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Mont Blanc(Buddha: Mont Blanc Yi: Monte Bianco)FranceとイタリアLocated on the border of EuropeJapan AlpsThe highest peak of.Altitude 4807.81m..In Europe, close to AsiaCaucasus Mountains OfロシアMultiple mountains belonging to the territory (ElbrusIt is the second highest mountain after (etc.) and is the highest peak in Western Europe.
Origin of Yamana
In French, Mont means “mountain”, Blanc means “white”, which means “white mountain”. In Italy,ItalianAlso in the meaning of "white mountain"Monte Bianco Called (Monte Bianco).. Also means "white lady"The Dame BlancheThere is also a synonym for French.
The town closest to Mont Blanc is on the French side of the Haute-SavoieChamonix, In the Italian side of Valle d'AostaCourmayeur.1957 From 1965 to 2, the total length of 11.6km connecting these two townsMontblanc TunnelIt is still one of the main routes across the Alps, 40 years after the excavation was carried out.
Country of the summit
Since the French Revolution, there has been much debate about which country the Mont Blanc summit belongs to. In both countries, the peaks of both countriesBorderTends to get inside. In 1861TurinIn France and at that timeKingdom of SardiniaIn a meeting withThe border passes through the summit of Mont Blanc, Which is currently the final official agreement.
Border discussion flow
For centuries before the revolution, the whole MontblancPrincipality of SavoiaIt was the territory of (later the Kingdom of Sardinia). But 1792Napoleon BonapartePut pressure on the Kingdom of Sardinia, with the province of SavoieNiceThe area around was transferred to the French Republic. On May 1796, 5, the first agreement to determine borders was signed. Article 15 of this agreement states:
passe par les points les plus avancés du côté du Piémont, des plateaux, sommets et autres lieux ci-après désignés, ainsi que des sommets ou plateaux intermédiaires, savoir: en commençant au point où se réunissent les frontiè d'Aoste et du Valais, à l'extrémité des Glaciers ou Monts-Maudits: 1 ° les sommets ou plateaux des Alpes, au levant du Col-Mayor;
(English translation) The border between the Sardinian kingdom and the departements of the French Republic will be established on a line determined by the most advanced points on the Piedmont side, of the summits, peaks of mountains and other locations subsequently mentioned, as well as the intermediary peaks, knowing: starting from the point where the borders of Faucigny, the Duchy of Aoust and the Valais, to the extremity of the glaciers or the Monts-Maudits: first the peaks or plateaus of the Alps, to the rising edge of the Col-Mayor .
This agreement created further confusion. Under the agreement, the border was to be visible to both Chamonix and Courmayeur. However, it was not possible to see the summit of Mont Blanc from Courmayeur because part of the mountain hides the summit. The agreement was inaccurate and was later replaced by a new treaty.
1815, after the fall of Napoleon,Vienna conferenceThis caused the province of Savoie, including Mont Blanc, to return to the Kingdom of Sardinia.
August 1860, 3,Italy kingdomOn the establishment ofNapoleon IIIとVittorio Emanuele IIHas once again signed an agreement on the annexation of Savoie. On March 1861, 3, a border agreement was reached and new borders were defined.
The 1823 map "Sarde Atlas" shows that the border was set along the ridge of the summit.
The agreement on March 3 established a border line on the Mont Blanc ice cap, centered on the border line along the former ridgeline and further considering the border line of the massif. This made the Mont Blanc summit a territory for both Italy and France.
Based on the analysis of watersheds by the latest topography, not only is the border line set on the summit of the main peak, but the border line is north from the summit of the main peak to Mon Mondi, with all the Courmayeur from the southeast ridge as Italian territory. There is also a recommendation that it should be set towards.
The border between France and Italy was redefined in 1947 and 1963, but due to the considerations of both France and Italy, the issue of Montblanc was not addressed.
Changes in altitude
Previously it was 4807m above sea level, but the summit of Mont Blanc is covered with thick ice and the altitude fluctuates depending on the climate.Therefore, altitude is now measured regularly.The actual rock summit is 4,792 m, 40 m away from the ice-covered summit.
- 2002 To(Institut Géographique National; IGN, National Geographic Society)GPSWas measured as 4,810.4 m.
- 2003 ,May 9から7 daysOverGlacierWith two scholars, two GPS company researchers, three IGN staff, seven expert investigators, ChamonixElevation was remeasured by a team of four mountain guides and four students.It was also found that the altitude was 4 m, which was about 4 m lower than the previous year, probably because of the intense heat in Europe, and that the summit moved 4,808.45 cm from the previous year's measurement.Since then, it has been determined that the altitude will be affected by climate change, so the climate will be measured at more than 2 locations, and the altitude will be surveyed every two years.
- 2005 It was announced that the altitude was increased by 30 cm to 4,808.75 m.
- 2007 TheMay 9と16 daysMeasured by the Haute-Savoie Surveying Engineers Association in cooperation with the Geospatial Information Authority of France, it was revised to 2.15 m, 4810.9 m higher.
- 2021 May 9 --Announced 91 m, which is 4,807.81 cm lower than the previous survey.According to experts, "Since 2001, it has decreased by an average of 13 cm every year.".
Today, Mont Blanc is climbed by an average of 2 climbers per year. It is not so difficult for a skilled mountaineer. Near Mont BlancAguille du MidiUp to an altitude of 3777mRopewayYou can climb up to the top of Mont Blanc, and the difference in elevation is only about 1000m.
But even today, Montblanc is a mountain that has been killed and injured, and on the weekend of its heyday, local rescue teams are mobilized on average 12 times a day. Many of these are mobilization to general mountain trails. High mountain climbing knowledge, guides (or skilled climbers), and adequate equipment are essential for climbing Mont Blanc. There are some parts of the mountain trail that may be slipping down. There is also the risk of altitude sickness.
Mountain climbing history
- 1786 May 8, Crystal pickingとHowever, he succeeded in climbing Mont Blanc for the first time. This mountain climbing is said to be the founder of modern mountaineeringOlas-Benedict de SaussureIt is said that this is one of the success factors.
- 1808 ,Was the first woman to successfully ascend.
- 1886 , Later President of the United States,Theodore RooseveltLed a mountain climbing party during the honeymoon.
In 1950Air India245 flights were the same in 1966Air India 101 crashed on the hillsideAnd many dead people are out. The crash point was near the summit of both planes, and because we could not perform a sufficient search, in 2 a diplomatic bag was created.Jewelry in 2013,2017 One Boeing 707 engine and part of the body were found in.
ConfectioneryMont BlancWas named after being made to resemble this mountain.
- ^ a b “Mont Blanc shrinks a meter since last official measurement in 2017”
- ^ "Digital Daijisen commentary”. Kotobank. October 2018th, 5Browse.
- ^ Mont Blanc, the highest peak in Western Europe, drops about 1 meter above sea level September 2021, 9 30:10 Origin: Grenoble / France [France Europe] - AFP
- ^ Found in the French Alps, a diplomatic bag in India 46 years ago AFP (December 2012, 8) Read December 30, 2017
- ^ A lot of jewels on the glaciers in France CNN (December 2013, 9) Read December 27, 2017
- ^ Body found in Mont Blanc, France Crash passengers over 50 years ago? AFP (December 2017, 7) Read December 29, 2017