Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🍽 | Two-time Grammy Award-winning jazz vocalist Gregory Porter launches cooking show


Photo © Vika Porter

Two-time Grammy Award-winning jazz vocalist Gregory Porter launches cooking show

 
If you write the contents roughly
In the future, new programs will be released at any time every Thursday morning in Japan time.
 

Gregory Porter, a two-time Grammy-winning jazz vocalist, has six cooking shows on Siri ... → Continue reading

 Universal Music Japan

We will deliver the latest information on artists, releases and events of various genres from Universal Music!


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Every thursday morning

Japan Standard Time

UTC/JST
Nuvola apps clock.pngWednesday, September 8, 4:05 (UTC)
Wednesday, September 8, 4:14 (JST)

Japan Standard Time(Japanese,English: Japan Standard Time,略 語 : JST) IsNational Research and Development AgencyNational Institute of Information and Communications Technology OfAtomic clockGenerated and supplied byCoordinated Universal Time(UTC) 9Time(135 degrees east longitude(Time difference of minutes) advancedTimes of Day(Ie+9 UTC),JapanInStandard timeIs what[1][2][3].. UTC determined by this mechanism is called "UTC (NICT)"[4],International Bureau of Weights and Measures±10 difference from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)NanosecondAdjusted and managed within the target[5].. In generalJapan timeAlso called. The standard time reported by the National Institute of Information and Communications is all over Japan.Japan Broadcasting Corporation(NHK) etc.Broadcaster,NTT(117)Time signalUsed in[6][7].

on the other hand,Central Standard Time(Chuou Hyunjun,English: Japan Central Standard Time, Abbreviations:JCST[8][9][10]) IsInter-university research institution corporationNatural Science Research OrganizationNational ObservatoryIs decided,reality OfsignalAt the time indicated as[11],Mizusawa VLBI ObservatoryA cesium atomic clock is running in the Astronomical Time Room[12].. In addition, "Astronomical Observatory compilation"Science chronology”, Central Standard Time = Coordinated Universal Time + 9h Is trying[13].

For example, to show the difference between Japan Standard Time (JST) and Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), use "12:31:40 (UTC+0900)" (1231Minute40secondIn the case of) etc.

Standard Time and Central Standard Time

JapanLaws regarding "standard time" are not well organized, and the names "standard time" and "central standard time" appear in the law, but the name "Japan standard time" does not appear.[14].

According to Japanese law, the definition of standard time is "135 degrees east longitude OfMeridianWith the time ofStandard timeDefined as[15], That standard timeCentral Standard TimeCall[16]There is no specific provision other than that.

However,Standard radio waveRegarding the launch of and notification of standard time,Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications(Information and Communications International Strategy BureauTechnology Policy Division) is in charge of the affairs[17][18](This office work isMinistry of Telecommunications[19]From oldRadio Control Committee[20], OldMinistry of Post[21]Has been taken over by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications). further,Postal minister(Minister of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsMinistry of Posts and Telecommunications issued bynoticeBy[22][23], Standard time reported by standard radio waveCoordinated Universal Time9TimeAdvancedTimes of DayIt is assumed[3](This provision is1971Notification of Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications (46) (1972(47)May 1Enforcement)[24]From). In addition,Independent administrative agencyNational Institute of Information and Communications TechnologyEmits standard radio waves and reports standard time based on laws and regulations[25].

Also, regarding the determination and presentation of Central Standard Time,Inter-university research institution corporationNatural Science Research OrganizationNational ObservatoryFor the purpose[26]Installed as part of[27](This installation purpose is1955Old revised in (30)Tokyo UniversityPurpose of Tokyo Observatory[28]Inherited from[29]). Therefore, Central Standard Time can be said to be the time that National Astronomical Observatory determines and presents as Central Standard Time based on the law.

Regarding the relationship between the standard time reported by the National Institute of Information and Communications and the Central Standard Time determined and announced by the National Astronomical Observatory, both institutionsInternational atomic timeContribute to the creation ofAtomic clockDrive[30][31][5],ThemclockCoordinated Universal Time (UTC) +9TimeEach standard time[2], Central Standard Time[13][9]But howUncertaintyIs small (Accuracy and precisionEven if the clock is excellent), the times are not the same because they are not the same clock. In this regard, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, which supervises the National Institute of Information and Communications, and the National ObservatoryMinistry of educationIs jointnoticeThe standard time reported by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology is based on the Central Standard Time determined by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.deviationIs calculated and announced by the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology.[32].

Regarding past relationships and their background,#History of reporting at standard time See.

Daylight saving time

2018Currently 1 in JST based on the lawTimeAddedTime zoneAdoptDaylight saving time(Summer time) is not implemented. However, in the past,1948から1951,May(1949From April 4st Saturday to September 1nd Saturday,Daylight saving timeDaylight saving time was enforced based on. In addition,2004 - 2006From July to August (ends in 2006)HokkaidoSapporoThe so-called "tried inHokkaido summer time"Is an attempt to advance the start and end times by 1 hour without changing the standard time, and is not daylight saving time in the usual sense.

Standard time with the same definition as JST

belowStandard timeIs the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), which is the same as Japan Standard Time (JST).TimeIt is the advanced standard time. However, strictly speaking, the standardAtomic clockThe difference is so small that you cannot feel itUncertainty(error).

Standard time with the same definition as JST, which is already obsolete

History

The first law to be enacted regarding Japan Standard Time isPrincipal meridian longitude calculation method and standard time(The Royal Decree No. 19 of 51,1886(19th year of Meiji)May 7Promulgation). thisEdictThen,Greenwich ObservatoryMeridianPass through the center ofMeridian(Greenwich meridian)Prime meridian(Longitude 0 degree), 180 degrees each in east and west, and east as positive and west as negative,135 degrees east longitude(GMT + 9: 00)ofTimes of DayIs defined as Japan Standard Time (“Japan Standard Time”). This part about Japan Standard Time1888(21th year of Meiji)May 1Applied from[15].

after that,Standard time(The Royal Decree No. 28 of 167,1895(28th year of Meiji)May 12Promulgation,1896(Effective on January 29st (Meiji 1)) was established, and in Article 1 the standard time designation of 1 degrees east longitude was "Central Standard TimeIn Article 2120 degrees east longitude(GMT + 8: 00) TimeWestern Standard Time, Respectively. The latter isYaeyama Islands-Miyako IslandsTaiwan under Japanese rule-Penghu IslandsApplied to. The time difference between Central Standard Time and Western Standard Time was 1 hour[36].

This "Two Japan Times" lasted for about 41 years,Amendments to the Royal Standard Decree No. XNUMX of XNUMX(The Royal Decree No. 12 of 529,1937(12)May 9The promulgated decree of promulgation, which took effect on October 10st of the same year) deleted the article of Article 1 (Article on Western Standard Time) of the previous Meiji 28 Royal Decree No. 167, and Japan became one standard time again. .. Note that since this revision did not revise Article 2 (Article concerning Central Standard Time), the name "Central Standard Time" was maintained.[37].. The reason why Western Standard Time was abolished in the middle of the year (September) was in Taiwan, the Penghu Islands, and Yaeyama, the Miyako Islands.Politics,Economy,TransportationIt is said that it is necessary to rely on the central standard time in consideration of various other points.[38].1954Around (Showa 29), it seems that the central standard time was removed and the time-related legislative revisions were being considered since the Meiji era, but they never saw the light of day.[39].

These twoEdictIs stillCabinet OrderAs effective as[40][41][42](Ministry of education“Central Standard Time” is the official name under Japanese Standard Time[43].. Under the current law, in addition to the above decree, the Radio Law Enforcement Regulations[44], Radio station operating rules[45]And National University Corporation Law Enforcement Regulations[46]Used in.

By the way, at the time when this revision was made, apart from the mainland standard time,1920Treaty of Versailles-Paris AgreementIn JapanMandateBecame,Southern Ocean IslandsStandard time is1919May 2The eastern part of the Nanyo archipelago was found to be +2 hours of central standard time in Japan, the central standard time of the central part of the Nanyo Islands was +1 hour in Japan, and the western part of the Nanyo archipelago was the same as Japan's central time.1937It is reorganized into two parts: Western Standard Time for Nanyang Islands and Eastern Standard Time for Nanyang Islands.1945Due to the defeat ofControlAbolished by abandonment of[39].

South Ryukyu Islands Time

FreeBSDAnd someUnix systemoperating system In (OS)1999If you select "Japan" as the time zone during installation until the beginning of the installation, you will have two choices, "Most Locations" and "South Ryukyu Islands". If you select "South Ryukyu Islands", the time zone will be Western Standard Time (+8 UTC) Was set.

This is used by these operating systems as the source of time zone settings.tzdataWas accidentally included in the Western Standard Time data. The origin of this is "The International Atlas (3rd edition)" (Thomas G. Shanks,1991), "Western Standard Time is stillIshigakiIt was caused by the incorrect description that it was used in areas including ".

This is the magazine "UNIX USER"(Softbank) As a result,1999Has removed Western Standard Time from tzdata and in later versions the option "South Ryukyu Islands" is gone[47].2006May 4Was released on theApril FoolFor FreeBSD 2.2.9-RELEASE versionバ グIt was left on purpose.

History of standard time reports

Standard time report, wired/wirelessHorologyThe history of about follows the course of the following chronology.

Beginning of standard time reporting

The beginning of radio news

  • 1911(Meiji 44) November
  • 1912(TaishoFirst year) January
    • JJC's radio newsletter started as official business[59].
  • 1919(Taisho 8)
  • 1921(Taisho 10)May 11
    • Tokyo Observatory official system (Taisho 10th, Royal Decree No. 450) was established,astronomyMatters concerninginvestigationShitenzou observation, calendar edition, OfMeasurement,HorologyAndclockIt was stipulated that the affairs regarding the certification of[61].
  • 1922(Taisho 11)
    • It has been decided that the first international longitude survey will be conducted, and the academic news will beFunabashiBroadcast from the station. This is the beginning of the JJC newsletter in academic format[59].
  • 1924(Taisho 13) April
    • Geodesic Committee (currently Ministry of education Science and Technology Council, Geodesic Subcommittee) on the premises of Tokyo ObservatoryMitakaParticipate in international collaborative research project on reception and time of international radio time by establishing international time place[62].. International newsletterLong waveMade by[63].. At that time, ±0.01secondFor up toaccuracyWas good if[64].
  • 1925(Taisho 14)
    • 6
      • JJC newsletter is now officially broadcast in academic format[59].. There are two formats at the time of the scheduled report: a school ceremony and a Japanese style for the masses.[65].
    • Within the current year
      • International Astronomical Union(IAU) andInternational Geodetic and Geophysical UnionSponsored by (IUGG), the International Timekeeping Bureau (BIH, now IERS) became the central station for the 1st Universal Longitude Observation. It is shown that the high accuracy (±0.001 second range), which was not expected at that time, can be achieved by using the radio report. Based on the international observation network established at this time, the time of each region is integrated as an international cooperation project (confirmedUniversal time[66].
  • 1933(Showa8 years)
  • 1948(23)
    • Mitaka International News Office merged with Tokyo Observatory[69].
    • 1948Around (23), a pendulum clock made by Reefler was used in the clock room of the Tokyo Observatory.[67]Was installed facing south and east. smallEarthquakeBut it's crazy, so let me draw a chronographChronometerAdjustments were made if there was a change in rates compared to. There is a time signal room directly above this clock room, and the time signal was issued from two Leroy-type transmission clocks. In addition, the time at that time was 2 times, 11:9 am and 4:3 pm, and XNUMX:XNUMX pm, JJCOutgoing codebywirelessIn addition to the news, the wired news was held at noon. At the time of the report, from the latest observation value of the Reefler clockerrorFor the value up to the time of the reportExtrapolationThen, it was done according to the outgoing clock. Also,rainy seasonWhen observations cannot be made consecutively due to time etc., the foreign newsletter was used as a reference. At that time, lack of supplies and equipment due to wardeteriorationDue to the influence of, the accuracy of the radio time signal was deteriorated, and it was good if the JJC correction value did not exceed 0.1 seconds in the report of the International Time Bureau (BIH, present IERS).[70].

Standard time notification by standard radio wave

From pendulum clock to quartz clock

  • 1951(26)
    • May 1
      • In 26, the Ministry of Education and Radio Control Committee Notification No. 1 revised the standard time signal time formatCarrier waveCutting method (1 kHzmodulationWhile the second signal is 0.02 s,MinuteThe signal was changed to 0.2 s). Also, the time signal is transmitted from the Tokyo Observatory.signalInstead of KoganeiQuartz watchWas changed to a signal from[78][71].
    • May 6
      • Measurement Law(Effective date:1952(27)May 3) Was enacted,Time OfUnit of measureSeconds asAverage sun day Of1/86400And it was said that the Tokyo Observatory would show at the time decided as seconds.[79][80].. Therefore, the second as the unit of time and the second as the unit of measurement of time were determined by the time measurement by the same astronomical observation.[81].
      • As a result, the clock used for reporting standard time is based on the time measured and reported by Tokyo Observatory and the time determined and displayed as seconds.calibrationWill be done.
  • 1952(27)
    • May 8
      • Revision of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Establishment Law (May 7), the Radio Control CommitteeMinistry of PostIntegrated into the Ministry of Posts and TelecommunicationsRadio Research Laboratory (RRL) has started. The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications has the authority to set the frequency standard value, emit the standard radio wave, and report the standard time.[21].. The department in charge will be the second division standard section[71].
    • Within the current year
      • The standard clock at the Tokyo Observatory is the Reefler pendulum clock.[67]A quartz watch will be newly installed in place of. The Reefler watch had a staggering accuracy of 1 seconds a day,Pendulum clock TheEarthquakeIt is said that it will be moved to a more accurate quartz clock because it will be affected by[77].. In addition, the stability of the quartz watch is short-term.Rotation of the earthBetter than that, but there are still temperature changes and jumps in the frequency, so it is still the rotation of the Earth that excels in long-term stability that forms the basis of clock comparison.[82].
  • 1953(28)
    • Quartz clock begins full-scale operation at Tokyo Observatory. Various high precision timepiece comparison devices that replace conventional tape chronographs have been researched and put into practical use.[82].
  • 1954(29) April
    • At the Tokyo Observatory, the time by the photo zenith tube (PZT) andlatitudeObservation of[83].
  • 1955(30)
    • Since the revision of the time system and the transfer of timekeeping services were transferred to the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, the National School Establishment Act was revised by Law No. 30 of 44. And "Certification of Clocks" has been changed to "Claims of Central Standard Time and Clarification of Clocks and Clocks"[51][28].

Deviation of time, time, frequency (reciprocal of time)

  • 1955
  • 1956(31)
    • May 1
      • Tokyo Observatory begins the distinction between UT9, UT0, and UT1, which was adopted at the 2th IAU General Assembly[76].. UT2 will be officially used as a representative world time[84].. As a result, the basis of Central Standard Time will be transferred from UT0 to UT2 in terms of content (that is, Central Standard Time = UT2+9 hours). Are[85].
      • According to the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications notification,calibrationChanged from UT0 determined by Tokyo Observatory to UT2[71].
    • May 12
      • 31 Ministry of Education / Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification No. 1 (Standard radio waveThe frequency of standard radio waves and the correction value of the standard time to be reported are based on the central standard time determined by the Tokyo Observatory of the University of Tokyo. It was decided that the standard time will be decided and announced at the Tokyo Observatory, University of Tokyo.[86].
    • Within the current year
  • 1957(32)
    • JJC time report to stop academic time report and switch to English style[59].
    • The instruments for the third international longitude observation (3-1957) will be replaced by the meridian pendulum and pendulum clocks up to the previous time, and the zenith tube (PZT) and quartz clock will be the main products.[83].
  • 1958(33)
    • Measurement LawWith the revision of, the calendar seconds are adopted as seconds as the unit of measurement of time, 1958 (Showa 33)May 10Was enforced on[88][89]. But,Everyday lifeUT2 was still used as the basis for the time used in, so seconds (averageSun timeSecond) and the second as a unit of measurement of time (seconds in the calendar) start a complex system[90].. Used in everyday lifeTime of dayApart from that,Celestial mechanicsTheoryEphemerisBased on the calendar secondCalendar timeIs being used[91], The second as a unit of time measurement (calendar second) was supposed to be displayed by the Tokyo Observatory.[92].
  • 1960(35)May 3
    • JJC time report was abolished,Science Council of JapanRadio Newspaper Research Liaison Committee also dissolved[93].. As a result, the standard radio wave is used during radio reporting.JJYIt will be unified at the time of reporting.

Frequency and time based on atomic standards

  • 1960(35)
  • 1961May 9
    • Regarding standard radio waves, according to the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications notificationUT2The frequency value based onammoniaMaser(3-2 wire doublebeam) Standard (Atomic frequency standard) Is determined as the primary standard,AccuracyIs 5×10 in frequency−9, At time 0.05secondWithin However, the frequency offset and the step adjustment of 2 second will be performed to keep it as close as possible to UT0.1.UTCmethod. However, UTC has not yet been adopted). The offset value at this time is −150×10−10.. In addition, the international synchronization of the time signal (1 msWithin)[71].
  • 1962(37)May 4
    • Showa 37 YearMinistry of Education/ According to the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification No. 1, "The frequency of standard radio waves emitted in accordance with the provisions of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Installation Act is determined by the atomic frequency standard of the Radio Research Laboratory of the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications, and the standard time of notification is determined by the Tokyo Observatory. Central Standard TimedeviationAnd publish it at the Radio Research Laboratory, Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications."[71][95][32].
    • At this time, Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) has not been adopted, so the central standard time determined by the Tokyo Observatory isUniversal Time (UT2) +9Time.
  • 1964(39)
    • May 6
      • According to the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications notification, standard radio wavesCCIRCompletely revised to the recommendation method. The accuracy of standard time reported by standard radio waves is 0.1 with respect to central standard time. sBe within[71].
    • 9
      • The 12th International Astronomical Union (IAU) General Assembly resolved to adopt the Old Coordinated Universal Time, which was adjusted to approximate Universal Time (UT2) within ±0.1 seconds.[96].
  • 1967(42)
  • 1969(44)
    • At the Radio Research Laboratory, the practical cesium standard group will contribute to the maintenance of standard time as a protagonist instead of the crystal standard device.[71].

Introduction of leap second

  • 1970(45)
  • 1971(46)
    • May 11
      • According to the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications notification,JJYStandard time to report by 1 msDelayTimes of DaySpecial adjustment implementation[71].
    • Within the current year
      • International Radiocommunication Advisory Committee (CCIR) Intermediate meeting decided on the current Coordinated Universal Time including detailed measures.[97].
  • 1972(47)
    • May 1
      • The Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications notification is enforced, standard radio frequency offset is abolished, 0.107620secondSpecial time adjustment to delay and timeUTC (RRL) (Radio Research Laboratory (Coordinated universal time generated by (RRL)) and changed to the new UTC system, frequency accuracy is 1 x 10−10Becomes Also,DUT1Superposition of signals,UT11 second step adjustment to get closer to (Leap secondAdjustment)[71][24].
      • By using the value of the DUT1 signal (UT1-UTC predicted value) superimposed on the standard time signal, UT0.1+1 with an accuracy of 9 seconds from JST of the standard time signal.h=JST+DUT1 is obtained[98].
    • May 5
      • Measurement LawHas been revised to seconds as a unit of measurement of time.Atomic clockThe current definition by[99].. As a result, the second as the unit of time in Coordinated Universal Time and the second as the unit of measurement of time came to match. However, there is no longer any provision to set the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory as the institution that displays seconds as a unit of time measurement, and it is not clear which institution will display it, so the national standard for measuring units of time and frequency will not work.[89].
    • 5
    • May 7
      • First leap second adjustment[71].
  • 1981(56)

Time, time and frequency tied to international standards

  • 1983(58) April
    • At Tokyo ObservatoryGPS satelliteWith the start of the regular operation of the time comparison method using theaccuracyWith clockComparisonBecame possible. by this,Loran CWe are comparing clocks with Tokyo ObservatoryAsiaAtomic clocks in various countries have become as accurate as Western countries since the latter half of 1983.International atomic timeCan contribute to the decision of. Until now,Far EastLoran C radio waves in the region are too far to be received accurately by European and American institutions, so it is not possible to perform accurate clock comparisons with Western atomic clocks and atomic clocks in Asian countries. 0.05 in Europe and America MicrosecondHowever, between Asia and Europe, the atomic clock at the Tokyo Observatory is the international timekeeping station (BIH, present) in Paris.IERS) Form the international atomic timeaverage OfpopulationCouldn't participate in[100].
  • 1984(59)
    • 1
      • Central Standard TimeCoordinated Universal Time 9 in (UTC)Time(Admittedly speaking, the central standard time indicated by Tokyo Observatory in accordance with the law is 9 hours to Coordinated Universal Time (differentiated as UTC(TAO)) created at Tokyo Observatory. Added). Behind this is the fact that the atomic clock at the Tokyo Observatory can contribute to the determination of international atomic time by the time comparison method using GPS satellites that started in the previous year.[100].
    • 2
      • Radio Research LaboratoryBut,Global Positioning System (GPS) satellitesThe L1 band (1575.42 MHz), developed a time comparison receiver using C/A code and started receiving. As a result, Japan's atomic clock, which had been independent of the Western countries until now, will be combined and contribute to the international atomic time determination for the first time. These data will be sent to the International Bureau of Time (BIH, now IERS). Also,cesiumbeamoncefrequencySends the accuracy evaluation value of the standard device Cs1 (RRL) irregularly 1-2 times a year to start the calibration contribution at international atomic time[71].
  • 1988(63)
    • May 1
      • The International Bureau of Time (BIH) was reorganized into the International Earth Rotation Observation Program (IERS, the current International Earth Rotation and Reference System Project), and the tasks related to atomic clocks and frequencies such as International Atomic Time, Coordinated Universal Time, etc. Transferred to the station[60].
      • Earth rotationIs a highly accurate distance measurement using a radio wave and a laser from a photo zenith tube (PZT) far from the accuracy of an atomic clock (VLBI, Moon/satellite laser, etc.)[101].
    • May 4
    • May 7
      • Attached to the University of Tokyo due to revision of the Enforcement Order of the National School Establishment ActResearch facilityThe Tokyo Observatory (TAO)[28], Of inter-university research institutesNational Observatory Reorganized to (NAOJ)[103].
  • 1992(Heisei4 years)May 5
    • NewlyMeasurement LawHas been completely revised, and there is no provision for national institutions to display seconds as a unit of time measurement.[104][105].. The state where no indication of the unit of measurement of time is specified continues.[106].
  • 2003(15)May 4
    • For the frequency expressed as the reciprocal of time (seconds) instead of the representation of seconds as a unit of measurement of time by national institutions,Minister of Economy, Trade and IndustryIs a specific standard[107]As a result, the frequency standard (atomic clock) whose accuracy is evaluated by comparison with the international standard (International Atomic Time/Coordinated Universal Time) will be specified. Communication standard laboratory (CRL)National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyThe frequency standard of the National Institute of Metrology (NMIJ) was designated.[108].. As a result, with the national standard (specific standard device) of time and frequency measurement unitsTraceabilityWill be able to establish[106].

Standard time distribution via the Internet

Higher precision and redundancy in Japan Standard Time, installation of distributed stations

  • 2006(18)
    • May 2
      • National Institute of Information and Communications Technology updated Japan Standard Time System,accuracyImproved 5 times[71].
  • 2018(30)
    • May 3
      • Developed a strontium optical lattice clock that achieves an error of less than 12 billionth of a second (1 nanoseconds) with the world's most accurate time and one digit higher accuracy than the current JJY[115].
    • May 6
      • Established Kobe Sub-Station as a distributed station for the purpose of redundancy of Japan Standard Time supply system[116].. Also, the atomic clocks for the standard radio stations at Otakadake, Yama transmitter and Haganeyama transmitter are also used as distributed stations. Shifted to a system that supplies Japan Standard Time by data synthesis and cross-reference via satellite[116].
    • The end of March
    • 12 month 2 Date ~ 12 month 12 Date
      • Paris ObservatoryTogether with this, we performed UTC rate evaluation using a strontium optical lattice clock. Adopted for calibration value determination performed by BIPM[117].

Creating Japan Standard Time

18 units of Koganei station operated by NICTcesiumAtomic clockAnd fourhydrogenMaserBy averaging and synthesizing the time of the atomic clock once a dayCoordinated Universal Time(UTC) is generated and advanced for 9 hours to become Japan Standard Time (JST). This Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) isInternational Bureau of Weights and MeasuresThe difference from the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) determined by (BIPM) will not be more than ±50 nanoseconds. Japan Standard Time (JST) determined in this way isJJY) AndNTPserver,telephone lineIs supplied through (reference:National Observatory,National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and TechnologyMetrology Institute).2006May 2Therefore, by using the hydrogen maser atomic clock in addition to the cesium atomic clock, the time synchronization accuracy with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) has been improved from within ±50 nanoseconds to within ±10 nanoseconds. Furthermore, the cesium atomic clock and the hydrogen maser atomic clock are divided into three systems for mutual comparison and data synthesis, which contributes to improvement of reliability and redundancy of the Japanese standard time (JJY).

さ ら に,2018(30) From June 6th, for the purpose of redundancy of Japan Standard TimeKobe CityNishi-wardThe Kobe sub-station was set up as a decentralized station within the Future ICT Research Institute.In addition, the atomic clocks at Otakadayayama Transmitting Station and Haganeyama Transmitting Station have also been used as distributed stations, and have shifted to a system that synthesizes data from three distributed stations mediated by artificial satellites and supplies Japan Standard Time (JST) as a backup.The Kobe sub-station is equipped with basic functions necessary for Japan Standard Time generation, such as five cesium atomic clocks (CS), two hydrogen maser clocks, and a high-precision satellite time comparison system with the transmission station. In parallel with the Koganei headquarters, standard time Generates always synthetic atomic time (Kobe time system) according to[116].

In addition to providing the Japanese standard time in the same way as Koganei Headquarters, in preparation for the case where the head office supply service goes down, it also has a backup of the NTP server and optical telephone JJY system, and a frequency adjustment function for the standard radio transmission station. .. In the future, Koganei and Kobe stations will be able to further improve accuracy by performing mutual comparison and data synthesis, and the Kobe Sub-Station will be able to establish a system that can supply the Japanese Standard Time.[116].

Japan Standard Time Supply and Standard Time

To provide Japan Standard Time (JST) widely in Japan and overseas,National Institute of Information and Communications Technology TheStandard radio waveIs outgoing. Being transmitted by this wavefrequencyStandard and standard timesignalIs a national standardcesiumbeamType atomic frequency standardhydrogenMaserType, practical cesium beam typeAtomic clockHigher than with groupsaccuracyIs kept at. In addition, standard radio wave transmissionionosphereLess susceptible toLong waveUsing a 24 hour frequencyComparisonaverage1 x 10 in value−11 It is announced that the accuracy of can be obtained.

1999May 6"Otakado and Mt."(FukushimaTamuraToji Otakatori Valley) Was opened. However, in Kyushu Okinawa area, it was not possible to cover all over Japan due to the phenomenon that it was difficult to receive, etc.2001May 10ToSagaSaga CityFuji TownHaganeyama"Haganeyama standard radio wave transmitting station", and now it is possible to receive standard radio waves over a wide area in Japan.

The information on Japan Standard Time created by Koganei Bureau and Kobe Sub-Station is used for remote monitoring of atomic clocks at Otakado, Yama transmitter station, and Haganeyama transmitter station, and time comparison to maintain the accuracy of Japan Standard Time supply.

So-calledRadio clockReceives this standard radio wave and automaticallyTimes of DayMatchclock.

NTP

National Institute of Information and Communications Technology TheインターネットviaTime synchronizationTo enableNTPserverHas been providing the time information service by. NTP serverア ド レ スIs ntp.nict.jp[118].. Normally, considering the processing capacity of the NTP server,Atomic clockIt is said that general users should not directly use the NTP server directly connected tosecondIt has a processing capacity of over 100 million requests, and although it is directly connected to Japan Standard Time, it is acceptable for general users to directly use it.[119].

Conversion between UTC and JST

Shown below+9 UTCIt can be converted by replacing the value of with JST.

+9 UTC01234567891011121314151617181920212223
UTC

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

IANA Time Zone Database

IANA OfTime Zone DatabaseContains one Japanese standard time[120][121].

Country codeCoordinateTime zoneID注 釈Coordinated Universal TimeDifference fromDaylight saving timeRemarks
JP+ 353916 + 1394441Asia / Tokyo+ 09: 00+ 09: 00

Movement to change Japan Standard Time

2013(25)May 5,Naoki InoseGovernor of Tokyo(At that time) proposes to advance Japan Standard Time by 2 hours (=UTC+11)Industrial competitiveness conferenceIssued at.Tokyo OfFinancial marketBy accelerating the start ofTokyo marketThe aim is to increase the presence of the.政府Is considering this proposal[122].. However, since then, there has been no specific discussion about this proposal.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

Source

  1. ^ Kuniyasu Imamura “Introductory Interview-The world's highest level of "Japan Standard Time" is transmitted with a new sense of value of the ICT society, which has an extremely high precision of "time" with an error of 100 second in 1 million years.(Html) "NICT NEWS" October 2009 issue No.10,National Institute of Information and Communications Technology,TokyoKoganei-shi, November 2009, p. 10, ISSN 2187-4042 ,2013/12/29Browse.§ 3
  2. ^ a b National Institute of Information and Communications Technology 2005a, p. 2, §2.
  3. ^ a b 11 Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification No. 382 1999, Five.
  4. ^ National Institute of Information and Communications Technology 2005a, p. 2, §3.
  5. ^ a b National Institute of Information and Communications Technology 2005a, p. 3, §1.
  6. ^ Haruo Saito "Japan Standard Time and Time Business(Html) "NICT NEWS" October 2004 issue No.11,National Institute of Information and Communications Technology,TokyoKoganei-shi, November 2004, p. 11, ISSN 2187-4042 ,2013/12/29Browse.§ 3
  7. ^ National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (2005). "Standard time / frequency standard Q & A Other Q & A --Q Questions about standard time (html) ”(Japanese). Standard time / frequency standard Q & ANational Institute of Information and Communications Technology. 2013/12/29Browse.A. ¶ 7
  8. ^ Masato Katayama, Hiroshi Matsuda, Toshio Fukushima,Junichi Watanabe"Revision of the calendar chronology (PDF) "National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Vol. 11, Nos. 3 and 4,"National Observatory,TokyoMitaka City, November 2008, p. 10, ISSN 0915-6321 , NOT 40016412876, NCID AN1017529X,2013/12/29Browse.§ 2.2
  9. ^ a b National Observatory 2013b.
  10. ^ NAOJ (October 2013, 12). “Glossary-Ephemeris-Time System (html) ”(English). Ephemeris Computation Office, NAOJ. NAOJ. 2013/12/29Browse. “JCST, Japan Central Standard Time JCST is the official Time System in Japan. JCST = UTC + 9 hours.”
  11. ^ National Observatory 2013a, ¶ 1.
  12. ^ National Observatory (October 2012, 7). “Astronomical Hours (html) ”(Japanese). National Observatory Mizusawa VLBI Observatory.National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. 2013/12/29Browse. "Cesium atomic clock (4 units installed)"
  13. ^ a b National Observatory 1999, p. Calendar 1 (3).
  14. ^ National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (June 2008). “Q & A for Standard Time / Frequency Standard Other Q & A --Q Is there a law that stipulates "Japan Standard Time"? (html) ”(Japanese). Standard time / frequency standard Q & ANational Institute of Information and Communications Technology. 2013/12/29Browse.
  15. ^ a b c Royal Decree No. 19, 51, 1886.
  16. ^ "Standard time(Meiji 28 Royal Decree No. 167)", December 1895, 12, Article 28.  e-Gov Law Search.
  17. ^ "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Establishment Law(11 Law No. 91)”, July 1999, 7, Article 16 No. 4.  e-Gov Law Search.
  18. ^ "Organization Ordinance of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (Cabinet Order No. 12 of 246)", June 2000, 6. Article 10, No. 5, Article 69, No. 2. e-Gov Law Search.
  19. ^ a b 23 Law No. 245 1948, Article 5, item 27, Article 35, item 3.
  20. ^ a b 25 Law No. 133 (promulgated) 1950, Article 4, item 21, Article 25, item 3.
  21. ^ a b 27 Law No. 279 1952, Article 4 No. 22-9, Article 17-2 No. 2
  22. ^ a b 25 Law No. 131 1950, Article 61.
  23. ^ a b 25, Radio Control Committee Rule No. 17, 1950, Article 140.
  24. ^ a b 46 Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Notification No. 981 1971.
  25. ^ 11 Law No. 162 1999, Article 14, item 3.
  26. ^ a b 15 Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ordinance No. 57 2003, Article 1, Appendix Table 1 National Institute of Natural Sciences, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.
  27. ^ a b 15 Law No. 112 2003, Article 5, item 2, Appendix Table 2.
  28. ^ a b c 30 Law No. 44 1955, Table of Article 4, Paragraph 1 of the University of Tokyo, Tokyo Observatory.
  29. ^ "National School Establishment Act Enforcement Ordinance (Government Ordinance No. 59, 230) (html) ”(Japanese). Legal data provision system-List of abolished laws. Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (February 1984, 6). As of February 28, 2017オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2013/12/29Browse.Table of Article 6
  30. ^ National Observatory 2013a, ¶ 3.
  31. ^ National Institute of Information and Communications Technology 2005a, p. 2, §1.
  32. ^ a b 37 / Ministry of Education / Ministry of Posts / Notification No. 1 1962.
  33. ^ “Unify North Korea Standard Time with South Korea “Pyongyang Time” through reconciliation measures, restored in less than 3 years”. Sankei Shimbun(July 2018, 5). https://www.sankei.com/world/news/180505/wor1805050002-n1.html 2018/5/5Browse. 
  34. ^ "Daylight Savings Time-Australia”. Wwp.greenwichmeantime.in. 2014/1/4Browse.
  35. ^ Introduction of summer time system-Embassy of Japan in Mongolia, Viewed May 2015, 11.
  36. ^ The Royal Decree No. 28 of Meiji 167 (when promulgated) 1895.
  37. ^ "Amendments to the Royal Standard Decree No. XNUMX of XNUMX(The Royal Decree No. 12 of 529)”, September 1937, 9.NDLJP:2959706. 
  38. ^ Yukio Niimi 1997, pp. 475–476, §3.
  39. ^ a b Yukio Niimi 1997, p. 476, §3.
  40. ^ Morikawa Y. 2003, p. 26, §3.1.
  41. ^ "Law Concerning the Effectiveness of the Provisions of Orders that are Effective when the Constitution of Japan is Enforced(Law No. 22 of 72)”, April 1947, 4.s: Act on the Effectiveness of the Provisions of Orders that are Effective when the Constitution of Japan is enforced.  e-Gov Law Search.
  42. ^ "Cabinet Order on the Effectiveness of the Royal Decree, which is Effective when the Constitution of Japan is Enforced(Government Ordinance No. 22 of 14)", April 1947, 4.  e-Gov Law Search.
  43. ^ Yukio Niimi 1997, p. 475, §3.
  44. ^ "Radio Law Enforcement Regulations Extract (25 Radio Control Committee Rule No. 14) ”, November 1950, 11, Article 30, Paragraph 40.  e-Gov Law Search.
  45. ^ 25, Radio Control Committee Rule No. 17, 1950, Article 3.
  46. ^ 15 Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology Ordinance No. 57 2003, Appendix Table of National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Natural Sciences Research Institute.
  47. ^ February, May 1999 UNIX USER Magazine "Route Visit" Past Articles
  48. ^ a b Morikawa Y. 2003, p. 26, §3.2.
  49. ^ Royal Decree No. 19, 51, 1886, Article 3.
  50. ^ a b Official Journal Meiji No. 1343 No. 1887.
  51. ^ a b c d e Yukio Niimi 1997, p. 474.
  52. ^ "Notification No. 21 of the Ministry of Education, Meiji 2", edited by the Cabinet OfficeOfficial gazette] Meiji No. 1477, Japanese microphotograph,Tokyo, March 1888, 6, p. 4, NDLJP:2944714.
  53. ^ Masao Nakagiri "Materials for commemorating the 100th anniversary of Tokyo Observatory-Part 1- (PDF) "Archive Room Newspaper" No. 346,National Observatory,TokyoMitaka City, March 2010, 6, p. 9,2014/1/2Browse.
  54. ^ a b Yukio Niimi 1997, p. 473.
  55. ^ Shojiro Kawai 1919, pp. 137-138, §2.
  56. ^ Shojiro Kawai 1919, p. 139, §3.
  57. ^ "Celebration Observation and Preparation of Calendar (Meiji 21 Royal Decree No. 81)", December 1888, 12.NDLJP:787973,NDLJP:2944873. 
  58. ^ The Royal Decree No. 28 of Meiji 167 (when promulgated) 1895, Article 1, Article 3.
  59. ^ a b c d e Shozo Matsushiro 1959, p. 26.
  60. ^ a b Yukio Niimi 1997, p. 478, §6.
  61. ^ "Tokyo Observatory Government System (Imperial Ordinance No. 10 of 450)", November 1921, 11, Article 24.NDLJP:2954910. 
  62. ^ Ministry of EducationHen "Chapter XNUMX Academic / Cultural Section XNUMX Overview XNUMX International Exchange of Academic / Cultural" "XNUMX Year History of School System",Tokyo: Imperial Local Government Society (currently Gyosei), July 1981, 9.http://www.mext.go.jp/b_menu/hakusho/html/others/detail/1317724.htm. 
  63. ^ Nakagiri Masao 2009b, p. 1.
  64. ^ Miyaji Seiji"A matter of time (PDF) "Astronomical Monthly Report" Vol. 56, No. 4,Japan Astronomical Society,TokyoMitaka City, November 1963, p. 4, ISSN 0374-2466 , NCID AN00154555,2013/12/29Browse.§ 2
  65. ^ Miyaji Masashi 1950, p. 62, §5.
  66. ^ Miyaji Masashi 1974, pp. 100–101, §2.
  67. ^ a b c National Museum of Science 2006.
  68. ^ Miyaji Masashi 1974, p. 101, §2.
  69. ^ Nakagiri Masao 2009b, p. 3.
  70. ^ Kato Saburo 1977, pp. 202–203.
  71. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x National Institute of Information and Communications Technology 2005c.
  72. ^ Ministry of FinancePrinting officeHen "Ministry of Education / Ministry of Communications Notification No. 23 of 1" "Official gazette] Showa 6464, Japanese microphotograph,Tokyo, March 1948, 8, p. 2, NDLJP:2962998.
  73. ^ Nakagiri Masao 2009a, pp. 3–4.
  74. ^ Miyaji Masashi 1950, pp. 62–63, §5, §6.
  75. ^ "National school establishment law(At the time of promulgation) (Law No. 24, 150)”, May 1949, 5, Article 31.NDLJP:2963253,House of Representatives-Enacted Law. 
  76. ^ a b c d Kato Saburo 1977, p. 203.
  77. ^ a b Nakagiri Masao 2009a, p. 3.
  78. ^ Ministry of FinancePrinting officeHen "Ministry of Education / Radio Control Committee Notification No. 26 of 1" "Official gazette] Showa 7194, Japanese microphotograph,Tokyo, January 1951, 1, 5–5, NDLJP:2963741.
  79. ^ Morikawa Y. 2003, pp. 27–28, §4.2.
  80. ^ "Measurement Law(At the time of promulgation) (Act No. 26 of 207)”, June 1951, 6, Article 7, item 3.NDLJP:2963871,House of Representatives-Enacted Law. 
  81. ^ Yukio Niimi 1997, pp. 476–477, §4.
  82. ^ a b Shigetaka Iijima 1955, p. 67, §1.
  83. ^ a b Masao Torao 1955, p. 38.
  84. ^ a b Shigetaka Iijima 1971, p. 321, §2.
  85. ^ Shigetaka Iijima 1977, p. 136.
  86. ^ Nakagiri Masao 2011, pp. 3–4.
  87. ^ a b Shigetaka Iijima 1977, p. 133.
  88. ^ Yukio Niimi 1997, p. 477, §4.
  89. ^ a b Morikawa Y. 2003, p. 28, §4.2.
  90. ^ Shigetaka Iijima 1971, p. 322.
  91. ^ National Observatory 1999, p. Heaven 82 (168).
  92. ^ "Law to revise a part of the Measurement Law (Law No. 33 of 61) (html) ”(Japanese). House of Representatives-Enacted Law. House of Representatives (September 1958, 4). 2013/12/29Browse.Article 3 No. 3
  93. ^ Shozo Matsushiro 1959, p. 25.
  94. ^ Shigetaka Iijima 1971, pp. 322–323.
  95. ^ Nakagiri Masao 2011, p. 4.
  96. ^ Shigetaka Iijima 1971, p. 323.
  97. ^ a b Shigetaka Iijima 1971, p. 324, §4.
  98. ^ a b Shinko Aoki & Masakatsu Fujimoto 1981, p. 133.
  99. ^ "Law to revise a part of the Measurement Law (Law No. 47 of 27) (html) ”(Japanese). House of Representatives-Enacted Law. House of Representatives (September 1972, 5). 2013/12/29Browse.Article 3 No. 3
  100. ^ a b Shinko Aoki & Masakatsu Fujimoto 1984, pp. 36–37.
  101. ^ Hiroshi Matsuda 1996, p. 211, §1.
  102. ^ "Cabinet Order to Partially Amend the Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications Organization Ordinance (Cabinet Order No. 63 of 104)", April 1988, 4. 
  103. ^ "Cabinet Order to Partially Amend the Ordinance for Enforcement of the National School Establishment Law (Cabinet Order No. 63 of 101)", April 1988, 4, Article 8, Paragraph 1, Article 1, Table of the University of Tokyo. 
  104. ^ 4 Law No. 51 1992, Article 3.
  105. ^ "Unit of Measure Ordinance(Government Ordinance No. 4 of 367)”, November 1992, 11, Article 18, Schedule 2-Time Section.  e-Gov Law Search.
  106. ^ a b Morikawa Y. 2003, pp. 30–31, §4.4.2.
  107. ^ 4 Law No. 51 1992, Article 134.
  108. ^ National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (2005). "Q & A for standard time / frequency standard Q & A for frequency and time --- National standard for Q time (html) ”(Japanese). Standard time / frequency standard Q & ANational Institute of Information and Communications Technology. 2014/1/5Browse.
  109. ^ Hiroyuki Ohno, Shigeya Suzuki, Toshio Fukushima, Hiroshi Matsuda, Koichi Kubo "Prototype of NTP Server Based on Cesium Atomic Clock" "Proceedings of National Conference" 47th 5, 1st semester,IPSJ,Tokyo, June 1993, 9, pp. 27-195, NOT 110002884402, NCID AN00349328,2014/1/24Browse.Open access
  110. ^ Hiroshi Matsuda 1996, p. 215, §7.
  111. ^ "Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications Establishment Law(At the time of promulgation) (Law No. 11 of 91) (html) ”(Japanese). House of Representatives-Enacted Law. House of Representatives (September 1999, 7). 2013/12/29Browse.
  112. ^ "Incorporated administrative agency Communications Research Laboratory Law (at the time of promulgation) (11 Law No. 162) (html) ”(Japanese). House of Representatives-Enacted Law. House of Representatives (September 1999, 12). 2013/12/29Browse.
  113. ^ 11 Law No. 162 1999.
  114. ^ "National University Corporation Law Enforcement Ordinance (Cabinet Order No. 15 of 478)", December 2003, 12, Article 3, Paragraph 2.  e-Gov Law Search.
  115. ^ "Successful Generation of Highly Accurate Time Standard Using Optical Lattice Clock-In the near future, time will evolve from electrical signals to light-”. National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (March 2019, 3). 2019/6/26Browse.
  116. ^ a b c d "Start of regular operation of Kobe Sub-station at Japan Standard Time”. National Institute of Information and Communications Technology. 2018/8/28Browse.
  117. ^ a b "The world's first optical clock to calibrate the latest one-second time in the latest agreement-International Bureau of Weights and Measures adopts rate evaluation using NICT optical lattice clock-”. National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (March 2019, 2). 2019/6/26Browse.
  118. ^ National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (October 2013, 12). “Japan Standard Time Project Public NTP (html) ”(Japanese). Space-time standard laboratoryNational Institute of Information and Communications Technology. 2013/12/31Browse.§ 2
  119. ^ Akihiko Machizawa "NICT public NTP service(Html) "NICT NEWS" October 2006 issue No.10,National Institute of Information and Communications Technology,TokyoKoganei-shi, November 2006, p. 10, ISSN 2187-4042 ,2013/12/31Browse.Boxed article "Life and technology"
  120. ^ Noda Time | Time zones
  121. ^ en: List of tz database time zones
  122. ^ “Japan standard time “2 hours early” proposed by the Governor of Tokyo to be examined by the government”. Asahi Shimbun(November 2013, 5). オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived as of October 2013, 5.. http://www.asahi.com/business/update/0522/TKY201305220005.html 2019/12/19Browse. 

References

Related item

外部 リンク


 

Back to Top
Close