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🍽 | Electric pressure cooker that can make 16 kinds of dishes such as bread & the world's first "toaster with rice cooker" ... All-purpose useful for corona damage ...


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Electric pressure cooker that can make 16 kinds of dishes such as bread & the world's first "toaster with rice cooker" ... All-purpose useful for corona damage ...

 
If you write the contents roughly
First, put the rolled bread dough in a pressure cooker and start cooking.
 

Many people say that they have more time at home and more opportunities to cook.So, if you have one, you can cook rice, bread, side dishes ... → Continue reading

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Pressure cooker

Pressure cooker(Atsushi pot,British: pressure cooker[1]) Is with a pressure adjustment functionpot[2].空 気,liquidSealed container to prevent it from escapingheatingAnd above atmospheric pressurepressureIn addition (Pressurization), Enclosedliquid OfBoiling pointBy increasingFoodstuffHigher than usualtemperatureAnd under pressure, relatively shortTimeで調理can dokitchenware.Pressure cooker(Atsuri Kugama)Also called[2].

Metal weights are usually used to adjust the pressure.Most of the pressurizing sources[3]ToWed OfVapor pressureIt is not suitable for cooking without water because it uses.

History

1679, French physicistDenis PapinHas invented a steam-pressure cooker called the "steam digester" as a derivative of atmospheric pressure and boiling research.However, the "steam digester" is a large utensil that is closer to a cooking facility than a cooker, and for the next 250 years, the pressure cooker remained a large commercial utensil.

1938, Alfred Bischer of the United States has applied for a patent for a "automatically sealed pot" for home use, which is different from the large pressure cookers for commercial use.AndSecond World WarThe outbreak of canned vegetables gave priority to military demand, and the need to sterilize and store vegetables at homes led to the spread of "automatically sealed pots" throughout the United States, and the postwar American lifestyle spread throughout the world. It became popular all over the world.

In Japan, ahead of this, from before the warbrown riceAlong with the recommendation of food, pressure cookers that can cook brown rice softly and easily are domestically produced and have begun to spread.For this reason, until around the 1980s, it was often called a pressure cooker for cooking rice instead of a pressure cooker.

また1953In ancient JapanKettleAnhydrous pot, which is simple and easy to handle (however, it cannot maintain the high pressure of a pressure cooker), which keeps the airtightness and pressure only by the weight of the lid, has been developed and popularized.

1977At that time, Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (currentlyPanasonic)ButElectric pressure cookerReleased.The feature is that it can be cooked automatically, easily and in a short time, and in JapanWorking togetherPopular mainly in households[4].

Pressure cookers are often used by climbers to compensate for low pressure at high altitudes.Without compensation, the water will boil before reaching 100 ° C,Darwin OfBeagleAs mentioned in the voyage, the ingredients cannot be cooked at a sufficient temperature.For this reason, in cereals and the like, starch gelatinization does not proceed and digestion becomes poor, and there is a risk that sterilization becomes insufficient.It has a history of being used for the purpose of solving the above problems.

Cooking features and benefits

The pressure cooker has a structure that seals the pot and the lid, and pressure is applied by heating.[5].Wed OfBoiling pointRise as the pressure increases, so insidetemperatureWill reach 100 ° C or higher even before boiling.There are differences depending on the type of pot, but at about 2 atm, 120 ° C[5][6], High pressure is about 2.45 ℃ at 128 atm[6]become.Due to this high temperature and high pressure, the cell wall of vegetables is quickly destroyed, and in meat, proteins and fibers are decomposed quickly, so that cooking can be performed in a short time.Cooking time is one-third to one-fourth.For example, choppedcabbage1 minute, fresh mung beans 5 minutes, small to medium sizePotatoes(Up to 200g) is about 5 minutes, wholechickenWill be less than 25 minutes.For a long timeSteamed, On a simmering fireBraisedEffect in a short timesimulationIt is also used to do.When heated, the ingredients inside do not dance, and the movement is quieter and less than boiling in a normal pot.[5]..Due to these factors, the heating time is short, so there is also the advantage that large ingredients are not easily cooked even when cooked well.In addition, since it can be cooked with a smaller amount of water than boiling in a general pot, it is difficult for water-soluble nutritional components contained in the food to flow out of the food.

さ ら に,Pudding,Savory egg custardThere is also an advantage that it is difficult to stand when cooking in a pressure cooker.Since the boiling temperature rises due to the high pressure, steam is not generated at the stage of about 80 ° C when the egg protein coagulates, so fine bubbles are formed by boiling and it is difficult to make holes on the surface or inside.

Since the pressure cooker needs to withstand high pressure, in the past it was made of thick aluminum die-cast, which is more than 1 cm thick.To date, due to technological advances, press-molded products made of stainless steel or aluminum alloy with a thickness of 5 mm or less have become mainstream. In the 2010s, synthetic resin products for cooking in a microwave oven were also released.

On the other hand, thick-walled products have the secondary advantage of being less scorched than ordinary pots and frying pans, even when used for stir-fry without applying pressure or cooking with less broth because heat conduction is slow. ..In addition, since heat dissipation is small due to the sealing, it is often done to turn off the heat as soon as the inside of the pot becomes hot and proceed with cooking only with the residual heat.Specializing in this mechanismThermal cookerThere is.Thin-walled products are lightweight, and prices that used to be in the XNUMX-yen unit have been reduced to thousands of yen, but the benefits of large-walled products are lost.

Valve structure

Pressure cookers generally have two types of valves.

Pressure control valve
Usually, a pressure cooker has a pipe with a small hole, etc., and many have a pressure regulating valve with a structure in which a weight is placed on it.When the pressure in the pot increases, the steam pushes up the weight and allows the steam to escape.As a result, the pressure is kept constant by the balance between the weight of the weight and the vapor pressure.[7]..Many pressure cookers have multiple weights of different weights so that multiple internal pressures can be selected according to the ingredients and cooking method.
As of 2014, spring-type products that regulate pressure by the force of springs are selling well.Compared to the weight type, it has the advantages of quieter ejection noise and the ability to adjust the degree of pressurization with a single touch, but due to the complicated valve structure, it is inferior in maintainability when clogged and the price is high.
safety valve
The safety valve, which is mainly attached to the lid, allows steam to escape when the internal pressure exceeds the safe area and prevents the pan from exploding and exploding.The internal pressure of the pot is adjusted by the pressure regulating valve, but it works poorly and operates when the internal pressure approaches a dangerous area.Due to its role, the working pressure is higher than the pressure regulating valve.In many cases, the pressure of the steam pushes up the stopper with the weight to release the pressure.Besides, often low melting pointalloySpare pressure release mechanism that tightly closes the hole with a stopperFusible plug) Is attached.When the internal temperature (and thus the pressure) becomes too high, the metal stopper melts and the pressure is released.

Usage and precautions

Cooking using a pressure cooker basically has four stages: heating, pressurization, steaming, and decompression.The time it takes for the weight for pressure adjustment to start moving with steam after heating is called the heating time, after that, the time it takes to continue applying pressure by reducing the heat is called the pressurization time, and the time it is left after heating is called the steaming time. Often.The final step is decompression work to release the pressure by removing the weight of the pressure control valve.Usually, the sum of these four steps is the cooking time.Kitchen timerThere are cases where cooking proceeds while measuring with such means, and there are cases where it is automatically controlled such as electric type.

When operating the valve after cooking to start decompression, the boiling that had stopped may resume as the pressure drops and steam may be generated, so be careful when handling so that the steam ejected from the valve during decompression does not burn you. Is required.When opening the lid, if the pressure is not sufficiently decompressed and the pressure is released, the hot contents will spurt upward together with the lid and spatter vigorously into the room, causing hot steam and hot scattered food to be applied to the body. You may get burned by bathing, or the lid may hit your body with violent force and cause serious injury.For this reason, there is a safety mechanism such as locking the handle that opens the lid while the internal pressure is high.There is a way to pour water on the pot to release the pressure quickly, but there is a possibility that juice etc. will blow out from the safety valve.There is also a method of immersing the pot in water to cool it, but stainless steel ones may distort the bottom of the pot due to heat conduction.Also, in the gap between the pot and the lidPackingIs a consumable item, and if it deteriorates, there is a risk of steam spurting out or the lid blowing off.

As described above, there are special precautions for handling the pressure cooker.JapanThen the pot in generalHousehold goods quality labeling methodThe Goods Quality Labeling Regulations stipulate the obligation to display precautions for handling, but especially for pressure cookers, additional items to be displayed are stipulated.[8].

Due to the principle of cooking, there must be enough water and space (ie air) in the pan for pressurization.For this reason, it is necessary to pay attention to the amount of beans and other substances that absorb water and swell.Japan's General Goods Quality Labeling Regulations require labeling that "do not use more than two-thirds (however, one-third for beans) of contents in a pan".[8]..In addition, foodstuffs such as milk that foam to form a film and easily boil over, highly viscous foodstuffs such as curry and stew, and oden that swells greatly in the paste block the passage of steam or obstruct the flow. Since there is a risk of disturbing the operation of the safety valve and abnormally increasing the internal pressure, care must be taken according to the instruction manual.Especially in Japan's general merchandise quality labeling regulations, "baking sodaIt is obligatory to indicate "Do not cook directly" and "Do not use with a large amount of oil"[8].

In addition, Japan's General Goods Quality Labeling Regulations require labeling that "do not give an impact when heated" and "do not forcibly open the lid during or after use".[8].

It is also necessary to perform maintenance such as cleaning the valve that allows steam to escape in advance to maintain normal steam passage.

As mentioned above, since it is a dangerous cooking utensil, household pressure cookers sold in Japan areConsumer Product Safety ActHas been designated as a specific product (a product whose manufacturer or importer guarantees conformity with national technical standards) since October 2000.PSC markOnly products with the mark can be sold in Japan.[9]..Even so, accidents caused by pressure cookers have occurred, and since 2000, a cumulative total of 2009 person has been killed, 1 people have been seriously injured, and 11 people have been slightly injured. The policy was to establish regulations in September 22.[10].

About temperature and cooking

If you just want to heat it at a high temperature, there are other cooking methods if you don't think about cooking with water.For example, frying in cooking oil.For household pressure cookers with the PSC mark sold in Japan, it is obligatory to indicate in the attached instruction manual that the use of a large amount of oil and baking soda is dangerous because it is dangerous. The specifications are not as expected.The oil resistance and heat resistance of the parts are not guaranteed, there is a risk of accelerated deterioration or explosion, and a large amount of oil that the maximum amount of oil when boiling with fried food exceeds the specified amount of the pan The act of using a pan or frying something that bulges so large that it closes the valve can be dangerous.

Since the cooking temperature, which increases the taste, varies depending on the ingredients, it is not suitable for cooking ingredients that are desirable to be cooked at 100 ° C or lower.Also, as mentioned above, the lid cannot be opened during heating, so "LyeWhen cooking ingredients that need to be simmered while taking the food, it is necessary to devise a way to deal with this.

Gauge pressure and absolute pressure

Generally, the atmospheric pressure near the surface of the earth is often expressed as 1 atmospheric pressure and absolute pressure, but the pressure notation of the pressure cooker uses the gauge pressure that is often used in the industrial field and that atmospheric pressure = 0 atmospheric pressure. There are many.If the pressure described in the pressure cooker specifications (notation of pressure adjusting valve) is gauge pressure, it is necessary to read it as, for example, if the notation such as cooking recipe is absolute pressure 1.8 atm, the pressure adjustment setting is 0.8 atm. ..

Application to explosives

Easy high performance from daily necessitiesbombBecause you can maketerroristByInstant explosive deviceMay be used to enhance the killing power of.In America alone2013 OfBoston Marathon Bomb TerrorismOr 2016 yearsNew York explosionIt was also used for explosives.For this reason, security authorities sometimes regard it as dangerous goods, and there are cases where a foreign man who only had a pressure cooker at the airport was detained.[11].

Japan alsoStudent movementOften whenMilitantsMade a pressure cooker bomb.Its power was quite high among the bombs made by extremists.

footnote

  1. ^ Progressive Japanese-English dictionary (Kotobank)
  2. ^ a b Design classification definition card (C5) Patent Office
  3. ^ The rest is the expansion pressure of the air sealed in the pot.
  4. ^ Kazumi Ishii (November 2019, 11). "Why did the" electric pressure cooker "sell this year?". 東洋 経 済 オ ン ラ イ ン (Toyo Keizai Inc.). https://toyokeizai.net/articles/-/313380 2020/4/18Browse. 
  5. ^ a b c "Tokumaru / Pressure Cooker". Hanamaru Market. TBS TV (February 2010, 2). As of February 24, 2010オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2011/11/5Browse.
  6. ^ a b How to use pressure cooker laboratory
  7. ^ More correctly, the pressure will not exceed a certain level.In a pressure cooker with a weight, the pressure repeats up and down in small steps near the maximum pressure (of the pot under the atmospheric pressure).
  8. ^ a b c d "Miscellaneous goods industrial product quality display regulations". Consumer Affairs Agency. 2013/5/23Browse.
  9. ^ Regarding the revision of the safety law technical standards "riding helmet" and "household pressure cooker and pressure cooker", and the accompanying revision of SG standards (PDF)
    "Household pressure cooker and pressure cooker" "Riding helmet" Technical Standards Ministerial Ordinance Amendment Proposal New and Old Comparison Table (PDF)
  10. ^ "Pressure cooker / kettle, new regulation for the first time in 10 years" Lid jumping accidents one after another --Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry "
  11. ^ Saudi male restraint with a pressure cooker at an airport in Detroit, USA AFP (December 2013, 5) Read December 14, 2018

Related item

  • Autoclave --A special one with a larger pressure cooker.Biologically contaminated tools and medical equipment in laboratories and hospitalsSterilizationUsed to do.
  • Pressure cooker bomb
  • Cook iron ――In a program of less than an hour, pressure cookers were often used to make stewed dishes that would take at least several hours with conventional cooking methods.
  • Kentucky Fried Chicken --A custom-made pressure cooker is used for cooking.
  • Pop candy

Bread dough

In this articleDough(British: dough),AlsoBread dough(Bread lottery)Pasta dough(Pasta kiji)Cookie dough(Cookie lottery) and so on[1]I will explain what is called.

LiquidityFor "dough" that is close to liquid,Dough (food)See.

Overview

In fields such as bread making and pasta making, using Englishdough Dough",in Japanese"ClothIs called somethingFlourWas made by mixing a small amount of liquid withViscoelasticityThere is a certain state, that is, one that has both tenacity and elasticity.

The most frequently used dough for bread and pasta in the world is that it is used in large quantities.Wheat flourWith a small amount ofWedHowever, the dough is not limited to flour-based ones.穀物(OrbeansMade from)FlourAnd a small amountWedSome are made by mixing liquids such as.

Cooking and food made from dough

In the famous place, dough is, for example,Seedless bread,Fermented bread,Pizza,pastaKind,noodlesIt is a kind of intermediate material,pancake,crust,Pastry,DumplingIt is an intermediate material for making bread-based foods. From a global perspective, bread iswheatだ け で な く,corn,RiceSome are made from cereals and similar crops such as.

CenterIndiaIn many areas of the country, dough was made into dumplings and quickly roasted and cooked.(English edition)Is made. AfricanSahelIn the countries of the region,Sorghum,MilletYou can eat aiysh and biya boiled dumplings made from dough made from. Spread the dough thinly and bakeRoti,Lavash,(English edition),Mazzer, Lafa,tortillaSuch asFlat breadIs made in many parts of the world

Bread

All over the world,wheatCereal flour with waterEastMixfermentationThe dough is used to make bread.sugar,saltIs also a common ingredient in dough.

Depending on whatChicken eggs,バ タ ー,Olive oilMay be added. As we increase the proportion of such materials,ク ッ キ ーIt becomes closer to sweets.

In addition, fried dough to makeFried breadIs also in many cultures.


Uses other than cooking

The dough that is mainly made of flour is a kind of craft and handicraft.粘土, It is sometimes used.

Play doe

Since it is originally a food, it is safer than ordinary clay even if it is swallowed and swallowed, so parents in Europe and America tend to put things in their mouths.An infantIt's made and used for play. (These doughs are called "play doughs"). In Japan, it is often used in modeling experience classes for infants (for mothers and children).Food coloringThe ones that are colorfully colored with are pleasing to children and are also safe, so they are sometimes used.

etc.

Physically speaking, the grain dough is usuallyNon-Newtonian fluid.

footnote

  1. ^ In Japanese, the translation is not fixed, and there are no limits, such as “bread dough”, “pasta dough”, “cookie dough”, “udon dough”...etc. The English word "dough dough" is stable and stable.

 

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