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🍴 | Kura Sushi opens "Doutonbori", a modern Japanese-style global flagship store


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Kura Sushi opens "Doutonbori store", a modern Japanese-style global flagship store

 
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It is said that about 20% of restaurants are crushed by the corona disaster, and even in the United States where many Japanese restaurants are closed, we are aggressively opening new stores, and since September 2020, we have been in areas such as New Jersey and Florida for the first time. Opened a store.
 

● The conveyor belt sushi chain “Kura Sushi” opened its global flagship store “Kura Sushi Dotonbori” on April 4nd. April 22 ... → Continue reading

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Japanese cuisine

Japanese cuisine(Japanese, Japanese) isJapan OfClimate社会Developed inCuisineSay[2][3][4].Western foodAgainstJapaneseAlso called[5].. Utilizing the original taste of food,SeasonSuch as(I.e.There is a feature that values ​​feeling[6].. Japanese food served by UNESCO in 2013Intangible cultural heritageRegistered in.

In a broad sense, it originates in Japan and is made and eats everyday.Meal, But in a narrow senseVegetarian food,Kaiseki cuisineBased on the format such asChinese food,Cluster amaryllis OfBotany rice,Cherry-blossom viewing,Moon watchingIndumpling,winter solstice OfPumpkinIt is due to traditional events such as[7][8].. Of Japanese agricultural, forestry and marine products and foodsOutputHas been increasing since 2013. In 2016, it was 7,502 billion yen, up 2012 times from 4,497 billion yen in 1.7, and in 2017 it was in the 8,000 billion yen range.Japanese Government(Ministry of Agriculture) Is targeting 1 trillion yen[9]Is increasing the number of Japanese restaurants and promoting Japanese food exports[10].. In Japan, we are working to protect and pass on Japanese food culture[11].

Japanese

The fee isRiceFight OfConsensusAnd ricevolumeSuch asMeterIt has a meaningful meaning. In addition to foodFoodHas come to have the meaning of, and since the word "cooking" came up, it has become an abbreviation. ReasonballIs a signin(Ri) as a voice noteShaped voiceAnd, because it beautifully polishes the lines and texture of the balls, it has the meaning of keeping things simple and calm.Heian periodThe word "cook" in the word means to measure things and to process them well. To the present調理Or by itFoodWill mean[2][12].

The meaning of cooking is家庭 Ofkitchen, restaurant OfkitchenIt is often the final stage of food processing, which is carried out in. Now widely used in food factoriesthreshing,Polished rice,tofu,Kamaboko (steamed fish cake)The production of is also a category of cooking, depending on the region, times and groups. In a broad sense, how much rice we eat and how much we eatRice seedWhether or not,menuAlso means food planning. Also from the discovery of the remains of burnt animal bonesBeijing ManCalled asHomo erectusThe use of fire,MiyazakiYukishima OfJapanese macaqueHerd ofsweet potatoTheseawaterIt may be said that it is cooked and eaten afterwards.[3][4].

The concept of cooking also differs depending on the language.ChineseThen.CookingEtc. means cooking, and means boiling and heating. AlsodishRepresents food dishes, which means collected plants and the like.EnglishButcookingMeans to heat, not rawrawTo distinguish.dishRepresents food dishes.French OffoodRepresents a kitchen or kitchen,調理Also represents food dishes[13][14][15].

The words "Japanese food" and "Japanese food"CivilizationIt was born in a form corresponding to the "Western food" and "Western food" that came into Japan in the age of. "Japanese cuisine"[16]Generalized by "Japanese Cooking Law Taizen" by 1898 (Meiji 31), "Japanese food" is considered to have appeared after that.[17].. In the early twentieth century, examples of Japanese cuisine can be seen as early as May 20, 1881, The Asano Shimbun.[18].. In one survey, only 4 books with Japanese names as titles were found during the Meiji and Taisho eras, and in 1904 "Japanese and Western Home Cooking," Japanese food refers to home cooking, and the image was different from the present.[18].. In 1903Gensai Muraiof"Esophageal music”Introduces Japanese and Western cuisines in contrast, and in the “Esakuraku Autumn Roll”, 50 kinds of rice dishes are introduced. In the Japanese cuisine section, XNUMX kinds of rice such as fried rice, radish rice and chestnut rice are introduced. doing.

"Kojien" at the beginning of the 21st century[6], "Daijisen", the word "Japanese food" is simply written as "Japanese-style meal. Japanese food." In the "Japanese food" section, as explained in the first paragraph. There is a slightly longer explanation. According to the "Encyclopedia of the World", Japanese cuisine is characterized by very little use of meat and fats, especially rice.Muromachi PeriodSince then, the basics of Japanese cuisine have solidified,Edo PeriodIt was almost completed in the second half. In the "Encyclopedia of Japanese Encyclopedias", the general origin of Japanese cuisine is described in "Record of Ancient Matters''Japanese calligraphyInFire and death(Honosu Sorinomikoto) Our myths and their third generationEmperor JimmuIt is said to be in the era.

While "Japanese food" has the image of high-class food served at a restaurant, "Japanese food" is said to be more appropriate as a word that represents the entire Japanese food culture, including home-cooked food.[19].. According to Nobuo Harada, Japanese food is a culture of rice and fish, and its prototype has hospitality to God.[20]According to the booklet of the National Conference on Japanese Culture, published on the registration with UNESCO, Japanese food has the feature that the god in nature was tied to food during the annual event.[21].. According to Nobuo Harada, if traditional Japanese food is strictly devised by a chef,Sukiyaki,Tempura,sushi TheCommon peopleIt was not included because it was born duringcurry,RamenIs unique to Japan and is a Japanese food when viewed widely[20].

Since the registration of the World Intangible Cultural Heritage by UNESCO, there have been activities to include culture without primary historical materials or logical grounds, such as "The basis is the Chinese Ying-Yang Five Elements" of Japanese food and Japanese food, centering on the Chinese environment on the Internet. It has been deployed.This "Ying-Yang Five Elements Basic Theory" is spreading even in a Japanese environment, and is beginning to be spoken as a self-evident premise.[22].

According to Ehara of Tokyo Kasei Gakuin, the basic form of Japanese food is rice, soup, vegetables, pickles, rice,Radish,eggplantIngredients such as: are used, rich in seafood and seaweed, cooking methods such as steaming, boiling and boiling, kelp, bonito flakes, and dried sardines.DashiCulture, miso, soy sauce, liquor, mirin, vinegar seasoning, Tanabata-like offerings inherited from the Heian period to the presentAnnual eventsCites the relationship with[23][24].. From the point of view of Kyoto cooks, the core of Japanese food is the delicious taste of the dashi, which is made more sophisticated with the technique of grilling fish, and the tableware is prepared in a Japanese style, which is a tempura-like dish during the Kamakura and Muromachi eras. Using the techniques mentioned above, these are shaped as Japanese food centered on rice, and menus such as side dishes, sashimi, bowls, grilled foods, fried foods, burning, pickled vegetables are established, and combined from these days to make a menu for the day.[25].. There is a type of 1 inch that is just the size that you can eat at the side, and Japanese food is cut into that size,Twenty-fourThe seasonal feeling of[25].. Tsukuri is cooking that makes use of the ingredients cooked by the technique of cutting raw fish, and the rice bowl is an indispensable menu for establishing Japanese cuisine,BonitoKelpUsing a dashicrabAnd fishSurimiContains the main ingredients such as, and you can also eat the bowl with its mouth[25].. Japanese grilled food is something that requires skill, grilling fish with seasonings such as salt, soy sauce and sake, soy sauce and mirin, miso and sugar, and using charcoal fire to reach the audience with medium heat. Finish to pass the fire[25].. CookingVegetablesIs the center,Nara periodWas introduced toeggplant,turnip,shallot,Muromachi PeriodRadish of the Edo periodKidney beans,lotus root,cabbage,burdock,sweet potato,bamboo shoots,Tomato,Meiji EraToonion,Okra,ShowaIn timesChinese cabbage,green pepperHave been used and are cooked in various ways such as boiled foods, steamed foods and roasted foods.[25].

Back in the Heian period,Large dishThen there was the influence of continental culture such as spoons on the chairs and tables, but it was disappearing due to the Japanese style. After thatBanquetThen, two soup and five vegetables as hospitality dishes have been established, and Japanese home cooking, which is a traditional Japanese dish, centered on rice.One soup and three vegetablesIn everyday food of[26].

Features

Japan is vegetablesfruit,seafood,SeaweedIngredients such as are very abundant in both quantity and type[27]..This is some where Japan is locatedGeographyConditions are involved.

Most dishes are for riceSide dishThat is the position, and with riceliqueurHarmonize with[28].

HistoricallyCarnivoreIs banned for a long timeDairy productsDid not spread[29](For dairy productsSuThe real pleasureThere was an exception but it was lacking).Edible oilThe use of did not develop until the Middle Ages,Kara confectioneryAnd is derived from Nanban cuisinetempuraThe use of oil became widespread[28].

Therefore, as a seasoning alternative to meat and fats and oilsDashiDeveloped[29]. This background produces a light taste[28]. strongSpicesIs rarely used,SeasonThe taste and ingredients of the ingredients are utilized[28]. Is the main seasoningmiso,Soy sauce ThesoyIt is a seasoning fermented withUmamiAccompanied by. To sweetenSyrup-sweet sakeWas used and nowsugarIs often used.

In Japan today, distribution is well developed and foods and seasonings from all over the world are available, and they are also applied to Japanese cuisine.[30].

Food


There are roughly 600 kinds of pickles in Japan.[Source required], Was with the Japanese diet. Nara periodBalanceOf the year (710-794)Wooden stripTo cucumberSaltedThere is a record of "Enki ceremonyIs pickled, soy sauce,Pickled rice cakeThere is a description such as. There were pickle shops throughout the country from the Muromachi period to the Edo period, and in the Edo period, the number of types increased and became a local specialty.[39].

NattoHas been improved by Japanese technology since it came from the continent, and it is not a natto bacterium in the Nara period.fermentationThere was soybean "Kusa". Natto is said to be natto made from Daitoku-ji Temple and Tenryuji Temple in Kyoto, or Hamato natto from Daifuku-ji Temple in Lake Hamana. Itohiki Natto was born in the middle of the Muromachi period.[40].

Foods popular since the Meiji era

Seasoning, seasoning

DashiIt is,Bonito,Kelp,Shiitake mushroomAre the three major[41].BoiledIs also used. Outside Japan, the taste isGomiI have explained that it is sweet and sour bitter, but Japanese peopleUmamiAnd added it to Rokumi[41].. Fat does not float like chicken shells other than Japanese cuisine[41].. Such dashi has become a factor that determines the direction of Japanese cuisine, and it has produced refined, elegant, refined, simple and dignified, light and deep taste, Kaiseki, Wabi-Sabi cuisine.[41].. The prototype of bonito flakes is based on the Heian period "Enki ceremonyThere is a dried fish preserved fish, "Katauo", but it was smoked as it is now in 1674 in the Edo period.[41].

seasoningabout,saltWhen (salt) was liberalized at the end of the 20th century, a great variety of types became available. The Japanese archipelagoOyashio-KuroshioSurrounded by 5 waters[42].. Around the 6th century, instead of ash salt made by burning seaweed and using its ash, a salt made by boiling seaweed was born, and it was written in "Manyoshu". In the Nara eraShiodaWith the use of kettles and kettles for salt making, salt-fields of the lifted beach type (8th century) and the Irishama type (medieval) were built on various beaches. Shiota disappeared when the country started a salt business using an ion-exchange membrane system in 1952. Due to the natural salt movement that began in 1971 in search of old-fashioned salt fields, the Salt Business Law was newly enforced in 1997, and salt production became free.[42].. In the ion exchange membrane type, sodium chloride is 99% or more and only saltiness is outstanding, but in other manufacturing methodsmagnesiumBitterness ofpotassiumSourness,calciumThe sweetness of the mixture produces a complex taste[42].. The basics of cooking are shio-ume, dashi, and heat, and in the old days when there were no various seasonings, it was important to adjust the amount of salt and umeboshi.[42].

vinegarHas been useful because it has an antibacterial effect as well as a sour taste[43].. In the old daysManyoshu], there is a description of soy vinegar (Hishiosu), eggplant pickled in the Nara period, vinegared rice was developed in the Middle Ages[43].

Soy sauceWas originally created by the Japanese people. It is a fermented soybean, wheat, and salt. Its microorganisms and manufacturing method are very different from those of the continent such as Chinese soybeans. It is said that the origin is Asia, but it has not been confirmed, and the original Hinoho (Hishio) was said to have been introduced to Japan during the Yayoi period to the Yamato period. Are the most popular,Fish sauceIt is thought that it was introduced as something like[44].

misoIn 701Great treasureIs said to be followed by the word "miso" made in Japan, and the name of the production area is given to reflect the climate, climate, agricultural products, and tastes of the local people. doing[44].

candyIt is,Glutinous riceSuch asStarchTheSaccharificationIt is a sweetener that is also described in "Nihonshoki" and "Enki Shiki".[45].sugarWas introduced as a medicine in the Nara era and was also used as a confectionery in the Muromachi era, but the import volume will greatly increase in the Edo era.[46].. Around the 18th century, imported sugar became widely used in confectionery.[45], Gradually became a seasoning. With sugar, salt, vinegar, soy sauce, and misoSA Shi Su Se SoThere is a modern word combination.

CondimentIsWasabi,Ginger,Red peppers,Japanese pepper,Leek,Perillaand so on.

Seasonings that have spread since the Meiji era

Season, sense of season, expression of nature

Seasonality is emphasized. Seasonal food is delicious, and it is considered to be an opportunity to enjoy the taste because it is widely available in the market and the price is low and the nutritional value is high.七 草 が ゆYou can enjoy the natural strength and bitterness peculiar to wild grass like. AlsoFirst bonito"Running" that anticipates the season likeFalling sweetfishYou can run with the same foods, such as "remains" just before you can't eat until the following year, and enjoy the season and remnants of the season.

Seasonal expressionshow to cutIt is also expressed in colors. Spring is paleUdoEtc.Cherry blossomCut like a petal. Blue in summerShirouri,cucumberCut into lightning and bellows. Autumn is brightcarrotEtc.Maple,GinkgoCut into leaves. Winter or new yearYuzuTheMatsubaCut into pieces or carrotsPlum blossomCut intoJapanese radishAnd express red and white with carrot[7][8][47][48].

In addition, such as mountain water and wind-up, it is also arranged to represent nature itself.[7][8].

Servant obedience

The kitchen is "Itaba" and the chefs and chefs are "Itamae'[6]Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euThe cutting itself is one of the cookings independent of boiling. The attitude that emphasizes "cutting" is called "Kasshhouju", and it is mainly to "cut (cut)" with a kitchen knife, and "to cook (use fire)". Is supposed to follow[49], Which leads to the emphasis on the taste of the food itself. In addition, from "warrior obedience" to "CookingWas born, and represents the Japanese food itself and the restaurants that serve it.[6].

Sashimi (Sashimi)

Japanese food bowl (soup)WhensashimiAre collectively called "sashimi" and "sashimi" and are emphasized.[50][51][52][53][54].. It is said that you can check your skill by its taste[49].

Menu and menu

Japanese foodmenuAnd the menu isRiceCentered on穀物ToPhysiological calorie,NutritionDepended on. GrainfoodIs the main meal that has been cooked byStaple foodTreated as. Side dishes to staple foodsSide dishIs used as an appetite stimulus for eating rice,A friend of riceThere is also a concept such as. Also rice instead of riceSakeAccompanyBanquetFor example, the side dish is as it isSide dishAlso used as. With riceSoupToSide dishConsists of,simple meal,One soup and three vegetablesOften consists of multiple dishes.[28][29]Traditionally, there is a custom that the left side is higher, so it is often the case that the main rice is placed on the left side or the fish head is placed on the left side. For everyday meals, these dishes are often arranged all at once,Kaiseki cuisineIn such cases, each item (or one set) is served in order.

Tableware

Tablewarelacquerware,陶器,磁器Such. At home, the rice bowl and chopsticks are for each person (Genius) Has a habit of using. It is thin and shallow in warm weather磁器Mainly when it gets hotガ ラ スThe bowls are also used. When it's cool, it's thick and deep陶器Mainly, when it gets cold, containers with lids are also used. AlsolacquerwareThen,Makie,DepositThere are times when the season is expressed with a pattern such as[7][8][47][48].

Providing place

In addition to each family, Japanese food isSoba restaurant,Sushi ShopSpecialty stores such asJapanese cuisine tavern,restaurant,Cooking,AlsoWaiting,Teahouse,resort, Even more modernSpace foodYou can eat at various places[47].

Religious

Mahayana BuddhismEats meat and repels some Allium plants (Prohibition food), To keep this commandmentVegetarian foodThere is.Until the Edo period, meat eating was not common except in some areas due to Buddhist thinking,Meiji EraSince then, meat eating has become widespread in Japan.現在の日本料理は精進料理を除いてCurrent Japanese food except vegetarian foodFood tabooSeems weak,Lamb,Duck meatThere is meat that is not so common due to the problem of spread.

History

Paleolithic

Gunma OfIwajuku ruinsPleistocene OfLoam layerからPaleolithic Ofstone toolWas discovered.Iwate OfHanaizumi ruinsThen about 2 years ago Hanais Mimoriushi (wild beef), raw cow,Crested Deer,Elk, Deer,Naumann Elephant,HareSuch asfossilWas found in large numbers. The bones of these fossilsstone toolCutThere are dismantling marks. AlsoGrindAnd sharpened the tipBone hornA stone tool with a trace of use that was thought to be a meteorite was also discovered. From thesehuntingDismantle the animal bymeatIs considered to be the kill site. AlsoNagano OfLake NojiriThe Tachigahana site is also considered to be a kirsite centered on Naumann elephants and Javeio deer from about 4 to 2 years ago.TokyoGravels and stones (stones) have been found in the Nogawa Ruins. The gravel group is made up of dozens to 100 pieces of burned fist-sized stones in one place, and it is also found that organic matter of moving substances adheres to them. Gravel groupmeatTheBakeIt is believed to have been used for AlsoWoodware,barkDue tocontainerPut water and food together with pebbles of burnt stonesBoilIt is also considered to have been used for. At the timeJapanese archipelagoIs mostlySubarcticSexualConiferous forestHas spread,plantSex food is scarceFishingIs also underdeveloped, so it's a big game called big game huntingmammalianMainlyhuntingIt is believed that the life depended on. Such as mammalsAnimal ThePuffer fishSuch aspoisonThere are few things with内 臓,筋肉,皮膚,fat,blood,Bone marrow,BrainSuch,bone,hairExcept for the above, most are edible parts.Parasite,microorganismな どPathogenThere is also the problem ofLivingBut you can eat.Lever stab,Deafness,Carpaccio,Yukke,Tartar steakSuch asTueIf you can use the gravel stones,Stone ware,SteamedSuch asGrilled meatCooking like is considered. AlsoSaiboshi,jerkySuch asDried meatToPreserved FoodsIt is also thought that[55][56][57][58][59].

Jomon Period

About 1 years ago due to global climate changeIce ageChanged to interglacialHoloceneBegins. Due to global warming, coniferous forests in the Japanese archipelagoHokkaido,Alpine beltLimited toHonshuOn the east side ofBeech,Oak,Chestnut,WalnutSuch asDeciduous forestBut to the west of HonshuShikoku,Kyusyu,Nansei IslandsToOak,Shii,CamphorSuch asLaurel forestSpreads. Large mammals such as the Naumann elephant and the Japanese crested deer are extinct or disappear,Sika deer,boarThe number of small and medium mammals increases. Also, as the sea level risesTsushima CurrentThe flow rate ofSea of ​​JapanSide tooThe Pacific OceanWith the sideWarm currentCold snapGood intersectFishing groundBecomes like thisClimateWith the change ofJomon PeriodBegins,Polished stonewareと と も にJomon potteryIs used. WorldwideMiddle Stone AgeOr新石器時代Is equivalent toAgriculture,LivestockIs not popular, in addition to collectinghunting,FishingIs a life mainly[55][56][57][60].

Using earthenwareBoilHas developed, and the use of harvested plant foods has increased.Walnut,Acorn,Chestnut,TochiSuch asNutsThePit dwellingDigging a hole nearStockpilingMany excavations have been excavated. WalnutsLipidContains a lot ofLivingBut you can eat it, but chestnuts, acorns and condimentsStarchContains a lot of raw beta starchdigestionBecause it is hard to be done,Wedheatと でCrystal structureNeed to be destroyed and converted to pregelatinized starch. Also the acornTanninThere are many types includingStone platePolished stoneOr crush it with powder and expose it to waterBoiledOrLyeI pulled it out. Tochi is water insolublesaponinIncluding aloin,AshWas added and boiled to remove the lye. AlsoScraps,Bracken,Yamano yam,Ubayuri,AmaryllidaceaeSuch as wildpotatoKindalkaloidSuch aspoisonIt is believed that the starch was used by removing it by exposing it to water. Flora and faunaRelicSurvey byremainscollagen OfIsotopeFrom ratio studies, from these vegetable starchesCalorieIt turns out that I was getting most of. With the increasing use of vegetable foods,meat,lever,bloodThe need for the salt that was taken fromseawaterSalt was also made by boiling sardines in pottery. Native to JapanSpicesIsSun showA pottery containing mine has also been discovered. It is also a cultivated cropBuckwheat,Barley,Millet,Perilla,Mung bean,GourdEtc. are excavated although there are few[55][56][60][59].

huntingbymeatIs mostlyboarSika deerDue to otherAntelope,Brown bear,Asiatic black bear,Raccoon dog,BadgerAnd so on. Alsopheasant,Duck,gunSuch asbirdsAlso targeted. Hunting appeared in the Jomon periodBow and arrowMainly due totrap,PitfallAnd so on. AlsoDog TheRearingIt is,HoundIt is believed to have been used as. In Hokkaidoseal,Sea lion,fur sealSuch asSea beastFor example,Rotary harpoonWas used. Wild boarIzu IslandsAnd relics have been discovered from Hokkaido,Rearing,animalRitualAre being discussed[55][56][57].

FishingbyseafoodIt is,Shell moundMainly formsClam,Clams,Oyster,ShijimiSuch asclamsThere are many. Inner bayJapanese sea bass,ボ ラ,Blackfish,HereFor example,Bone hornbyYasu,Stone weightUsedFishing netWas also used. Alsoイ ワ シ,サ バTargeting small fish, there are also fishing nets.Tohoku region OfSanrikuPelagic on the coastTuna,MarlinFor bone hornsFishing hookOr, a rotating harpoon was used.KyusyuEven in the northwest, pelagic tunaJapanese Spanish mackerel,シ イ ラ,sharkWe used a combination fishing hook with a bone horn. inlandRiverAtsalmon,troutHowever, there is also the idea that it was an important food in Hokkaido and the Tohoku region.[55][56][57].

As a dish, starch such as nuts was kneaded and baked in ashBiscuit,ク ッ キ ーlikeJomon cookiesHas been excavated. By using earthenware, starchdumplingBoiledSuitonOr boil it in waterPorridgeShaped ones are also considered. Mix meat and seafood with sweet potatoes and porridge,Soup,souplikeCaneAndcasseroleSomething like[55][56][59][61].

Gathering, hunting and fishingNATUREDue to(I.e.In the Japanese archipelago(I.e.Sex appears.Miyagi OfSatohama shell moundSurvey in the springClamsAnd tree buds and young plantsWild vegetablesCollected in the summer and tuna andHorse mackerel,SauryThey used to fish and salt water to make salt, and in the fall, fish salmon and nuts were collected. From autumn to winter, sika deer were hunted and earthenware was produced, and the diet was changed according to the season. Also, eating habits are not limited to natureThe population densityIncludingEcologyConditions vary, and even HokkaidoRebun IslandLike the Funadomari ruins and the Hamanaka 2 ruinsHistoryTarget社会TypicalcultureEven more different.Okinawa Islands,Amami IslandsThen this eraKaizuka periodIt is also called the first half of the period, and it is also a unique culture that accompanies the Inami and Ogido pottery. Also OkinawaHateruma IslandAt Shimodahara Kaizuka, Yaeyama pottery, pillar-shaped stone tools, and boar bones were excavated.Sakishima IslandsThen with potatoes and potatoesMillet OfUpland fieldAgricultureAnd wild boarRearingIs believed to have been carried out. This culture is in Kyushu andOkinawa main islandAlmost no influence of Jomon culture fromTaiwan,Mainland ChinaJiangnanIt is considered to be a unique culture influenced by. In this way, we canFood culture:There are various definitions of the Jomon period withOkinawaIt covers almost all of the Japanese archipelago and started about 1 to 6000 years ago,B.C.Supposed to last from 900 to 400 BC[55][56][57].

Yayoi Period

Rice cultivationAnd cultivated speciesRiceIt is,Africa OfNiger RiverOriginates in the surroundingsAfrican riceWhen,AsiaThere are two of them, which originated in and propagated all over the world.Mainland China OfYangtze RiverIn the basin, the discovery of rice materials around 1 BC, around 6000 BCHunan ProvinceMt. Bandou RuinsからRice huskDiscovery of earthenware mixed in, around 5000 BCZhejiang ProvinceKawatodo RuinsHas been discovered. Rice husks, etc. are accumulated in an area of ​​about 400 square meters at the riverside site,plow,Mortar(I.e.Almost completed withPaddy fieldRice was grown. Around 3000 BC, such as Zhenjiang Qianshan Ren siteLiangzhu CultureFollowing this, a geometrical seal culture appears in the Gangnam Jianghuai region around 1000 BC. AlsoYellow RiverIn the basin, around 1 BCMillet,MilletThere is a use of, and in the middle watershed around 6000 BCFarm toolsIt was thought that cultivation was discovered, and rice from the Yangtze River basin around 3000 BCWest AsiafromWheatWas introduced around 2000 BCBeansIn the cultivation ofFive grainsWill be[55][56][60].

Korean PeninsulaThen around 4000 BCYellow Sea North RoadCarbonized millet from the Chitosato ruins orHieThe discovery of grains, around 2000 BCGyeonggi-doFrom Kiniwasato RuinsUpland riceGrain that seems to beBarleyAnd milletfieldDiscovered with crops, around the 8th century BCChungcheongnam-doCarbonized rice has been found at the Matsugikuri site, and paddy fields have been found at the Muto Toe site from the 7th to 6th century BC.[55][56][60].

Northeastern ChinaロシアIn the east, around 1000 BCAmur,Heilongjiang OfAmur riverAlongPrimorsky TerritoryIn Uril culture, Yankovsky culture, and Yinggeling upper culture,CultivationpigTheRearingToAgricultureWas made[55][56][60].

In the Japanese archipelago, from the early Nakano B ruins in Hokkaido in the Jomon periodHieThe remains have been discovered from the Bibi Kaizuka site in the first half of the year. In addition, the discovery of millet from the Usushiri B ruins in the middle period, from the Shioya 3 ruins in the late periodBarleyAnd millet has been discovered. These are excavated from Hokkaido in the Jomon period穀物The kind isPrimorsky TerritoryPropagation from etc. is considered. Rice, barley, wheat, millet, millet, millet, etc. were found in ruins such as Honshu and Kyushu after the middle Jomon period,FukuokaField traces have been discovered from the Crinara ruins. It is considered that in the Jomon period, crops including rice were propagated from the continent as field crops, and upland cultivation including upland rice cultivation was performed. Also in FukuokaItatsuki RuinsAnd SagaNabata SiteEtc,Waterway,RidgeWhere Jomon was maintainedPaddy fieldBut woodenhoe,Stone knifeSuch asFarm toolsHas been discovered. The completed paddy rice cultivation culture with the well-developed paddy fields and farm tools discovered in the northern part of Kyushu did not develop upland cultivation including upland rice cultivation. From the latter half of 2000 BC to the first half of 1000 B.C., which was developed in the Gangnam and Jianghuai regions of the Chinese mainland during the period of combined use of gold and stone, the paddy rice cultivation culture completed in the first half of the period was completed through the Korean Peninsula, orEast China SeaDirectly from northern KyushuImmigrationIt is believed that it was transmitted with[55][56][60].

Paddy rice cultivation culture in northern Kyushu was rapidly centered in western Japan.KinkiAlthough it is transmitted to eastern Japan, there are times when it is stagnant without being transmitted to Eastern Japan. This is because deciduous broad-leaved forests in eastern Japan were richer in foods than deciduous forests in western Japan, and upland cultivation including upland rice cultivation was widespread in western Japan, making it easy to accept paddy rice cultivation. It is thought that it was unsuitable for the eastern part of Japan. Around the beginning of the era, due to rice varieties suitable for cold regionsAomoriPaddy rice cultivation culture is transmitted. Before and after the eraAgricultural tools made popular. In the days when the rice paddy culture of the Japanese archipelago became widespread, it was shaped thinner and burned at higher temperatures than conventional Jomon pottery.Yayoi potteryWithYayoi PeriodCalled. It is said that the Yayoi period started around 900 BC and continued until around 400 BC. On the other hand, in cold Hokkaido, rice cultivation culture did not reach this period, and the culture of collecting, hunting and fishing continued from the Jomon period,The Jomon periodIt was called and continued until around 1000 AD. In the Nansei Islands such as Okinawa,Kaizuka periodAlso called the late period, this continued until about 1300 AD[55][56][60].

The state of the Japanese archipelago in the Yayoi periodKanjiIt is recorded that about 100 small countries were separated before and after the era due to geography. 『Wei Zhi"Japanese peopleIn 239 AD there are several emiratesHimikoRuledYamadai Kuni WeiIt is recorded that the Wei ambassador visited again. In Wei Zhajinjin, also "dive in water to collect shellfish and fish" "cultivate rice and millet" "eat year-round vegetables in a warm climate" "use ginger and citrus fruits, pepper, and potatoes for cooking There is also a record of food and meals such as "Do not do", "Eat by hand with wood and bamboo vessels", "Prefer drinking"[55][56][60].

Asian rice is long, suitable for tropical regions, long grains that are weak in the cold, and less stickyIndica speciesWith its low length and low temperature, it is short and rounded and sticky.Japonica seedsIs roughly divided into The rice introduced to the Japanese archipelago during the Yayoi period is a Japonica variety, and some Indica species were introduced after the 11th century, but they have not been widely used until now. Also, with Indica and Japanica,StarchIs one ofAmyloseWith the content ofRice cakeUruchiIt is also roughly divided. The rice that was introduced to the Japanese archipelago during the Yayoi period was the origin of the cultivation of rice cakes in China.MochiDoes not appear,Nara periodIt is considered that the "Shosoin document Owari tax book" was the first to appear, and it was considered a waste. However, in the Jomon period, upland rice etc.Southeast AsiaThere is also an idea that mines were mixed with pork in the Yayoi period.[55][60][62].

Even if paddy rice cultivation spreads, it was not based solely on farming, but conventional hunting, gathering and fishing were also conducted while farming. AlsoPlant opalFrom the survey, it is considered that rice was not cultivated over a long period of time, but millet genus was also cultivated and the production was large. From the relics of seedsMilletCalled asMillet,Hie,MilletAnd wheat穀物Or beansBuckwheatThere are many semi-grains such as. Also, acorns and other nuts are often excavated beyond rice. Boars and deers continue to be important targets for hunting, but devastate the fieldsPest controlIt is believed that there was also an aspect of. Also, the ratio of boars to deer has increased,頭蓋骨The boar changes from家畜Was convertedDream PorkIt is believed that the ones that have become In addition to pigs,(I.e.,chickenMany of them were brought in and kept, but most of them were not excavated, and chickens were not the target of eating.DogWas also used as a hunting dog, but was not buried and became an edible target because of its dismantling marks. Pigs, cattle, horses, etc. are raised on a small scale next to farming.milkNot for the purpose of usingLivestockis not. For fishing, in addition to conventional ones, in paddy fields and irrigation canalsKoi,Crucian carp,catfish,Loach,SnailFishing in fresh water is conducted for such purposes. For fishing in the inner bay, net fishing using tubular soil is used.Octopus potAlthough fishing is done, it declines macroscopically. In addition, specialized diffusion to open-sea fishing on the Pacific side of eastern Japan and northwestern Kyushu is also seen. Changes in environment and society due to agriculture are also changing hunting and fishing[55][56][60][57].

There is rice cooked with grains such as rice. The Yayoi pottery has soot on the outside and rice grains on the inside, so the rice is cooked and dried as it is now. Rice isMortarVertical punchRice milled by, currently on saleRice huskRemovepeelCovered inbrown riceIt is believed that it was about 9 minutes spilling, unlike. See you againsalivaOral saccharified bymaltOr useliqueurBrewed. With crucian carpSalted,Fish sauce,NaresashiIt is believed that they also made such. In the Yayoi pottery, not only the pot used for boiling and cooking,TablewareAlso excavated in the shape of[55][61][60][57].

Most of the acorns are excavated from the ruins, but with the spread of agriculture, the staple foods of rice and millet (awa) and the basic diet of Japanese food such as chicken, meat, fish, seaweed, vegetables, and edible wild plants have been completed.[63].. Eating pigs introduced as livestock was aversion, and chickens were also specially known as Tokitsudori, and even eggs were not eaten.[64].. Gradually, the diet isTreatsServed as (Shinsen/Mike), the priests and villagers ate together at a direct meeting (Narai) after the Shinto ritual, and a culture of offerings to the gods occurred.[20].

Kofun period

In the 3th centuryNaraRyuko RuinsThe giant tomb that appeared inFront and rear circleSuch asOld tombSpread all over the placeKofun periodCalled. From the latter half of the 6th century to the 7th century, large-scale paddy fields were developed mainly in the Kinki region. Iron U-shape made by advanced technology in the middle of the 5th centuryplowTip and curved bladeSickleAppeared in the second half of the 6th centuryScratchingUsed forHorse plowAnd appeared in the 7th centuryPlowingUsed forPlowby(I.e.Of the early 7th centuryOsakaSayama Pondな どReservoirThe construction and the vastEmbankmentbyRiverControl of the late 7th centuryRyori systemThese are in the background, such as the appearance of. Lined up and around the burial moundHaniwaHunting by rulers, such as deer, wild boar, dogs, and horses and chickens.horse ridingwas there. It came from the Korean PeninsulaSue wareToNephewSince many are found, riceSteamedOnOwaIt is believed to have been done. Also conventionalFurnaceChanged toIs set up in the residence[55][65][60][57].

Asuka/Nara Period/Heian Period

"Record of Ancient Matters』Is written that it is a country where Toyoashihara 720 autumn Mizuhokuni (Toyoashi Hara no Aki Nagai Aki Mizuhohonokuni) and rice ears grow.Japanese calligraphy] InCheerfulThe myth that rice was born from the belly of[66].. At the end of the Heian period, instead of strong rice, hime rice, which is similar to modern cooked rice, will be eaten, but it will spread much later.[63].

There is a description of cooking in "Nihon Shoki".Staple foodNon-staple foodThe food composition byRice,wheat,MilletEtc.OwaRice,PorridgeI was eating. Vegetables, seaweed, and seafood were used as foods used as side dishes.MeatEtc.Emperor TenmuIn 675 years, cows, horses, dogs,(I.e.The chicken was banned from being killed, and it is no longer officially edible. Also, wild boars and deer were not banned from killing. As a cooking method, living things,pottery,Simmered dishesに 加 え て,Boiled,Cane,Topping, Fried food, etc. As a processing methodDried fish,Salted,pickles,sushiThere was such a thing.EnvoybyCooking is also affected by the influence of.Great drink(Daiki/Ohhh) Then, for riceDeafnessIn addition to dried fish, dried fishFried foodincludingKara confectionery, Fruits called wooden confectionery were lined up on the base.chopsticksA spoon was also used. Season with salt and vinegar,Soy sauce(Hishio), seasoned with sake[65].

Kamakura Period

Kamakura PeriodReceived the support of a samuraiZen Buddhismと と も にVegetarian foodThe technique of seasoning such as simmered dyeing and sake brewing is developed.teaに 加 え て,tofu,Kanayama Temple MisoFood processing technology was transmitted. Temple点心からUdon,Manju,YokanSpread to the private sector[65].

Muromachi Period

Himei, which is similar to modern cooked rice, spreads widely[63].

Large dishDerived fromHonzen cuisineWas established. It has also influenced kaiseki cuisine and kaiseki cuisine later, and there is also a theory that the basics of Japanese cuisine have been established together with dashi stock.[67].Soy sauceWas made and used[65].. Using bonito and kelp, a large amount of grilled foods, stewed foods and soups will be served.[46].

Muromachi PeriodThe cookbook "Shijo-ryu kitchen knife" and "Ohakusa cookbookIs said to have been written.Vegetarian foodHas developed,soup stockThe concept of was born.Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodCame to JapanJoan Rodriguez"Noh" (practical education) in his book "History of the Church of Japan"KnifeIs mentioned.

Azuchi-Momoyama Period

Kaiseki cuisineIs established.tea ceremonyWith the development ofSen no RikyuIs greatly affected.NanbanBy shipTempura,CancerNanban cuisine such asNanban confectionery(Castella,KonpeitoEtc.)[65].

Edo Period

The basic form of Japanese culinary culture is that the cuisine centered on fish and birds, which was handed down by aristocrats from ancient times to the Middle Ages, is combined with the vegetarian cuisine developed in the temple, and is influenced by the dietary style of the upper samurai family. , Established from the Muromachi period to the early Edo period, and matured in the late Edo period[68]..Its characteristics are that it is an individual meal, that it is a treat with a large number of dishes, so it is served little by little (what soup and what vegetables), it is not a clean-up meal but it is eaten (naturally left), and meat There are extremely few, such as putting the sake table set first[68].

Kanto cuisine

Edo cuisineと 呼 ば れ る[69]Dishes developed using local ingredients[70].

"Picture book Edo customs traffic[71]”Said, “If there is a town with a Nakamachiya in Edo City, there will be no place for a yam shop in winter.[72]"Yakiimo is very popular[73] Met. First Gatsuo/FirsteggplantThere were times when we were responsible for auspicious occasions.[69].. Dashi uses bonito flakes and soy sauce is rich soy sauce[74] Was used. Pepper and so onSpicesIs also used[75],FragranceAlso chicken rice etc.[75], Uncle and green onion[76] Can eat now.

The food service industry was also flourishing. According to the document that the Edo town Elderly submitted the number of “food merchants” to the magistrate's office in the 8th year of culture (1811),Boiled riceIzakaya (1,808), dumpling soup (1,680), mochi confectionery, dried rice crackers, etc. (1,186), 邂飩 buckwheat noodle shop (718), chazuke ichizen rice (472), rental seated teahouse (466) ), nigiri atelier (378 houses),Hagi YakiShops (237), sushiya (217), nimonochaya (188), pickle shop Kinzanji (130), Kamabokoya (59), candy shop (46), beef (9) Eaves) remains. Boiled food vendors take home side dishesHalf boardAlso played a role.

Kansai cuisine

京都, Osaka's cuisine was called "Kakamichi".KitamaebuneIn Hokkaido, kelp from Hokkaido was transported.SetouchiIn addition to the seafood and vegetables in the suburbs of Japan, the products from all over the country were collected, and it was described as the "Country of the Kitchen".

Other

Until thenOfficial house,samuraiThe class, or the cooking technique monopolized by the temple, was widely known to the general public in the form of publication. "" and "Cooking storyVarious cookbooks were published. Regarding the full-fledged restaurant industry, temples received money and provided food in the early Edo periodChaya・Many restaurants have appeared in the city[77].

In the late Edo periodMeeting mealAppears. This set meal was simplified and was established as a dish to enjoy at a liquor table.

After the Meiji era

MeijiIsCarnivoreWas banned publicly and was eaten in small portions during the Edo periodBeef potAnd so on.

Kunio Yanagita"I can't argue that Japanese foods after the Meiji era show almost three remarkable trends in the Meiji Taisho Era-Saihen edition. One is warm, many are soft, and two are soft. The third thing is that they are becoming more and more popular, that is, they are generally eating less so that many people will remember."[78].

In the Meiji era, focusing on the level of negotiations with foreign countriesWestern cuisineCan be eaten. Western restaurants (Western foodIn addition to Western cuisine, the restaurant produced Japanese dishes that were recreated in a Japanese style. At home, instead of customs,ChabudaiCame to be used. From the Meiji era to the Showa era, foods influenced by Chinese and Korean ethnic groups appeared in Japan and abroad, such as ramen.

As food aid from the United States amid shortage of post-war suppliesWheat flourWas imported in large quantities and bread was provided for school lunch. With the flour supplied in large quantities at low cost,OkonomiyakiSuch as wheat mealTeppanyakiCooking has also developed.

The current Japanese cuisine issushiIs a type ofCalifornia RollThere are also things that develop overseas. For sashimi and sushi in JapanVacuum cookingIt is a large fish due to the application of meat and low temperature cooking methods and the application of meat.Tuna,YellowtailTargetingAgingSome have been developed by incorporating knowledge of the world, history, science, etc.[30].

Intangible cultural heritage registration

UNESCO OfIntangible cultural heritageThe Japanese foods registered in are "respect for diverse and fresh foods and their tastes" "healthy diet with excellent nutritional balance" "expression of beauty of nature and seasonal changes" "annual events such as New Year Close relationship with[79].. In Japan, "Japanese food" is not only about cooking and cookingI will"Or"Wasteful"Social customs about food that embody the Japanese spirit of respecting nature"[80][81][82],New Year's HolidayInpounding mochi,Chinese food,Food educationMade a presentation centered on education[83].

Sort

Traditional form and cooking

Here are some of the dishes whose traditional forms are handed down today.

Events and cooking

Annual event,Ceremonial occasionThere are also many Japanese dishes that are associated with events.Mochi,Red rice,dumpling,sushiThere are some things that are widely common regardless of the season or region. Also from the color and figureThailand,shrimpIs also often used[8].

Everyday lifeSoup,Side dishIntofu,wheat bran,Konjac,WakameWidely used in common[47][48].. springFluffyMisoHerring,Of summerBarley rice,Hatai powder,autumn'staro stem,Dried persimmon,Of winterBoiled rice,frozen tofu, New yearKagami mochiAnd first,Mochi flowerSuch as cookingSeason wordsAlso[6][84].

Cooked rice,The thingSuch asRough foodThere is[6].

local cuisine

local cuisineIs a dish that has been eaten since ancient times in Japan.Ainu food,Okinawan cuisine,Amami cuisine,Kusaya,Island sushi,DishAnd so on.

In a specific areaPacific WarAfterwards, it became possible to eat again,Regional revitalizationWas developed for the purposeLocal gourmetThere is also.

Various single dishes

Foods eaten in modern Japan

Japanese food is relatively new in the broad sense that it is unique to Japan, and it is not Japanese food in the narrow sense that it is a traditional dish devised by a chef.[86].

Japanese food changed in foreign countries

  • sushi - California RollA new sushi made with fruits, foods not used in Japan, and recipes such as spider rolls and spicy tuna rolls. There are many cases where vinegared rice is not used.
  • Teriyaki -In many cases, "teriyaki grilled dish using teriyaki sauce" based on soy sauce is called teriyaki, not a kind of grilling.
  • Fish paste products -Surimi (Surimi), the so-calledCrabIn particular, consumption in Europe and the US is rapidly increasing.
  • Teppanyaki -Teppanyaki with plenty of chef's directing elements such as "Grilled ironing" and "Onion volcano". In Europe and AmericaHibachiIt is called by the name.

Japanese drinks and sweets

Japanese drink

CurrentlyJapanese beer,Japanese wine,Japanese whiskeyEtc. are also made and popular.

Japanese confectionery

Japanese sweetsJapanese sweets,Candyand so on.Western confectioneryAlsoMatchaThere are also those that use Japanese-made materials such as.fruitIs also called sweets[6].

Evaluation from overseas and international diffusion

Long time agoRaw fish,BurdockBecause the ingredients of the minority are used in the world such as root ofNaoetsu POW Camp CaseThere was a misunderstanding like that. In modern times, it is being eliminated with the spread of Japanese food.

A high-class restaurant guide published in 2007MichelinIn the Tokyo edition, about 150% of the 6 listed stores are Japanese restaurants, and all listed restaurants, including Japanese restaurants, had one or more stars (see Michelin Some stores do not have stars, and all stores have stars for the first time in Michelin). In addition, 1 listed stores received a total of more than 150 stars, which was itself the highest ever.

Japanese food called a regular meal

Encourage health through mealsMacrobioticThere are many Japanese dishes and seasonings introduced through (Normal diet), and in regions where regular diet is evaluated in parts of Europe and the United States, special cooking methods and foods that are not commonly used in Japan are used. Sometimes (Miso may be spread on bread and eaten). Mass-produced products from companies are also common, but soy sauce, miso, tofu, etc. are often made by traditional manufacturing methods, and their flavor and nutritional value may differ from those marketed in Japan. in AmericaTamariIs also in circulation.

Number of Japanese restaurants overseas

According to a survey and tabulation by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the total number of overseas Japanese restaurants is about 11 (as of October 8,000).[87].. It is more than twice as much as the January 2013 survey. Not only Japanese food,RamenShops and Japanese stylecurryIncluding stores[88].. In 2019, it increased to about 15 stores[89].. Many restaurants can be described as "Nanchatte Japanese food" operated by local companies (which is different from the original Japanese food), but on the other hand, it is a genuine and luxury-oriented restaurant for foreigners who have learned the goodness of Japanese food through their stay in Japan. The number of Japanese restaurants is also increasing[90].

Japanese restaurant recommendation system

In 2007, we introduced the “Japanese restaurant recommendation system” that certifies authentic Japanese restaurants.Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO) started in France. The purpose of the system is to provide signposts, raise awareness and spread of Japanese food culture, provide opportunities to challenge authentic Japanese restaurants, and promote export of Japanese brands such as Japanese food. The system is targeted at meals that are generally in the category of "Japanese food" in Japan.MENUOccupies almost all of the restaurant, whose food is kaiseki, sushi, tempura, eel, yakitori, soba, udon, rice bowl, and other traditional Japanese food (including those created in France)[91].

Competition

  • Japanese food competition[92]
  • Japanese food world challenge-Japanese cooking contest by non-Japanese cooks[93].

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  82. ^ Study Group for World Intangible Heritage Registration of Japanese Food Culture (February 2012). “Outline of proposal for describing intangible cultural heritage of Japanese food culture”. Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. 2013th of February 11Browse.
  83. ^ "Draft decision No.8.17. Washoku, traditional dietary cultures of the Japanese, notably for the celebration of New Year"((English)(French)). Evaluation of nominations for inscription in 2013 on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (item 8 on the agenda). United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 2013th of February 11Browse.
  84. ^ "Haiku Saijiki 4th Edition" Kadokawa Gakugei Publishing, 2008,ISBN 978-4-04-621167-5
  85. ^ Kita-ku, Tokyo
  86. ^ Harada Nobuo, “What is Japanese Food? Search the culture of taste” KADOKAWA/Kadokawa Gakugei Publishing <Kadokawa Sophia Bunko>, 2014, 7-13, 33, 48.ISBN 978-4044094638.
  87. ^ Announcement of survey results on the number of overseas Japanese restaurantsMinistry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries press release (November 2017, 11) Read April 7, 2018.
  88. ^ "Japanese restaurant more than doubled in 5 years"Yomiuri Shimbun] Morning newspaper April 2018, 4 (living side).
  89. ^ "3% increase in Japanese restaurants as a base for disseminating appeal/China, Taiwan, Indonesia Rapid growth in Asia/Strengthening food transportation is a challenge""Japan Agricultural Newspaper』December 2020, 1 (one page) viewed January 4, 1.
  90. ^ Demand for "real" products in various countries/Expanding visits to JapanNikkei MJ] July 2019, 7 (one page).
  91. ^ "Japanese restaurant recommendation system (pdf file)". Japan External Trade Organization. 2013th of February 12Browse.
  92. ^ Official website of Japanese cuisine competition
  93. ^ Japanese Food World Challenge 2015 Official Site

References

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外部 リンク

Corona

CoronaWhat is (Corona)2019From the endEpidemic of new coronavirus infection (COVID-19)Is a term that refers to disasters and crisis situations caused by[1].

"CoronaOut ofコ ロ ナ"Is"New coronavirus'[2],MisfortuneIs a word that means "disaster" or "disaster" or "unfortunate event"[3]Then, it is a compound word that is put after various nouns[4](Other examples: water damage, war damage, etc.).

As the epidemic of new coronavirus infection spreads,2020(Reiwa 2nd year) It has been widely used in newspapers and online since the middle of March.[5][Annotation 1][Annotation 2].

New Word Award 2020 selected by Daijisen

Shogakukanby"New Word Award Selected by Daijisen In "2020", "Corona Sorrow" was selected as the runner-up,DaijisenA commentary by the editorial department was posted on the announcement site.

Served as a special selection committee member regarding the reasons for selectionMeiji UniversityMakirō Tanaka, a professor of the Faculty of International Japanese Studies, said, "It is a word that expresses the current situation in the world, and it is an important word for sharing the desire to overcome this, find a new lifestyle, and manage to survive. I made it the runner-up with support for that feeling. "

In addition, TanakaJapanese languageFrom this point of view, it is worth noting whether "○○ 禍" will be derived as a coined word component in the future.[6].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ In the online transmission by the administration, etc.
  2. ^ In newspaper reports,National newspaperAppeared on all 5 papers. etc.Block paperThen, etc.Prefectural paperThen, in what is evaluated as being equivalent to block paper, Such. In general prefecture paper,etc.

Source

  1. ^ Takishima, 2020, ll.1-2.
  2. ^ Takishima, 2020, l.2.
  3. ^ Takishima, 2020, l.1.
  4. ^ Takishima, 2020, ll.24-25.
  5. ^ Takishima, 2020, ll2-4.
  6. ^ "This year's new word award selected by the Japanese dictionary" Daijisen "is decided to be [Three Cs]! The runner-up is [Corona" (Press Release), Shogakukan, (July 2020, 12), https://kyodonewsprwire.jp/release/202011287823 2020th of February 12Browse. 

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