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🍽 | What is the Romanian food that appears in "Resident Evil Village" actually?I actually tried it [Special feature]


What is the Romanian food that appears in the photo "Resident Evil Village" actually?I actually tried it [Special feature]

What is the actual Romanian food in "Resident Evil Village"?I actually tried it [Special feature]

 
If you write the contents roughly
Like Romania, which is a Christian country, you are hooked on the "Trinity" (God the Father, Jesus, Holy Spirit).
 

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キ リ ス ト 教

キ リ ス ト 教(Kirisu Tokiyo, Christianity,Greek: Christianity,Latin: Religio Christiana,English: Christianity) Isナ ザ レ の イ エ スCaused various奇跡Believe in himThe Old Testament(Tanakh) Is mentioned,キ リ ス トFaith as (Savior)Religious[5][6].Jesus ChristBut,Kingdom of godTo preach the gospel ofcrossBe hung upResurrectionBelieve it was done[6]..Many of them (Catholic church[7]-Anglican[8]-Protestant[9][10][11][12]-Orthodox church[13]-Eastern churches[14]Etc.) is "God the father'[Note 1]When"Christ the child'[Note 2]When"Holy spiritIs the only god (三位一体-Trinity).His trajectory isNew TestamentAre summarized in.

The number of believers in the world exceeds 23 billion, and allReligiousMost in[1].

Overview

ChristianityJesus Christ[Note 3]TheThe Old TestamentA religion that accepts itself as an innocent human being prophesied inキ リ ス ト 教徒It includes all the people who call it[15]..Christianity has various historical backgroundssect,Cult, Organization,creedExists[15][16]..Christianity is a universal religionWorld religion)[17], Not for a particular ethnicity or race, or for a limited status or social class, but for everyone[15][Note 4]..In fact, Christianity has been widely accepted by different peoples of different cultures and ethnicities for centuries in areas where political structures and social conditions and scientific knowledge and philosophical ideas, historical changes in worldviews, and changes have occurred. Has maintained cults and organizations throughout[15]. However,Catholic churchIs nowpope Ofフ ラ ン シ ス コOf the 8th centuryGregory XIIISince then, the organization has been from outside Europe.EurocentrismContinued to be.Also,BibleIs mainly set in the Middle East from the Mediterranean world.

As the Christian era, which is often used in Japan, sets the year when Jesus of Nazareth, who is considered to be the savior, was born as the first year (era).[Note 5], Christianity [[Medieval][Note 6]-Involved in the formation of the foundation of modern civilization that has changed since modern times.

Since Christianity, which was nationalized in the Middle Ages, did not recognize religious freedom, it expanded its territory by fighting paganism and preached Christianity in place of indigenous religion.[Note 7]..The criteria for determining whether or not they are pagan or heretical are that the doctrine of the Trinity has been established, that the faith of Jesus' resurrection has been established, and that through the death of Jesus in Nazareth.AtonementIt stipulates that faith has been established and that the faith that the Lord Jesus is the Christ of the Old Testament has been established.[Note 8]..In addition to such faith in Christ, the entire Bible may be taken absolutely as the word of God written inspired by God.[Note 9].

There is also a Gospel that says that the word of God by the Holy Spirit will be concretely manifested to the Christian himself during dialogue with pagans.[20][Note 10].GospelAt the time of its creation, the Holy Spirit is considered to be the spirit of salvation that was believed to be given by God at the end of the world.[21]Holy Spirit PhenomenonAfter the establishment of the Jesus movement, which is deeply related toApocalyptic thoughtExisted as its important background[Note 11].

Christianity is the "Old Testament"[Note 12]Is a scripture, so by YahwehCreationStarting from, original sin and its salvation are at the heart of the doctrine. The name "Old Testament" corresponds to the "New Testament" in Christianity and is a Jewish scripture.[Note 13]Is used by changing the name of to the meaning of the old promise.[23]

Ancient times

ChristianityJudaismInheriting the prophecies and the law of[4]..After the death of Jesus, the disciples taught Jesus at that timeRoman worldSpread to[24].

Establishing the resurrection faith of Jesus

  • 50AroundPaul TheFirst letter to the ThessaloniansWrite[27], The true livingAnnounced that Jesus of Nazareth, who should have died, was awakened from among the dead[28]The Thessalonians began a resurrection belief that Jesus was resurrected after his death.
  • 54PaulFirst letter to the CorinthiansWrite[29], God announced that Jesus of Nazareth was resurrected on the third day of the dead[30][Note 14]..Corinthians began the resurrection belief that Jesus was resurrected after his death.
  • 70The unknown authorMarco GospelWrite[32], Announces that something has happened to the female believers after Jesus' death in Nazareth[33]..After the description that he saw the empty tomb, it is said to be a later addition.[34]..South(I.e.Believers will now have the life of JesusgospelYou will be looking at it from a perspective[Note 15].
  • In the 80's, an unknown author wrote the Gospel of Matthew[36]Announced that Jesus of Nazareth was awakened from among the dead[37]..Believers in Western Syria began the belief that Jesus of Nazareth was awakened from the dead.
  • In the 80's, an unknown authorLuke GospelWrite[38]..The resurrection faith of Jesus was established.

Establishing the Atonement Faith through the Death of Jesus in Nazareth

  • Around 50, Paul wrote the first letter to the Thessalonians and was about to come.God's wrathAnnounced that Jesus would deliver[39]..The Thessalonians began the belief that Jesus would deliver them from the wrath of God.
  • Around 54 Paul wrote the first letter to the Corinthians, stating that Jesus was the Son of God and that Jesus died for our sins.[40]..Corinthians began the Atonement Faith that Jesus was the Son of God and Jesus died for our sins.Paul also wrote the first letter to the Corinthians,ア ダ ムSo that everyone dies inキ リ ス トHe also stated that everyone would be made to live.Corinthian believers began the belief that Jesus turned their death from Adam's sin into a resurrection by the Son of God.[41].
  • In the 80's, an unknown author wrote the Gospel of Matthew[42], Jesus is not the son of Joseph,Holy spiritDeclared to be the Son of God[43]..And he announced that he would save his people from all their sins.[44]..Believers in Western Syria began the belief that Jesus was not the Son of Joseph, but the Son of God, who was conceived by the Holy Spirit.And he began the faith to save his people from all their sins.Also, the Matthew Gospel reporter wrote the Lord's Prayer in the Sermon on the Mount.[45]..As a result, believers in Western Syria begin the faith of God the Father, which is different from the god of anger, in their daily prayers as a line of faith.Believers will deepen their personal relationship with the Lord Jesus Christ and deepen their faith in the Atonement through the death of Jesus.
  • In the 80's, an unknown author writes the Gospel of Luke[Note 16]..The Atonement Faith through the death of Jesus was established.

Establishment of faith in the Lord Jesus Christ

  • Around 50 Paul wrote the first letter to the Thessalonians, and Jesus wrote mainly immediatelycomingAnnounced to come[47]..Believers of Thessalonica began the belief that Jesus of Nazareth was the Lord Jesus Christ.
  • Around 54 Paul wrote the first letter to the Corinthians, stating that Jesus was our Lord Christ.[48]..Corinthian believers began the Christ faith that Jesus was our Lord Jesus Christ.
  • In the 80's, an unknown author wrote the Gospel of Matthew[49], Joseph, the father of Jesus of Nazareth,Abraham,DavidJesus of Nazareth, a descendant of Joseph and a son of JosephProphecyDeclared to be the Christ who had been[50][Note 17]..Believers in Western Syria began the belief that Jesus was the son of Joseph and the prophesied Christ.
  • In the 80's, an unknown author writes the Gospel of Luke[52].
  • In the 90's, an unknown author wrote the Acts of the Apostles[53], Expressing that Stefano saw Jesus standing to the right of God, filled with the Holy Spirit, shortly before his death[54]..Believers began the belief that Jesus was standing to the right of God.JudaismThe belief that Christ, who has been handed down to us, is the Lord Jesus was established.

Establishment of doomsday faith

  • Around 50, Paul wrote his first letter to the Thessalonians and wrote his own.EschatologyExpressed[Note 18]..This apocalypse is most likely the word of an early Christian prophet.[56]..The Thessalonians believe in the following predictionsDoomsdayI started to believe.
  • While Paul was alivecomingOccurs.
  • While Paul was alive, the Lord came down from heaven with a signal.
  • Those who died in Christ while Paul was alive are first resurrected.
  • The dead and sleeping people who were resurrected while Paul was alive are raised to heaven.
  • Paul will meet the Lord alive in the air, and after that he will always be with the Lord.[57].
  • Around 54 Paul wrote his first letter to the Corinthians and expressed his apocalypse.[58]..Corinthian believers said that Paul would survive until the Second Coming.ImmortalityBegan the doomsday belief that the end of the world that changes into a body is approaching[Note 19].
  • Around 95-96, the author is unknown, but John's Apocalypse was written.[60], The apocalypse that the rule of Christ began in heaven is expressed[61]..Paul's death is said to be around 60 years, so a new forecast was announced about 30 years after that.[Note 20]..Believers in Asia Minor began the apocalyptic belief that the rule of Christ began in heaven.Christian apocalypse was established.

Christian independence from Judaism

Christianity, which became the state religion in this way, is a religion other than Christianity, and Christianity.heresyBy truncating the denominational theory, in ChristianitymonotheismEstablished the orthodox belief in the world view.

中 世

The early modern period

Modern 

Doctrine

Christian message

The message of Christianity is that Jesus ChristThe Old TestamentIt teaches that it is the salvation prophesied by.New TestamentThen.PaulSays: "When the time was full, God sent his Son from a woman and as born under the law. It is under the rule of the law. To make us children of God ”(Galatians 4,4, 5-XNUMX).Jesus showed in a whole new way what God was, digging deeper into the understanding of the Israelites so far, and Jesus showed God Yahweh as his father.[64].

The central message of Christianity is the teaching of "the kingdom of God" (Mark 1,15).Jesus filled this symbolic expression with rich content. The "Kingdom of God" teaches that God exists in and at the end of human history.The "Kingdom of God" also teaches that God has become one with humans.

Source of teaching (features)

The sources of teaching in Christianity may differ from what is common to all denominations.All denominationsCatholic church-Anglican-Protestant-Orthodox church-Non-calcedone-Anabaptist) Common teachingsBible(The Old Testament-New Testament).However, there are differences between denominations as to whether or not to recognize sources of teaching other than the Bible.

Orthodox church[65][66]・ Non-Chalcedon school[67]・ Catholic church[68]・ Anglican[69][70] TheSeiden(Sometimes it is only called "tradition" rather than "sacred tradition").In the Catholic Church, the Bible and Sacred Tradition are considered to be a common source of teaching, and Sacred Tradition is "to be respected with the same humility and respect (as the Bible)."[71]..Even in the Orthodox Church, it is sometimes referred to as "the Bible and Sacred Tradition."[72]Rather, he said, "Sacred Tradition is the only source, and the Bible is included in Sacred Tradition, and separation and contrast diminish the value of both."[66]It is also considered that[73][74].

In the case of a church that recognizes Sacred Tradition, not everything in the church is considered Sacred Tradition.The Catholic Church distinguishes between sacred traditions derived from the apostles and "traditions" of theology, commandments, liturgy, and devotion.[75]..The traditions (sacred traditions) receive expressions adapted to different places and times from the traditions, collate with the traditions, and maintain, modify, and modify the traditions under the guidance of the church's magisterium. Abandoned[75]..The Orthodox Church distinguishes between "the true" Sacred Tradition "belonging to the eternal kingdom of God in heaven and the human provisional mere tradition of the earth."[76].

On the other hand, some Protestants recognize Sacred Tradition (tradition / folklore) and others do not (“Protestant” is a general term for various denominations, and the truth is various).[Note 21][Note 22]..Represents the latterReformationOne of the principles of "Bible onlyThere is[77][78]..However, even Protestants who do not recognize Sacred Tradition (tradition) in the sense that they are superior to the Bible, line up, or embrace the Bible, the terms "tradition of religious reform" and "tradition of the Reformed Church" are Protestant. May be used in[79][80].

The source of teachingsectAppendix
Western churchEastern Church
Catholic churchAnglicanProtestant[Note 23]Orthodox church
Bible TheSeidenShould be interpreted and understood inValuing the three pillars of the Bible, tradition, and reasonBible only
◆ In addition to the Bible, we also recognize tradition
Mixing of the above two types
The Bible is included in Sacred Tradition, and the Bible occupies the first position in Sacred Tradition[65][Note 24].

Nicene-Constantinopolis Faith

Positioning of the Nicaea Constantinopolis creed

Nicene-Constantinopolis BeliefsIt is,381ToFirst Council of ConstantinopleChristian beliefs stipulated in (a fixed phrase summarizing the teachings)[81])[82].Eastern ChurchWestern churchBoth are the most widely and universally used beliefs.[81][83][84]. "Nicene Creed[81]"Nikeya Shinkei[85]""Nicene Confidence[86]""Creed[84]Also called.On the other hand, it is widely used in the Western Church.Apostles' CreedThe Eastern Church does not deny its content, but does not use it as a creed[84][87].. For this reason,East-West ChurchThis article, which mentions both of these, details the content of the faith, with the Nicaea Constantinopolis belief as the skeleton, but with the content of the Apostles' Creed supplemented where necessary.

It occupies a part of the Western ChurchProtestantThere are differences in the use of beliefs among denominations,Lutheran Church[88]-Reformed Church[89]-Methodist[90]Uses the Nicene-Constantinopolis belief,Baptist ChurchThen there is controversy about the use of beliefs themselves[Note 25][91]..However, there are also views within the Baptist Church that deny the coercion of beliefs but acknowledge the significance of their use.[91].

The full text of the Nicaea Constantinopolis belief

Nicene-Constantinopolis Beliefs OfsectAppendix
Western churchEastern Church
Catholic church
(Japanese CatholicBishopCouncil approval)
Anglican
(Japan Anglican Society From the prayer book)
ProtestantAn example[Note 23](The Christian Church of Japan
Reform Elders Church CouncilTranslated by Church Institute
Orthodox church
(Japanese Orthodox Church HorologionFrom page 145[Note 26]
I[Note 27]I believeThe only God, the Almighty Father, the heavens and the earth, the visible, the invisible, the maker of all things.

I believe.The only Lord Jesus Christ.The Lord is the only Son of God, born of the Father prior to everything, God of God, light of light, true God of true God, born without being created, and one with the Father.Everything was made by the Lord.The Lord has come down from heaven for our humanity and for our salvation, and has been made a man by the Holy Spirit, receiving the body from the Virgin Mary.Under Pontius Pilate, he was crucified, suffered, buried for us, resurrected on the third day as the Bible says, ascended to heaven, and seated on the right hand of his father. ..The Lord will come again in glory to judge the living and the dead.The country never ends.I believe.The Holy Spirit, the Lord and the giver of life.The Holy Spirit came out of the Father and Son, was worshiped with the Father and Son, was glorified, and was spoken through the Prophet.I believe in the holy, universal, apostolic, and only church.We acknowledge the only baptism that brings forgiveness of sins and look forward to the resurrection of the dead and the life of the afterlife.Amen.[92]

We are[Note 27]Believe in the only God, Almighty Father, Heaven and Earth, and the Creator of all visible and invisible.We also believe in the Lord Jesus Christ, the only child born of our father ahead of the rest of the world.The Lord is God from God, Light from Light, True God from True God, uncreated, born, and one with the Father.Everything was made by the Lord.The Lord descended from heaven for us humanity and to save us, received the body from the Virgin Mary by the Holy Spirit, became a man, and was crucified and suffered for us under Pontius Pilate. He was received, died and buried, and as the Bible says, he was resurrected on the third day, ascended to heaven, and sat to his father's right.He will come again in the light to judge the living and the dead.The country never ends.We also believe in the Lord Holy Spirit.The Holy Spirit is the Lord of Life, the Lord who came out of the Father and Son, was worshiped with the Father and Son, and was spoken by the Prophet.We also believe in the only holy public meeting from the apostles.We believe in the only baptism for the forgiveness of sins and look forward to the resurrection of the dead and the life of the afterlife.Amen.[93]

We believe in the only God, the Almighty Father, the heavens and the earth, and the Creators of all visible and invisible.We believe in Jesus Christ, the only Lord, the only begotten Son of God.The Lord was born of the Father, the light of the light, the true God of the true God, born uncreated, and of the same quality as the Father, before all times, and everything was created by him.The Lord descended from heaven for us humans and for our salvation, took the body from the Virgin Mary by the Holy Spirit, became a man, and crucified for us under Pontius Pilate. He was, suffered, buried, and according to the Bible, he was raised on the third day and ascended to heaven.And he will sit to the right of his father and come again in glory to judge the living and the dead.The kingdom never ends.We believe in the Holy Spirit, who is the Lord and gives life.The Holy Spirit came out of the Father and Son, worshiped, worshiped, and spoken through the Prophet with the Father and Son.We believe in the only, holy, common, apostolic church.We believe and confess the only baptism for forgiveness of sins.We look forward to the resurrection of the dead and the life of the coming world.Amen[94]

IITrustShinZ(One) Of(God)(Chichi)-all(All)can(Nou)A person(Sha)-day(Ten)Ground(Chi)-You see(Body)LooselyYou see(Body)EzaruMillion(night)Object(Butts)TheMake(Tsukuri)Rishimain(Untitled).or(また)Trust(Shin)Z(One) Ofmain(Untitled)Jesus Harristos(God) OfBronze(Poison)Living(Fault) OfChild(This)-Million(Yorozu)world() Of(Saki)To(Chichi)ThanLiving(Cormorant)RareLight(Hikari)MoreLight(Hikari)-Xuan(Truth) Of(God)MoreXuan(Truth) Of(God)-Living(Horse)ReshiA person(thing)AtMake(Tsukuri)To beNon(Oh)Zu,(Chichi)(When)Body(Want)ToMillion(night)Object(Butts)(I.e.((I.e.)ToMake(Tsukuri)BeI(I)Et al.人 々(People) Of(For)BecauseAlso I(See you again)Wait(Et al.) Ofsave(Suku)Hino(For)Today(Ten)Thandrop(く だ)Ri,Holy God(Seishin and)AndVirgin woman(How are you)From Marybody(Body)TheTake()RiPeople(People)(I)RiI(I)Wait(Et al.) Of(For)To Pontius PilateTime ten(Tokijifu)Character rack(Jika)Tonail(Nail)Utarebitter(Kurushimi)TheSubject to(Cormorant)(Hmm)BeThird day(Daisan)ToBible(Seisho)To(Wonder)Fute(Clothes)Active(Hoe)Toothday(Ten)To(Nobo)Ri(Chichi) Ofright(みぎ)Tosit(Za)ToothLight(Hoe)(Yes)The(Oh)HashiLiving(There)ToA person(thing)dead(Tooth)SeshiA person(thing)TheReferee(Shinpan)To(For)Toalso(Or)It wasCome(Came)RiThe end of the country(That kuni)Rina Kara.

Matanobu(See you again)ZHoly God(Seishin)-main(Untitled)-Living(Life)TheShi(Hokko)ToA person(thing),(Chichi)ThanOut(There)Father(Chichi and)AndChild(This)Total(Both)To(Follow)Rare(Ho)Mere()Speaker(Gensha)The(Hold)On(And)OnWord(There)Hishi.Matanobu(See you again)Z(One) OfHoly(Fault)Becomepublic(Oyake)BecomeApostle(Shito) Of(Kei)(Kuwai).Self-acknowledgement(With us)Nothing(One) OfBaptism(Offal)Oncrime(Sparrowhawk) Of(Forgiveness)TheObtained(Cormorant)Ru.Selfishness(I'm)Nothingdead(Tooth)A person(Shiya) Of(Clothes)Active(Hoe)and(Line up)ToAfterlife(Raisei) Oflife(Life)To. "Amine".

Greek: Believe[Note 27] εἰς ἕνα Θεόν, Πατέρα, Παντοκράτορα, ποιητὴν οὐρανοῦ καὶ γῆς, ὁρατῶν τε πάντων καὶ ἀοράτων. Καὶ εἰς ἕνα Κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, τὸν Υἱόν τοῦ Θεοῦ τὸν Μονογενῆ, τὸν ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς γεννηθέντα πρὸ πάντων τῶν αἰώνων. Φῶς ἐκ φωτός, Θεὸν ἀληθινὸν ἐκ Θεοῦ ἀληθινοῦ γεννηθέντα, οὐ ποιηθέντα, ὁμοούσιον τῷ Πατρί, δι 'οὗ τὰ πάντα ἐγένετο. Τον δι' ἡμᾶς τοὺς ἀνθρώπους καὶ διὰ τὴν ἡμετέραν σωτηρίαν κατελθόντα ἐκ τῶν οὐρανῶν καὶ σαρκωθέντα ἐκ Πνεύματος Ἁγίου καὶ Μαρίας τῆς Παρθένου καὶ ἐνανθρωπήσαντα. Σταυρωθέντα τε ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν ἐπὶ Ποντίου Πιλάτου καὶ παθόντα καὶ ταφέντα. Καὶ ἀναστάντα τῇ τρίτῃ ἡμέρᾳ κατὰ τὰς Γραφάς. Καὶ ἀνελθόντα εἰς τοὺς Οὐρανοὺς καὶ καθεζόμενον ἐκ δεξιῶν τοῦ Πατρός. Καὶ πάλιν ἐρχόμενον μετὰ δόξης κρῖναι ζῶντας καὶ νεκρούς, οὗ τῆς βασιλείας οὐκ ἔσται τέλος. Καὶ εἰς τὸ Πνεῦμα τὸ Ἅγιον, τὸ Κύριον, τὸ Ζωοποιόν, τὸ ἐκ τοῦ Πατρὸς ἐκπορευόμενον, τὸ σὺν Πατρὶ καὶ Υἱῷ συμπροσκυνούμενον καὶ συνδοξαζόμενον, τὸ λαλῆσαν διά τῶν Προφητῶν. Εἰς Μίαν, Ἁγίαν, Καθολικὴν καὶ Ἀποστολικὴν Ἐκκλησίαν. Ὁμολογῶ ἕν Βάπτισμα εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν. Προσδοκῶἀνάστασιν νεκρῶν.[95]

God of the Trinity

Nicene-Constantinopolis Beliefs(AndApostles' CreedAlso), father, son, holy spirit, in that order,三位一体Is mentioned.

In Christianity, God is one and father, son,Holy Spirit (Holy God)It is said that there are three ranks called[97][98][99][100][Note 28]..From this, in Christianity God三位一体(Orthodox churchThen.Trinity[101]) (Or make this understandingDoctrineIs called the Trinity[99][100]).

Of the "father, son, and holy spirit," the "child" is incarnated (the body), and the true god, the true person (God man)Jesus ChristTo be[102][103].

The esoteric theory of the Trinity is also a premise in the Christian church.For exampleCatholic churchIn, God has revealed and implied that he is the Trinity, but not only can he not know that God himself is the Trinity by reason alone.Son of God OfIncarnationHoly spiritIt is said to be a mystery that could not be known even in the faith of the Israelites before the dispatch of[104].Orthodox churchIn, "three are one, and one is three is beyond understanding", and it is emphasized that the Trinity is also a mystery as an object of "believing" rather than an object of "understanding".[84].

In explaining the esoteric theory of the Trinity, there is a method of approaching the theory of the Trinity (in the so-called Orthodox) in the form of a so-called elimination method that explains "what is not the theory of the Trinity (in the so-called Orthodox)".[97].

  • "'Children' and'Holy Spirit' are not creatures"[97][105].
  • "The" father, "" child, "and" holy spirit "are not the ones in which God has changed the mode in which he represents himself."[97][106][107].
  • It ’s not like “three roles per person”[97][106][107].
  • "Only the'father'is God, and the only thing that dwells in Jesus is the'power' of God."[106][107].
  • "Father," "child," and "Holy Spirit" are not "three gods."[97][108][109][110].

Overview of the denomination

Christianity is divided into many denominations in modern times.Historically, this is due to doctrinal differences.325Was hereticArian[111]Apart from such things, firstOrthodox churchOriental Christianity represented byCatholic churchIt can be roughly divided into Western Christianity represented by[112]..This made Christianity the state religion in ancient timesRoman Empire 395Separated into two empires, east and west[113]It starts from that[112]..In the east451 OfCalquedon CouncilThe church that was regarded as heretical was separated from the church that was regarded as orthodox as a breakthrough.[114]..The separated churchEastern churchesと 呼 ば れ る[114]..In the church that was orthodox at the Council of Chalcedon, regarding its doctrine in the east and westEmission of the Holy Spirit[115]Due to the theological problem, the rift between the eastern and western Christian churches deepened in the Middle Ages.1054Split into[116].. afterwards1204To4st CrusadeIs the center of Eastern ChristianityConstantinopleAttack and occupy and plunder[117]The division became decisive[118]..Since then, the eastern church has become an Orthodox church and the western church has become a Catholic church.[118].

In the west1077 OfHumiliation of canossa[119]The Catholic Church and its chiefs, as symbolized by the incident known aspopeHas come to have more power than the nation and the king not only in religion but also in profane rights[112]..The Catholic Church has since become a problem of corruption and corruption[120]..Criticized the Catholic ChurchHussFrom the Catholic ChurchheresyBeing1415ToFire punishmentWas treated by[121].. In the 16th century1517 OfLuther OfNinety-five articlesStarted withReformationIn the west byProtestantChurch was born[120]..King of England in EnglandHenry V(reign:1509 - 1547) Is their own離婚 問題Separated the English church from the Catholic churchChurch of EnglandAnd[122][123]..Churches of the Anglican family are in Japan, etc.AnglicanCall[124]..After that, the Protestant church was divided and separated, and many various denominations appeared.That is,Lutheran Church,Reformed Church,Congregational church,Methodist church,Baptist Church,AnabaptistAnd so on.

Related item

Number of believers

Whole world

Christianity is the religion with the largest followers in the world. As of 2013, there are about 23 billion followers in the world, about 33 percent of the world's total population, or about one in three in the world, Christians.[1]..Among themCatholic churchThere are about 12 billion followers,Protestant factionsThere are about 5 billion followers,Orthodox churchThere are about 3 million followers[1]..OtherUnitarian,Mormon Church,Jehovah's WitnessesThere are about 4 million Christians, including self-proclaimed believers.[1]..In religions other than Christianity,IslamThe number of believers is about 16 billion, which is about 23% of the world's total population.HinduismThe number of believers is about 10 billion, which is about 14% of the world's total population.BuddhismHas about 5 million followers, about 7 percent of the world's total population[1].

Asia region

  

  • Chugoku: Non-religious seems to be the majority, otherwise historicallyTaoism・ It was estimated that Buddhism was the mainstream and the number of Christians was extremely small.However, the number of Christians has increased rapidly in recent years, and official statistics show that there are about 10 million people, of which about XNUMX million are Protestants, XNUMX million are Catholics, and about XNUMX million are Russian Orthodox Churches. ..In addition, several American institutions estimate that the actual Christian population is between XNUMX and XNUMX million, which is close to XNUMX% of the population.[126].
  • South Korea: The number of Christians surged after World War II.The religious population with faith accounts for 53.1% of the population, of which 42.9% are Buddhist, 34.5% are Protestant, 20.6% are Catholic, and 2.0% are others.[127].
  • Thailand: Official statistics are unknown, but Catholicism is the main denomination, with 388,468 Catholics, accounting for 0.58% of the population.[128]..Regionally, there are many in the north[129].

Christianity in Japan

in JapanFrancisco Xavier Muromachi PeriodToMissionaryIt was the beginning of the Japanese Christ that he came to Japan and began his ministry.Edo PeriodAs a non-Christian Japanese being taken away as a slave to EuropeHideyoshi Toyotomi Veteren exileIs promulgated and thenEdo ShogunateAlsoProhibition-IsolationAfter that, in Japan, public ChristianityReligious FaithIt became impossible to do.However, a person who hid in the shogunate and kept the faith of Christ laterHidden ChristianWill be called.Since the ban on Christianity in the Edo Shogunate, the number of people who believe in Christianity has decreased in Japan, and even after the Meiji Restoration.National ShintoFrequently disfellowshipped from, even after postwar democratizationNichirenNew religious movementsSocialismThere was no increase in response to the rapid expansion of exercise.G7Japan is the only country in the country where Christians are not the majority in terms of population composition.

StatisticallyShintoIs about 1 million people,BuddhismBoasts about 9,200 million followers, while the number of Christian followers is about 260 million, which is a percentage of the population.Meiji RestorationSince then, it has never exceeded 1% (the population ratio of Catholics in Japan is about 0.3%, but in Nagasaki Prefecture it is about 4%).[132]. But,Mission schoolAnd the wedding ceremony of the Christian church that was popular from the mid 90's[133],Christmas(However, the commercialist element is strong), etc. are gaining popularity and becoming established.

After 1970, Korean missionaries came to Japan one after another, saying that "the movement to see Korea as a missionary savior has become conspicuous."Unification Society,providenceIn addition to becoming a social problem, in orthodox churchesSexual harassment trial by Korean missionariesThere have been false accusations such as "I can't do it without the cooperation of South Korea" "Missionaries come in through various routes, so I'll try to find out if I'm a reliable person. Is difficult "(Japan Evangelical Association OfShuichi NakajimaThe situation is (Chairman)[134].

In Japan, detailed statistics have never been made because it is not important in administrative and cultural policies what the beliefs of the people are.Therefore, the exact number of believers of all religions in Japan, including not only Christians but also Shinto and Buddhism, is unknown.In fact, the simple sum of these congregations far exceeds the Japanese population, which is based on self-reported figures by each religious group and is duplicated by one belonging to multiple religions. It is also considered to be one factor.

Bible

Christian scriptures (Bible) Is inherited from JudaismThe Old TestamentAnd a Christian scriptureNew TestamentThere is. The names "Old Testament" and "New Testament" are considered to be the "old covenant" that the former was made between God and human beings, while the latter was the covenant newly made with God by Christ. It depends on what you are doing.

The New Testament contains the following set of documents:

Many believe that these documents were written between the 1st and 2nd centuries and were compiled into their current form in the middle of the 4th century.

Date and author of the Gospels, etc.

Matthew Gospel  It was established in the 80s, the place is West Syria, and the author is an anonymous Christian from a Gentile.[135].

Marco Gospel  It was written in the 70's, the exact location is unknown (the South Syrian theory is persuasive), the author is an anonymous Christian from a Gentile, and it is said that he used the legendary Marco for convenience.[136].

Luke Gospel Written in the 80s, located in cities on the Mediterranean coast (other than Egypt and Palestine), the author is an anonymous Christian from a Gentile, and is conveniently called "Luke" according to legend.[137].

The Gospel According to John It was written in the 90's, and the place seems to have been established in Syria or Ephesus.The author is an unnamed author, allegedly formed by another person who understands him well.[138].

Acts of the Apostles Written in the 90's, somewhere on the Mediterranean coast, the author is an anonymous Christian from a Gentile, and it is the myth of the ancient church that he was "Luke".[139].

Pauline epistles Paul himself wrote the first letter to the Thessalonica (written around 50)[140], The first letter to the Corinthians (written around 54)[141], Second Letter to the Corinthians (Writing date is considered to be a collection of letters from 54 to 55)[142], Letter to the Galatians (Writing date: around 54)[143], Letter to the Philippians (Writing date is around the latter half of 54)[144], Letter to Philemon (Writing date: 54-55)[145], Letter to the Romans (Writing date: 55-56)[146]

Other than these, it is highly likely that it is a forged document using Paul's name.[147].

Catholic epistles The name of the apostle is given, but it is said that each letter was written by a different person whose name and person were unscrupulous.[148].

Apocalypse of john The author is an unknown Palestinian Jew who settled in Asia Minor, and the writing date is said to be around 95 to 96.[149].

Canon, sequel, apocrypha, pseudonym, etc.

Documents recognized as belonging to the BibleBible canonHowever, there are differences between denominations in how much they consider to be canonical. (A detailed canonical list for each denominationBiblical canonSee).

Regarding the New Testament, there is almost no difference in the canonical range between denominations, and the Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox Church, and most Eastern Orthodox Churches use the same 27 books as the canon.[Note 29].

On the other hand, there is a great deal of difference between denominations regarding the Old Testament.Catholics (39 books) contain more documents than Protestants (46 books), and Oriental Orthodox Churches (51 books) and Oriental Churches contain more documents than Catholics.[150]..Protestants have fewer documents than Catholics among the Old Testament documents used by Catholics.Written in HebrewBy recognizing only as canonical.For this reason, the documents contained in the Protestant Old Testament are Jewish canons.TanakhSame as the document contained in[Note 30].

Documents not included in the Bible canon in each denominationDeuterocanonical Scripture,Sequel,Apocrypha,PseudepigraphaEtc., but the range indicated by these differs from word to word.

Differences in terms by denomination

Depending on the denomination, the terms used have the following correspondence.However, due to differences in doctrine among denominations, they are not completely supported.

Prayer / ritual terminologysectSeparate correspondence table
sectCatholic churchAnglicanProtestantOrthodox church
A general term for prayers and ritualsceremonyworshipworshipDedication
Luo: Sacramento
Nozomi: Mistylion
SacramentSacramentoOrdinanceConfidential

Relationship with other religions

Christianity,Judaism,Islam(Islam) is the only one who has a divine belief and shares a part of the scriptures.Abraham religionThe relationship may be emphasized.BesidesMithraism,ManiismRelationships with such as are also studied in religious studies and history.

Incorporation of things of ancient pagan origin and transformation of monotheism

In Christianity, which is considered to be orthodox,PolytheismWhen propagating to the world, he encouraged the construction of churches in the place of temples of other religions.As a result, many temples of the goddess聖母 マ リ アIt was transformed into a church dedicated to.As an example of such a goddessMinerva-Isisand so on.Sometimes the pagan deity was used as it was.As an example, the statues of Isis and OsirisMadonna and Child of Mary and JesusIt is pointed out that it was diverted to.

Christian cultural influence

Impact on architecture

Since large-scale architecture in medieval Europe was limited to churches and monasteries, the history of European architecture up to a certain point overlaps with the history of church architecture.In particular, Romanesque cathedrals from the 11th century, Gothic cathedrals from the end of the 12th century, and Renaissance cathedrals from the 15th century were actively built throughout Europe. The magnificent architecture that visualizes the "house of God" overwhelms the viewer.While being used as churches, they are preserved as symbols of each city and are part of the original landscape of European cities.

Furthermore, the concept of community derived from the Christian church, especially the Protestant idea of ​​"Invisible Church ("Unsichtbare Kirche)”BauhausIt also influenced modern architecture.Walter GropiusAlong the cover of the Bauhaus magazine with a self-made print showing the church, he says that "the invisible church" is also the idea of ​​the Bauhaus movement.[Source required].

Eastern EuropeThen.Byzantine architectureHas achieved its own development, but has reached modern timesNeoclassicalismInfluence ofWestern EuropeReceived a little from[Source required].

Impact on art

Early Christian artRoman artIt started based on the above, but eventually it began to emphasize spirituality rather than realism, and stylization progressed.It can be said that Christianity created the greatest demand for art in medieval Western Europe.In the above cathedralsaintMural paintings and paintings depicting the portraits and traditions of the sacristy, stained glass inlaid in the windows, icons, altars and various sacrifices were offered.Illustrations for manuscripts such as prayer books were also drawn.These occupy an important position in the history of European art.

On the other hand, secular art such as interior decoration that flourished during the Roman Empire was once abolished in the early Middle Ages.However, since the 12th centuryClassical antiquityInterest in revived (12th Century Renaissance), And paintings based on pagan themes began to appear, and began to be drawn openly from the latter half of the 13th century (for example).Botticelli"Birth of Venus』).And in Western Europe, not only did secular art overwhelm Christian art quantitatively, but its style was also incorporated into religious paintings.

On the other hand, in the Eastern ChurchIconChurch art did not undergo much change over time, as it emphasized the normative nature of the (icon) and made it part of the doctrine of maintaining its ancient style.However, Western art after the Renaissance also influenced the east, especially since the 18th century, especially in Russia.印象派A slightly realistic iconic expression was also made with the brush strokes of the wind.Also after the early modern periodVictor VasnetsovSome artists have used Orthodox material in the field of art away from the icon.[Source required].

Impact on music

The Christian church is unique due to liturgical needsChurch musicWas developed.The verses for chanting scriptures were stipulated quite early.The Greek Church, whose official language is Greek with pitch accents, consists of eight types.Church modeHas been established, and a system has been established in which all prayer sentences written in verse can be applied to any of them and sung.This also affected the Latin Church, the latter todayGregorian chantKnown as.Gregorian chant is a monophonic (Monophony), But around the 9th century,OrganumDouble melody with voice (polyphony) Appears.At the same time, to accurately record the previously oral melodyMusical scoreIs devised and theorized.Church music is a sound imitation of the order of the kingdom of God, and it is believed that it was based on the belief that it should be described ideally and accurately.StavesUsedNotation,Harmony method,CounterpointSuch asMusic theoryWill develop into.

It is certain that secular music existed in Europe outside the church, but church music, which combines notation and theory, is overwhelmingly dominant in terms of influence on posterity. there were. From around the 14th century, the music theory of these churches began to flow into secular music, and eventually Western music developed outside the church.[151].

Speaking of composers, in the 16th century counterpoint and polyphonyイタリア OfPalestine,スペイン OfVictoriaThe landlord appeared.HoweverBach,HandelUntil then, church music occupies an important position in composition activities, but after that, the proportion of church music becomes small.AlthoughMass Song,Requiem TheBerlioz,BrucknerIt continued to be an important theme for many composers, including the ones, and songs using Christian themes will continue thereafter.Also, in instrumental music, in the Western Churchpipe organWas used favorably, creating a demand for excellent large organs in each region.In Europe, organs built in the 16th and 17th centuries have been repaired and are still in use today.

In the 20th century, AmericanAfrican citizensHymns sung amonggospel)But,Ray CharlesBy hand such asPop musicIntroduced in.On the other hand, reflecting the growing general interest in early music, old religious songs such as Gregorian chant have come to be consciously listened to, and some composers have adopted elements of church mode.

On the other hand, the use of instrumental music was prohibited in principle.Orthodox churchInEastern Roman EmpireIn the areaByzantine chantHas achieved its own development.In Russia, where the Orthodox Church spread, the Byzantine chant incorporated Russian-specific elements.Znamenny chantAn unaccompanied voice song called is developed.Neither the Byzantine chant nor the Znamenny chant used four-line or staff notation, and retained the notation called "neume" and "clucky," respectively.

18st centuryAfter that, by interacting with the West, religious songs incorporating Italian elements were made, and in Russia in the early 19th century.BortnyanskyIs active.Tchaikovsky,Rimsky-KorsakovIt became the soil that produced such composers.In the Orthodox chantRachmaninovof"All-night vigilIs famous, and among composers who specialize in chantArkhangelskyIs famous,ブルガリア OfChristoph,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfHristic,エストニア OfPeltoIts development is not limited to Russia, but extends to all parts of Eastern Europe, such as composing Orthodox chants.In addition, there is a movement to seek new traditional revival while incorporating Western elements.19st centuryIt was held in the Orthodox Church from the second half,CommunismDespite interruptions in research due to the government's crackdown, such reconstruction movements have been revitalized after the collapse of the communist regime.[152].

Impact on literature

In medieval Christian culture, many folk tales were told and distributed in the form of Hagiography.Many of them are from Waragine's "Golden Legend(13th century), which has had a great influence on later European literature.[153].

In addition, the Christian scriptures themselves are rich in stories, and the "Old Testament" "Book of Genesis],Noah's Ark,モ ー セ OfExodus, Of the priestsAnnalsAnd the crucifixion story of the Gospel, which supports the basis of the doctrine, has continued to inspire literary figures.John Miltonof"Paradise],Oscar Wildeof"Salome] Etc. are famous, but if it is about borrowing a plot, JapanLight novelIt has affected many fields up to.

As a work that tackled Christian thought head-on,FranciscanSubmit a Christian worldview with reference to the theology ofDanteof"Divine Comedy』, The intellectual who signed the contract with the devil is finally rescuedゲ ー テof"Faust』, Confronted Christ and the InquisitorDostoevskyof"Brothers of Karamazov] (Chapter of "Great Inquirer") is famous.

In addition,ア ウ グ ス テ ィ ヌ ス,Ignatius of LoyolaConfession records such as these had a great influence on the establishment of the form of confession literature composed of self-reflection in Western Europe.

Impact on philosophy

In the Middle Ages of Western Europe, philosophy was respected as a discipline that governed liberal arts (seven liberal arts), but in the Christian order, "philosophy is the grace of theology" (Peter Damian)Met.

In Western Europe since the 11th centuryScholasticismWith the rise of scholarship and the development of academic methodologies, philosophy develops, albeit within the framework of Christianity.Translated from Arabic and introduced to Europeア リ ス ト テ レ スFusion of philosophy with Christian theologyThomas AquinasIs particularly famous for his achievements.The magnificent theological system he created does not allow others to follow, even though many sources are sought after in the discussions about the integrity and fusion of Islamic science and Aristotle's philosophy that have already taken place in the Islamic world.In addition, we argued whether the universal concept actually exists (realism) or just the name (nominalism).Universal controversyImportant discussions that remain in the history of philosophy are taking place in this era.

From around the 15th century, humanists have been hostile to the scholastic philosophy as an old evil and will develop their ideas away from the framework of Christianity, but the monotheistic ideology that has been repeated for many years in Christian society. European society has long been bound by a dualistic worldview.

Impact on science

"scientistWas coined and used by Whewell in the 19th century, but it dealt with "science" in the modern sense.Natural philosopherWas to distinguish from other natural philosophers.However, the social recognition and social status of scientists did not rise immediately, and scientists (scientists, scientific historians, etc.) who tried to improve it were told by the people of the world. On the other hand, there was a tendency to want to explain things with the scheme that "scientists have confronted the old customs represented by the Catholic Church and developed modern science."And in order to draw such a scheme, he usually did not publish his theory for fear of persecution.CopernicusAndGalileo GalileiWas taken up and emphasized from a specific point of view.As a result, simplified explanations such as "Christianity (Catholic) was simply oppressive to science" were disseminated (mainly in the texts of science officials). It was.In particular, the development period of modern science coincided with the conservative period of the Catholic Church, and that perspective was widely shared.

However, the actual relationship between Christianity and science was more fertile and complex.For example, a science historianYoichiro MurakamiPoints out that it was the spirit of Christianity that underpinned modern European science.[154]..It is a characteristic of modern European science to passionately pursue "truth" itself, once disregarding whether it is practical or not, and it is also a factor that greatly stands out from science in other regions, which is a monotheistic religion cultivated in Christianity. It is pointed out that his passion for theology may have been diverted to science as it is.It is also pointed out that behind the development of science in the early modern period, there was a consciousness as a Christian believer that "there is the natural world and the Bible as a book of revelation by God."[155]..It must be pointed out that many of the scientists were rather enthusiastic followers and pursued "the work of God."For example, the scientists who became the ancestors of modern Western science, that is,Copernicus,Kepler,Galileo,NewtonFrom their remarks, the enthusiastic Christian faith is recognized, andAmpere,ア イ ン シ ュ タ イ ンMany people called great scientists believed in the existence of God, the Creator.[156].Catholic church-Order of Saint Augustine OfMonkAndPriestAnd laterAbbotAlso servedGregor Johann MendelIs the law of heredity (Mendel's laws,1865It is famous for discovering).Also, of the space physicist who is the proponent of the Big Bang theory, which is the theory of the creation of the universe.Georges LemaîtreWas also a Catholic priest. "Nature"Butphysicist,MathematicianIn a questionnaire conducted to 1000 people, 39% answered that they "believe in God."[157].

ConventHas contributed to the development of advanced technology in many cases.14st century-15st centuryIn Russia, where the innovation of agricultural technology was delayed due to the war, in Western EuropeCrop rotation technologyWas introducedRussian Orthodox Church OfWilderness MonasteryBelieved to have been a group[158].

However, in modern timesCreationismTheory of evolutionAndclonetechnology,Brain science,HomosexualityIn research fields such asProtestantPersistent in part ofBible principleFrom this standpoint, there is a great opposition movement, which can be seen as hindering the development of science.In fact, against the backdrop of huge political power and support base, there are bills and movements that ban or hinder these studies themselves in some states of the United States, leading to trials (Evolutionary trial) Is not uncommon.The problem of religion-based oppression of a person's contrary to his or her common sense can occur in all religions, ideas, and cultures, regardless of Christianity.However, among them, Christianity often develops into a global problem due to its huge scale and political power.He advocated the heliocentric theoryGiordano BrunoHas been burned at the stake.

Impact on life and others

Medical・ Many of the roots of the hospital are in monasteries.Hospice (pilgrimage church), a monastery that welcomes pilgrims to accommodate travelershospice) However, the hospitality (hospice), a facility for people who have no life expectancy due to cancer, to spend their last time comfortably.hospitality), But the hospital (hospital)ofEtymologyBut it is not well known.

In the monasteryLiqueurIt is from these medical practices that (sometimes developed as herbal liquor) is produced, and many liqueurs are still produced today.Wine-beerAlcohols such as are brewed in some monasteries (wine isMass-Sacrament-Eucharist courtesyAlso for).theseAlcoholic beveragesInsideChartreuseIt is not uncommon to find famous brands such as.

In addition,Ips societyThere are also fraternity groups that have adopted some Christian doctrines such as.

Proverbs and idioms of Christian origin

Customs that are said to be based on Christianity

Christianity uses its own liturgical year to perform doctrinal rituals[159]And while it regulates the lives of believers, there are also many customs unrelated to the doctrines that are fused with the customs of each region.The following outlines the relationship with Christianity by taking up the customs that are generally understood to be based on Christianity in modern Japan.There are many other customs that are not common in Japan.Before ChristmasAdvent(Advent),Epiphany,Carnival(carnival),Ash Wednesday,Palm Sunday/Palm Sunday,Pentecost(Pentecost), manysaintHolidays and anniversaries,Lunar season/DaisaiThere is also a moderation that sets the day of the week.Regarding theseChurch calendarPlease refer to.

Christmas

It's not a national holiday.Christmas (Nativity) is the anniversary of the birth of Jesus Christ, but Jesus' birthday is unknown.Roman EmpireEra,Mithraism Ofwinter solsticeIt is believed that the festival was incorporated into Christianity.This festival begins in the westMay 12Was done in.On the other hand, in the east, the birth of Christ was originally accompanied by baptism.May 1However, in the 4th century, December 12th gradually became established as a day to celebrate the birth.Johannes ChrysostomSupported making December 12th Christmas386In his sermon, the festival was a Roman custom and began 10 years ago in Antioch.

Also, many of the customs that accompany Christmas have nothing to do with Christian doctrine, and show that they swallowed indigenous customs when Christianity was preached.For exampleChristmas treeThe custom of decorating was introduced in southern Germany in the 15th century, moved to England with the Hanover dynasty, and spread from there to Christian society.Santa Claus TheSt. NicholasLegends and British Father Christmass It is a character that was created by a department store in New York in the 19th century and spread all over the world based on the tradition of[160].

Easter

It's not a national holiday.Easter(Easter,Easter Festival, Paskha) of Jesus ChristResurrectionIt is the largest Christian holiday and one of the oldest festivals to celebrate.Western churchThe influence of the Germanic spring festival has been pointed out in the current customs in Japan.Colored eggs (Easter egg), Etc.[161]..JewishPassoverThere is also a theory that there is a habit of eating boiled eggs (the eggs in salt water are likened to Jews crossing the Red Sea), and the habit of boiled eggs is of Jewish origin.

wedding

In churches that existed before religious reform, there are seven marriagesSacrament(Confidential) Is positioned as one of them.Apart from secular marriage, weddings between members of the same denomination are held in the church.ceremonyIt is done as.If one or both of the parties to marry are not believersCatholic churchSo the liturgy is abbreviated,Eastern Church-Orthodox churchThen.DedicationExecution itself may be refused.Whether or not to accept a wedding ceremony between non-believers depends on the denomination and church, and there are both positions that accept it as a good opportunity to come into contact with Christianity and those that do not accept it as not the work of a church or a priest.ProtestantMarriage in is a Catholic sacramentHoly Ordinance(Therefore, even lower-ranking teachers such as evangelists who are not qualified to execute the sacrament can do this).However, there is no difference in that it is a turning point in life, and the two newly married peopleblessingTo[162].

At a Christian wedding, "OathsillaginoidIs sometimes considered essential, but the liturgy of the major denominations of the Western Church basically does not include such things.[Note 31]. However,Orthodox churchThen.Marriage secretKiss at the end of[163].

In modern Japan, weddings are popular in the Christian style.It is often presided over by a "priest" appointed by a dispatcher at a chapel attached to a wedding hall.There is also debate about the qualifications of such officiants and the effectiveness of the weddings held under them.

バ レ ン デ ー

In some parts of the Western Church area, it is customary to give gifts between close men and women on February 2th as the day of the vow of love between men and women.Again, there is no basis for Christian doctrine, originally the goddess of the Roman Empire.YunoIt originated from the holiday of the martyr, which is believed to have been later linked to the martyr saint's Valentine.

In Japan, confectionery companies actively promoted and the custom of giving chocolates from women to men became established, and from around the 1990s, other industries also actively used it for sales policy.It is a familiar event that is also found in haiku season words, but it is also unfounded in Christian doctrine.

Events influenced by Christianity

The only monotheistic religion

  • 1096 years,Popular crusadeSlaughtered Jews in various parts of the country on the way to the east.For more information on thisCrusade #People's CrusadeSee.
  • 1096-1099,1st CrusadeMassacres and plunders Muslims and Jews.For more information on thisCrusade # 1st CrusadeSee.
  • 1107-In 1110, the Norwegian Crusade repeatedly engages and plunders Islamic forces on its voyage to the Sanctuary.For more information on thisNorwegian CrusadeSee.
  • 1198 Northern Crusades. In 1193 the Pope proclaimed a Crusaders against pagans on the Baltic coast, and in 1198 a Crusaders' delegation landed in Livonia, now surrounded by the Gulf of Riga in Latvia.For more information on thisNorthern CrusadeSee.
  • 1204 years,4st CrusadeInstead of going to the sanctuary, which was the original purpose, he captured the Byzantine Empire, which was the same Christian country, and killed more than 2000 Greeks.For more information on this 4st Crusade,Sack of Constantinople (1204)See.
  • In 1493, Columbus-led Spanish troops killed more than 5 Indians in a few months.Kills thousands of inhabitants each time over the next 10 years.For more information on thisChristopher Columbus # Massacre on IndiansSee.
  • In 1533, the Inca Empire is destroyed by the Spanish Conquistador.For more information on thisInca EmpireSee.
  • In 1521, Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztec Empire on the Mexican Plateau.For more information on thisAztec #DestructionSee.It is estimated that the pre-conquest population of the Aztec Empire was about 1100 million, but a 1600 census showed that the indigenous population was about 100 million.For more information on thisAztec # colonial population declineSee.
  • Settlement in the Americas by European countries.For more information on thisBritish colonization of the Americas,and,French colonization of the AmericasSee.

Orthodox and heretical beliefs

  • In 1309, the Crusade of the Poor caused robbery and robbery riots in various parts of the country.For more information on thisCrusade of the PoorSee.
  • 1209-In 1215, the Albigensian Crusade indiscriminately killed about 1 inhabitants, whether or not they were Cathars.For more information on thisAlbigensian Crusade #EarlySee.
  • In 1633, Galileo, who advocated the heliocentric theory, was found guilty.Galileo read aloud a heretical swearing statement stating that he would abandon the theory that the earth would move.[Note 32]..For more information on thisGalileo Galilei # 2nd TrialSee[Note 33].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "Father" (Onchichi <New Joint Bible"The Gospel According to John』3:35>).
  2. ^ "Son" (Miko <New Interconfessional Translation Bible "Gospel of John" 3:35>), "God the Child".
  3. ^ "Jesus"(Hebrew: יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, Yehoshúa /Greek: Ιησούς, Iēsoûs)YahwehMeans "salvation"HebrewPersonal name, "キ リ ス ト"(Greek: Christ, Khrīstós) = "Messiah"(Hebrew: Messiah, Mašīaḥ) means “anointed person”.
  4. ^ The New Testament does not call God by a proper noun, but simply by a common noun such as "Lord," "God," or "Father."While proper nouns express peculiarities, common nouns express universality, which is one of the factors that have been advantageous in spreading as a world religion. (Iwanami Christian Dictionary 2002 P608 Item of God Name Tetsuo Yamaga)
  5. ^ It is estimated that Jesus was not born in the first year of AD.
  6. ^ It is also the heyday of Christianity and is said to be the dark medieval period.Renaissance #Medieval = Dark Agesreference
  7. ^ Some empires, such as the Aztec Empire, and their civilizations and indigenous religions have perished.Aztec # colonial population declinereference
  8. ^ The "Christian Gnostics" that arose inside and outside the ancient churches of the 1-4th century interpreted revelation using the three elements of divine essence, soul, and body that dwell in each human being, and were regarded as heretics. (Iwanami Christian Dictionary P332 Gnostic Item Takashi Onuki)
  9. ^ Among the three Protestant principles, the Bible is the word of God, and religious life relies on Bible revelation.Bible onlyThere is[18][19]
  10. ^ The New Testament, including the Gospels (Acts Chapter 2), which describes some of the Holy Spirit phenomena, was considered to be the word of God, and from there the Old Testament, which has many myths and legends, was also believed to be the word of God.Therefore, even in modern times, there is a part that is easily led to a view that is significantly different from the scientific view at the time of creation.
  11. ^ Ideas such as the kingdom of God, the messiah, the final judgment, and the resurrection / resurrection are implied.[22]
  12. ^ Christians read the "Old Testament," which promises the Messianic King to revive Jews in the future, as a salvation history that promises the appearance of Jesus Christ.
  13. ^ For Judaism, the Bible, which is unacceptable to the Old Testament, is the only canon and is still the literal law that governs action.It is also a book that conveys the history of the nation, provides a spiritual foundation for the land of Israel as the home of the nation, and provides cultural cohesion in both action and history.Old Testament #JudaismSee
  14. ^ Paul notes in 15 Corinthians 5: 12 that Jesus, who should have died, appeared to 12 disciples, but Luke always corrected "11" to "XNUMX" at this point. ing.The lack of that amendment suggests that the tradition of the manifestation of Jesus was established early.[31].
  15. ^ The author of the Gospel of Mark is said to have been able to bring the folklore back to the stage of vivid social reality by using the narrative form.[35].
  16. ^ The Gospel of Luke is said to be heavily involved in the formation of "early Catholicism" in the XNUMXnd-XNUMXth centuries.Internally, it is alleged to give new self-understanding, historical development, and church understanding to the Gentile Christian world, which no longer shares the traditional apocalyptic sense of time.[46].
  17. ^ The genealogy of Jesus presupposes that Jesus is the son of Joseph, and is inconsistent with the intention of the virgin nativity of Matthew 1:18 and below.However, it is said that Matthew Gospel reporters do not seem to be aware of this point.[51].
  18. ^ The main purpose of the writing was to answer the question from Thessalonica's believers that those who died before the Second Coming might suffer some disadvantages compared to Paul who survived until the Second Coming.[55].
  19. ^ This letter, like Thessalonica's letter, still expresses Paul's belief that he will survive until the Second Coming.[59].
  20. ^ This apocalypse symbolically interprets and discloses the new divine rule by images and styles related to Old Testament prophecy.[62].
  21. ^ Protestants who do not recognize Sacred Tradition (this source isReformed Church) Example."What is Reformed?". 2021/7/31Browse.Than,"The Bible alone is the authoritative Word of God for our lives—not church tradition or what church leaders say." "The Bible is the only authoritative word of God in our lives, not what church traditions or church leaders say."
  22. ^ Protestant admitting Sacred Tradition (this source isMethodist) Example."Theological Guidelines: Scripture". 2021/7/31Browse.Than,"The story of the church reflects the most basic sense of tradition, the continuing activity of God's Spirit transforming human life." "The history of the Church reflects the most fundamental significance of tradition, the ongoing activity of the Spirit of God to change human life."
  23. ^ a b ProtestantLutheran (Lutheran Church),Reformed Church,Baptist,Methodist,HolinessIt is a general term for various factions such as, and even if an example of Protestantism is shown, it does not necessarily apply, apply, or be used for all Protestants.
  24. ^ The phrase "Bible and Sacred Tradition" is not entirely unheard of.
  25. ^ For example,Southern Baptist FederationEven if you search for "Nicene Creed" on the official website of (Nicene Creed)"search results". 2016/3/13Browse.), As of March 2016, 3, there is no hit content.
  26. ^ Bullets and punctuation marks on the webThe Second Seven Ecumenical Council of Constantinopoli, the creeds of the XNUMX Holy FathersFollowed.Kanji, ruby, and line breaks are as described in Horologion, but some old fonts have been changed to new fonts.
  27. ^ a b c When the belief was created, the first person plural present tense (Greek: Πιστεύομεν), But modernGreek Orthodox ChurchIn the version used in, the first person singular present form (Greek: Believe)Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed --OrthodoxWiki).Catholic churchEven in the Latin translation version in, the first person singular present form (Latin: Credo) And the first person plural present tense (Latin: Credimus)is not it(SYMBOLUM FIDEI Nicaenum-Constantinopolitanum).In modern JapanCatholic church,andOrthodox church(Japanese Orthodox Church) Is the Japanese translation of the first person singular present form.On the other hand, in the aboveJapan Anglican Society,andThe Christian Church of JapanIn the translation of the Church Research Institute of the Council of Reform Elders, it is a Japanese translation that reflects the first-person plural present form at the time of the Council.
  28. ^ There are various descriptions of the Trinity for each denomination, each reflecting the various ideas behind it.
  29. ^ However, there are four of them (Luther)Jaco,Judas,Heb,) With a question mark.Syriac Orthodox ChurchThen in the old days2 Johann,3 Johann,2 pet,Judas,However, these are now included in the canonical.alsoNon-calcedoneTewahedo Orthodox Church(English edition)Includes 27 more books as "border cannon" in addition to the usual 8 books(English edition)).
  30. ^ However, because the way the documents are separated is different, there are a total of 24 books in Tanakh.
  31. ^ For example,Japan Anglican SocietyThere is no mention of kissing in the "Holy Marriage" chapter of the Prayer Book.
  32. ^ Galileo, along with Nicolaus Copernicus, Johannes Kepler and Isaac Newton, is considered a central figure in the scientific revolution.
  33. ^ Heretic exclusion was also an obstacle to astronomical science.The Inquisition is closely related to the medieval view of the Dark Ages and the death of Jeanne d'Arc.

Source

  1. ^ a b c d e f Encyclopaedia Britannica, ed (2014). “Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2013”. Britannica Book of the Year 2014. Encyclopedia Britannica. Google Books. p. 324. ISBN 1625131224. https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=LccRAwAAQBAJ&pg=PA324&dq=%22Worldwide+Adherents+of+All+Religions+by+Six+Continental+Areas,+Mid-2013%22&hl=ja&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwjZ8tDQ4djqAhWGA4gKHTPaBacQ6AEwAHoECAYQAg#v=onepage&q=%22Worldwide%20Adherents%20of%20All%20Religions%20by%20Six%20Continental%20Areas%2C%20Mid-2013%22&f=true 2020/5/26Browse. 
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  3. ^ a b c Stefon, Matt; et al. (November 2020, 11). “Christianity | Definition, Origin, History, Beliefs, Symbols, Types, & Facts" (English). Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc .. 2021/1/13Browse.
  4. ^ a b Takahashi 1980, P. 76.
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  7. ^ Pope Benedict XVI's "Prayer of the Announcement" on December 2006, 6
  8. ^ 39 Articles of the Anglican Church (Anglican Charter) 1563 Established in XNUMX XNUMX
  9. ^ Lutheran Church(Faith in our Lutheran Church
  10. ^ Reformed Church(Westminster Standards
  11. ^ Baptist(Of God and of the Holy Trinity.
  12. ^ Methodist(Justo GonzalezWritten by Hiroshi Suzuki, "Basic Glossary of Christian Theology", pp. 103-105, Kyobunkan, 2010,ISBN 9784764240353
  13. ^ Orthodox church(Faith-Creed: The Orthodox Church in Japan
  14. ^ Eastern churches(■ Faith and Doctrine (Syriac Orthodox Church)
  15. ^ a b c d George William Knox "Christianity""The Britannica Encyclopedia Eleventh EditionVolume 6, 1911. Retrieved July 2020, 7, see.
  16. ^ "History"and"Overview of the denominationSee
  17. ^ "Catholic (concept)See.However, there is a disagreement.The objection is "Modern Christianity"Kodansha Academic Library, 1996,ISBN 4061592548, See page 166.
  18. ^ Iwanami Christian Dictionary P994 Protestantism Item Yoshikatsu Kawanago
  19. ^ Galatians 1:11
  20. ^ Luke 21-15
  21. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten 2004, (Supplementary Note Glossary P24 by the New Testament Translation Committee)
  22. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten 2004, (Supplementary Note Glossary P41 by the New Testament Translation Committee)
  23. ^ Japan Bible Society, know the Bible
  24. ^ Takahashi 1980, P. 69.
  25. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 91. (Note 6 Sato in Matthew 9: 7)
  26. ^ Jaroslav Jan PelikanEP Sanders. “Jesus”. Encyclopædia Britannica. https://global.britannica.com/biography/Jesus 2020/5/4Browse. 
  27. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 920. (Commentary on Thessalonica's First Letter, Aono)
  28. ^ First Thessalonians 1:9
  29. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 921. (Commentary on the First Corinthian Letter, Aono)
  30. ^ First Corinthians 15: 4
  31. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p.543 First Corinthians 15: 5 Note 1 Aono
  32. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 915. (Commentary on the Gospel of Mark, Sato)
  33. ^ Mark's Gospel 16: 5
  34. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004.P.71. (Note 16, Sato at Marco 8: 3)
  35. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004.P.915. (Commentary on the Gospel of Mark, Sato)
  36. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 916. (Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew, Sato)
  37. ^ Matthew 28: 9
  38. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 917. (Commentary on the Gospel of Luke, Sato)
  39. ^ First Thessalonians 1:10
  40. ^ First Corinthians 15: 3
  41. ^ First Corinthians 15: 20
  42. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 916. (Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew, Sato)
  43. ^ Matthew 1: 18
  44. ^ Matthew 1: 21
  45. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 91. (Note 6 Sato in Matthew 9: 7)
  46. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 917. (Commentary on the Gospel of Luke, Sato)
  47. ^ First Thessalonians 3:13
  48. ^ First Corinthians 15: 27
  49. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 916. (Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew, Sato)
  50. ^ Matthew 1: 1
  51. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 76. (Matthew 1:16 Note 2, Sato)
  52. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 917. (Commentary on the Gospel of Luke, Sato)
  53. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 919. (Commentary on Acts of the Apostles, Arai)
  54. ^ Acts 7:54
  55. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 920. (Commentary on Thessalonica's First Letter, Aono)
  56. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 494. (Note 4 Hosaka in First Thessalonians 15:12)
  57. ^ First Thessalonians 4:15
  58. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 921. (Commentary on the First Corinthian Letter, Aono)
  59. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p546 I Corinthians 15:51 Note 6
  60. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 939. (Commentary on the Apocalypse of John Ogawa)
  61. ^ Revelation 12:10
  62. ^ New Testament Translation Committee 2004, p. 939. (Commentary on the Apocalypse of John Ogawa)
  63. ^ Michio Akashi. "Christianity "Church and Roman Empire"". Koto bank. The complete encyclopedia of Japan (Nipponika)Shogakukan, Asahi Shimbun. 2020/4/1Browse.
  64. ^ "43. What is the Christian message?”(Japanese). opusdei.org. 2020/9/23Browse.
  65. ^ a b By Hopco, Translated by Mizuguchi 2012, pp. 8-9.
  66. ^ a b Teachings-Sacred Tradition: The Orthodox Church in Japan
  67. ^ Armenian Apostolic Church (The Sacraments)Than,"The Armenian understanding of baptism draws upon the evidence of Scripture and Tradition to baptize infants—who are pledged to a life in Christ by godparents and the community—as well as adults. "
  68. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church --The Transmission of Divine Revelation
  69. ^ Tradition --St. Peter's Episcopal Church
  70. ^ What is Anglicanism?Characteristics of Anglicanism
  71. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church』Pages 30, 31 (78, 80, 81, 82)
  72. ^ Scripture and Tradition | Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese
  73. ^ By Hopco, Translated by Mizuguchi 2012, p. 9.The reference point isKallistos WareQuoted from "The Orthodox Church" by.
  74. ^ The Orthodox Faith --Volume I --Doctrine --Sources of Christian Doctrine --Tradition --Orthodox Church in America
  75. ^ a b "Catechism of the Catholic Church』Page 31 (No. 83)
  76. ^ By Hopco, Translated by Mizuguchi 2012, p. 8.
  77. ^ "A Brief History of Modern Theology" Preface Before Modern Theology, C.I. F.Written by Wislov, co-translated by Takashi Nabeya and Tadaaki Katsuhara
  78. ^ Bible Faith: Its History and Possibilities Mitsuru Fujimoto October 2014, 10(PDF,"Japan Evangelical Theology Society"On the official website)
  79. ^ What do Presbyterians believe about'Ecclesia Reformata, Semper Reformanda?' — Presbyterians Today Magazine — Mission and Ministry — Presbyterian Mission Agency
  80. ^ The Reformed Tradition (Reformed Theological Seminary)
  81. ^ a b c By González, Translated by Suzuki 2010, p. 138.
  82. ^ "53.What happened at the Council of Nicaea?”(Japanese). opusdei.org. 2020/9/23Browse.
  83. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church』Page 65 (No. 195)
  84. ^ a b c d Faith-Creed: The Orthodox Church in Japan
  85. ^ Anglican Church in Japan What is Anglican Church in Japan?
  86. ^ Lutheran Faith
  87. ^ Hisamatsu 2012, p. 151.
  88. ^ Lutheran Faith
  89. ^ Remodeled Theological Encyclopedia, p. 236.
  90. ^ Why do we say creeds? | The United Methodist Church
  91. ^ a b Ecclesial Theology: Do Real Baptists Recite Creeds?(Steven R. Harmon
  92. ^ Nikea Constantinople Creed(Catholic Central Council
  93. ^ "Prayer Book", p. 167,Japan Anglican Society, June 1991, 6, 20st print
  94. ^ Nicene-Constantinopolis Belief (381) (Translated by United Church of Christ in Japan Reform Elders Church Council Church Research Institute)
  95. ^ ΛΕΙΤΟΥΡΓΙΑ ΚΥΡΙΑΚΗ (ΕΛΛΗΝΙΚΑ ΛΕΙΤΟΥΡΓΙΚΑ ΚΕΙΜΕΝΑ ΤΗΣ ΟΡΘΟΔΟΞΗΣ ΕΚΚΛΗΣΙΑΣ)
  96. ^ "The Moody Handbook of Theology" by Paul P. Enns (1989) and "Charts of Christian Theology and Doctrine" by H. Wayne House (1992), etc.
  97. ^ a b c d e f Faith-God: The Orthodox Church in JapanMore "God is the Trinity God of" Father, "" Child, "and" Holy God. "
  98. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic ChurchFrom page 75 (No. 233), "God is the only one, the Almighty Father, his only son, and the Holy Spirit are the Holy Trinity."
  99. ^ a b From page 160 of the Reformed Theological Encyclopedia, "The only God is the triple reality of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit."
  100. ^ a b From González, translated by Suzuki 2010, p. 103, "God is alone, but usually exists forever in three" positions "called the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit."
  101. ^ Faith-God: The Orthodox Church in Japan
  102. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church』Page 142 (No. 464)
  103. ^ Faith-Jesus Harristos: The Orthodox Church in Japan
  104. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church』Page 76 (No. 237)
  105. ^ By Richardson, Translated by Paulus, 1978, p. 59.
  106. ^ a b c By González, Translated by Suzuki 2010, p. 251.
  107. ^ a b c CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Monarchians
  108. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church』Page 80 (No. 253)
  109. ^ By Richardson, Translated by Paulus, 1978, p. 71.
  110. ^ "Christian Encyclopedia Revised New Edition ”page 452, Kyobunkwan, 52 Revised New Edition XNUMXth Edition
  111. ^ Michio Akashi,Establishment of Christian and Catholic Church Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica), Shogakukan, Kotobank, viewed May 2020, 5.
  112. ^ a b c Michio Akashi,Christianity, medieval Christianity Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica), Shogakukan, Kotobank, viewed May 2020, 5.
  113. ^ Eastern Roman Empire Koto Bank, viewed on March 2020, 5.
  114. ^ a b Sohei Shima,Monophysitism Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica), Shogakukan, Kotobank, viewed May 2020, 5.
  115. ^ Holy Spirit Emission Controversy Britannica International Encyclopedia, Kotobank, accessed May 2020, 5.
  116. ^ East-West church division Britannica International Encyclopedia, Kotobank, accessed May 2020, 5.
  117. ^ Yuzo Nagata,Istanbul, history Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica), Shogakukan, Kotobank, viewed May 2020, 5.
  118. ^ a b Sadao Taguchi,Eastern Orthodox Church, History and Essence Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica), Shogakukan, Kotobank, viewed May 2020, 5.
  119. ^ Humiliation of canossa Koto Bank, viewed on March 2020, 5.
  120. ^ a b Yasukazu Morita,Reformation Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica), Shogakukan, Kotobank, viewed May 2020, 5.
  121. ^ Kenjiro Nakamura,Huss Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica), Shogakukan, Kotobank, viewed May 2020, 5.
  122. ^ Henry V Britannica International Encyclopedia, Kotobank, accessed May 2020, 5.
  123. ^ Takashi Yashiro,England church Encyclopedia Nipponica (Nipponica), Shogakukan, Kotobank, viewed May 2020, 5.
  124. ^ Anglican Koto Bank, viewed on March 2020, 5.
  125. ^ ANALYSIS (December 2011, 12). “Table: Religious Composition by Country, in Percentages”. Pewforum.org. 2012/8/17Browse.
  126. ^ Toshiko Hirota "Why is it under the supervision of the rising number of Christian Communist Party in China?Forbes JAPAN (2020/12/19 11:00) Retrieved January 2021, 1
  127. ^ Government of Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP: Republic of Korea
  128. ^ Asaree Thaitrakulpanich "HERE'S POPE FRANCIS'SCHEDULE FOR HIS THAILAND VISITKhaosod English (2019/10/2 15:26) Retrieved January 2021, 1
  129. ^ "Interactive, color-coded maps"Church Cloud Solutions (2021/1/27) Retrieved January 2021, 1
  130. ^ Government of Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP: Republic of the Philippines
  131. ^ Government of Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs HP: Socialist Republic of Vietnam
  132. ^ Source of this section:CIA The World Factbook Japan..The population of Japan is about 1 million, and the article text is composed by multiplying by the percentage shown here to obtain an approximate number.
  133. ^ Jesse Raffever (2015). “Christian Wedding: No Religion in Contemporary Japan”. Japanese Journal of Religious Studies 42/2: 185-203. 
  134. ^ “AERA“ Sanctuary of Japan ”follows Mr. Dowager“ Weakness to South Korea ”pointed out”. Christ newspaper(July 2010, 2). http://www.kirishin.com/2010/02/06/38547/ 
  135. ^ "New Testament" New Testament Translation Committee Iwanami Shoten P916 (Commentary on the Gospel of Matthew Sato)
  136. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P915 (Commentary on the Gospel of Mark Sato)
  137. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P917 (Commentary on the Gospel of Luke Sato)
  138. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P918 (Commentary on the Gospel of John Kobayashi)
  139. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P919 (Commentary on Acts of the Apostles Arai)
  140. ^ "New Testament" New Testament Translation Committee Iwanami Shoten P920 Explanation of the first letter to the Thessalonica Aono
  141. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P921 Commentary on the first letter to the Corinthians Aono
  142. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P922 Commentary on the Second Letter to the Corinthians Aono
  143. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P924 Commentary on letters to the Galatians Aono
  144. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P925 Commentary on letters to the Philippians Aono
  145. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P927 Commentary on Philemon's Letter Aono
  146. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P928 Commentary on letters to the Romans Aono
  147. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P929-P933 (Commentary on Colossae, Thessalonica No. XNUMX, Timothy No. XNUMX, No. XNUMX, Hebrew) Hosaka Kobayashi 
  148. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P934-P938 (Comments on James, John, Peter XNUMXst, XNUMXnd, and Judas) Kobayashi, Onuki
  149. ^ "New Testament" Iwanami Shoten P939 Commentary on John's Apocalypse Ogawa
  150. ^ Biblical canon,Old Testament
  151. ^ Akeo Okada, "Twilight of Western Music History" Classic "" Chuokoron-Shinsha <Chukoron-Shinsho>, 2005,ISBN 9784121018168 な ど
  152. ^ Konstantin P. Kovalyov, "The Origin of Russian Music: The Life of Bortnyansky," Translated by Naoki Usami, New Reading Company, 1996,ISBN 9784788061057 な ど
  153. ^ Jacobus a Varagine "Golden Legend" New Edition,Fujishiro KouichiTranslated by Shinsensha, 1994,ISBN 9784787794246, Translator commentary, etc.
  154. ^ Yoichiro Murakami "Seeing Christianity from the History of Science" Sobunsha <Nagasaki Junshin Lectures>, 2003,ISBN 9784423301142
  155. ^ Masao Watanabe "Scientists and Christianity From Galilei to the Present" Kodansha <Kodansha Bluebacks>
  156. ^ "Famous scientists who believe in God-Opus Dei”(Japanese). opusdei.org. 2018/4/6Browse.
  157. ^ Nobuhisa Yamakita "Interesting Christian Question Box Q & A77" Kyobunkwan, 2006,ISBN 9784764264106
  158. ^ Kiyomi Miura "The Source of Russia" Kodansha Selection Book Mechie, 2003, pp. 150-152, ISBN 978-4-06-258274-2
  159. ^ Takao 1996, P. 260.
  160. ^ Claude Levi-Strauss, "The Secret of Santa Claus," translated by Shinichi Nakazawa, Serica books, 1995,ISBN 9784796701952, Pages 17-27, etc.
  161. ^ Takao 1996, P. 258.
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References

Related item

外部 リンク

三位一体

三位一体(Trinity,Greek: Holy Triad[2], Latin: Trinitas[3], English: Trinity, German: Dreifaltigkeit[4], Russian: The Holy Trinity[Annotation 1]) Isキ リ ス ト 教In

  1. (=God the father-sovereignty
  2. Child(=child of God・ Christ the child)
  3. Spirit(=Holy spirit[Annotation 2]

Three are "One(=The only god・ The only god) ”.

聖書には三つは一つの神とは書いていない。16世紀まで三つは一致していると書いてあると思われてきた。しかしラテン語ウルガタ訳のヨハネの手紙一5:7「父、言葉、聖霊、これらは三つで一つである」という言葉は、三位一体を支持する人たちにより付け加えられた改ざんであることが明らかになった。そのため、現在多くの訳ではこの部分は除かれている[5].

Overview

Christian churches[Annotation 3] In, the Trinity is not the "three gods" (three gods)[6][7][8][9]..Also, the idea that "the father, the son, and the Holy Spirit are only three styles of God" and "God plays three roles" (Modalism) Is also denied[10][11][12].

Anglican(Japan Anglican Society) Etc., mainly as part of proper nouns such as shrine names and school names,Holy XNUMXIs also used[13].Orthodox church(Orthodox Church in Japan)Trinity(Seisansha) ”(However, the notation“ Trinity ”is not unusable)[14].

concept

Formula

In the formula organized around the Trinity theory, God is oneentity(Essence, main body[15],Nozomi: substance[Annotation 4], Luo: substantia)When,"God the father"Logos''(λόγος) Son of God (Jesus Christ)·and"Holy Spirit (Holy God)[Annotation 2]"ThreeRank(Nozomi: υπόστασις[Annotation 5], Luo: person), It is said that it exists forever[4][12].

If you make a bullet point

Becomes

This doctrine was not believed by primitive Christians in the first century, but was later influenced by Egyptian religion in Egypt.Athanasius of AlexandriaIt was established at the Council by us.The Trinity theory is explained in the Britannica Encyclopedia as follows. "This doctrine was gradually shaped over the centuries, causing a lot of controversy. Initially, the need to interpret the monotheistic demands and Bible teachings inherited from the Old Testament into a Greek-Roman religion. The divinity of Christ as a logos (word) was interpreted as being located under the god at the top, while the father, son, and holy spirit each had three ranks within one god. As revealed, there was another interpretation that God itself did not exist separately. The former allowed a clear distinction between the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, which were not equal and therefore God. The unity of God is also denied (Seiko subordination theory), and the latter recognizes the unity of God, but has the characteristic that each rank is different (mode theory). It was not until the 4th century that the sexual controversy was put together in the doctrine that there are three ranks in one entity and became generally accepted. "[16]

First Council of Nicaea(First Council of Nicaea,325)First Council of Constantinople(The Second Seven Ecumenical Association,381)ArianThe formula for the Trinity theory was organized (although the controversy continued even after the two Councils ended).[17][18]

The worship of three sets of pagan gods was common throughout the ancient world.Its influence was before Christ, at that time, and for centuries thereafter, in the Orient world such as Egypt, Greece, and Rome.HellenismIt was also dominant in the world.HistorianWill DurantIs "ChristianityPaganInstead of destroying, he adopted it. ... the idea of ​​the Holy Trinity came from Egypt. "Siegfried Morenz also points out in the book "Egyptian Religion": "The Trinity was a major concern of Egyptian theologians .... The three gods were united, treated as a single being, and called in the singular. Thus, the Egyptian religion. Shows that his spiritual influence is directly linked to Christian theology. "

Explanation of the "Shield of the Trinity" (coat of arms) in the Western Church

Western church(Catholic church,Anglican,ProtestantThere is a scheme called "Shield of the Trinity" used for various coats of arms from the Middle Ages to the present in the predominant area of).Even in modern timesAnglican OfEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euDioceseChannel IslandsJerseyUsed for the coat of arms of the Trinity province[19][20].

Orthodox churchBut in modern times it's not that it's not used to explain the Trinity[21], Examples are rare[Source required].

As you can see from the images, "God the Father" (Latin: Pater), "Child God" (Latin: FILIUS), "Holy spiritGod "(Latin: SPIRITUS SANCTUSThere are various variations in the location of) and how to connect them, but the common contents are itemized as follows.

  • "Father" is God (Latin: PATER est DEUS, English: The Father is God).
  • The "child" is God (Latin: FILIUS est DEUS, English: The Son is God).
  • The Holy Spirit is God (Latin: SPIRITUS SANCTUS est DEUS, English: The Holy Spirit is God).
  • God is the "father" (Latin: DEUS est PATER, English: God is The Father).
  • God is a "child" (Latin: DEUS est FILIUS, English: God is The Son).
  • God is the Holy Spirit (Latin: DEUS est SPIRITUS SANCTUS, English: God is The Holy Spirit).
  • "Father" is not "child" (Latin: PATER non est FILIUS, English: The Father is not The Son).
  • "Child" is not "father" (Latin: FILIUS non est PATER, English: The Son is not The Father).
  • "Father" is not the Holy Spirit (Latin: PATER non est SPIRITUS SANCTUS, English: The Father is not The Holy Spirit).
  • The Holy Spirit is not the "father" (Latin: SPIRITUS SANCTUS non est PATER, English: The Holy Spirit is not The Father).
  • The "child" is not the Holy Spirit (Latin: FILIUS non est SPIRITUS SANCTUS, English: The Son is not The Holy Spirit).
  • The Holy Spirit is not a "child" (Latin: SPIRITUS SANCTUS non est FILIUS, English: The Holy Spirit is not The Son).

In these figures, the centralized "god" (Latin: DEUS) Is composed of four elements, but as shown in the above formula (one essence, three-position), it does not indicate "four gods" or "four gods". ..

Comparison with other Bible interpretations

There is a way to approach the Trinity theory (in the Nicaea Constantinopolis belief) in the form of an elimination method, which explains "what is not the Trinity theory (in the Nicaea Constantinopolis belief)".Orthodox church"It is more accurate to explain what is not the Trinity and deny it than to explain the Trinity itself."[10].

Nicene-Constantinopolis beliefs and other denominations

"Trinity" isCatholic church[3]-Anglican[23]-Protestant[24][25][26][27]-Orthodox church[17]-Eastern churches[28] Inキ リ ス ト 教It is one of the central teachings of Nicaea Constantinopolis and one of the beliefs.

Incidentally,Eastern churches(Non-Chalcedon faction) is not different from other factions in the theory of trinity.[Source required]..What makes the Oriental Orthodox Church different from other churchesChristology(Miaphysitism)[Source required].

On the other hand,New Christian religionIsUnitarian,Jehovah's Witnesses,Mormonism,Unification Society(Official name: Unification Movement International),Christian science,Jesus Spirit Church,Tabernacle of christ, Etc. denies the Trinity[29].

"The'child'and the Holy Spirit are creatures."

The idea that "the'child'and the Holy Spirit are creatures" is denied by the Nicene-Constantinopolis belief.[10][30].

ArianHe tried to say that the "child" was also divine, but that divinity was due to the adoption of God, and that the "child" was a creature.This claim isFirst Council of Nicaea(First Council of Nicaea,325),andFirst Council of Constantinople(The Second Seven Ecumenical Association,381) Denied[31].New Christian religionIsJehovah's WitnessesHas a similar doctrine to this faction[32].

Monarchianism

Insist on God's uniqueness enough to deny the TrinityMonarchianism(English: Monarchianism) Is also denied by the Nicene-Constantinopolis beliefs[33]..Monarchianism can be broadly divided into two types.

Modalistic Monarchianism ("Three Styles" "Three Roles")

While insisting that "Jesus is also a fact, God, and the Holy Spirit is also a fact, God," "the" father, "" child, "and" holy spirit "are the modes in which God represents himself depending on the times. The idea of ​​claiming "what has changed" and "something like three roles per person" is modalistic monarchianism (English: modalistic monarchianism), Denied by the Nicene-Constantinopolis creed[10][33][34].

SabellianismIs a typical example, but due to the lack or lack of historical materials, it is impossible to know exactly what Sabellius (2nd to 3rd centuries) taught.[12].

Dynamic monarchianism

"Only my father is God, and it is God's" power "that dwells in Jesus (Dunamis,Greek: δύναμις[Annotation 9]) Is nothing more than a dynamic monarchianism (English: dynamic monarchianism), Denied by the Nicene-Constantinopolis creed[33][34].

Tritheism

God the Father, God the Son, and the Holy Spirit are not considered to be the three gods, and the third rank is not considered to be the three gods.[7][8][10][35](Although it is said that these other biblical interpretations have never appeared in a cohesive form in history.[36], In some cases, it is critically pointed out as a inclination to "triple divinity"[37]).

The difficulty of the Trinity theory

The esoteric theory of the Trinity is also a prerequisite for the Nicene-Constantinopolis creed.

Orthodox churchIn, "three are one, and one is three is beyond understanding", and it is emphasized that the Trinity is also a mystery as an object of "believing" rather than an object of "understanding".[17].

Catholic churchEven in, God has revealed and implied that he is the Trinity, but not only can he not know that God himself is the Trinity by reason alone.Son of God OfIncarnationHoly spiritIt is said to be a mystery that could not be known even in the faith of the Israelites before the dispatch of[38]..But the source of the idea is also found in the Trinity God of the religions around the Orient, and of Judaism.KabbalahBut it exists as a numerology.From this, the Trinity, like other religions, has the doctrine for affirming the Divine Right of Kings.MysticismYou can take one of them.

Church example

Prayer

In prayerCatholic church Ofceremony·prayer,AnglicanAnd someProtestantIn the prayer "in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit",Orthodox church OfDedication"It depends on the name of the father, the son, and the sacred god."[39] It is reflected in being chanted (Greek: Εις το όνομα του Πατρός και του Υιού και του Αγίου Πνεύματος,Latin: In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Sancti).Example of prayer[40].

Representation in iconography

In the Catholic Church, along with Rublev, the iconography of "the father in the form of an old man, Christ, the Holy Spirit in the form of a dove or fire" is also widely used.For a typical exampleMasaccioThere is "The Holy Trinity".It depicts the Holy Spirit in the shape of a father and a dove with Christ on the cross.

Orthodox churchThen,Andrei RublevIs typical of what was drawn byAbrahamOf three people visitingangel("Book of Genesis”) Based on“TrinityIs officially recognized as the only legitimate iconographic representation of the Trinity.This is also transmitted to the west and is used in denominations that use icons.[41].

In addition to this, even in the Orthodox Church, "Father in the form of an old man, who entered from the west in modern times,Christ Pantocrator (Christ)There is also an iconography of "the Holy Spirit in the shape of a dove or fire."This is not officially recognized, but it is spread mainly in Russia.The iconography of "the father in the form of an old man, the infant Christ, the dove or the Holy Spirit in the shape of fire", which entered from the west earlier than that, is1667It was banned by the Moscow Synod on the grounds that "I can't draw an invisible father. Only Christ can reveal my father."[42]

Tradition persistence

Part ofProtestantIn the church16st centuryから19st centuryIn the meantime, there were many criticisms that the Trinity theory was irrational and that it could not find a practical meaning to the lives of believers.However, he continues to affirm the Trinity theory by seeing it as a paradigm of life in the community and as seeking a redefinition of God's uniqueness, which is less likely to lead to authoritarianism than simple simple theorism.

Non-Christian examples

IslamAtAllah"Is one of the three places" means "there is no god other than the only god."TawhidClearly denied that it was contrary to the teachings ofQuran"Table emblem』Section 73).

The following is an example used for proper nouns and catchphrases.

Union分離
Yang + Yin → TaijiTaiji → Yang + Yin
Sun + Moon → VenusVenus → Sun + Moon
Sun + Venus → MoonMoon → Sun + Venus
Moon + Venus → SunSun → Moon + Venus
Sun + moon → starStar → Sun + Moon
Sun + star → moonMoon → Sun + Star
Moon + star → sunSun → moon + star
Sun + Sun'→ SojitzSojitz → Sun + Sun'
Month + month'→ SogetsuSogetsu → Moon + Moon'
Venus + Venus'→ Twin VenusTwin Venus → Venus + Venus'
Star + star'→ twin starSosei → Star + Star'

* "'" Is used here for convenience because it has the opposite property to "".
* "Star" = "Venus ≒ Sirius ≒ North Star" or "7 stars ≒ XNUMX planets"
* "Star" = "eyes" = "G"

注 釈

  1. ^ The Holy Trinity (Православная энциклопедия "Азбука веры"), Greek "Holy Triad]"same as,"The Holy Trinity"Of"The holy"Because it means" holy ""The Holy Trinity"Can be literally written as the Holy Trinity.Japanese Orthodox ChurchIn translation, it is "Holy Three."
  2. ^ a b Holy spiritIs a member of the Orthodox ChurchOrthodox Church in JapanIs not the "Holy Spirit"Holy God"Seishin" and "Sacred God" are used as translations.
  3. ^ ,Catholic church,Anglican,Protestant,Orthodox church,Eastern churches
  4. ^ a b (ousia):Classical GreekReconstructionFrom the sound, Ousia,Modern greekCan be transcribed as Usia or Usia (modern Greek accents are often transcribed like long vowels, but strictly speaking, modern Greek has no distinction between long and short).
  5. ^ a b (hypostasis):Classical GreekReconstructionFrom the sound, hypostasis,Modern greekCan be transcribed as ipostasis from.
  6. ^ Translated in the Orthodox Church.The reading is "Kamichichi"
  7. ^ Translated in the Orthodox Church.The reading is "Kamiko"
  8. ^ Translated in the Orthodox Church.The reading is "Kamiseishin"
  9. ^ (dynamis): Can be transcribed as dynamis from classical Greek reconstruction sounds and as dynamis or ginamis from modern Greek

Referrer

  1. ^ Icon of the Trinity - Osaka Harristos Orthodox Church Archived August 2010, 7, at the Wayback Machine.page of
  2. ^ Holy Triad orthodoxwiki, In addition "Holy Triad"Of"Saint"Because it means" holy ""Holy Triad"Can be literally written as the Holy Trinity.Japanese Orthodox ChurchIn translation, it is also translated as "Holy Three."
  3. ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia> T> The Blessed Trinity
  4. ^ a b "Christian Encyclopedia Revised New Edition, p. 451-p. 453,Kyobunkan, 52 Revised New Edition XNUMXth Edition
  5. ^ バチカン写本およびエラスムス本文「新約聖書」ヨハネ第一5章7節
  6. ^ Orthodox churchSource: ed .:Priest David Mizuguchi, "Guide to the Orthodox Church," p. 42, published:Orthodox Church in Japan National Mission Committee, revised: May 2013
  7. ^ a b Catholic churchSource:Catechism of the Catholic Church # 253 (Japanese version, 2008, 3rd edition, page 80) Catholic Central Council ISBN-978 4877501013
  8. ^ a b ProtestantSource: "Christian Encyclopedia Revised New Edition, p. 452,Kyobunkan, 52 Revised New Edition XNUMXth Edition
  9. ^ ProtestantSource:The Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit: The Trinity as Theological Foundation for Family Ministry (Family Ministry Today --The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary)
  10. ^ a b c d e Faith-God: The Orthodox Church in Japan
  11. ^ Dictionary: MODALISM --Catholic Culture
  12. ^ a b c Gonzales, Suzuki, p103
  13. ^ Seisanichi Kindergarten,Tokyo Holy Trinity Church
  14. ^ Icon of the Trinity (Osaka Harristos Orthodox Church Archived August 2010, 7, at the Wayback Machine.)
  15. ^ a b c Moscow Metropolitan Bishop MacariiWritten by Masaru UedaOrthodox Theorem Theology(The link is to the Digital Library from the Meiji Era), page 54, and other translations.
  16. ^ https://kotobank.jp/word/%E4%B8%89%E4%BD%8D%E4%B8%80%E4%BD%93-71514
  17. ^ a b c Orthodox churchSource:Faith-Creed: The Orthodox Church in Japan
  18. ^ Gonzales, Suzuki, p104
  19. ^ The Anglican Church in the Diocese of Trinidad and Tobago --Home
  20. ^ Trinity --Home
  21. ^ Троица (Центр апологетических исследований)
  22. ^ "The Moody Handbook of Theology" by Paul P. Enns (1989) and "Charts of Christian Theology and Doctrine" by H. Wayne House (1992), etc.
  23. ^ AnglicanSource:39 Articles of the Anglican Church (Anglican Charter) 1563 Established in XNUMX XNUMX Archived August 2013, 5, at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Lutheran ChurchSource:Faith in our Lutheran Church
  25. ^ Reformed ChurchSource:Westminster Standards
  26. ^ BaptistSource:Of God and of the Holy Trinity.
  27. ^ MethodistReference from:Justo Gonzalez Written and translated "Basic Glossary of Christian Theology" p103 --p105, Kyobunkan (2010/11),ISBN 9784764240353
  28. ^ Eastern churches : Armenian Apostolic ChurchSource:St. Sahag & St. Mesrob Armenian Apostolic Church
  29. ^ Gonzales, Suzuki, p255 --p256
  30. ^ By Richardson, Translated by Paulus, 1978, p. 59
  31. ^ Gonzales, Suzuki, p19
  32. ^ "False Teaching 4: God is the Trinity”. Jehovah's Witnesses (November 2009). 2017/10/7Browse.
  33. ^ a b c Gonzales, Suzuki, p251
  34. ^ a b CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Monarchians
  35. ^ By Richardson, Translated by Paulus, 1978, p. 71
  36. ^ Vladimir Lossky 2001, p. 37
  37. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Holy Ghost
  38. ^ Catholic churchSource:Catechism of the Catholic Church # 237 (Japanese version, 2008, 3rd edition, page 76) Catholic Central Council ISBN-978 4877501013
  39. ^ "Small Prayer Book", page 1,Orthodox Church in JapanMetropolitan Bishop's Office Reprinted in April XNUMX
  40. ^ Example of prayer:Royal British Legion Festival of Remembrance 2013 3 Cheers for Her Majesty the Queen 14 minutes 54 seconds to 15 minutes 05 seconds,The father, the son, the holy spirit be among you and remain with you always, Amen
  41. ^ L. Ouspensky, "The Holy Trinity", in: Ouspensky & Lossky, Meaning of Icons, 1952, 1982.
  42. ^ ibid.
  43. ^ "You guys can do it ...". Sony history Part 1 Chapter 15 Episode 4. Sony. As of June 2002, 6オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2016/2/11Browse.

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