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Most of them are organically grown because the theme is "health that can be changed from food".
 

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Organic farming

Organic farming(Yuki no Ugyo, Organic farming, Organic agriculture) is one of the forms of agriculture.Organic farming,Organic,Organic farmingAlso called.

Definition

科学 OfTerminologyAsorganicIs generallyOrganic compoundIt comes down to.It's a little different from the fact that the chemical fertilizers used in the era when agricultural development should be examined were inorganic.classicFertilizers are considered to be typically organic and symbolicallyorganicWas used.したがってThereforeOrganic farmingOmitorganicIf you domeaningIt is necessary to be careful because it does not communicate.For example, it is inappropriate to abbreviate "food cultivated in organic farming" as "organic food" because most of the food is organic.

Overseas

The "Principles of Organic Farming" by the IFOAM (International Federation of Organic Farming Movements) covers a wide range of topics such as preventive management, traditional knowledge, and social and ecological justice.According to the federation, the role of organic farming is生産-machining-distribution-消费In each case, it is about sustaining and strengthening the health of ecosystems and organisms from the smallest organisms in the soil to humans.The United States of AmericaOrganic farming standards, such as the USDA, do not prohibit genetically modified varieties.多くの国では、特例を除いてIn many countries, with exceptions家畜Dosing to is prohibited.

Also, organic farmingFair tradeAnd support for principles that are based on cultural practices such as environmental stewardship.[Annotation 1].

on the other hand,United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization(FAO) andwho"Guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and sale of organically produced foods" (commonly known as: WHO)Codex guidelines) Is also commonly used worldwide[1]..日本のガイドライン(有機農産物の日本農林規格)はコーデックスガイドラインを基に作成されたためBecause the Japanese guidelines (Japanese Agricultural Standards for organic agricultural products) were created based on the Codex guidelines.[2], Basically the same definition of organic farming[Annotation 2]..ただし、有機農産物の認定は日本では農家の申請によるのに対し、海外では生産時だけでなく収穫時や輸送中も含めて化学肥料・農薬・遺伝子組み換え品種の非混入の客観的な証明を要するHowever, while the certification of organic agricultural products is based on the application of farmers in Japan, it is necessary to objectively prove that chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and genetically modified varieties are not mixed in overseas, not only during production but also during harvesting and transportation.[3].

United States of America,ブルガリア,アイス ランド,Norway,ルーマニア,スイス,トルコ,Australia,India,Japan,フィリピン, South Korea,Taiwan,Thailand,アルゼンチン,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,チュニジアAndEUIn many countries / regions, organic farminglawThe commercial use of the word "organic" in agriculture and food manufacturing is controlled by the government, as it is also defined by.If there is a law, the certification of being organic is charged.It would be illegal for an unlicensed farm to call itself or its products organic. カナダAlthough the law is not in place, any certification is possible.

America

1990"Organic Food Production Law" was enacted in Japan, and organic agricultural products are synthetic chemical substances.Pesticide,Chemical fertilizerIt refers to agricultural products produced without using any of these substances, and it is stipulated that they are not agricultural products produced on farmland that uses prohibited substances, including synthetic chemical substances, in the past three years.[4].

Japan

In Article 18 of the "Act on Promotion of Organic Agriculture" (Act No. 112 of XNUMX), organic farming is defined as follows; "Do not use chemically synthesized fertilizers and pesticides andgene recombinationAgriculture carried out using agricultural production methods that reduce the environmental load derived from agricultural production as much as possible, based on the absence of technology. "[5].

Ministry of Agriculture"Japanese Agricultural Standards for Organic Agricultural Products"[6]Then, the agricultural products produced by organic farming (organic agricultural products) are defined as follows.

  • Organic produce
  1. Organic produce: Cultivated in fields that do not use pesticides and fertilizers for more than 3 years[Annotation 2].
  2. Organic agricultural products during the transition period: those cultivated for 6 months or more
  • Specially cultivated agricultural products
  1. Pesticide-free agricultural products: Cultivated without the use of pesticides
  2. Cultivated agricultural products without chemical fertilizer: Cultivated without using chemical fertilizer
  3. Agricultural products with reduced pesticides: Cultivated using less than 5% of the number of times used in the area
  4. Reduced chemical fertilizer agricultural products: those cultivated without using the same chemical fertilizer

The organic JAS standard describes organic agricultural products "through the process from production to consumption.Chemical fertilizer-PesticideEtc.Chemical substanceAnd biopharmaceuticals,Radioactive material,gene recombinationseedAnd without using any products, etc.Region OfresourceMake the most ofNATUREIt was produced by a method that respects the original productivity of the company. "

History

From the 20th century to today, in agriculture in general,Chemical fertilizerAnd chemical synthesisPesticideAgricultural chemical synthetic substrates (produced in the chemical industry, organisms (crops, etc.)pest,weed, A substrate for the purpose of its effect on diseased microorganisms, etc., which is produced by the chemical industry) is used.This is one of the backgrounds of organic farming.

Overseas

The United KingdomBotanist(English edition)But from 1905 to 1931 in India in the OrientView of natureResearch on agriculture based on the indole methodcompostAnnounce how to make. "Agricultural scriptures"[7]There are works such as.

GermanyThen, at the same time as Howard, the mysterious thinkerRudolf Steiner Biodynamic agricultureWas giving a lecture[8].

1962, American natural scientistRachel CarsonBut,DDTHe complained about the danger of pesticides with strong toxicity and persistence.Silence spring"[9]Is published and evokes a response.

In 1972, the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) was established.

August 1989, 1,Prince of Wales CharlesDeclares to practice organic farming in his territory and also practices organic farming in his own vegetable garden[10].

In 1992, Prince of Wales founded "Dutchie Original", a brand of organic produce.

キ ュ ー バThen, it revolves around subsistence agriculture in urban areas.

Japan

In Japan in the 1930sMasanobu FukuokaAnd religionistsMokichi OkadaBut leave most of the farming work to natureNatural farmingStarted.Also,MacrobioticIs the founder ofGeorge OhsawaRaised a problem with farming methods using pesticides and fertilizers.[11].

In 1961Basic agricultural lawWas enacted, and the use of chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides was greatly promoted.This is to significantly increase the yield per unit area of ​​farmland.However, the use of chemically synthesized substrates has been regarded as a problem for the reasons described later, which has become a background for organic farming that does not use chemically synthesized substrates.

The word "organic farming" came from 1971Agricultural cooperativeInvented by the officer (1906-1994)[12]..この時すでに、日本の農業政策は化学肥料や化学合成農薬の使用を前提とした食糧増産の路線を進み、日本の農村から有機農業の基盤は失われていたBy this time, Japan's agricultural policy had already taken the route of increasing food production on the premise of using chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, and the foundation of organic farming had been lost from rural areas in Japan.[12]..Ichiraku questioned the modernization of agriculture promoted by economic rationalism, and modern agriculture is not only about the toxicity of pesticides and fertilizers, but also the idea of ​​destroying the livelihoods of farmers is human society. And thought that the survival of the natural ecosystem could be jeopardized.EconomyThrough the ideal form of agriculture that transcends the realm of agriculture, "healthy and tasty food produced from soil supported by abundant soil and diverse ecosystems, independent producers and consumers are closely connected. With the aim of "developing local society and culture and realizing a stable, lasting and happy life," we named the form of agriculture that is the basis of such major changes in society as a whole "organic agriculture."At the same time, the "Japan Organic Agriculture Study Group" was established in 1971 as the parent body of such social movements, and the study group was positioned as the core of dialogue between farmers, consumers, researchers and the government on the same table.Since then, the term organic farming has gradually spread to Japan, but with the majority of people supporting pesticides and fertilizers, the initial attempts by Ichiraku and others were extremely difficult.有機農業を志す農業者は奇人・変人扱いされ、集落の共同体から排除されることもしばしばあったFarmers aspiring to organic farming were treated as eccentrics and weirdos and were often excluded from the community of villages.[12].

In the 1980s, the environmental destruction caused by economic priorities became more prominent, and the efforts of pioneering organic farmers and consumers were gradually recognized.[12].1987The official recognition of organic rice (specially cultivated rice) was established in 1991, and the guidelines for organic cultivation were established.

Research on organic farming and pesticide-reducing agriculture began in earnest in the 1990s[3]..有機農業に関する研究は、ここまでの時期には、(農薬の未使用なども含めた)有機農業の効果よりも、有機資材の施用の効果、すなわち無機肥料の施用との比較や、無機肥料の施用により生じた土壌浸食の防止So far, research on organic farming has been conducted on the effects of organic materials application, that is, comparison with the application of inorganic fertilizers, and the effects of inorganic fertilizers, rather than the effects of organic farming (including the use of no pesticides). Prevention of soil erosion caused by application[13], Improvement of soil physical properties[14][15][16][16]Etc. were the center.この頃、米国でLISA(Low lnput Sustainable Agriculture)が提唱されたAround this time, LISA (Low lnput Sustainable Agriculture) was proposed in the United States.[17]..日本でも、1992年にIn Japan, in XNUMXMinistry of AgricultureAdvocated sustainable "environmentally friendly agriculture" in harmony with the ecosystem in "New Food, Agriculture and Rural Policy Direction (New Policy)"[18].

2000 year 1 month,Japanese Agricultural Standard(JAS standard) has established the "organic JAS" standard that complies with the Codex Alimentarius Committee.To be authenticatedGenetic recombinationIt is a food that is not used and basically avoids chemically synthesized pesticides and fertilizers. In December 2002,Agricultural Chemicals Control LawA specific pesticide designation system was established in.Specified pesticides are defined as those with clear safety, and are commonly called "specific control materials".しかし、定義が安全性の明らかなものとされているのに農薬という呼称をつけるのはどうかとの批判があるHowever, there are criticisms about the name pesticide even though the definition is clear.[19]..とはいえ、有機JASにおいては、緊急の際にHowever, in organic JAS, in case of emergencySpecific pesticideOr, pesticides derived from permitted naturally occurring substances may be used.In addition, due to the revision on August 2009, 21 (Heisei 8),Genetically modified cropsDerived fromcompostThe use of is permitted for the time being.

July 2006, ``Law on Promotion of Organic Farming'[20]Was enacted and enforced.In response to this, in April 2007, the "Basic Policy on Promotion of Organic Agriculture" was announced.As a result, organic farming, which was only seen as a subject of regulation under the Japanese legal system, was promoted by law.

有機農産物認定事業者の数は、2002年(平成14年)6月時点で3639戸、平成15年5月時点で4273戸、平成16年3月時点で4453戸、平成17年3月で4664戸、平成18年3月時点で4611戸、平成18年9月時点で5104戸と、増加傾向にあるといえる[21].

Features

Organic farmers maintain soil productivity and arable land,plantへNutritionSupply minutes,weed-pest・ As much as possible to control illnessCrop rotationOr use crop residues and animal fertilizers.The use of fertilizers and pesticides can also be reduced by selecting plants and plant species that are resistant to the land and climatic environment.

On the other hand, when the yield per unit area of ​​organic farming is low as described later, more farmland is required to obtain the same yield as the conventional farming method.The farmland itself is artificial, and there is also a viewpoint that it is more beneficial for ecosystem protection and environmental conservation to reduce the amount of farmland with high yield by conventional farming methods.In this way, there are various evaluations of organic farming only from the viewpoint of ecosystem protection and environmental conservation.

In addition, organic fertilizers that are not sufficiently maturedParasiteCauses contamination and pathogenic microbial contamination.Therefore, it is necessary to use fully aged compost.Therefore, in the past, vegetables cultivated using only chemical fertilizers without using organic fertilizers were sometimes referred to as "" and respected.また、堆肥の熟成が不十分な場合、や高いC/NによるAlso, if the compost is not matured enough, it will be due to a slightly higher C / N.Nitrogen starvationMay occur.

The approach of organic farming shares common goals and practices, but the methods vary.For example, the use or strict restriction of synthetic fertilizers, the protection of soil from erosion, oligotrophic and physical collapse, the conservation of biodiversity (eg, rather than growing one variety, many This includes cultivating varieties) and raising livestock outdoors (flat breeding).Within these frameworks, each individual farmer develops his or her own organic production system.そういった個々の有機農業のあり方はThe ideal way of such individual organic farmingclimateIt is regulated by market conditions and local agricultural standards.

In a broad sense, organic farming includes pesticide-free or low-pesticide farming.農薬による薬害やPesticide damage andPollutionGradually became clear, even in the 70'sDDTHighly toxic pesticides such as these have been regulated.Some of these pesticides are not easily biodegradable, and there is concern about their accumulation in the environment and the human body.また本来の生態系を破壊することで、新たなAlso, by destroying the original ecosystem, a new onepestOccurrence ofNatural enemyIt was also clarified that this causes a harmful effect of loss of pest deterrence.From this reflectionOrganic fertilizerThere are also farmers who practice pesticide-free or low-pesticide farming.

On the other hand, as a result of using pesticide-free and low-pesticide farming methods, it is reported that natural chemical substances produced by plants themselves are far more toxic than residual pesticides in order to resist pests if pest control is insufficient. But suddenlyMutagenicityDetection methodAmes testPublished by Dr. Ames and others, who are famous for their development[22].

Organic farming has a statistically lower yield per unit area than conventional farming.Revenue until the middle of the Meiji era when the current advanced cultivation method is introduced (1Anti=300Tsubo=10 aAround)NaraRitual system100 of the times kgIt does not stretch much from the body and is at most 200 kg (1)stone3Fight)degree.This seems to be the yield of pure traditional organic farming.

Most organic fertilizers mature industrial waste such as agricultural waste, livestock waste, and forest waste.fermentationIt is also meaningful in terms of waste reduction and material circulation.Crops that have undergone manual improvement for the purpose of improving texture and yield from the original species have properties different from those of the original species.Among the different properties, changes in the required components and amounts of fertilizer are also included.

Since organic fertilizer acts as a slow-release fertilizer with respect to nitrogen, it is not suitable for cultivation methods that control fertilizer effect in a short time compared to fast-acting nitrogen fertilizer, and proficiency is required for cultivation. To.Furthermore, from the viewpoint of nitrogen fertilizer, the decomposition rate of organic fertilizer by microorganisms differs depending on the temperature and water content, which is difficult to control.

What to aim for

Specified nonprofit corporationThe Japan Organic Agriculture Study Group lists the following items as "the goals of organic farming".[23].

Substances approved for use in organic JAS standards

Organic JAS standards allow the use of naturally occurring substances such as:[24].

In addition to organic fertilizers, various inorganic fertilizers are found.They are,Plant ash,Calcium carbonate(SoilContains calcium carbonate. )、塩化),chloridepotassium,Sulfuric acidPotassium, Sulfate Potassium, NaturalPhosphorusOre, sulfuric acid, hydroxide,Gypsum,sulfur,quicklime(Including bittersweet lime.),Slaked lime, Trace elements (manganese,Boron,鉄,copper,zinc,molybdenumas well as the chlorine), Crushed rocks, basic slag, mineral fertilizers, fertilizers, sodium chloride, calcium aluminum phosphate, calcium chloride, etc., and only organic fertilizers are used in organic farming. Is a misunderstanding.

Some pesticides have conditions of use, but the pesticides that can be used arepyrethrumemulsionas well as the Pyrethrinemulsion,Rapeseed oilemulsion,Machine oilAerosol, Machine oil emulsion,soylecithin・ Machine oil milkStarch,fatty acidGreasedemulsion,MetaldehydeGranules, sulfurSmokeAgents, sulfur powders, sulfur / copper wettable powders, sulfurized sulfur agents, sulfur / soybean lecithin wettable powders, lime sulfur,Shiitake mushroomMyceliumExtract liquid agent,sodium hydrogen carbonateWater solvent andbaking soda, Sodium hydrogen carbonate / copper wettable powder, copper wettable powder, copper powder, copper sulfate, quicklime, natural enemies, etc.Sex pheromonesAgent,chlorellaExtract liquid, mixed crude drug extract liquid, wax wettable powder,Spreading agent,carbon dioxideAgent,Diatomaceous earthPowder,VinegarThere are two types.

In addition, according to the organic JAS standard, it is originally used for seedlings, control materials, fertilizers, etc.Recombinant DNAThose using technology cannot be used.しかし、附則(平成18年10月27日農林水産省告示第1463号)により、特例として遺伝子組換え作物に由来する有機質肥料であるHowever, according to the Supplementary Provisions (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Notification No. XNUMX, October XNUMX, XNUMX), it is an organic fertilizer derived from genetically modified crops as a special case.compostWas allowed to be used for organic farming (Genetically modified cropsSee section "Genetically modified crops and organic farming").

Quality of organic produce

The table below shows the results of studies on the quality of crops that compared organic material input / pesticide-free cultivation and organic material input with conventional farming methods.

Comparison of quality changes of agricultural products due to organic material input, pesticide-free cultivation and organic material input compared with conventional farming methods
Agricultural ProductsCultivation methodQuality change
RiceOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationStarchStickiness, Mg / K ratio, and taste improved[25]
Chemical-free fertilizer and pesticide-free cultivationYield decreased by about 10%[26]
Input of organic materialsTaste,AmyloseThere was no difference in content and Mg / K ratio[27]
Reduced chemical fertilizer and reduced pesticide cultivationThere was no difference in taste and yield[27][28]
carrotOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThere was no difference in the aroma component pattern[29]
CarotenoidThere was no difference in content[30]
Weak vibrationElectromagnetic waveThere was no difference in the evaluation by[30]
In the leavessulfurとsodiumWas expensive.Yield, vitamins C and E, α and β-carotene, N / P / K / Na / Ca / Mg / S / Fe / B / Mn / Zn / Cu[31]
There was a difference in the sensory test.Vitamin C,Reducing sugar, There was no difference in amino acid content and its combination[32].
Input of organic materialscaroteneImproved content and shelf life.上物収量に差はなかったThere was no difference in fine yield[27][33]
Reduced chemical fertilizer and reduced pesticide cultivationThere was no difference in toudo, vitamin C and β-carotene contents[34]
RadishOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThere was a difference in shelf life and flavor[35]
There was no difference in the aroma component pattern[29]
Can be identified by[29]
Weak vibrationElectromagnetic waveThere was no difference in the evaluation by[30]
Input of organic materialsThe spicy ingredient was low[27][33]..There was no difference in the yield of fine products.
Input of organic materials (oil cake)Improved appearance, meat quality and yield[36][37]
Organic materials (Burke) InputBecame[36][37]
Increased yield and soil cation exchange capacity[38]
Reduced chemical fertilizer and reduced pesticide cultivationThe content was low[30]
TomatoOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThere was no difference in N / P / K / Ca / vitamin C content and sensory evaluation[39]
The evaluation of the conventional farming method was higher in the sensory test.[40]
In the sensory test, the evaluation of redness and umami on the surface was higher.糖度とビタミンC含量がより高かったHigher sugar content and vitamin C content[41].LycopeneContent andamino acidThere was no difference in content.
Input of organic materialsImproved appearance, meat quality and yield[36][37]
It tasted good and was highly storable.[42][43]
There was a large variation in the survey components depending on the year of cultivation and the position of fruit set.[43]
Fruit color, sugar, acidity,Vitamin CThere was no difference[27]
SpinachOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationWith leaf colornitric acidThere was a difference in content[27]..Vitamin C,Oxalic acidThere was no difference in shelf life and inorganic component content.
There was a difference between the sensory test and the shelf life[44]
There was no difference in water, vitamin C, sugar, nitric acid, oxalic acid content, and shelf life.[45]
Input of organic materialsThere was no difference in taste[27]
Reducing sugarHigh content, low nitrate nitrogen content[46]
cabbageOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationYield, vitamins C and E, α and β-carotene, N / P / K / Na / Ca / Mg / S / Fe / B / Mn / Zn / Cu[31]
Tumor necrosis factorNo association was found between induction of (TNF-α) production and (liver detoxifying enzyme) activity[47]
Input of organic materialsIncreased yield and soil cation concentration[38]
Reducing sugarHigh content, low nitrate nitrogen content[46]
Improved appearance, meat quality and yield[36][37]
lettuceOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThere was no difference in N / P / K / Ca / vitamin C content and sensory evaluation[39]
Input of organic materialsHigh sugar content and storability[48]
Improved appearance, meat quality and yield[36][37]
Reducing sugarHigh content, low nitrate nitrogen content[46]
potatoOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThere was no difference in N / P / K / Ca / vitamin C content and sensory evaluation[39]
Input of organic materialsThere was no difference in internal quality (vitamin C / protein / free amino acid content, dry matter ratio)[49]
Chinese cabbageOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThere was no difference in the aroma component pattern[29]
Can be identified by[29]
Weak vibrationElectromagnetic waveThere was no difference in the evaluation by[30]
UVThere was no difference in the fluorescent photographs of
Leaf green onionOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationWith leaf colornitric acidThere was a difference in content[27]..Vitamin C,Oxalic acidThere was no difference in shelf life and inorganic component content.
onionOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationFlavonoidThere was no difference in content[30]
There was no difference in N / P / K / Ca / vitamin C content and sensory evaluation[39]
There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves[30]
sweet potatoOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThere was no difference in the aroma component pattern[29]
There was no difference in content[30]
There was no difference in the evaluation by weak vibration electromagnetic waves[30]
Can be identified by[29]
MaizeOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationYield decreased by 10%, but protein content decreased and amino acid composition did not change[50]
timeOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThe active ingredient content varied widely among crops.[51]..The dry weight was higher in the conventional farming method.
chamomileOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThe active ingredient content varied widely among crops.[51]..The dry weight was higher in the conventional farming method.
peaOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThere was no difference in N / P / K / Ca / vitamin C content and sensory evaluation[39]
pepperOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThere was no difference in N / P / K / Ca / vitamin C content and sensory evaluation[39]
StrawberryOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationThere was a difference in shelf life and flavor[35]
broccoliOrganic material input / pesticide-free cultivationWeak vibrationElectromagnetic waveThere was no difference in the evaluation by[30]
eggplantInput of organic materialsImproved appearance, meat quality and yield[36][37]
ChingensaiInput of organic materialsReducing sugarHigh content, low nitrate nitrogen content[46]
Wenzhou orangesInput of organic materialsHigh yield and sugar content[13][52][53]..However, the quality deteriorated due to pests.There was no difference in acidity, fruit weight, fruit specific gravity, and pericarp color.No improvement effect on soil physical properties was observed.
teaInput of organic materialsThere was no difference in sensory evaluation, yield, or total nitrogen content[54][55][56].
wheatInput of organic materialsproteinThe content was low[57]
Improved yield and soil properties[14][15].
soyInput of organic materialsImproved yield and soil properties[14][15].
Net melonInput of organic materialsLow free amino acid content[27]
cucumberInput of organic materials (oil cake)Improved appearance, meat quality and yield[36][37]
Organic materials (Bark compost) InputPoor shape[36][37]

footnote

注 釈

  1. ^ This is not the case for all organic farms and farmers.
  2. ^ a b Both Japan's "Japanese Agricultural Standards for Organic Agricultural Products" and overseas "Codex Guidelines" state that chemical fertilizers and synthetic pesticides should not be used for "3 years" as conditions for organic agricultural products. Why 3 years? There is no scientific basis for this.Michinori Nishio: Agriculture and Horticulture,73, 845 (1998).

Source

  1. ^ Guidelines for the production, processing, labeling and sale of organically produced foods
  2. ^ About the inspection certification system for organic foods(January 27)
  3. ^ a b Hiroshi Hotta (1999). “Quality Differences between Organic and Conventional Agricultural Products”. Journal of Japan Society for Food Chemistry Engineering 46 (6): 428-435. two:10.3136 / nskkk.46.428. 
  4. ^ Kotobank (Explanation of Encyclopedia My Pedia) --Organic
  5. ^ Law Concerning Promotion of Organic Agriculture (Law No. 18 of 112)
  6. ^ Japanese agricultural and forestry standards for organic agricultural products(As of January 2012, 4Archive) (24)
  7. ^ Albert Howard, Agricultural Scriptures, translated by Shigeru Yasuda, Japan Organic Agriculture Study Group, March 2003.ISBN 978-4-906640-95-9.An agricultural testament 1940
  8. ^ Rudolf Steiner "Agriculture Lecture-Psychological Basics for Enriching Agriculture" Isara Shobo, May 2000.ISBN 978-4-7565-0087-8..Original title:Geisteswissenschaftliche Grundlagen zum Gedeihen der Landwirtschaft 1924 course.
  9. ^ Rachel Carson "Silent Spring" Shinchosha "Shincho Bunko", February 1974.ISBN 978-4-10-207401-5..Original title:Silent Spring 1962
  10. ^ Shimako Tsuno, Awesome Food Additives and Problem Children-British Whole Food Movement, Birdie Publishing, November 1989.ISBN 978-4-7918-0466-5.
  11. ^ George Ohsawa "My Lifeline Blows Up: An Introduction to the" Agricultural Order "" Musou Principles Research Institute, August 1941.
  12. ^ a b c d "Thinkers Related to Japanese Organic Agriculture from the Viewpoint of Organic Farmers" Social Sciences (136), 61-68, 2012-06 Saitama University Economic Society
  13. ^ a b Masakatsu Sakai; Kimio Kawaguchi; Noboru Akinari; Satoshi Mori; Masakazu Ayake (1997). Tokushima Fruit Tree Experiment Station Research Report 25 (9). 
  14. ^ a b c Naohiko Kuroyanagi; Akira Fujita; Koji Odawara; Akira Kaneko; Toshiro Watanabe (1995). “Long-term continuous use of organic matter in upland fields 1st report: Crop yield and soil chemistry”. Fukuoka Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 15: 64-68. http://farc.pref.fukuoka.jp/farc/kenpo/kenpo-15/15-17.htm. 
  15. ^ a b c Naohiko Kuroyanagi; Akira Fujita; Koji Odawara; Akira Kaneko; Toshiro Watanabe (1997). “Long-term continuous use of organic matter in upland fields 2nd report: Crop yield and soil physics”. Fukuoka Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report 16: 63. http://farc.pref.fukuoka.jp/farc/kenpo/kenpo-16/16-15.htm. 
  16. ^ a b Fertilizer Research Department, Zenpuren Agricultural Technology Center (1970). 44 test report: 184. 
  17. ^ VP Grubinger (1992). HortScience 27: 759. 
  18. ^ Environmental Conservation Agricultural Study Group, ed (1997). Toward the development of environment-friendly agricultureEarth company. Pp. 13 
  19. ^ "Definition of pesticides: duck, duck, milk? Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries and farmers, rare controversy" (Mainichi Shimbun, January 2003, 1)
  20. ^ "Law Concerning Promotion of Organic Agriculture (Law No. XNUMX of XNUMX)". e-Gov Law Search.Administrative Management Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2020th of February 1Browse.
  21. ^ Agriculture Promotion Division, Production Bureau, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (2007). Current status and issues of organic farming. http://166.119.78.61/j/council/seisaku/seisan/pdf/04_data05.pdf. [Broken link]
  22. ^ "Nature's Chemicals and Synthetic Chemicals: Comparative Toxicology", BN Ames, M Profet and LS Gold, PNAS, Vol. 87, 7782-7786, (1990), PMID 2217211
  23. ^ "Japan Organic Agriculture Study Group "Basic Standards for Organic Agriculture 2000"”. Japan Organic Agriculture Study Group. 2017th of February 12Browse.
  24. ^ Japanese agricultural and forestry standards for organic agricultural products(As of January 2009, 10Archive) 制定平成12年1月20日農林水産省告示第59号 一部改正平成15年11月18日農林水産省告示第1884号 全部改正平成17年10月27日農林水産省告示第1605号 最終改正平成21年8月27日農林水産省告示第1180号) (農林水産省)
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