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🍴 | Famichiki, the bag will come to the rainbow from the 24th.


Famichiki, from the 24th, the bag will come to the rainbow with its "meaning"

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Comments such as "It seems that the clothing is also released in unisex" and "Famima is active and wonderful in efforts that match the times, such as the release of vegan lunch boxes" are posted one after another.

In line with "Pride Week" to be held from Saturday, April 4th, 24 rainbow colors will be available on April 6th ... → Continue reading


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Wikipedia related words

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Veganism(British: veganism) Is the principle that humans should live without exploiting animals as much as possible.According to the definition of the Vegan Society in the United Kingdom, veganism is "for all purposes, including food and clothing-unless it is impractical-a philosophy that seeks to exploit animals in any way and to eliminate cruelty to animals. And represent a way of life[2]. 'ExploitationismAlso known as (datsusakushugi)[3][4].


Its range includes avoiding all animal products from simply avoiding eating animal foods (leather, wool,fur[Note 1]And so on).It is a practice of not eating animal foods or using additional animal products[6]..Others in the dietVegetarianAvoid eggs and dairy products, unlike the (vegetarian) diet. Also with pure vegetarian[7].

Ethical veganismDenies the commercialization of animals and refuses to use animal products for any purpose.Dietary veganismOnly eliminates animal products from the diet[Note 2]..Also, environmental veganism[8]Another faction called is because the livestock industry is destroying the environment.sustainableI refuse from the idea that it is not.However, dietary veganism is completely different from the definition of veganism, and it has been pointed out overseas that commercialists are morally hijacking veganism as "a ready-made identity that consumers can buy", especially in Japan. Up from vegan[9].

According to the definition of the British Vegan Society, "Veganisim is a way of life that avoids all forms of animal atrocities and exploitation of animals for food, clothing and other purposes as much as possible."[2].

The word vegan was co-founder of the Vegan Society in England in 1944.(English editionCoined by[Note 3]The Vegan Society was also opposed to eating eggs and dairy products. In 1951, the Vegan Society expanded the definition of "veganism" to mean "the principle that humans should live without exploiting animals."[12].. In 1960, H. Jay Dinshire founded the American Vegan Society to promote veganism.Jainism OfAhinsaLinked to the concept of (non-violence against living things)[13].

The vegan movement is expanding year by year.The number of vegan restaurants is increasing and is practiced by all kinds of athletes such as boxing, jujutsu, tennis, surfing, athletics, American football, etc.Ironman Triathlon,Ultra marathonAmong the top athletes in endurance competitions such asLow ViganismAnd some who practice veganism[14].

The American Dietitian Association and the Canadian Dietitian Association say that a well-balanced vegan diet is a diet that fits at any stage of the life cycle.[15]..A well-balanced vegan diet is known to have a preventive effect on many chronic diseases such as heart disease.[16].

The vegan diet is high in fiber, magnesium, folic acid, vitamin C, vitamin E, iron and phytochemicals, and contains calories, saturated fats, cholesterol, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, calcium, zinc and vitamin B12. Tends to be low[17].

Vitamin B12 is often found in soil, and vegetable foods cultivated in well-controlled areas such as greenhouses, indoors, and hydroponics contain very little vitamin B12. It is said that vegans need to intentionally ingest vegetables that are fortified with vitamin B12.[18]..At the same time, some studies have shown that vitamin B12 deficiency is not symptomatic even without fortified foods and supplements.

Veganheart failure,Colorectal cancer,Hypercholesterolemia,High blood pressure,Prostate cancer,cerebral infarctionIt is said that it is difficult to become[19]If you have a good balance, you need it for your health.NutrientsIs said to be able to take[20].


Translations such as vegan and vegan do not exactly match the definition of veganism, resulting in a difference in perception of the word vegan.

In "Study Company Medical English-Japanese Dictionary 2nd Edition", the translation of vegan is "complete vegetarian (of) ultra-pure vegetarian".[21].. In the "Nutrition and Biochemistry Dictionary Popular Edition", the "Vegetarian" section states that "there are vegetarians who ingest eggs and milk, and vegans who refuse to eat them."[22].. In the English-Japanese / Japanese-English Nutrition / Food Science Glossary, the translation of vegan / veganism is "vegetarian / vegetarian [thorough]".[23].. In the "Medical Shoin Medical Dictionary 2nd Edition", the item "Vegetarian" written by Shinichiro Shinbo includes "Vegetarian food that does not eat animal food at all like Buddhists with strict slaughter in South Asia." Vegetarian (Vegan) [Mom〕"a[24].

"Mayo ClinicIn the Encyclopedia of Health Medicine, "Strict vegetarians (absolute vegetarians) [Mom〕"a[25].. In the Home Economics Glossary, "Strict vegetarianism [Mom〕"a[26].

In a dissertation explaining the vegetarian typology of "Medical and Food," "Vegan vegan [Mom] ”In the sub-item,“ Vegan is also called strict vegetarian, pure vegetarian, total vegetarian, etc.Mom] ”(“ Medicine and Food ”is from the President of the National Institute of Health and Nutrition.Masaru WatanabeIs first published as a magazine for registered dietitians)[7] In a paper showing the typology of vegetarians published in Vegetarian research, "vegan (vegan: pure vegetarian, complete vegetarian) [Mom] ”, And the appropriate term is described in“ Vegan ”such as the Vegan Society.[27].

I am studying intestinal bacteriaRIKEN OfYoshino HinoEt al. In the title of the dissertation, "Complete vegetarian [Mom] ”, And a research report of“ a vegetarian who consumes only vegetable juice for a long time ”[28]..Diet and doctorMitsuo KodaPuts the term "complete vegetarian diet" in the title of the paper[29]..Buddhist scholarNakamuraIs a Korean Buddhist monk's "pure vegetarian diet [Mom] ”, In loose areas, eggsjellyfishEats, but mentions that it is not allowed in harsh areas[30].

In addition, veganism is not limited to meals, so some vegans say "vegetables".Instead of the word "principle", we recommend "exploitism" or "exploitist".[31]


The birth of the word vegetarian

VegetarianismAncient india,Ancient greeceIt can be traced back to, but it wasn't until the 19th century that the English word "vegetarian" (vegetarian) was used to refer to people who avoid eating meat.[32].. 『Oxford English DictionaryIn 1839, an English actress as an early use case for this word.Fanny KembleGives an example used in Georgia, USA[33]..The term vegetarian during this period was used to refer to people who avoided not only meat but also eggs and dairy products, and avoided the use of animals for any purpose, and also referred to the more rigorous and complete vegetarians.[34].

Around this time, there were numerous attempts to establish a vegan or strict vegetarian community. 1834,Louisa May AlcottFatherTranscendentalistAlso known as(English editionPractices Strict Vegetarianism in Boston, Massachusetts, USA(English editionBuilt[35]..Alcott also joined the community in Harvard, Massachusetts in 1844 to oppose the use of all animals, including agriculture.(English editionWas founded, but this lasted only 7 months[36].

Meanwhile, in England in 1838(English edition (1777-1842) in Ham, Surrey, a community for practicing strict vegetarianism(English editionEstablished[37]..The member was involved in the establishment of the British and Veterinary Association in 1847 and held its first meeting in September of the same year at Northwood Villa in Ramsgate, Kent.[38]..In addition, it was a member of Salford who chaired the meeting at this time.(English editionIs[38].

Transition to veganism

Those who have practiced vegetarianism from a moral perspective, rather than from a health impact, have begun to argue to stop using animals altogether.The 1851 Journal of the National Vegetarian Society published a discussion of shoe materials to replace leather.[40].

1886 English activist(English editionWritten by A Plea for Vegetarianism (Petition for vegetarianism) was published, preaching that vegetarianism is morally essential.Later the saltAnimal welfareからAnimal rightsBecame known as one of the first to shift to a paradigm[41]..His writing isMahatma GandhiAlso affected, the two became close[39].. In 1910, it became the first vegan cookbook in British history.No Animal Food: Two Essays and 100 Recipes(By Rupert H. Wheldon) was published[42]..Historian Leah Leneman (1944-1999) notes that between 1901 and 1912, the majority of the association shared the same view of eggs and dairy products.A member at the time said, "If you don't have a few roosters to kill, you won't get an egg."[43]..Opinions within the association remained inconsistent, but an article was published in the 1923 journal stating that "cutting off animal products is an ideal position for a vegetarian."[44].

In November 1931, a vegetarian association meeting was held in London, attended by about 11 members, including Salt, and Mahatma Gandhi, entitled The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism, was in good health. He said it was the association's mission to recommend a meatless diet, not just for the sake of it, but as a matter of morality.[45]..Gandhi said that vegetarians at the time of studying in London were talking about food and illness.

"Practicing vegetarian diet for health reasons is the worst way. I've noticed that many people who practice vegetarianism for health reasons, such as illness, simply retreat from this diet. We need a moral foundation to stick to vegetarianism, "said the doctor.[46]

Alternative movement

Increased in the United States from the 1960s to the 1970sCounter culture,Hippie movementIn response to this trend, a movement of vegetarians expressing concerns about existing diets, the environment and producers of agricultural products has emerged, raising interest in organic foods.The most influential work of the time was published in 1971.Frances Moore Lappeof"(English editionPropose "getting off the top of the food chain"[47]The book was successful in selling over 300 million copies.

Medical scientists since the late 1970s(English edition,(English edition,(English edition,(English edition,(English edition, Michael Greger, nutritionistColin CampbellAnd so onAnimal fatAnd animal proteinsStandard American dietBegan to claim that it was bad for him.Instead, their suggestion is that a low-fat, plant-based diet can prevent or cure lifestyle-related diseases such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.[48].. Of medical scientists who often appear as experts on CNN programsSanjay GuptaIs Campbell's "(English editionStates that it has changed the diets of people around the world[49].

Veganism in the 1980sPunk RockConnected with.In the United StatesStraight edgeHardcore punk in the UKClassesBecame associated with anal punk, such as, and influenced the masses with musical messages and lifestyles.This influence continues to the present in the 21st century through events and so on.[50].

2010 era

In the 2010s, full vegetarian diets became more popular, vegan entrees became more common, and restaurant chains appeared with vegan labels on their food menus.[51]..Interest in veganism was also reflected in Wikipedia views.The English version of the vegan article was viewed 2009 times as of August 8, compared to 73,000 as of August 2013.This is larger than the number of vegetarian articles viewed on Wikipedia in English, French, German, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish at the same time.[52].

Celebrities, athletes, actors, musicians, politicians and other celebrities who practice vegans are on the rise, with some sticking to vegetarianism and others doing it occasionally.[53]..There are pros and cons to the widespread idea of ​​flexi-vegan.New York Times food columnist(English editionIs a self-authored book VB6(2013) states that vegetarian diet should be practiced by 6 pm[54].. In 2010, the European Parliament adopted guidelines for food labels for vegans, and the law will come into effect in 2015.[55].

In 2010, NetherlandsFor vegetariansAlternative meatDe Vegetarische Slager opens[56], Europe's first vegan supermarket in 2011GermanyOpened at.Also,DortmundA store called Vegilicious opened in[57], Vegilicious affiliated supermarket (English edition In 2011BerlinOpened in, and has stores in other areas[54] ..And in 2013, meat dishes have been traditionally served.OktoberfestSo, for the first time in 200 years of history, vegan food was served.[58].

In recent years, palm oil collected from palm palm has been cultivated by cutting down tropical rain forests and primeval forests on a large scale during the cultivation process, which not only deprives wildlife habitats but also the entire ecosystem. It is equivalent to creating a ranch for raising animals for meat production because it destroys the oil palm, and it is a problem all over the world, so we avoid foods and detergents that use palm oil There are many people, and it is becoming necessary to consider not only animal foods but also plant foods, their ingredients and manufacturing process.

Vegan population

According to a 2012 Galop survey, 2% of Americans identify themselves as vegan.[59].. In 2017, an article published in Report Buyer said that 6% of Americans were vegan.[60]..In the UK, sales of tofu and meat substitutes were £ 2007 million in 7, and 8,650% of the population identified themselves as vegan in a 2012 government survey. did[61].

The Dutch Veganism Association has announced that as of 2007, 0.1 people, or 1% of the total population, are vegan.[62]..As of 2013, the German Vegetarian Society announced that 8200 of the approximately 80 million people in Japan are vegan.[58]..A 2014 survey in Israel also found that nearly 5% of all people are vegan.[63].

CountryVegan (%)Data survey year
Canadian flag カナダ2.3%2016[64]
Finnish flag フィンランド0.5%2013[65]
German flag Germany1.6%2018[66]
Israeli flag イ ス ラ エ ル5%2015[67][68]
Italian flag イタリア0.6% - 2.8%2015[69][70]
Japanese flag Japan2.7%2016[71]
Polish flag ポーランド1.6%2013[72]
Portugal flag Portugal0.6%2017[73]
Flag of Slovenia スロベニア0.3% - 0.5%2007/2008[74]
Spanish flag スペイン0.2%2017[75]
Swedish flag スウェーデン4%2014[76]
Swiss flag スイス3%2017[77]
British flag The United Kingdom7%2018[78]
United States flag America6%2017[79]

Veganism in each country / region


In the United States, the proportion of vegans was 2009% in 1, 2013% in 2.5 and 2017% in 6, a 10-fold increase in less than 6 years.[80][81][82][83][84][85].

In 2018McDonald'sDecided to launch a vegan burger in the US[86]..Also on Android P Beta 2GoogleWhen the emoji is updated, the eggs will be removed from the salad emoji and it will become a vegan salad emoji.[87]The number of companies that consider the vegan people is increasing.


AustraliaThe word "vegan" was most searched from 2015 to 2016[88].


IndiaThen, there are many people who originally choose vegetarian diet for religious reasons, including Jainism, especiallyGujaratMaharashtraIt is said that more than 4% of the population is vegan[89].


Republic of ChinaThen.Taiwanese foodThere is a vegetarian culture[90], Taiwan government admits this[91]..Taiwan's raw food is "meat, seafood,Five 葷, Eggs, dairy products "[92]It's also a vegan dish.Due to the relatively large vegan population in TaiwanTGI Friday'sTaiwan plans to sell Beyond Burger in Taiwan[93].


Defines vegans as "people who do not use animal products because of their aversion to suffering animals", but in reality, many people in Japan recognize vegans as "healthy foods".[94].

There are also opinions about the connection with political ideas.Kenro HayamiIs veganLeft wingClaims to be an "idealist on food"[95]..However, there are some leftists who are negative about veganism, for example.Japan Communist PartyIs working withLeft wing groupAnti-racist action group[96]Is veganEthnic discriminationClaim to lead to[97]And so on.

RightAs a flow ofShintoAnd was influenced by BuddhismHistory of carnivorous repellentThere is something in the background.Animal rightsTheVegetarian(Vegetarian food), As a person mentioned in the old daysKukaiThere was

All sentient beings are all gracious.He loves his blood and flesh and cuts off his life because of his foolishness.Because I sit down on this sin of folly, I feel the fruit of the brute. — Jujushin theory

After the warReligious rightHad a big impact onGrowing houseIs the first president ofMasaharu TaniguchiFrom the perspective of respect for lifeCarnivoreWas insisting on opposition to.

I would like to say, "Peace in the world is also from the abolition of meat eating," but since the government encourages meat eating and imports a large amount of beef etc. at national expense, unless our thoughts purify the political world. It is unlikely that the domestic struggle and the world war will subside. (Omitted) What makes peace theory, if you really want peace, you have to start by quitting the carnivorous diet. — "Mind, food, and physiognomy"

Masaharu Taniguchi's claim is close to veganism that not only meat but also fish, chicken eggs, and dairy products are not preferable.Abortion,EugenicsIt came from the pro-life idea of ​​Seicho-no-Ie, who had made clear the opposite position to.Seicho-no-Ie is vegan-friendly and publishes an article about vegan restaurants in the magazine.[98].

Constitutional invalidationInsistKikuji Minamide"If humans eat grains directly away from carnivorous foods, the world's food situation will be significantly improved," he said, giving a negative view on carnivorous foods.[99],Right wing groupShinshu Serpent's AssociationStreet speech[100]But there are statements that affirm veganism.Has a cooperative relationship with the Shinshu Snake AssociationEcology right wingThe group holds events at vegan restaurants[101]Doing animal rights activitiesStudent activistTo publish the text of[102]are doing.

But what made veganism in Japan more active?1987Was founded inAnimal Rights CenterIs.The Animal Rights Center is engaged in activities to further reduce the pain suffered by animals through the use of animals such as food, clothing, and animal experiments.[103]..Animal Rights Center is not in a position to support a particular political party or group.

As an activity to popularize veganism, NPO Veggie Project Japan puts vegan-friendly dishes in the menu at university cafeterias around the world.Student movement[102]Distribution of maps with vegan restaurants[104]It is carried out.Animal rights groups around the world are also demonstrating against atrocities and exploitation of animals for other purposes such as food, clothing and experiments.

In addition, the NGO Life Investigation Agency (LIA) has announced that all its staff members are engaged in activities while living a life that practices veganism, and classes are held free of charge mainly at elementary schools and junior high schools nationwide. In addition, we have filed more than 3500 criminal accusations of crimes against animals and criminal acts against the natural environment, and we are also focusing on eradicating social evils and conducting activities to respect animal rights and the natural environment through veganism. There is. The Life Investigation Agency (LIA), like the Animal Rights Center, has stated that it does not support or direct any particular political party or organization, nor does it belong to any particular religion or denomination. I am taking the position of.

The Japan Vegan Association started a vegan certification business in 2010, and has established standards that do not allow sugar-containing foods made from beef bones, opaque food additives, or foods that do not match the etymology of vegan. Due to the scarcity of pesticide-free foods in Japan, the number of foods certified by the association is extremely small.Due to the low awareness of veganism in Japan, the business is mainly educated to individuals and corporations.

in recent yearsTakafumi HorieSays "Crush the vegan"[105]Expressed antipathy towards vegans ((English edition) Some people are coming out.

Relationship with animal products

Repellent of animal products

Vegetarians in the 19th and early 20th centuries were divided into those who avoided animal products (livestock by-products) for health reasons and those who avoided them for ethical reasons, but the situation remains the same.Dietary vegans try to avoid eating meat, fish, eggs and dairy products, while allowing clothing and cosmetics that contain animal-derived ingredients.[106]..Ethical vegans, on the other hand, are animals for all purposes, including food, clothing and entertainment.(English editionIs rejecting[107]..The British Vegan AssociationAnimal experimentationOnly products that avoid the use of animals, including[108].

Animal-derived products include meat, chicken, marine products,egg, Dairy products, honey, fur and leather, wool, silk, etc., as well as lesser-knownBeeswax,Ashes,ナ ー ン チ ャ イ ナ,Cochineal scale insectAnd its insectspigment,casein,gelatin,Isinglass,Lanolin,lard,Rennet, Collected from scale insects different from cochinealShellac,Het, whey,(English editionMany of these may not be on the list of finished ingredients.[109].

Ethical vegans also avoid buying products that have been tested on animals.They avoid buying fur coats and leather shoes, leather car seats, wool jumpers, silk scarves, camera films, duvets with down and feathers, and vaccines for influenza that use chicken eggs during production. He also refuses to use certain vaccines.However, depending on the situation, you may purchase a product that is not vegan for charity purposes or use it up.Wool substitutes include acrylic, cotton, linen, rayon and polyester.Petroleum-derived ingredients are favored by vegans as a substitute for some vegan clothing, shoes, or leather, but these ingredients are controversial because they cause great damage to the global environment during manufacturing. It ’s a fire[110]In recent years, marine pollution caused by petroleum-derived products such as plastics has been widely reported, and there is a worldwide tendency to shift from petroleum-derived products to natural materials, such as pineapple leather. As development is progressing, this problem is expected to gradually shrink.

Relationship with eggs, milk, honey and silk

Ethical vegans avoid these products, as eggs and dairy products can afflict animals and cause premature death during production.

StuffedWhether it is kept (Battery cage),Free rangeRoosters are considered non-economical because they do not lay eggs, and many roosters are slaughtered.[111].

For milking from dairy cowsBreastfeedingCows should always be pregnant in the form of artificial insemination to prolong the period.The calf of the bull is born soon orBeef cattleIt is slaughtered after being raised as.Females are separated from their mothers and raised within 24 to 48 hours of birth.The remaining cows are equipped with a milking machine, which means that the cows are being exploited by humans.[112]..Wild cattle live up to 20 years, but cattle raised as livestock are slaughtered in 5 years and processed into minced meat.[113]..this isGoatAlso applies to[114].

Some vegans disagree with the idea that processed insects should also be avoided, but ethical vegans are silk andSilkwormAvoid products of origin[115]..There is consensus among many vegans that modern beekeeping methods are cruel and exploitative.Instead of exploiting honey, which is a food store for bees, corn syrup and sugar are used.[116],AgaveMade fromAgave syrupIs also a favorite among vegans[117].. The Vegan Society and the American Vegan Society say that the use of insect-derived products such as honey and silk is not vegan, while the Vegan Action and Vegan Outreach are of personal freedom. [118].

Daily eating habits

For vegan dishes, chili soup,Ratatouille,Falafel,Khums, VeggieBurrito,Rice and beans,Fried vegetables,Veggie Burger,(English editionPasta dishes such as.

soyBecause it contains[119],Soymilk,tofu,Tempeh,Alternative meatIt is used in the form of.Tofu made by adding bittern has different hardness depending on the water content, and there are cooking methods suitable for each, and softened or smoothed tofu can be used as an ingredient for salad dressings, sweets, and shakes. , Vegetable protein is often used as a sauce for pasta[120].

In addition,wheat bran(Wheatgluten) Is also often used as a protein source. Gluten meat such asAlternative meatIs made from wheat and soybean glutenVegetarian sausageIt is processed into vegetarian foods such as vegetarian mince, vegetarian mince, and veggie burger.

Dairy substitute

Soy milk, almond milk, coconut milk,Vegetable milk(riceAnd oats are famous), but they are used in place of cow and goat milk, and soy milk and almond milk are relatively easy to obtain.

One cup of milk (1 ml) contains 250 g of protein, while soy milk contains 8 g of protein per cup.On the other hand, almond milk is modest in both calories and protein.[121]

Like animal milk and meat, soy milk contains complete protein and when you drink itEssential amino acidsYou can get all the protein you need by ingesting[119]..However, infants cannot be given soy milk as a substitute for breast milk, and if not, milk or soy milk-based infant milk (SBIF) must be given.[122]

ingredientwhole milk[123]Soymilk[124]
Energy density (cal / 235ml[125])14980
Fat (g)7.94
Saturated fat mass (g)4.60.5
Cholesterol (mg)240
Sodium (mg)105100
Potassium (mg)322300
Carbohydrate (g)124
Protein (g)87

Analog cheeseAre nutstapiocaMade of[126], Chreese, Daiya, Sheese, Teese, Tofutti, etc. are on sale, and these are the same as regular cheese in flavor and meltability.[127]. (English edition[Note 4]Has a cheese-like flavor and is widely used as a cheese substitute in vegan cuisine.[128]..Cheese substitutes can also be made at home, by Joanne StepaniakVegan Vittles (1996) The Nutritional Yeast Cookbook (1997) The Uncheese Cookbook (2003), Mikoyo SchinnerArtisan Vegan Cheese The recipe is published in (2012) etc.[129]..For example, one vegan brie cheese is made from cashew nuts, soy milk, soy milk yogurt, and coconut oil.[130]..There are also vegan margarines such as Earth Balance.[131].

Egg substitute

Egg-free mayonnaise-style seasonings brands include Vegenaise, Nayonaise, Miso Mayo, and Plamil's Egg-Free Mayo.[132]..In mayonnaise production, eggs are added as thickeners and binders.By heating, the egg protein becomes more sticky and binds other ingredients together.[133]..Grinded instead of one egglinseedTheTable spoonThe mixture of 3 cups of flaxseed and 3 parts of water serves as a thickener and a binder.Commercial products such as Bob's Red Mill and Ener-G egg can also be used as an alternative to eggs.[134]..Baking powder is used instead of eggs for vegan pancakes[135]..Besides this,Kinako1: A mixture of 1 water, crushed bananas or prunes or a quarter cup of apple sauce, strained tofu or crushed potatoes[136]Or a mixture of 4 tablespoons of flour, 1 tablespoon of vegetable oil, 2 tablespoons of water, and half a tablespoon of baking powder.[133]Smoothed tofu and mashed potatoes can also be used as an alternative to eggs.ClothAdded to.

Vegan nutrition group

(English edition New four major food groups recommended by (PCRM).Clockwise from left: Fruits that should be taken at least 1 dishes a day.Beans such as soybeans contain a lot of protein, and it is said that two or more dishes should be taken.You should take at least 3 dishes of vegetables a day.Whole grains should be taken in at least 2 dishes[137]

NPO organization made up of medical personnel(English edition (PCRM) has been a fruit since 1991.BeansWe have continued to recommend cholesterol-free, low-fat complete vegetarian diets that incorporate the four new major food groups consisting of beans, peas, lentils, peanuts, etc., grains, and vegetables. PCRM is for 3 or more fruits per person per day (1 or more vitamin C-rich foods such as citrus fruits, melons, and strawberries per day) and 2 or more protein-rich beans (soy milk, tofu, tempeh, etc.) 5 or more dishes (like processed soybeans)Whole grainIt is advisable to consume at least 4 dishes of green-yellow vegetables (such as broccoli, carrots and sweet potatoes) (such as corn, barley, rice and wheat; processed products such as bread and tortillas).[137].

PCRM's vegan food family was created as an alternative to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) recommendations from 1956 to 92 (meat, milk, vegetables / fruits, grains and their processed products).[138].. In 1992, the USDA replaced the four major food groupsFood Guide PyramidWas announced, and in 2011My plateThese foods are divided into 5 groups and are composed of grains, vegetables, fruits, dairy products, and proteins (meat, chicken, seafood, eggs, legumes and their processed products, nuts and seeds).[139]..Also, the British government(English editionIt consists of 5 food groups (fruits and vegetables, carbohydrates such as potatoes and bread, dairy products, proteins such as meat / fish / eggs / beans, lipids and sugars), of which dairy products and proteins are soybeans This can be practiced in vegans as it can be taken from vegetable proteins such as[140].


Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12It is,Cell division,Red blood cellIt is required for the production and maturation division of DNA, DNA synthesis, normal operation of nerves, and is synthesized by bacteria.Vitamin B12 deficiency can be a serious health problem, not only nerve damage, but alsoMegaloblastic anemiaMay fall into[142]..There is an agreement among nutritionists that even vegetarians, not to mention vegans, should take vitamin B12 fortified foods and supplements.[143]..It is often pointed out as a counter-argument to veganism that in many cases (at least in the West) it is difficult for vegans to get vitamin B12 from a plant-based diet.[144].

Since the production of vitamin B12 is carried out by microorganisms such as bacteria, mushrooms and algae, neither plants nor animals can produce vitamin B12 by themselves.

HerbivoryIn animals ofRumenBy ruminating in, it may absorb what the bacteria produce or eat like a rabbit.In carnivorous animals, eating these animals is a source of vitamin B12.Plants that are not properly washed may contain vitamin B12, which is derived from bacteria in the soil, especially feces.[142]..Drinking water may also contain these B12-producing bacteria, especially in developing countries.[142]..Dietitian Reed Mangels and colleagues say that bacteria in the human body produce vitamin B12 in the digestive tract, but most of it is excreted without being absorbed, so it is contained in a small amount in urine.Together with medical researcher James Halsted, normal levels of vitamin B12 were detected in residents of some parts of Iran, despite low or no intake of animal protein. Living animal excrement and humanhuman wasteWas used as fertilizer, and the crops grown from the human waste were eaten without being sufficiently washed, according to a survey conducted in the 1960s.The human mouth is also a source of B12, but it is not a large amount and is often an inactive substance similar to B12.[145]

Since Europe and the United States have a well-established hygienic environment, a complete vegetarian diet tends to cause vitamin B12 deficiency.Therefore, to get vitamin B12 in these areas, you need to eat supplements and fortified foods.[146]..Vitamin B12 in the supplement is industrially bacterially synthesized and not of animal origin.

Vitamin B12 RDA (μg)[147]
0-6 months0.4
7-12 months0.5
1 ~ 3 old0.9
4 ~ 8 old1.2
9 ~ 13 old1.8
Over 14 years old2.4
Pregnant / lactating2.4 ~ 2.6

Several studies on vegans who do not take supplements or fortified foods have shown no symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency, questioning the need for such dietary supplements among the vegan community. The voice to see is also rising[148].

According to Mangels et al., The disagreement is due to the lack of long-term studies of vegans who did not take these supplements and the lack of standard means of measuring vitamin B12.[149]..It also says that if you don't take supplements or fortified foods that contain vitamin B12, you'll be deficient, which may take decades.[149].

Also, as a food containing vitamin B12,misoFermented foods such as tempeh and tempehArame,Wakame,Seaweed,Kelp, Seaweeds such as spirulina, leafy vegetables, grains and legumes have vitamin B12, and for that matter, they are also contained in rainwater. (English edition,Shiitake mushroom,parsley,SourdoughAlso contains B12, but the B12 contained in these foods is believed to be inactive.[141].


Proteins are composed of amino acids.OmnivoreAnimals get one-third of their protein from plants, and lacto-ovo vegetarians get more than half of their protein from plants, says nutritionist Reed Mangels.[150]..A vegan who doesn't consume animal protein means that all of the protein comes from vegetable foods.At this time, the question arises as to whether vegetable proteins alone can cover essential amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body.[151].

Vegetable proteins include soybeans (processed products such as tofu, tempeh, soymilk, edamame, etc.), peas, peanuts, black beans, and chickpeas (HomsBeans such as (often eaten in the form of)QuinoaIt is abundant in grains such as brown rice, corn, barley, bulgur, and wheat (which can be eaten as whole bread and seitan), and nuts such as almonds, hemp seeds, and sunflower seeds.[152].

In addition, other vegetable foods such as vegetables and grains also contain protein.

As for quinoa and soybeans, they both contain essential amino acids, so they can be said to be useful foods for complete protein intake.[153].

Mangels et al. Said that by getting the protein they need each day from soybeans, they can provide the body with the amount of protein they need biologically.United States Department of Agriculture (English editionHe added that he might replace meat-derived protein foods with soy-derived foods.[119].

For traditional dishes that are high in all the essential amino acidsベリーズCulinaryRice and beans, Corn and Beans, Homs, Pita bread made from whole wheat.Traditionally, in order to ensure proper protein intake in plant foods, it has been considered that various protein sources should be ingested in combination with each meal so as to supplement the missing essential amino acids.However, the American Dietetic Association has taken the position since 1 that adults only need to get the essential amino acids they need during the day, not all the essential amino acids in each meal. ing[154].


Vitamin DIs also synthesized in the body when exposed to UV light, but can cause deficiency if continued an inappropriate vegan diet when sunlight is restricted.[155].ω-3 fatty acidIs an essential fatty acid, relatively low in a vegan diet[156].

Toiletries for vegans

The vegan goods certification criteria set by the British Vegan Association are "no animal-derived ingredients, from manufacturers, supporters and subcontractors in the manufacture of products and raw materials.Animal experimentationHas not been done. "The association's website has a list of certified companies and products.[157]..Is a vegan cosmeticsToiletryIs widely known within the vegan community as a manufacturer of.Companies certified by this company include South Africa's Esse Organic Skincare.UK and Honesty Cosmetics sell vegan toiletries and other merchandise online[158]..Kiss My Face also sells a wide range of vegan toiletries in the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada.Selling bath products, etc.rushHas corporations all over the world and conducts online shopping.Rush claims that 83% of its products are free of animal-derived ingredients and free of animal testing.Canada's Haut Minerals for vegansBB creamWe manufacture products such as[159], Australia's The Choose Cruelty Free website has a list of locally available vegan products[160].

Animal-derived ingredients are cheap and widely used in cosmetics.What remains after an animal is slaughtered for meat (bones, eyeballs, brain pulp, etc.)machiningIt has been used for various purposes.In particular, fat is widely used in cosmetics.Vegan Animal Ingredients A to Z Based on the information in (2004), we compare the materials for animal-derived materials.For exampleTallowIs widely used as a raw material for soap, and glycerin separated from collagen is used as a lubricant and moisturizer in hair care products, moisturizing creams, shaving creams, soaps and toothpastes.There are some plant-derived substances that have the same function, but when the raw material name has glycerin, it is usually derived from animals.Taken from sheep woolLanolinIs also widely used and is often found in lip balms and moisturizing creams.stearic acidCurrently, it is included in facial cream, shaving cream, shampoo, etc.Like glycerin, it can be harvested from plants, but most are of animal origin.Lactic acid and hydroxy acids from animal milk are often used as moisturizers.In shampoo, moisturizer, toothpasteAllantoinCan be obtained from cow urine, as well as from plantsComfreyCan be taken from[161].


Vitamin B12 deficiency in lactating mothers can cause serious deficiency in childrenNerveIs supposed to cause obstacles[162]..Essential fatty acids ω-3 fatty acids,α-linolenic acidAnd their derivatives are also converted from these fatty acidsDocosahexaenoic acid(DHA)optic nerve,central nervous systemAlthough essential for the development of vegans, studies have shown that pregnant and lactating vegan mothers need to supplement their intake due to their very low content in most vegan diets.[163].

If the mother is vegan, the child's birth weight tends to be lighter[164].

The odds of having twins from a vegan mother are one-fifth that of those who eat animal foods, but a paper reporting this suggests that non-vegans consume dairy products in particular. Concludes that it increases the chances of twin pregnancies in areas where dairy cows are fed growth hormone[165].

Extreme infants fed an inappropriate vegan diet by their parentsmalnutritionThere have been several reports of cases of spinal malformations, fractures, or even death.[166][167]..Dr. Amy Lanu, director of nutrition on the Medical Commission for Responsible Medicine and a prosecution witness for an infant death case, said the vegan diet was "not only safe for babies, but also animal food based. "Healthier than the diet", "The real problem is that (the child) wasn't given enough food of any kind."[168].

2016 year 8 month,イタリアConservative partyForza ItaliaParliamentarians told their children that the vegan diet was "lacking the nutrients essential to [healthy and balanced growth] that are important in a child's diet." He submitted a bill to the parliament to punish the coercive parents, but it was not passed.Savino's bill is aimed at children under the age of 16, and if the bill is passed and passed, parents will be sick for up to a year just by forcing their children to eat vegan food. If the child dies, he will be sentenced to up to four years in prison and up to six years in prison.However, because his bill is rather radical, there are many opinions that "the emphasis should be on disseminating the correct information rather than punishment."[169].

A butcher attack has occurred in France, and the Federation of French meat specialty stores, meat ham sausage specialty stores, and delicatessen stores has criticized it as "a kind of terrorism."There have been cases of clashes between people who make a living from livestock farming and slaughter and those who are trying to stop the mass murder of animals.[170].


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Marzbow"Human beings not only eat animal meat, but also wear fur, buy and sell at pet stores, make spectacles at zoos, and do various animal cruelty. I wish there was no animal cruelty on earth. I hope it's good. "[5]
  2. ^ The difference between ethical veganism and dietary veganism is explained, for example, as follows.
    • "Veganism", Vegetarian Times, January 1989: "Webster dictionaryGives the word VEGAN the simplest and narrowest definition of "a person who does not eat animal foods or dairy products."This definition explains dietary veganism, but in fact the majority of vegans, the so-called ethical vegans, pushes that philosophy even further. "
    • "Vegan Diets Become More Popular, More Mainstream", Associated Press / CBS News, January 5, 2011: "Veganism is essentially a thorough vegetarianism ... Vegan rejects all animal products ... Ethical Vegan is an animal for human consumption. Morally hates to harm ... but the word vegan is often used not to refer to a broader philosophy, but to those who practice the vegan diet. "
    • Francione, Gary L., (English edition. The Animal Rights Debate: Abolition Or Regulation? Columbia University Press, 2010, p.62: "For some, veganism may be a matter of eating habits and lifestyle, but ethical veganism is a deep moral and political pledge for individuals, not just food, but clothing and all other animal products. Estical veganism is an individual refusal to treat non-human animals as commercial products ... "
    • Margaret Puskar-Pasewicz. Cultural Encyclopedia of Vegetarianism. ABC-Clio, 2010, p.242: "Vegans can be divided into two types: lifestyle vegans and dietary vegans. Lifestyle vegans avoid animal products in all aspects of their diet and life ... dietary vegans exclude animal products only for their diet."
  3. ^
    • About the origin of the word vegan: "I solicited more concise word ideas from early readers to replace'dairy-free vegetarian'. I came up with some ideas, but in the end I adopted my own idea, vegan, which was the first three letters and the last two letters of a vegetarian — that is, the beginning and end of a vegetarian. It is made up. This word was recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary, but no one tried to make a better word. "[10]
    • "We all have to think twice about what names our groups, magazines, and ourselves should be called.'Non-dairy'is a commonly used colloquial expression. It has become popular, but like "non-lacto (non-dairy products)", the wording is too negative.Moreover, it does not show that we are against eating eggs. "[11]
  4. ^ Different from yeast used for bread


  1. ^ Yuriko Yamagami, Keiko Kameoka, Rii Enari, Yuko Kuramochi, Uhei Naruse "About the diet and vegetarian cuisine of Zen Buddhist monks", Matsuyama Shinonome College Research Review, No. 20, December 1989, p12-191, NOT 110007197783.
  2. ^ a b "Definition of veganism". The vegan society. 2019/8/8Browse.
  3. ^ "Glossary". Pen and nonviolence. 2021/3/30Browse.
  4. ^ Mark Hawthorn (2019) (Japanese), A vegan way of life, Green wind publishing, pp. 208, ISBN 978-4-8461-1902-7 , Wikidata Q103882108
  5. ^ "Introduction to "Cruelty Free Life"". merzbow.net. My vegetarian diet (April 2019, 4). 2019/12/19Browse.
  6. ^ "veganism- Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary”. Cambridge University Press. 2019/8/11Browse.
  7. ^ a b Seika Kambara, "Learning Vegetarian Food (2) Definition and Classification of Vegetarians," "Medical and Food," Vol. 3, No. 6, December 2011, pp. 12-329, NOT 40019165245.
  8. ^ "Vegan Cookbook for Beginners: The Essential Vegan Cookbook To Get Started". books.google.com. Rockridge Press. 2020/1/4Browse.
  9. ^ "Moral hijacking: veganism, definition of "hostile takeover"". 2021/9/8Browse.
  10. ^ "Interview with Donald Watson", Vegetarians in Paradise, August 11, 2004:
  11. ^
  12. ^
    • About the Vegan Society's expansion of the definition of "vegan" in 1951: Cross, Leslie. "Veganism Defined", The Vegetarian World Forum, volume 5, issue 1, Spring 1951.
  13. ^ "History”. American Vegan Society. 2018/3/14Browse.
  14. ^ Berry, Rynn. "Veganism," The Oxford Companion to American Food and Drink. Oxford University Press, 2007, pp.604–605:
    • "Practicing a pure vegetarian diet can be daunting, but the vegan movement is booming, especially among young Americans. Top in some endurance competitions, such as the Ironman Triathlon and Ultramarathon. Athletes are vegan and eat pure vegetarian food without cooking. Even young athletes with weight lifts and bodybuilding have turned to vegan, and animal meat is the source of power and stamina. It's a rebuttal of the idea. Brendan Brager, a regular in the top three prizes in international triathlon competitions and the inventor of the VEGA brand of high-performance vegetable foods, is the same vegan player as him. "We are beginning to build a strong presence in every sport."
    • About the popularity of vegans:"Vegan Diets Become More Popular, More Mainstream", Associated Press / CBS News (US), January 5, 2011.
    • Nijjar, Raman. "From pro athletes to CEOs and doughnut cravers, the rise of the vegan diet", CBC News, June 4, 2011.
    • For an example of a vegan Ironman triathlete: David Scott and Ruth Heidrich. [1]
  15. ^ "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets", Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research. Summer 2003, 64 (2): 62-81, . PMID 12826028. 
  16. ^ T. Colin CampbellTalks about cancer, heart disease and diabetes below (English edition. Veganist: Lose Weight, Get Healthy, Change the World. Weinstein Publishing, 2011, p.41.
  17. ^ Craig, Winston J. "Health effects of vegan diets", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, March 11, 2009.
  18. ^ Mangels, Reed. "Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet", Vegetarian Resource Group, accessed February 1, 2011.
    • Johnson, Larry E. "Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)", Merck Manual Home Edition, August 2007, accessed February 2, 2011.
    • Also see Norris, Jack. "Vitamin B12: Are you getting it?", Vegan Outreach, July 26, 2006, accessed February 4, 2011: "B12 is commonly found in all animal foods (except honey), but contrary to rumors, tempeh, seaweed, and organic agricultural products. Non-fortified vegetable foods, including, are not a reliable source of vitamin B12. The overwhelming consensus of mainstream nutritionists and vegan health professionals is that vegetable foods do not provide vitamin B12. Vegans, and often vegans, also need fortified foods and supplements for their health. Fortunately, vitamin D is produced by bacterial fermentation and must be taken from animal products. Absent."
  19. ^ Key TJ, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Burr ML (1996). “Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17 year follow up”. BMJ 313 (7060): 775–9. PMID 8842068. 
  20. ^ “Vegetarian Diets”. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 103 (6): 748–765. (2003). 
  21. ^ Nakao Ishida, Kenkyusha Medical English-Japanese Dictionary, Kenkyusha, 2008, 2nd edition, p. 1990.ISBN 978-4-7674-3462-9.
  22. ^ Tadashi Noguchi, "Dictionary of Nutrition and Biochemistry", Asakura Shoten, 2009, popular edition, 259 pages.ISBN 978-4-254-43112-4.
  23. ^ Japan Society of Nutrition and Food Science, "Glossary of English-Japanese / Japanese-English Nutrition / Food Science" Kenjosha, 1997, p. 381.ISBN 4-7679-6073-8.
  24. ^ Masao Ito, Hiroo Imura, Fumimaro Takaku, Igaku-Shoin Medical Dictionary, Igaku-Shoin, 2009, 2nd edition, p. 1038.ISBN 978-4-260-00582-1.
  25. ^ Mayo Clinic, Mayo Clinic Health Medicine Encyclopedia, Hoken, 2006, p. 34.ISBN 4-87954-517-1.
  26. ^ Keisuke Tsuji, Home Economics Society "Vegetarianism", "Dictionary of Home Economics Glossary", Asakura Shoten, 1993, p. 156.
  27. ^ Mitsuru Kakimoto, "Vegetarian Types and Food Labeling," "Vegetarian research," Vol. 15, No. 1, 2014, pp. 1-2.
  28. ^ Hideken Hayashi, Mitsuo Sakamoto,Yoshino Hino"Analysis of the intestinal flora of vegans using molecular biology techniques," Journal of Japanese Bacteriology, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2002, p. 301.
  29. ^ Mitsuo Koda"Low-fat complete vegetarian diet for type 2 diabetes is more effective than the diet recommended by the American Diabetes Association (ADA)," Integrated Medicine, Vol. 30, No. 1, February 2007, p. 2.
  30. ^ Hajime Nakamura, "How to Think of Tibetans and Koreans (Gen Nakamura Selection Vol. 4)" Shunjusha Publishing Co., Ltd., 1989, definitive edition, pp. 265-266.ISBN 4-393-31204-X.
  31. ^ Mark Hawthorn (2019) (Japanese), A vegan way of life, Green wind publishing, pp. 208, ISBN 978-4-8461-1902-7 , Wikidata Q103882108
  32. ^ James C. Whorton. Translated by Yoko Yoshioka and Mutaro Miwa, "Vegetarianism", "Food History in the Cambridge World 5", Asakura Shoten, 2005, pp. 229-244.ISBN 978-4-254-43535-1.
  33. ^ Kemble, Fanny. Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation in 1838-1839. Harper and Brothers, New York, 1839, pp.197-198: "The sight and smell of raw meat are especially odious to me, and I have often thought that if I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian, probably, indeed, return entirely to my green and salad days . "
  34. ^ For the distinction between 19th century vegetarian / strict vegetarian "Under Examination", The Dietetic Reformer and Vegetarian Messenger, Vol XI, 1884, p.237: "There are two kinds of Vegetarians? An extreme sect, who eat no animal food whatever; and a less extreme sect, who do not object to eggs, milk, or fish ... The Vegetarian Society ... belongs to the more moderate division. "
  35. ^ Iacobbo Karen, Iacobbo Michael. Vegetarians and Vegans in America Today, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, p.142.
  36. ^ Hart, James D. "Alcott, Amos Bronson," in The Oxford Companion to American Literature, Oxford University Press, 1995, p.14.
    • Also Francis, Richard. Fruitlands: The Alcott Family and their Search for Utopia, Yale University Press, 2010.
  37. ^ Davis, John. World Veganism. International Vegetarian Union, 2012, p.32.
  38. ^ a b Twigg, Julia. "The Vegetarian Movement in England: 1847? 1981", PhD thesis, London School of Economics, 1981.
  39. ^ a b Gandhi, Mahatma. "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism", speech to the Vegetarian Society, London, 20 November 1931:
    • "I feel especially honoured to find on my right, Mr. Henry Salt. It was Mr. Salt's book'A Plea for Vegetarianism', which showed me why apart from a hereditary habit, and apart from my adherence to a vow administered to me by my mother, it was right to be a vegetarian. He showed me why it was a moral duty incumbent on vegetarians not to live upon fellow-animals. It is, therefore, a matter of additional pleasure to me that I find Mr. Salt in our midst. "
  40. ^ ""History of Vegetarianism: The Origin of Some Words"”. As of May 2008, 6オ リ ジ ナ ルMore archives.2008/6/30Browse., International Vegetarian Union, 6 April 2010: "... as early as 1851 there was an article in the Vegetarian Society magazine (copies still exist) about alternatives to leather for making shoes, there was even a report of someone patenting a new material So there was always another group who were not just'strict vegetarians' but also avoided using animal products for clothing or other purposes? Naturally they wanted their own'word' too, but they had a long wait. "
  41. ^ essay (English edition. A Plea for Vegetarianism and other essays Archived August 2012, 6, at the Wayback Machine., The Vegetarian Society, 1886, p.7.
    • Also Salt, Henry Stephens. "The Humanities of Diet," in Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess. Ethical Vegetarianism: from Pythagoras to Peter Singer. State University of New York Press, 1999, p. 115ff, an extract from Salt's The Logic of Vegetarianism (1899).
    • Regarding Salt being the first modern animal rights advocate,(English edition. Animals and Ethics. Broadview Press, 2003, p. 62.
  42. ^ Leneman, Leah. "No Animal Food: The Road to Veganism in Britain, 1909? 1944" Archived August 2014, 10, at the Wayback Machine., Society and Animals, 7 (3), 1999, pp. 219? 228 (hereafter Leneman 1999); p.220 for Wheldon.
    • In the book, Wheldon argued that "it is obvious that, since we should live as to give the greatest possible happiness to all beings capable of appreciating it and as it is an indisputable fact that animals can suffer pain, and that men who slaughter animals needlessly suffer from atrophy of all finer feelings, we should therefore cause no unnecessary suffering in the animal world. "See Wheldon, Rupert. No Animal Food, Health Culture Co, New York-Passaic, New Jersey, 1910, pp. 11-12.
  43. ^ Leneman 1999 Archived August 2014, 10, at the Wayback Machine., pp. 219-220, 222.
    • CP Newcombe, the editor of TVMHR, the journal of the society's Manchester branch, started a debate about it in 1912 on the letters page, to which 24 vegetarians responded. been offered here, is not satisfactory. The only true way is to live on cereals, pulse, fruit, nuts and vegetables. "
  44. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2014, 10オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2014/10/19Browse. Leneman 1999], p. 221.
  45. ^ Gandhi, Mahatma. "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism", speech to the Vegetarian Society, London, 20 November 1931 (hereafter Gandhi 1931).
  46. ^ Gandhi, Mahatma. "The Moral Basis of Vegetarianism", speech to the Vegetarian Society, London, 20 November 1931, pp. 11? 14.
    • Gandhi himself had been persuaded by doctors and relatives to drink goat's milk after refusing cow's milk because of the way the cows and calves are treated; he told the society it was the "tragedy of his life" that, as he saw it, he needed animal milk to regain strength after an illness. See Reid, Marion.
    The Vegan, Spring 1948 IV (1), pp. 4? 5.
  47. ^ Frances Moore Lappe, Diet for a Small Planet, 1982.The original is Diet for a Small Planet: How to Enjoy a Rich Protein Harvest by Getting Off the Top of the Food Chain, Friends of the Earth / Ballantine, 1971
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    Dean Ornish, About Weight Loss and Heart Disease, p.21Colin Campbell, about heart disease and cancer p.41Ethelstin, about heart disease p.57About Bernard, Diabetesp.73See also:

    Soren Ventegodt, Joav Merrick, "The Nobel Prize in Medicine should go to Dean Ornish", British Medical Journal, 29 December 2010. two:10.1136 / bmj.c5715

    CB Trapp, Neal D. Barnard, "Usefulness of vegetarian and vegan diets for treating type 2 diabetes", Current Diabetes Reports, 10 (2), April 2010. . PMID 20425575. 

    Roger Segelken, "China Study II: Switch to Western diet may bring Western-type diseases", Cornell Chronicle, 28 June 2001. <p "China-Cornell-Oxford Project On Nutrition, Environment and Health at Cornell University", Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, archived December 2002.

    T. Colin Campbell, B. Parpia, J. Chen, "Diet, lifestyle, and the etiology of coronary artery disease: the Cornell China study", American Journal of Cardiology, 82 (10B), November 1998, pp.18T-21T. . PMID 9860369. 

    Neal D. Barnard, et al. "Vegetarian and vegan diets in type 2 diabetes management", N, 67 (5), May 2009, pp. 255-263.. PMID 19386029. 

    Dean Ornish, SE Brown, and LW Scherwitz, et al. "Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial", The Lancet, 336 (8708), July 1990, pp.129-133. . PMID 1973470. 

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    Caldwell Esselstyn, "Updating a 12-year experience with arrest and reversal therapy for coronary heart disease (an overdue requiem for palliative cardiology)", American Journal of Cardiology, 84 (3), August 1999, pp. 339-341. . PMID 10496449. 

    J. McDougall, et al. "Effects of a Very Low-Fat, Vegan Diet in Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis", Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 8 (1), February 2002, pp. 71-75. . PMID 11890437. 

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    Fumio Watanabe, et al., "Biologically active vitamin B12 compounds in foods for preventing deficiency among vegetarians and elderly subjects," Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 61 (280, 17 July 2013, pp. 6769–6775. . PMID 23782218. 

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    Reed Mangels, "Vitamin B12 in the Vegan Diet", Vegetarian Resource Group, accessed 17 December 2012: "Vitamin B12 is needed for cell division and blood formation. Neither plants nor animals make vitamin B12. Bacteria are responsible for producing vitamin B12. Animals get their vitamin B12 from eating foods contaminated with vitamin B12 And then the animal becomes a source of vitamin B12. Plant foods do not contain vitamin B12 except when they are contaminated by microorganisms or have vitamin B12 added to them. Thus, vegans need to look to fortified foods or supplements to get vitamin B12 in their diet. "

    Jack Norris, "Vitamin B12: Are you getting it?", Vegan Outreach, 26 July 2006: "Contrary to the many rumors, there are no reliable, unfortified plant sources of vitamin B12 ... [There is an] overwhelming consensus in the mainstream nutrition community, as well as among vegan health professionals, That vitamin B12 fortified foods or supplements are necessary for the optimal health of vegans, and even vegetarians in many cases. Luckily, vitamin B12 is made by bacteria such that it does not need to be obtained from animal products. "

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