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Agriculture of each country|
Organic farming(Yuki no Ugyo, Organic farming, Organic agriculture)Agriculture:One of the formsOrganic farming,Organic,Organic farmingAlso called.
natural Science OfTerminologyAsorganicIs generallyOrganic compoundIt comes down to.It flourished in an era when the development of agriculture should be examined.Chemical fertilizerSomewhat different from what was inorganic, classical fertilizers are considered to be typically organic and symbolicallyorganicWas used.したがってThereforeOrganic farmingOmitorganicIf you do, you need to be careful because it doesn't make sense.For example, "food grown in organic farming"Organic foodIt can be said that the abbreviation is inappropriate because most foods are organic.
The "Principles of Organic Farming" by IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Farming Movements) are preventive management, traditional knowledge, social and social.EcologyIt includes a wide range of content such as fairness.According to the federation, the role of organic farming is in ecosystems and in production, processing, distribution and consumption.soilIt is to sustain and strengthen the health of organisms from the smallest organisms to humans.United States Department of Agriculture The standards for organic farming by (USDA) etc.gene recombinationVarietyIs not forbidden.In many countries, except for special cases家畜Dosing to is prohibited.
on the other hand,United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) andwho"Guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and sale of organically produced foods" (commonly known as "WHO")Codex guidelines") Is also commonly used worldwide..JapanGuidelines for Organic Agricultural ProductsJapanese Agricultural Standard) Was created based on the Codex guidelines, Basically the same definition of organic farming[Annotation 2]..However, while the certification of organic agricultural products is based on the application of farmers in Japan, chemical fertilizers are used overseas not only during production but also during harvesting and transportation.PesticideRequires objective proof of non-contamination of genetically modified varieties.
United States of America,ブルガリア,アイス ランド,Norway,ルーマニア,スイス,トルコ,Australia,India,Japan,フィリピン, South Korea,Taiwan,Thailand,アルゼンチン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,チュニジアAndEuropean UnionIn many countries / regions, such as the (EU), organic farming is also defined by law, so the commercial use of the word "organic" in agriculture and food manufacturing is controlled by the government.If there is a law, the certification of being organic is charged.It would be illegal for an unlicensed farm to call itself or its products organic. カナダAlthough the law is not in place, any certification is possible.
1990 The "Organic Food Production Law" was enacted in Japan, and organic agricultural products are pesticides, which are synthetic chemical substances.Chemical fertilizerIt refers to agricultural products produced without using any of these substances, and it is stipulated that they are not agricultural products produced on farmland that uses prohibited substances, including synthetic chemical substances, in the past three years..
"Act on Promotion of Organic Agriculture" (HeiseiIn Article 18 of Law No. 112 of XNUMX), organic farming is defined as: "No use of chemically synthesized fertilizers and pesticides andgene recombinationAgriculture carried out using agricultural production methods that reduce the environmental load derived from agricultural production as much as possible, based on the absence of technology. ".
Ministry of Agriculture"Japanese Agricultural Standards for Organic Agricultural Products" Then, the agricultural products produced by organic farming (organic agricultural products) are defined as follows.
- Organic produce
- Organic produce: Cultivated in fields that do not use pesticides and fertilizers for more than 3 years[Annotation 2].
- Organic agricultural products during the transition period: those cultivated for 6 months or more.
- Specially cultivated agricultural products
- Pesticide-free agricultural products: Cultivated without using pesticides.
- Cultivated agricultural products without chemical fertilizer: Cultivated without using chemical fertilizer
- Agricultural products with reduced pesticides: Those cultivated using less than 5% of the number of times they are used in the area.
- Reduced chemical fertilizer Agricultural products: Cultivated without using the same chemical fertilizer.
According to the organic JAS standard, organic agricultural products are "synthesized with chemical fertilizers, pesticides, etc. through the process from production to consumption.Chemical substanceAnd biopharmaceuticals,Radioactive material,gene recombinationseedAnd use local resources as much as possible without using any products, etc.NATUREIt was produced by a method that respects the original productivity of the company. "
From the 20th century to the present day, in agriculture, chemical synthetic substrates for agriculture such as chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides (Chemical industryOrganisms (crops,) produced inpest,weed, Substrates for the purpose of effects on diseased microorganisms, etc., which are produced by the chemical industry) are used.This is one of the backgrounds of organic farming.
The United KingdomBotanistBut from 1905 to 1931 in India in the OrientView of natureStudying agriculture based on, called the indole methodcompostAnnounce how to make. "Agricultural scriptures" There are works such as.
In 1972, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) was established.
August 1989, 1,Prince of Wales CharlesDeclares to practice organic farming in his territory and also practices organic farming in his own vegetable garden.. In 1992, Prince of Wales founded the organic agricultural brand "Dutchie Original".
キ ュ ー バThen, it revolves around subsistence agriculture in urban areas.
In Japan in the 1930sMasanobu FukuokaAnd religionistsMokichi OkadaBut leave most of the farming work to natureNatural farmingStarted.Also,MacrobioticIs the founder ofGeorge OhsawaRaised a problem with farming methods using pesticides and chemical fertilizers.
In 1961Basic agricultural lawWas enacted, and the use of chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides was greatly promoted.This is to significantly increase the yield per unit area of farmland.However, the use of chemically synthesized substrates has been regarded as a problem for the reasons described later, which has become a background for organic farming that does not use chemically synthesized substrates.
The word "organic farming" came from 1971Agricultural cooperativeInvented by the officer (1906-1994)..Already at this time, Japan's agricultural policy was on the path of increasing food production on the premise of using chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, and the foundation of organic farming was lost from rural Japan...Ichiraku questioned the modernization of agriculture promoted by economic rationalism, and modern agriculture is not only about the toxicity of pesticides and fertilizers, but also the idea of destroying the livelihoods of farmers is human society. And thought that the survival of the natural ecosystem could be jeopardized.Independent producers and consumers are inextricably linked through the ideal form of agriculture that transcends economic boundaries, "healthy and tasty food produced from soils supported by abundant soil and diverse ecosystems. Aiming at "the development of local society and culture and the realization of a stable, lasting and happy life", we named the agriculture that is the basis of such a major change in society as "organic agriculture". ..At the same time, the "Japan Organic Agriculture Study Group" was established in 1971 as the parent body of such social movements, and positioned the study group as the core of dialogue between farmers, consumers, researchers and the government on the same table.Since then, the term organic farming has gradually spread to Japan, but with the majority of people supporting pesticides and chemical fertilizers, the initial attempts by Ichiraku and others were extremely difficult.Farmers who aspire to organic farming are treated as eccentrics and weirdos.VillageOften excluded from the community of.
The efforts of pioneering organic farmers and consumers were gradually recognized in the 1980s as the environmental destruction caused by economic priorities became more prominent..1987 The official recognition of organic rice (specially cultivated rice) was established in 1991, and the guidelines for organic cultivation were established.
Research on organic farming and pesticide-reducing agriculture began in earnest in the 1990s..So far, research on organic farming has been conducted on the effects of organic materials application, that is, comparison with the application of inorganic fertilizers, and the effects of inorganic fertilizers, rather than the effects of organic farming (including the use of no pesticides). Prevention of soil erosion caused by application, Improvement of soil physical properties Etc. were the center.Around this time, LISA (Low lnput Sustainable Agriculture) was proposed in the United States...日本でも、1992年にIn Japan, in XNUMXMinistry of AgricultureAdvocated sustainable "environmental conservation agriculture" in harmony with the ecosystem in "New Food, Agriculture and Rural Policy Direction (New Policy)".
2000 year 1 month,Japanese Agricultural Standard(JAS standard) has established the "organic JAS" standard that complies with the Codex Alimentarius Committee.Certified foods are non-GMO and basically avoid chemically synthesized pesticides and fertilizers. In December 2002,Agricultural Chemicals Control LawA specific pesticide designation system was established in.Specified pesticides are defined as those with clear safety, and are commonly called "specific control materials".しかし、定義が安全性の明らかなものとされているのに農薬という呼称をつけるのはどうかとの批判があるHowever, there are criticisms about the name pesticide even though the definition is clear...とはいえ、有機JASにおいては、緊急の際にHowever, in organic JAS, in case of emergencySpecific pesticideOr, pesticides derived from permitted naturally occurring substances may be used.In addition, due to the revision on August 2009, 21 (Heisei 8),Genetically modified cropsDerived fromcompostThe use of is permitted for the time being.
May 2006,Law on Promotion of Organic Farming" Was enacted and enforced.In response to this, in April 2007, the "Basic Policy on Promotion of Organic Agriculture" was published.As a result, organic farming, which was only seen as a subject of regulation under the Japanese legal system, will be promoted by law.
The Japanese government runs organic farming in the "Green Food System Strategy" compiled in May 2021.FarmlandHas set a goal of expanding to 2050% of the total by 25. As of April 2020, organic JAS fields account for only 4% of total cultivated land.It has been pointed out that the issues are that the reliability of conventional cultivation using pesticides is high and that consumers understand that the appearance is likely to be uneven..
Organic farmers maintain soil productivity and arable land,plantへNutritionAs much as possible to supply the amount and control weeds, pests, diseases, etc.Crop rotationOr use crop residues and animal fertilizers.The use of fertilizers and pesticides can also be reduced by selecting plants and plant species that are resistant to the land and climatic environment.
On the other hand, when the yield per unit area of organic farming is low as described later, more farmland is required to obtain the same yield as the conventional farming method.The farmland itself is artificial, and there is also a viewpoint that it is more beneficial for ecosystem protection and environmental conservation to reduce the amount of farmland with high yield by conventional farming methods.In this way, there are various evaluations of organic farming only from the viewpoint of ecosystem protection and environmental conservation.
In addition, organic fertilizers that are not sufficiently maturedParasiteCauses contamination and pathogenic microbial contamination.Therefore, it is necessary to use fully aged compost.Therefore, in the past, vegetables cultivated using only chemical fertilizers without using organic fertilizers were sometimes referred to as "" and respected.また、堆肥の熟成が不十分な場合、や高いC/NによるAlso, if the compost is not matured enough, it will be due to a slightly higher C / N.Nitrogen starvationMay occur.
The approach of organic farming shares common goals and practices, but the methods vary.For example, use or strictly limit synthetic fertilizers, soilerosionAnd oligotrophic protection, protection from physical collapse, conservation of biodiversity (cultivating multiple varieties instead of one),家畜Breeding species outdoors (Flat breeder), Etc. are included.Within these frameworks, each individual farmer develops his or her own organic production system.The ideal way of such individual organic farmingclimateIt is regulated by market conditions and local agricultural standards.
In a broad sense, organic farming includes pesticide-free or low-pesticide farming.農薬による薬害やPesticide damage andPollutionGradually became clear, even in the 70'sDDTHighly toxic pesticides such as these have been regulated.Some of these pesticides are not easily biodegradable, and there is concern about their accumulation in the environment and the human body.また本来の生態系を破壊することで、新たなAlso, by destroying the original ecosystem, a new onepestOccurrence ofNatural enemyIt was also clarified that this causes a harmful effect of loss of pest deterrence.From this reflectionOrganic fertilizerThere are also farmers who practice pesticide-free or low-pesticide farming.
On the other hand, as a result of using pesticide-free and low-pesticide farming methods, it is reported that natural chemical substances produced by plants themselves are far more toxic than residual pesticides in order to resist pests if pest control is insufficient. But suddenlyMutagenicityDetection methodAmes testPublished by Dr. Ames and others, who are famous for their development.
Organic farming has a statistically lower yield per unit area than conventional farming.Revenue until the middle of the Meiji era when the current advanced cultivation method is introduced (1Anti=300Tsubo=10 aAround)NaraRitual system100 of the times kgIt does not stretch much from the body and is at most 200 kg (1)stone3Fight)degree.This seems to be the yield of pure traditional organic farming.
Most organic fertilizers mature industrial waste such as agricultural waste, livestock waste, and forest waste.fermentationIt is also meaningful in terms of waste reduction and material circulation.Crops that have undergone manual improvement for the purpose of improving texture and yield from the original species have properties different from those of the original species.Among the different properties, changes in the required components and amounts of fertilizer are also included.
Since organic fertilizer acts as a slow-release fertilizer with respect to nitrogen, it is not suitable for cultivation methods that control fertilizer effect in a short time compared to fast-acting nitrogen fertilizer, and proficiency is required for cultivation. To.Furthermore, from the viewpoint of nitrogen fertilizer, the decomposition rate of organic fertilizer by microorganisms differs depending on the temperature and water content, which is difficult to control.
What to aim for
- Producing safe and good quality food
- Protect the environment
- Coexistence with nature
- Local self-sufficiency and circulation
- Maintenance culture of soil fertility
- Guarantee of a healthy breeding environment
- Guarantee of human rights and fair labor
- Producer-consumer alliance
- Spread the value of agriculture and build a society that respects life
Substances approved for use in organic JAS standards
Organic JAS standards allow the use of naturally occurring substances such as:.
In addition to organic fertilizers, various inorganic fertilizers are found.They are,Plant ash,Calcium carbonate(SoilContains calcium carbonate. ),Kari Chloride,Sulfuric acid potassium, Sulfuric acid potassium magnesium, naturalPhosphorusore,Sulfuric acid magnesium,Hydroxide magnesium,Gypsum,sulfur,quicklime(Including bittersweet lime.),Slaked lime, Trace elements (manganese,Boron,鉄,copper,zinc,molybdenumas well as the chlorine), Crushed rock,basesexSlag,SlagSilicic acidQuality fertilizer,Yonari fertilizer,Sodium chloride,Aluminum phosphatecalcium,Calcium chlorideIt is a misunderstanding that only organic fertilizers are used in organic farming.
The pesticides that can be used are subject to usage conditions,pyrethrumemulsionas well as the Pyrethrinemulsion,Rapeseed oilemulsion,Machine oilAerosol, Machine oil emulsion,soylecithin・ Machine oil milkStarchWettable powder,fatty acidGreasedemulsion,MetaldehydeGranules,sulfurSmokeAgents, sulfur powders, sulfur / copper wettable powders, sulfurized sulfur agents, sulfur / soybean lecithin wettable powders, lime sulfur,Shiitake mushroomMyceliumExtract liquid agent,sodium hydrogen carbonateWater solvent andbaking soda,sodium hydrogen carbonate-copperWettable powder, copper wettable powder, copper powder, copper sulfate, quicklime, natural enemy, etc.Biopesticide,Sex pheromonesAgent,chlorellaExtract liquid, mixCrude drugExtract liquid agent,ワ ッ ク スWettable powder,Spreading agent,carbon dioxideAgent,Diatomaceous earthPowder,VinegarThere are two types.
In addition, according to the organic JAS standard, it is originally used for seedlings, control materials, fertilizers, etc.Recombinant DNAThose using technology cannot be used.しかし、附則（平成18年10月27日農林水産省告示第1463号）により、特例として遺伝子組換え作物に由来する有機質肥料であるHowever, according to the Supplementary Provisions (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Notification No. XNUMX, October XNUMX, XNUMX), it is an organic fertilizer derived from genetically modified crops as a special case.compostWas allowed to be used for organic farming ("GM crops # GM crops and organic farming"reference).
Quality of organic produce
The table below shows the results of studies on the quality of crops that compared organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation and organic material input with conventional farming methods.
|Agricultural Products||Cultivation method||Quality change|
|Rice||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||StarchStickiness, Mg / K ratio, and taste improved.|
|Chemical-free fertilizer and pesticide-free cultivation||Yield decreased by about 10%.|
|Input of organic materials||Taste,Amylosecontent,Mg/KThere was no difference in the ratio.|
|Reduced chemical fertilizer and reduced pesticide cultivation||There was no difference in taste and yield.|
|carrot||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in the aroma component pattern.|
|CarotenoidThere was no difference in content.|
|Weak vibrationElectromagnetic waveThere was no difference in the evaluation by.|
|With sulfur in the leavessodiumWas expensive.yield,Vitamin CとVitamin E, Α and β-carotene, N (nitrogen), P (phosphorus), K (potassium), Na (sodium), Ca (calcium), Mg (magnesium), S (sulfur), Fe (iron), B (Boron), Mn (manganese), Zn (zinc), Cu (copper) did not make a difference.|
|Sensory testThere was a difference.Vitamin C,Reducing sugar,amino acidThere was no difference in content and combination.|
|Input of organic materials||Improved carotene content and shelf life.There was no difference in fine yield.|
|Reduced chemical fertilizer and reduced pesticide cultivation||sugar content, Vitamin C, β-carotene content did not differ.|
|Radish||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was a difference in shelf life and flavor.|
|There was no difference in the aroma component pattern.|
|Can be identified by.|
|There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves.|
|Input of organic materials||SpicyThe ingredients were low..There was no difference in the yield of fine products.|
|Input of organic materials (oil cake)||Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|Organic materials (Burke) Input||Became.|
|Yield and soil sunshineionIncreased exchange capacity.|
|Reduced chemical fertilizer and reduced pesticide cultivation||The content was low.|
|Tomato||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|The evaluation of the conventional farming method was higher in the sensory test..|
|In the sensory test, the evaluation of redness and umami on the surface was higher.糖度とビタミンC含量がより高かったHigher sugar content and vitamin C content.LycopeneThere was no difference between the content and the amino acid content.|
|Input of organic materials||Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|It tasted good and was highly storable..|
|There was a large variation in the survey components depending on the year of cultivation and the position of fruit set..|
|Fruit color, sugar, acidity,Vitamin CThere was no difference.|
|Spinach||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||With leaf colornitric acidThere was a difference in content..Vitamin C,Oxalic acidThere was no difference in shelf life and inorganic component content.|
|There was a difference between the sensory test and the shelf life.|
|Moisture, vitamin C, sugar,nitric acid, Oxalic acid content, and shelf life were not different.|
|Input of organic materials||There was no difference in taste.|
|Reducing sugarHigh content, low nitrate nitrogen content.|
|cabbage||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||Yield, vitamins C and E, α and β-carotene, N, P, K, Na, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, B, Mn, Zn, Cu did not differ.|
|Tumor necrosis factorNo association was found between induction of (TNF-α) production and (liver detoxifying enzyme) activity.|
|Input of organic materials||Increased yield and soil cation concentration.|
|Reducing sugarHigh content, low nitrate nitrogen content.|
|Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|lettuce||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|Input of organic materials||High sugar content and storability.|
|Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|High reducing sugar content and low nitrate nitrogen content.|
|potato||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|Input of organic materials||There was no difference in internal quality (vitamin C / protein / free amino acid content, dry matter ratio).|
|Chinese cabbage||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in the aroma component pattern.|
|Can be identified by.|
|There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves.|
|UVThere was no difference in the fluorescent photographs.|
|Leaf green onion||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||With leaf colornitric acidThere was a difference in content..There was no difference in vitamin C, oxalic acid, shelf life, and inorganic component content.|
|onion||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||FlavonoidThere was no difference in content.|
|There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves|
|sweet potato||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in the aroma component pattern.|
|There was no difference in content.|
|There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves.|
|Identifiable by near infrared spectrum.|
|Maize||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||Yield decreased by 10%, but protein content decreased and amino acid composition did not change.|
|time||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||The active ingredient content varied widely among crops...The dry weight was higher in the conventional farming method.|
|chamomile||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||The active ingredient content varied widely among crops...The dry weight was higher in the conventional farming method.|
|pea||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|pepper||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in N, P, K, Ca, vitamin C content and sensory evaluation.|
|Strawberry||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was a difference in shelf life and flavor.|
|broccoli||Organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation||There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves.|
|eggplant||Input of organic materials||Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|Chingensai||Input of organic materials||High reducing sugar content and low nitrate nitrogen content.|
|Wenzhou oranges||Input of organic materials||High yield and sugar content..However, the quality deteriorated due to pests.There was no difference in acidity, fruit weight, fruit specific gravity, and pericarp color.No improvement effect on soil physical properties was observed.|
|tea||Input of organic materials||There was no difference in sensory evaluation, yield, or total nitrogen content.|
|wheat||Input of organic materials||Low protein content.|
|Improved yield and soil properties.|
|soy||Input of organic materials||Improved yield and soil properties.|
|Net melon||Input of organic materials||Low free amino acid content.|
|cucumber||Input of organic materials (oil cake)||Improved appearance, meat quality and yield.|
|Organic materials (Bark compost) Input||Poor shape.|
- ^ This is not the case for all organic farms and farmers.
- ^ a b Both Japan's "Japanese Agricultural Standards for Organic Agricultural Products" and overseas "Codex Guidelines" state that chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides should not be used for "3 years" as conditions for organic agricultural products. Why 3 years? There is no scientific basis for this.Michinori Nishio: Agriculture and Horticulture,73, 845 (1998).
- ^ Guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and sale of organically produced foods
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- ^ organic Koto bank(EncyclopediaMypediaCommentary)
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- Sustainable agriculture
- Pesticide-free cultivation
- Organic materials
- Organic farmer
- Natural farming - Duck farming