronomy tours (gourmet trips) are planned to actively appeal the local cooking culture and let you experience it.Michelin GuideEtc. played a big role. In the 1970s, Pointe's disciple was a cooking technique that tried to take advantage of the fresh ingredients-based flavor by deliberately avoiding the rich seasoning of traditional sauces.Vocues,Chapel,Troisgros BrothersIt became oriented around us, and this was "Nouvelle cuisine (new cuisine)It became a new trend of French cuisine. In the mid-1980s, the classic regression cooking technique, which emphasizes rich sauces, was reviewed.Haute cuisineThe traditional cooking style represented by is once again supported.Among them, cooking techniques that try to mix traditional techniques with modern science and technology were born.Robuchon,Gagner,Dukas,LoiseauChefs like that became the bearers.Chefs continue to explore new cooking techniques, with classic-oriented maintainability and freedom and flexibility.Avant-gardeThe French culinary culture has a never-ending evolutionary aspect.

Menu example

Hors d'oeuvre (hors d'œuvre)

Entrée

Plastic plan sipal (plat principal

Pâtisserie

Dessert

Regional cuisine

Provence cuisine
ProvenceLocal cuisine.South ItalyCookingCataloniaLike cookingTomato,Olive oil,oliveBesides using a lot ofHerbes de ProvenceWe use a mixture of many local herbs called.地中海FacingMarseilleIn towns such asbouillabaisseThere are also many fish dishes such as.Camargue Of(French versionThere are also traditional dishes that are handed down only in a few areas.この他Besides thisAio resourceIs also one of the characteristics of Provence cuisine.
Basque cuisine
Basque CountryAlso uses a lot of tomatoes like Provence, but likewiseEspeletteTo sayRed pepperIs often used.カタルーニャ料理やその他のCatalan food and otherSpanishThere are many things in common with.
LanguedocThe regionFoie grasBecause the production ofガ チ ョ ウThere are many dishes, andBoletus edulis(Cep mushroom),ArmagnacEtc. are used.CasuleIs famous.
AlsaceLocal cuisine.Choucroute because it overlaps with the German cultural regionShoe Clute),Kugulovな どGerman foodThere are many things in common with the borderRhine RiverOn the other side ofBlack forestIt's similar to local food.
Picardy,NordBorders the northern borderBelgian foodIs influenced by.Andive OfgratinThere are also common menus such as.beer,potatoIs also used.
NormandyIs north大西洋Facing theMont Saint-MichelIn the vicinity, I grew up on grass blown by the sea breeze.Lamb meatIs a specialty.cider,CalvadosIt is also the production center ofAppleThere are also many seasonings using.バ タ ー,Fresh creamThe amount used is also large.
Breton cuisine
BrittanyDue to the cool climate, crops are poor.BuckwheatOf powderCrepe(Galette) AndKouign-amannIs famous,CelticSystemBretonCulture remains in cooking and is of the same Celtic originWalesIt also has something in common with local cuisine.
Auvergne's cuisine
AuvergneLocal cuisine.食材としてはシンプルなものが多くMany of the ingredients are simple[3],sausageOr local(English editionIs a traditional dish[4]..これらの付け合せとしてはAs a garnish of theseAligotWith cheeseMashed potatoesThere is a dish like.
BurgundyRepresents French home cookingBuff Bourguignon, Beef stewed in red wine) It is also the birthplace.
Loire ValleyThe region is a production center of white wine, and fish dishes using white wine are characteristic.
Savoyard food
SavoieThe region is a mountainous areaスイスClose to the borderFondue au fromage,RacletteThere are many dishes that make heavy use of dairy products.

Form of restaurant

Restaurants
There are more than XNUMX houses in Paris, divided into intermediate to highest ranks.The prices and quality of the menus vary widely, and the uses for visiting the store vary from daily eating out to special supper specialties.Specially trained waiters and waitresses will be on hand to order from the menu book.Ordering options are effectively limited to course meals.
bistro
It is a so-called popular dining room, and the menu is often written in chalk on the blackboard, and the waiters also respond casually.Common dishes are served, and local dishes that make use of local specialties are often offered.
Bistro Avant (Wine Bistro)
cabaretorTavernIt is a restaurant similar to, mainly offering cheap alcoholic beverages, and you can also enjoy special wines listed in the production area.Light meals that go well with wine are also served.
Auberge
A set of restaurant and accommodation.This is also from intermediate to high class.
Brasserie
In the 19th centuryAlsace-LorraineA restaurant opened on the street corner by refugees from rural areas, originally intended for Germans.Beer and German grape wine are served.もっぱら軽食が出されてOnly light meals are servedAlsatian ChoucrouteIs famous.
Bootion
Lyon regionTraditional Lyon cuisine is served in the dining style that was born in.Mainly rich meat dishes such as sausage, duck pate, and roast pork.
Estamine
Nord-Pas-de-Calais regionIt is a traditional restaurant of origin, and it has a style that doubles as a bar and a restaurant.The customer base is mainly blue-collar workers, and local dishes are often ordered.
Cafe
Coffee and alcoholic beverages are provided.Facing the street, tables and chairs are lined up on the sidewalk.It usually opens early in the morning and closes around 9 pm.Clock monsieur,Moules Frites, Salad and other light meals are served.
Salon de tee
It is a so-called teahouse, similar to a cafe, but often does not have alcoholic beverages, and hot chocolate is served in addition to coffee and tea.Light meals such as sandwiches and salads and cakes are served.It often opens in the morning and closes in the evening.

Other knowledge

  • About the guidebook
Tire companyMichelinGuidebook "Guido MichelinThe Red Guide (Guido Rouge) has had a great influence on restaurant indicators in France, and now publishes hotel and restaurant guides not only in France but also in cities around the world.The rating is displayed by the number of stars, and the highest is 3 stars.Gault MillauThe restaurant guide is also famous.This is a 20-point system, but there is also an index based on the number of hats up to four.
  • About wine and cheese
French wineFrench cheeseHas various characteristics in each region and small region,AOCQuality is guaranteed by various standards including.Wine is drunk in most parts of France.ワイン以外の酒では、ノルマンディー地方のシードルおよびその蒸留酒であるカルヴァドス、アルザス地方のFor non-wine liquors, Cider in Normandy and its distilled liquors Calvados and AlsacebeerIs mentioned.
  • About bread
French breadAlso occupies an important position that characterizes the French dining table.代表的なTypicalbaguetteBesides, it means "country-style bread"Pain de campagne,Whole grainUsedBread Comple[5],RawOysterBe attached torye breadA kind of[6]And so on.Bread doughButter andmilkTo useCroissant,BriocheEtc.Viennoiserie(Sweet bread)are categorized.
It is a cooking style that has been popular since the 1970s, and aims to maximize the flavor of the ingredients by almost denying the rich sauce that traditional French cuisine emphasizes.The feature is that the use of butter and cream is suppressed, the heating time is reduced as much as possible, and spices and various seasonings are carefully used.Its novelty was highly evaluated, and it dominated the world mainly in the 70s.As a prominent chef in this field,Paul Bocuse,Troisgros Brothers,(English edition,Alain Senderens,(French version,Alain ChapelCan be mentioned.
  • About Cuisine Moderne (modern cuisine)
The novelty of Nouvelle Cuisine, which is the opposite of tradition, caused boredom after a while, and in the 1980s, the return to tradition of classical cuisine, which emphasized the original rich sauce, came to be supported. ..In this process, a cooking style was born that has both conservativeness and avant-gardeness by mixing modern new techniques while following the tradition of French cuisine.It was the bearerJoel Robuchon,Pierre Gagnaire,Alan Ducasse,Bernard Loiseau,(French versionThey were young chefs at that time.They are re-analyzing old recipes from a scientific point of view, discovering better material allocation and processing timing theories one after another.In addition, new cooking equipment such as microwave ovens are being effectively utilized after adding scientific proof.Their cooking system has come to be criticized as modern.

Dietary manners

  • napkinEveryone is seated, and after the guest of honor picks it up, others take it.Place the napkin on the chair when sitting in the middle.
  • knife,forkEtc. are used in order from the outside (when they are lined up in multiple tables).
  • If you want to put a knife or fork on the plate for the time being, make it in the shape of a figure eight.
  • When you have finished eating, place the knife on a plate with the blade inside and the fork with the tip up.
  • When you're done eating, don't fold the napkin, roll it up a little and place it in the upper right corner of the table.

Kitchen staff list

Brigade de cuisine
FrenchJapaneseDescription
Total chefGeneral manager of the kitchen
Sous-chef de cuisineDeputy chefIn a French-style kitchen that emphasizes vacations, it is often the case that the kitchen is run by a three-legged race, a general chef and a deputy chef, rather than an assistant.
Chef de partieDepartment chefFrom here, he will be in charge, but he is still in this position without being nominated.
Demi-chef de partieDepartment Demi ChefAssistant to the department chef.When the role is assigned, it becomes the person in charge.
ClerkKomiGeneral cook
Apprenti (e)apprentice
AboyeurAvoyurWe will respond to guests and explain the menu and finish it in front of the guests.From department chefs and deputy chefs
SausierIn charge of making sauces and finishing main dishes.It is regarded as an honorable role.From the department chef
RôtisseurRoti surIn charge of meat cooking.From the department chef
GrillardinGreyardinGrill clerk.From Demi Chef
FriturierFriturierFly clerk.From Demi Chef
FishmongerPoissonierIn charge of fish cooking.From department chefs and demi chefs
EntremetierEntormetierWarm appetizer charge.From the department chef
Vegetable gardenPotagerSoup clerk.From Demi Chef
LegumierRegumirVegetable cook.From Demi Chef
Garde MangerIn charge of hors d'oeuvres and cold appetizers.From the department chef
DelicatessenCharcutrieMeat processed goods clerk.From Demi Chef
Pastry chefIn charge of dessert in general.From the department chef
ConfectionerConfizurSweets clerk.From Demi Chef
GlacierGlacierIce cream and cold sweets clerk.From Demi Chef
DecoratorDecoratorCraft confectionery clerk.From Demi Chef
BakerBoulangerBread making.From Demi Chef and Komi
TournantTornanCook in various departments.From Komi.Synonymous with chasing after the board.
ButcherBoucherCarving and preparing meat.From comics and apprentices
CommunardCommunicatorThe kitchen staff's meals.From comics and apprentices
DiverPronjourDish-washing.From apprentice
marmitonMarmitonWash the pot.From apprentice
Garçon de cuisineGarconChores.From apprentice

footnote

  1. ^ "Gastronomic meal of the French”. UNESCO. October 2013th, 10Browse.
  2. ^ Matsumoto and Mochida (2003)
  3. ^ "Rendez-vous in Auvergne”. Official website of the French Tourism Development Organization. 2013/2Browse.
  4. ^ "Salers, village restaurant”. GramXNUMX. 2013/2Browse.
  5. ^ Mostly in the Alsace region.
  6. ^ Buddha: pain au seigle

References

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