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[In Stock Now] Toyama's too black squid salted fish, Kyoyoshi "Black making"

 
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It is a gem that the Kaga feudal lord presented to the shogun in the Edo period and was praised for its taste.
 

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Kaga Domain

Kaga Domain(Kagahan) isEdo PeriodToKaga,Noto,EtchuMost of the three countriesClan..Clan ancestorMaeda ToshiieWifeHoshun-inAfter the death of (Matsu), at HoshuninCosmetics(A territory given to women as a living aid (Kokudaka))OmiHirokawa Village (currentShigaTakashimaImazu Town)EnclaveAdd as.

Overview

KagaIshikawaIt is inKanazawa Castle(Kanazawa) In the castle.Meiji2 years(1869)ofRedemptionLater the clan nameKanazawa DomainIt was decided.

Feudal lordMaeda family TheOutside DaimyoButTokugawa ShogunateStrong relationship with, quasiRelativeAsMatsudaira surnameAoi crestWas given. 3rd generationMitsutakaSubsequent feudal lordsGeneral OfBiasI received it.Also,DamingIt occupies the largest of 102 stones,GokukanAlsoThird placeCouncilAnd higher than other daimyo,Visiting seatAlsoTokugawa Gosanke,Echizen Matsudaira familySuch asFamily gateIt is a large corridor packed with (other outsidersNational DaimyoIs a hall)[1]It was a treatment similar to the three families[2]other,One Country One Castle OrderAfter being proclamedKomatsu CastleFor the shogunate, who is allowed to rebuild and becomes "one country and two castles"陪 虪Also in the Kaga Hachiya (described later)Samurai officialWas given, and it was treated differently from other Tozama Daimyo.

Clan history

Prehistory (before Momoyama)

Oda NobunagaMaeda Toshiie, who had been given Noto 1 country byTensho11 years(1583)ofBattle of Mt.After theHideyoshi Hashiba2 counties in Kaga, and 13th year of Tensho (1585)Narimasa SasaDue to the achievements of fighting withToshinagaOf EtchuImizu-Tonami-NeiGiven 32 stones in three counties, the original form of the Maeda clan, which occupies 3 million stones across three countries, was formed.[3].Bunroku4 years(1595) Remains in EtchuShinkawa-gunAlso added, of the senior vassalYoshitsugu Aoyama Uesugi familyReceive Tenjinyama Castle and Miyazaki Castle from Echichushu (Masashige Dohi, Kenya Kakizaki)[4].

Keicho4 years(1599) After Toshiie's death, Toshinaga was handed over the Maeda clan's reign and Kanazawa's 26 stones.The Maeda family is Toshinaga, who controls northern Kaga and Etchu, and his younger brother, who controls 7,000 stones in Noto.ToshimasaHowever, the total stone height reached 83 stones, and ToshinagaFive old peopleThere is also a different theory that he became an elder after Toshiie officially succeeded him.Five old peopleSee also).

Toshinaga and Sekigahara

Keicho 5 years (1600)ofBattle of SekigaharaAt that time, Toshinaga was divided into the East Army and Toshinaga was divided into the West Army (there is a different theory), and Toshinaga was confiscated after the war.Instead, Toshinaga was awarded the former territory of Toshinaga and the former territory of the western army daimyo in southern Kaga (12 stones of Komatsu of Nagashige Niwa and 6 stones of Daishoji of Munenaga Yamaguchi), and the territory of the three countries of Kanoetsu. (To KagaNomi-gun(There is a direct control of the Shogunate at the foot of Mt. Hakusan).Toshinaga re-examined the territory and raised the actual height.[5].

Kanei8 years(1631), ShogunTokugawa IemitsuIs the second generationToshitsuneSuspecting the behavior of (Toshinaga's younger brother), he plans to "conquer Maeda",Yasugen YokoyamaToshitsune himself is the firstbornMitsutakaWithEdoIt was settled by showing the intention of servitude (Kanei's crisis).Kanei 11 years (16348In, the territorial red seal issued by Iemitsu will confirm the surface height of 119 stones in the three countries of Kaga, Etchu, and Noto.[6].

Confirmation of Kaga Hyakumangoku

Kanei 16 years (1639) When Toshitsune retires, his second sonToshiji, Third sonToshiharuCollectSupporterAnd EtchuToyama Domain10 stones and KagaDaishoji DomainSince 7 stones (10 stones) were distributed respectively, it will be 102 stones.Other as a branch domain (separate family)Maeda ToshitakaUeno whose ancestor is (Toshinaga's younger brother, Toshitsune's older brother)Nanukaichi ClanThere are 1 stones[7].

Treasure calendar9 years(1759) In a fire in Kanazawa CastleHonmaruMore than 1 houses are on fire, includingShogunateMore than 5BothIs borrowed for reconstruction.

Kansei4 years(1792) Clan schoolMeirindo, Keibukan is completed.

During the Toshitsune era, the control mechanism was improved and the clan system was established.Toshitsune's grandsonTsunakiIs famous as a master who promoted scholarship by inviting scholars.Kenrokuen GardenWas built during the Tsunaki era.

Bakumatsu OfResignationTime is a shogunYoshiki TokugawaHowever, the former Shogunate armyBattle of Toba and FushimiAfter being defeated by, he changed his policy and returned to the new government's Hokuriku slaughter army.He has a deep interest in naval defense and has his own navy.維新After thatNavyIt is said that many human resources have been produced.

Meiji4 years(1871Abandoned DomainBecame Kanazawa prefecture soonShinkawa Prefecture・ Merged with Daishoji prefecture to form Ishikawa prefecture, which spreads over the former three countries.3th year of Meiji (Meiji 16)1883) Former Etchu 4 counties are dividedToyamaWas installed and is nowIshikawaThe area of ​​is confirmed.

17th year of Meiji (1884)ofChinese lawDue to the former feudal lord Maeda clanMarquisIt became a house.

Successive feudal lords

* The official positions are the first official position and the final official position (excluding the donation position)

Maeda family
  1. Toshinaga
  2. Toshitsune
  3. Mitsutaka
  4. Tsunaki
  5. Yoshitoku
  6. Sotatsu
  7. Heavy
  8. Shigenobu
  9. Heavy religion
  10. Harunaga
  11. Saihiro
  12. Nariyasu
  13. Yoshiyasu

After Toshitsune, he was given the title (last name) of Matsudaira and gave his name.[8]..Among the daimyo, the head is not "Kashuden"Kashu HouRepresents the form of the lordHouAttached.

Vassal

The direct vassals of the Kaga domain are roughly divided into Kumigashira, Kumigashira, Heishi, and Ashigaru.Kumigashira is another nameKaga HachiyaOrMaeda HachiyaAll of them have a height of more than 1 stones and were involved in the clan administration as a chief vassal of the clan.People's groups sometimesElderThere were about 1 households with a high dignity of 1000 stones or more, and a small number of about 70 stones.

Kumigashira (Kaga Hachiya)

This section includes some computers andBrowsing softwareThe second character of the character that cannot be displayed with ("Yoshiaki") is JIS X 2 (Supplementary kanji) Includes)(Details.
外部 リンク

Main people

  • Imaeda Naiki (Minbu) family (1 stones)Elder
    It started with Naokata Imaeda and produced Naokata Imaeda and others.Baron after the restoration.The family crest is four bales.Rengeji Temple (Sakyo Ward, Kyoto City) See also
    Shigenao Imaeda=Naotsune(Fifth son of Tadakatsu Hioki) ―Mystery=Straight(Tadashi Hioki(Third son) = Naomichi (second son of Tomohisa Maeda) = Naosato (second son of Takasuke Maeda) -I Ching-Naohiro = I Ching (younger brother of Naohiro) -Naoko-Naokuni
  • Tsuda family(1 stones ・Elder
    yuanToyotomi Shuji14th year of Keicho (XNUMXth year of Keicho)1609) Served the Maeda familyMasakatsu TsudaIs the ancestor.After the Meiji Restoration, Masakuni Tsuda, who was an aide to the feudal lord at the end of the Edo period,WaveChange your surname toSabaAnd the baron.The family crest is oxalis.
    Masakatsu Tsuda ―Masatada-Authenticity-Meng Akira-Respect-Shojun=Masaaki-Masamoto-Masanori=Honesty=Straight line=Zhengbang
  • Yokoyama family (Kamiya family)
    The family crest is Kakunouchi Manji.
    Moritaka Kamiya-Choji Kamiya (Choji Yokoyama)(Adopted child.Nagatomo YokoyamaThird son)-(Nagamasa Kamiya).
  • Yokoyama Kuratoya (1 stones, elders)
    Masafusa Yokoyama(Yokoyama Choji XNUMXth son) -Masatake = Masatsugu (Yokoyama Nagamoto's child) =Masanori(Child of Takabayashi Yokoyama) ―Masahiro-Masataka-Zhenghe
  • Honda bookmaker (1 stones, elder)
    Honda's fourth sonHonda MasafuyuIs the first generation.The family crest is Marunouchi Honnoji.
    Honda Masafuyu-Masatsune=Masayasu-Politics=
  • Naruse Sweeping House(8000 stones)
    Tokugawa retainerMasanari NaruseBrother ofYoshimasa(Yoshimasa) left the Tokugawa family at the age of 17,Yukinaga Asano,Hideaki KobayakawaAfter working as a vassal, he always serves.The family crest is Marunouchi Oxalis.
    Yoshimasa Naruse-Takashi, Takashi, Hiroshi, Nobu, Kun, Yoshi, Job, and Chief
  • Shogen Aoyama(7650 stones)
    Yoshitsugu AoyamaSince (my wife is Toshiie's niece), she has served as Uozu Castle for four generations.The family crest is Marunouchi Ivy.
    Yoshitsugu Aoyama-Shochō (Shochō) -Shoji-Yoshitaka-Yuji-Choji-
  • Teranishi Kajinya (7000 stones)
    Former Oda vassal who served as Kagamatsu JyodaiHidenori TeranishiIs the first generation.The family crest is Marunouchi nine bamboo grass.
    Hidenori Teranishi-Hidezumi-Hideken-Shuichi-Hideyo-Hideshu-
  • Maeda Bookstore (7000 stones, lord of the domain)
    Maeda Toshiie's sixth sonTosadaIs the first generation.The family crest is Kakunouchi Umebachi.
    Maeda Tosho Toshisada-Sadasato-Sadachika-Sadanao-Sadami-Sadaichi-Sadado-Sadaji-Sadaka-
  • Maeda Orie family (7000 stones, lord's family)
    The second son of Maeda Nagatane is the first generation.The family crest is Kikuichimonji.
    Naganori Maeda-Naganari-Naganori-Naganori-Choji = Nagasumi-Dokei-Michinaga-Doei-Dosada
  • Maeda repairman (6000 stones, lord's family)
    Maeda Toshiie's third sonTomoyoshi(ClanToshiyoshi MaedaIs the first generation.The family crest is the turtle shell nouchi plum bowl.
    (Maeda Yasukatsu-Tomoyoshi-) Tomoyoshi Maeda-Tomoyoshi-Tomoomi-Chiyori-Tomohisa = Chisada-Chichishu-Knowledge-Knowledge
  • Shobei Yamazaki family (5500 stones)
    EchizenAsakura familyFormer vassalNaganori YamazakiIs the ancestor.The family crest is a gavel.
    Naganori Yamazaki-Nagago-Nagatsune (light type) -Nagao-Choji-Naga quality = Nagatsune = Noriko-
  • Taga Kazuma family (5000 stones)
    Hidemasa HoriYounger brotherHideki TagaIs the first generation.The family crest is oxalis.Naomasa retiredtea ceremonySowa styleInherited the 8th generation.
    Hideki Taga-Hidesei-Naosada-Nogata-Naofusa-Naokiyo-Naomasa-Naosada-
  • Tamai Yoromo family (5000 stones)
    Of the branch domainDaishoji DomainAlthough he was the chief retainer of the temple, he was returned to the main domain due to the cost reduction of the Daishoji domain.The family crest is a trivet.
    Tamai Tanomo-Sadanao-Ichimasa-Sadanobu = Sadae = Sadamichi-Sadanori-
  • Ban Yaya family (5000 stones)
    The ancestor is the child of Oda's vassal, Ban Ribei.The family crest is three tomoes.
    Ban Nagayuki
  • Hachiro Nakagawa family (5000 stones)
    Husband of Toshiie Maeda's second daughterMitsushige NakagawaIs the ancestor.Mitsushige's grandfather, Daisuke Oda, is said to be the grandson of Nobunaga Oda's uncle, Shinji.The family crest is oxalis.
    Mitsushige Nakagawa = Shigekatsu = Nagase-Nagaki-Nagasada-Satada-Yorita-Akitada-
  • Fukami Seido Assistant (4500 stones)
    Hotta MasamoriThe old vassal of is the first generation.The family crest is Uchinouchi Jumonji.
    Hide Nao Fukami
  • Fuwahiko Sanke (4500 stones)
    Fuchu three peopleWas a peer of Toshiie MaedaFuwa KojiThe old manDirect lightIs the ancestor.The family crest is three tomoes.
    Naomitsu Fuwa-Mitsumasa-Katsuji-Tamesada-Tamezo-Naoren (Takazo)
  • Hayato Nishio family (4300 stones)
    Toyotomi ShujiThe child of Mitsumasa Nishio, a vassal of the family, is the first generation.The family crest is a comb-shaped pine tree.
  • Ooto Band Swordsman (4300 stones)
    Toshiie Komaruyama Jodai, who became a vassal during the Echizen era and engaged in political activities mainly in the Noto area, and his children, played an active part in many battles and also served as Uozu Gundai (Ooto Gundai). ) Is the ancestor.Toshiie's third son was adoptedTomoyoshiWe welcomed the eldest son, Yoshitsugu.The family crest is the old character of Marunouchi Shino.
    For loud sound thick = Yoshitsugu-Yoshimasa-Atsugo-Atsuso-Achievement-
  • Shinohara Oribe family (4000 stones)
    Kazutaka ShinoharaBrother-in-lawChoji ShinoharaIs the first generation.The family crest is three tomoes.
    Choji Shinohara-Chokei-Choei-Yukiaki-Yasuyuki-Tokuju-Faithful-Faithful-Faithful
  • Matsudaira Daini (4000 stones)
    A child of the owner of Mikawa Iho CastleOsaka teamThe ancestor was a warrior magistrate at.The family crest is a girder.
    Matsudaira Yasusada-Koujo-Tarozaemon-Yasutaka-Yasuhide-Yasumitsu-Kousai-Koufu-Kohō-Kousho-Yasunaga-Kousei = Yasumasa = Yasumitsu
  • Maeda Hyobu family (4000 stones, feudal lord Ichimon)
    The child of Toshiyoshi Maeda is the first generation.The family crest is XNUMX no paulownia.
    Masaaki Maeda-Takaoki-Takahiro-Juntaka-Takayoshi-Takaji-Takayoshi-Takatomo-Itaka
  • Takeda Sweeper Family (3530 stones)
    The child of Tadaaki Takeda, who was a vassal of Nagatomo Yokoyama, was always appointed as a feudal lord, and later progressed to become a possession group.The family crest is Kashiwaba.
    Tadachi Takeda-Tadahari-Tadajun-Tadachi-
  • Yokoyama Gaiko (3500 stones)
    The ancestor is the child of Nagataka Yokoyama.The family crest is Manji in Sanbanouchi.
    Nagahide Yokoyama = Choji-Nagamasa (Shikibe) -Mr.
  • Maeda Shogen (3400 stones, feudal lord Ichimon)
    The fourth son of Naotomo Maeda is the first generation.The family crest is Mitsunai Hechican Nouchi.
    Tsunetomo Maeda-Tsunecho-Tsunetsu-Tsuneka-Tsunego-Takashi-Kobi-
  • Mitamura Sakyo family (3300 stones)
    The ronin became a concubine of Tsunaki's daughter's town, and now has 100 people.The town became the birth mother of Yoshitoku, the fifth feudal lord, and his younger brother Takanori was appointed as Yoshitoku's uncle to 5 stones.Filial piety caused a blade injury incident and was summoned to Chigyo, and his child Sadayasu was given 4000 stones again.The family crest is Tsurunomaru.
    Sadaaki Mitamura = Sadaaki (Takanobu) -Sadamasa-
  • Jurokuro Kikuchi family (3200 stones)
    Narimasa SasaWas a vassal of Ao CastleTakekatsu KikuchiIs the first generation.Became a vassal of the Maeda clan under Toshiie's plan.The family crest is Marunouchi stone pavement.
    Takekatsu Kikuchi-Yasunobu = University-Takenao = Takeyasu-
  • Ikoma Kanemon family (5000 → 3000 stones)
    Nobunaga Oda, Hideyoshi Toyotomi, Hidetsugu Toyotomi,Hideo OdaServedNaokatsu Ikoma(Muro is Hideo's younger sister) was a ronin after the Battle of Sekigahara and was invited by Toshinaga Maeda.The family crest is XNUMX no paulownia.
    Naomasa Ikoma-Naoyoshi-Nogata-Naomasa-Naotake-Naotake-
  • Maeda built-in assistant (3000 stones, feudal lord Ichimon)
    The child of Takasada Maeda is the first generation.The family crest is a hexagonal nouchi plum bowl.
    Takakazu Maeda ――――――― Takayasu ― Takasuzu
  • Maeda Shikibu family (3000 stones, feudal lord Ichimon)
    The child of Toshiyoshi Maeda is the first generation.The family crest is Orishiki no Uchigiri.
    Maeda-Kokutoyo-Koji-Koji-Koji-Komasa-National Regulations-Kien
  • Shinohara Observer (3000 stones)
    The wife of the feudal lord ToshiieHoshun-inBegins with Kazutaka Shinohara (whose wife is Toshiie's niece), a relative of the Shinohara family, who is his parents' home.During Toshinaga's time, he served as a consul with Okumura and Yokoyama, but reduced Kokudaka by dividing Chigyo.Iwamatsu's generation is temporarily cut off, but his name is inherited.The family crest is three tomoes.
    Kazutaka Shinohara-Primary (Dewa) -Iwamatsu =Shigekazu (Shigetaka) -Match-Ichigo --- Ichishin-Ichisei-Isada
  • Maeda Observer (3000 stones, lord's family)
    The third son of Toshitaka Maeda, the feudal lord of NanokaichiFilial pietyIs the first generation.The family crest is Marunouchi Hollyhock.
    Filial piety-Filial piety-Filial piety-Filial piety-Michitaka-Filial piety-Filial piety-Filial piety-Filial piety
  • Kyubei Nagahara (3000 stones)
    Naotaka AkazaChildTakajiIs angry with the shogunate and changes his name by the order of the feudal lord Toshitsune.The family crest is average three nails.
    Koji Nagahara-Takamasa-Takasada-Takayuki-
  • Oda Sakon family (3000 stones) No. 18
    Oda YurakusaiEldest son ofNagatakaThe second son of is the first generation.It was attached to the Daishoji clan of the branch domain, but later returned to the main clan.The family crest is melon.
    Nagamasa Oda-Oribe-Nobutsuge-Nobutsune-Kuhide-Masken-Masudo-Masken-Masuko
  • Honda main water family (3000 stones)
    The fifth son of Masanori Honda is the first generation.The family crest is Kakukiri Kakunouchi Aoi.
    Masahiro Honda
  • Shinagawa Samon family(3000 stones)
    Shirakawa royal family OfGoddess・ The child of the counselor called himself (Shinagawa Samon), and his descendants served the Kaga domain thereafter.The family crest is XNUMX no paulownia.
  • Maeda Hyogo family (2500 stones, feudal lord Ichimon)
    The eighth son of Takayuki Maeda is the first generation.
    Maeda ―――― Prince Hyoryeong―
  • Maeda lord family (2450 stones, lord family)
    Maeda Toshimasa's grandson (Big wordToshiieSide roomHe was adopted by Ryukoin and became a Kaga clan with 2000 stones.The family crest is a diced Kakunouchi plum bowl.
    Kimei Maeda ―Kitaka ―――――――― Kiku
  • Uesaka Kuratoya (3000 stones)
    The younger sister who was a Ronin in Edo is the 5th feudal lordMaeda YoshinoriBecame a concubine of the 6th feudal lordMaeda MunetokiBy the edge that became the birth mother ofMaeda YoshinoriBecame a Kaga feudal lord.After that, it was changed from the Uesaka Lord Suzu family to the Uesaka Kuratoya.
    Kageki Uesaka-Kagefuku-
  • Kataro Obata family (3000 stones)
  • Chikara Ito (2800 stones)
  • Okumura Genzaemon family (2700 stones)
  • Taga Norizen family (2500 stones)
  • Nagahara Gonza family (2500 stones)
  • Naruse taxpayer (2500 stones) Yoshiyasu-Constitutionalism-Nao Nao-Masao-Suketaro-Miharu-Junsei-Masataka-Sakon-Masatsu-Masai
  • Shinoshima Kinjiro family (2500 stones)
  • Tsuda main tax house (2500 stones) Katsuyoshi-Nagamasa-Takacho-Nobuyuki-Heizo-Nobuyuki-Denhachiro-Main tax-Nobuyuki-Nagataka
  • Tomita Osamu Saemon family (2500 stones)
  • Tomita Orito family (2400 stones)
  • Okajima Sazen family (2300 stones)
  • Okumura Lord Masaya (2200 stones)
  • Okuno Ubei family (2200 stones)
  • Kuzumaki Hayanosuke (2000 stones)
    MutsuKatsumaki CastleIt is thought to be a descendant of the castle owner.this isMr. KudoIt is said to be a clan.The family crest is Marunouchi wood claws.
  • Obata Yoromoya (2000 stones)
  • Fujita Horseman (2000 stones)
  • Sasaki Sakonsuke (2000 stones)
    Mr. RokkakuAlso known as the Soke.The first Sadaharu is a child and the 16th owner of the Rokkaku familyRokkaku YoshiharuSon-in-law.The family crest is four-eyed.
    Sadamasa-Sadayuki-Sadaken-Sadamei-Sadamei-Sadakuni-Rule-Sadamasa-Sadamasa
  • Matsudaira Shikibaya (2000 stones)
  • Yokoyama middleman (2000 stones)
    • Yokoyama Nagachi Yachio Sadaharu is the ancestor
    • Sadaharu Yokoyama
  • Nagai Shizuma family (1750 stones)
  • Okumura Dansho family (1700 stones)
  • Ryonosuke Onoki (1650 stones)
  • Seima Shoda family (1600 stones)
  • Matsudaira swordsman (1500 stones)
  • Kanemon Toda family (1350 stones)
  • Hara Yoromo family (1280 stones)
  • Sekiya Ichigakuya (1050 stones)
  • Honda Koma Saya (1000 stones)
  • Katsoo Sakon family (1000 stones)
  • Tsuda Dansho family (1000 stones)

Clan residence and family temple in Edo

Edo Domain House TheHongoThere was an upper mansion in XNUMX-chome (currently the Hongo campus of the University of Tokyo), a Naka mansion in Somei, and a lower mansion in Fukagawa and Itabashi.In addition, Bodaiji Temple in Edo is Mukogaoka, Bunkyo-ku.Nichiren sectMt. TakayaChogenji Temple, ShitayaRinzai Daitokuji SchoolEnmanzanKoutokuji TempleNot to mention the Toyama domain and Daishoji domain of the branch domain,Aizu Domain OfMr. Matsudaira Hoshina,Yatabe Domain OfMr. HosokawaEtc. also used the temple as a family temple in Edo.In addition, even in the branch domain, the Nanokaichi domain is Mt. Suwayama.KichijojiWas the family temple in Edo.

Territory at the end of the Edo period

In addition to the above,Meiji RestorationlaterKitamiRebun-gun,Esashi-gun,Soya-gunJurisdiction.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ "The Edo period of Kaga Hyakumangoku, which the Tokugawa family also paid attention to, the most daimyo and shogun in Japan"
  2. ^ "Clan History Encyclopedia"
  3. ^ Yoshihiko Iwasawa "Toshiya Maeda"
  4. ^ Located in Niikawa-gunSwan castleAlready after Sassa's surrender (the role of Toyama), he had a castle general of the Maeda clan in preparation for Narimasa.
  5. ^ April 10, 1605, Toshinaga's retreat, Toshitsune (later Toshitsune), "Kyoto Judgment" ("Koshitoga Sanshushi" Takaoka City Museum)
  6. ^ Kanei Zhu Seal to Toshitsune ("Kaga Domain Documents" Maeda Ikutokukai, etc.)
  7. ^ "Kansei Choshu Shoka"
  8. ^ Kohei Murakawa "Mr. Matsudaira's gift to Mr. Maeda"

References

  • Kodama Kota-Masashima Kitajima Supervision "Clan History Overview" New person,Year 1977
  • "Separate volume history reader 24 Edo 1977 feudal lords overview of the feudal lords traced by successive feudal lords" Shinjinbutsusha, XNUMX
  • "Encyclopedia of Vassals of the 1987 Clan" New Persons Visiting Company, 1988-XNUMX
  • Shinjuro Tobe "Meiji Restoration Kaga Fuunroku ”New Person Traffic Company, 1997 ISBN-4 404-02514-9
  • Hirofumi Yamamoto "Kaga prosperity record Offense and defense of the feudal lords read in historical materials" Japan Broadcast Publishing Association,Year 2001 ISBN-4 14-080643-5
    • Hirofumi Yamamoto "Japan's No. XNUMX Daimyo and Shogun The Edo period of Kaga Hyakumangoku, which the Tokugawa family also paid attention to』Graph, 2009 ISBN 978-4-7662-1271-6 * Revised version of the above title.
  • Kazuo Mise "Toshiya, Toshinaga, Toshitsune Maeda XNUMXrd generation people and politics" Hokkoku Shimbun,Year 2002 ISBN-4 8330-1204-9
  • Kenji Miyamoto "Kaga Hyakumangoku and Edo Art Maeda family international exchange』Jimbun Shoin, 2002 ISBN-4 409-52036-9
  • Naoharu Nagayama "Kurato Terashima and Masaru Kaga" Hyakumangoku group image during the Kasei Tenpo periodKatsura Shobo, 2003 ISBN-4 905564-58-1

Related item

外部 リンク

Predecessor:
(Kaga-Noto country-Vietnam
Changes in administrative districts
1639 - 1871
Next generation:
Kanazawa(Kaga Province)
Nanao Prefecture(Noto Province / Etchu ProvinceImizu-gun
Shinkawa Prefecture(Etchu Province excluding Imizu District)

Edo Period

Edo Period(Edo period)Japanese HistoryOut ofEdo Shogunate(Tokugawa Shogunate)ofGovernanceIt is a period division that refers to the times.Tokugawa period(Tokugawaji),Tokugawa JapanAlso called (Tokugawa Nihon)[1]..In the area where the feudal affairs were heldLocal historyThen.Clan eraAlso called (Hanseijidai).

Overview

During the Edo period,1603May 3(Keicho8May 2)Tokugawa Ieyasu Conqueror GeneralAppointed toEdo(CurrentTokyo)ShogunateAfter establishing[Annotation 1],1868May 10(Keio4 years/The first year of the Meiji eraMay 9)of"Poem of the first generationPromulgation (One generationWith the transition to), from KeioMeijiToChangeIt is 265 years until it is done.For the final stage,Perry arrives official1853(Kaei6 years)Outside of Sakuradamonwas there1860(MannobuFirst year),Yoshiki Tokugawa ResignationWas performed by Emperor Meiji1867May 11(Keio 3th yearMay 10) AndGreat command of the royal revivalDeclared the establishment of the Meiji government1868May 1(Keio 3th yearMay 12),Edo CastleWas done1868May 5(Keio 4th yearMay 4), orAbandoned DomainWas carried out1871There is also a view that (Meiji 4)[2].

History

Early and early Edo period 

(1603-around 1700)

Tokugawa Ieyasu TheConqueror GeneralWhen I got to, I opened the shogunate in my own territory, Edo, and hereEdo Shogunate(Tokugawa Shogunate) is born.Hideyoshi ToyotomiIn addition to turmoil in political affairs after death, we will focus on promotion of industry and education and other measures.Osaka teamBy (role of Osaka)ToyotomiWipe out the forces.Heian periodSince then, political unrest that has continued for nearly 700 years has come to an end.Established the foundation of a long-term stable administration that has continued for more than 260 years since then,Motowa KyotakeA state of peace called "has been brought to Japan.

The operating system of the Shogunate at the time of its establishment followed the Tokugawa family's house affairs, which is said to be "Shoya tailoring".KaneiAround 10 yearsOld age""Young peopleA system that lasts until the end of life has been established[3]..The daimyo, who was once a colleague of Ieyasu Tokugawa and the Toyotomi administration,Outside DaimyoSome of them had vast territories, but they were kept away from important points such as the Kanto and Kinki regions, and they were no longer involved in the shogunate government like the previous samurai government.Tokugawa familyShinpan DaimyoHad a territory but was not involved in the shogunate governmentBattle of SekigaharaI have been serving the Tokugawa family for a long timeFutami Daimyo-Flag bookThe shogunate was run by.Samurai lawsThe daimyo is strictly controlled byReformIt often happened that they were punished and lost their territory.京都-Osaka-NagasakiThe key points nationwide are under direct control (Heaven), And the officials of the shogunate ruled.Imperial courtForForbidden Nakanami officials,Kyoto officeIt became impossible to take independent external actions.

In addition, due to the invitation of peace, a large number of soldiers (samurai) have changed from unproductive military activities to administrative activities, and the area is widespread.Nitta developmentWas held in various placesSengoku periodからAzuchi-Momoyama PeriodThe economy, which had been growing for a long time, developed explosively, and the era of high growth began.

In the Edo period, Nagasaki was externallyDejimaAtChugoku(Light-clear)・ NetherlandsWith interaction withTsushima domainThroughMr. LeeProhibit exchanges with foreign countries other than exchanges with foreign countriesIsolationAdopted a policy (however, it was actually dominated by SatsumaRyukyu KingdomTrade with China byOshima Peninsula OfMr. MatsumaeThere was a northern trade by).Veteren exileWas already announced by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, but it was the direct opportunity for the seclusion.Shimabara's turbulenceso,キ リ ス ト 教Rebellion(MedievalNational rebellionAnd the early modern periodPeasantIt is said that the danger of Christianity was strongly recognized because it was difficult to suppress it because of the combination of those with an intermediate character.During this time, the Netherlands monopolized Japanese trade,スペインSuch asCatholicThe fact that the country has the intention of colonizing Japan and advised the Shogunate that it is dangerous also has an effect.Similar policy in ChinaMaritime policyIn the case of China, it is mainly in Primorsky Krai.PiratesThe purpose was to defend against pirates, including those of Japan, and to ban smuggling at sea, and the situation was different from that of Japan's seclusion.However, there is a view that it is more appropriate to ban Japan than to ban China, as it is the same as China's ban.Before the seclusion policy was implemented, the overseas expansion of Japanese people was remarkable,Southeast AsiaManyJapantownWas formed.AlsoThailandWent toYamada NagamasaIn some cases, it was used heavily in that country.

However, after the seclusion, domestic policies were taken exclusively, and a domestic self-sufficient economy was basically formed.for that reasonSanduNational economy centered oncastle townCentered onClanA complex economic system with the economy was formed, and special products from each region were mainly concentrated in Osaka (World kitchenWas called), and from there it spread all over the country.Economic prosperity was seen based on the development of agricultural productivity.GenrokuIt's an era, and in this era, in terms of literature and painting,Ibara Nishitsuru OfUkiyo Soshi,Matsuo Basho OfHaiku,Chikamatsu Monzaemon OfJoruri,Hishikawa Moronobu OfUkiyo-eEtc. are born.The culture that flourished during this Genroku periodGenroku cultureCalled.

Mid-Edo period

(Around 1700-Around 1750)

Genroku period-Shotoku period

Due to the rapid economic growth of the Genroku eraMonetary economyHas penetrated into rural areas, and Yoki (mulberry-lacquer-Japanese cypress-) ・ Mikusa (safflower-blue-hemporcotton)SuchCommodity cropCultivation has progressed, and in the fishing industry, the Kamigata fishing method has spread nationwide.Seto Inland SeaOn the coast ofIrihama salt farmWas cultivatedsaltThe mass production system was set up and distributed to various places.HandicraftThen.Cotton fabricDeveloped and traditionalSilk fabricThen of luxury goodsNishijin textileWas made, and alsoNadagogo,Itami OfSake brewing,Arita,Seto OfCeramic industryHas also developed.Eventually18st centuryAs a rural industryWholesaler cottage industryHas risen in various places.

As the flow of people and things becomes activecastle town-Port town-Post town-Monzen-cho-Torii Mae Town・ Cities of various characteristics such as mining towns were born in various places.In that sense, Japan in the Edo period was evaluated as an "urban era," and "even if you look at the history of the whole world, cities were created in large numbers as systematically as in the Edo period in Japan. There is no other example of a newly created city becoming the center of social structure. "[4] .. Early 18th century京都Osaka (Osaka)Are both close to 40populationWas holding.Edo, which had a population of around 100 million, was not only the largest consumer city in Japan but also the largest city in the world.Connecting Edo and Osaka at that timeTokaidoHowever, it is said that it was the busiest road in the world in the 18th century.[5].

Such economic developmentIn-house GinzanMine development such asFri-Silver-copperWas produced in large quantities, and in exchange for that, a large amount of goods outside Japan entered Japan, but in the 18th century, production began to decrease and depletion began to occur.Corresponding to thatArai Shiroishi OfKaishu Mutual City New ExampleIt was (Nagasaki new order).He was from the opening of the shogunate to GenrokuNagasaki TradingFor payment ofGold coinA quarter of the domestic currency,Silver coinSaid that three-quarters were lostNagasaki magistrateKiyosou OokaThis decree was issued with reference to the written opinion from.The essence was import restrictions and promotion of domestic production of goods, which imposed restrictions on the number of foreign ships entering Nagasaki and the amount of trade.The Qing dynasty ships are limited to 30 ships a year, the trade amount is limited to 6,000 pieces of silver, the Dutch ships are limited to 2 ships a year, the trade amount is limited to 3,000 pieces, and cotton cloth, which was previously imported,Raw silk,sugar,Deer skin, Encouraged the domestic production of silk fabrics.

Tokugawa Yoshimune's Shogunate (Kyoho Reform)

Became the 8th ShogunTokugawa YoshimuneIt is,Kishu Tokugawa familyHe was born in Japan and boldly carried out political reforms based on agrarianism without hesitation against Fudai Daimyo, who had led the shogunate government until then.Reform of Kyoho).It was the stability of the rice price that Yoshimune was most struck by.With the development of the monetary economy, the rice price, which was the standard for various prices, continued to decline (the various colors of the low rice price), and it was used as a unit of salary.Flag book-LordThis is because the plight of the person became remarkable.So heFrugalityWhile suppressing consumption withNittaIncreased rice production due to development,Fixed Exemption LawStable income from hiring,U.S. Ordinance,Dojima Rice ChamberWas officially recognized. This is the reason why he was called "US General".Other than that, hire talented people while curbing fiscal spendingFoot height system, Relaxing the embargo on foreign books translated into ChineseSweet potatoEncouragement of cultivation,suggestion boxReforms such as the installation ofThe Shogunate's finances have become partly sound,1744In (the first year of Enkyo), the highest tax revenue was achieved throughout the Edo period, but the annual tribute tax rate was fixed, the tribute was heavily imposed and the collection was strict, and the peasants and townspeople were dissatisfied due to excessive frugality. Invitation, from time to timeThe Great Famine of Kyoho(Kyoho 6 years (Shinshu Mt. Asamayama eruption), 7 years, 17 years)Peasant,SmashFrequently occurred.In response to these, in June 6 (Kyoho 1721), "Village Sachi", and in August 6 (19) Kyoho, the law was cracked down by means of a letter to the deputy officer.From the Horeki (1734-8) to Kyoho (1704-1710), it reached about 1716 times (actually more, about twice a year on average).[6]..In this way, while it is based on land capital, the stability of the lives of samurai who are in a unique position as rulers who are not land owners and the stable growth policy cannot always be well integrated, and financial tightening The economic pressure policy was launched and the recession became chronic.

In addition, "Zhu ZixueIs just a theory of delusion based on speculation, "he criticized Cheng-Zhu.Ogyu Riding 1726The political reform theory "Political Talk" submitted to Yoshimune around (Kyoho 11) concretely shows the political thought of Ogyu Sorai, which promotes the separation of politics and religious morality in the history of Japanese thought. It is also an epoch-making work, and after thisPublic opinionIs in full swing.on the other hand,1724In (Kyoho 9th year), a wealthy merchant in Osaka focused on Cheng-Zhu.ConfucianismlearnKaitokudoWas established, and later the Shogunate official licenseSchoolAsMeijiIt continues until the first year.1730(Kyoho 15 years),Ishida BaiganIs Japan's unique moral philosophyPsychology(Shingaku) ​​was chanted.KyohoIn this way, the year was also an era in which new developments were seen in terms of academics and ideas.

On the other hand, during the ultra-long-term political stability, especially in the first half of the hundreds of decades, the townspeople have developed under the growth economic trend, and activities in various fields such as academics, culture, arts, and economy have become active. It has established a tradition that continues to.

Late Edo period

(Around 1750-Around 1850)

Tanuma Okitsugu's Shogunate (Tanuma period)

Shogunate finance is the reform of KyohoTributeAlthough the annual tribute income increased due to the increase measures,Treasure calendarYear (1751 - 1763) Has peaked, and it has shown a deadlock again.In order to overcome this, we found new financial resources in the developed product production and distribution, and on a larger scale.Nitta developmentEzoI tried to developTanumaMet.

Tanuma changed his previous agricultural dependence,MercantilismThe policy was put into practice.A group of handicraft workers to take control of product production and distribution and reduce pricesStock companyCertified and encouraged as, thereFortune-MeikaEtc. were taxed.Monopoly systemAs a stepping stone for implementationseatWe have set up multiple organizations called, and have exclusive sales rights in each field.Brass seatGave to such a seat.By tradesman capitalInba-TeganumaReclaiming business, and also recommending Nagasaki trade, especiallyBalesThrough the development of export products, we tried to suppress the outflow of gold and silver.Also,Dutch studiesEncourage andKudo HeisukeBy their suggestionsMogami TokunaiDispatched to Ezo, Nitta development, mine development, and moreAinuPair throughロシアI was asked to investigate the possibility of trade.

These were realistic and rational policies that included extremely advanced content at the time,Matsudaira SadanobuHostile factions such as "bribeWith "politics"Negative campaignAndGreat Famine of TenmeiOverlapping withPeasant,SmashWas generated and I was dismissed. 18th centuryNorthern hemisphereHas cooledLittle Ice AgeThis spurred famine, as it was also in the era of.

Matsudaira Sadanobu's Shogunate (Kansei Reforms)

Then criticized Tanuma politicsMatsudaira Sadanobu 1787Appeared in (Tenmei 7) and based on agrarianismKansei reformWas promoted.In order to contain inflation during the Tanuma period, he proceeded with frugality and crackdowns on morals, and faced with austerity.Kabunakama was ordered to dissolve due to a commercial suppression policy, and became a daimyoSurrounding riceObligateOld village return farming orderThe peasant who flowed into Edo was returned to his hometown.AlsoAbandonment orderEmitFlag book-LordConservative, such as trying to relieve themIdealismTendency was strong.

In external measures,HayashikodairaEzo measures are punished as a ban, driftersKotaro DaikokuyaDelivered to RussiaAdam LuxmanHe took a strong stance of seclusion, such as completely rejecting the trade request of.Three-quarter deposit,People's footholdInstallation, etc. todaysocial welfareAlthough he also has policies, he controls ideas and literary arts as a whole.Tradesman-Common peopleIt was strict and took a policy of excessively protecting Hatamoto and Gokenin, which led to the secession of the people.In addition, due to the abandonment of the mercantilist policy, the fiscal condition that was sound during the Tanuma period turned worse again.

Culture / Bunsei period (Ogosho period)

After the resignation of Matsudaira Sadanobu[Annotation 2],culture-BunseiFrom the timesTempoFor about 50 years over the year, the real power of politics is the 11th ShogunTokugawa IemitsuGrabbed.Ienari is a child of the shogunateKeikeiThis politics is "" because he continued to take control even after he gave it to him.Big manIt is called "politics".During the reign of Ienari, the policy of frugality was initially taken over, but due to bad money casting.RollOnce the shogunate's finances are moistened with the profits ofOokuAfter a splendid life in Japan, the shogunate fell into overtrading.The above-mentioned Edict to Repel Foreign Ships was also promulgated during the Ienari era.On the other hand, the economic activities of merchants have become active, and the common people's culture (mainly in cities)Chemical culture) Prospered.However, in rural areas, the gap between rich and poor widened, and the riots of peasants and villagers occurred frequently in various places, and security deteriorated.1805In (2nd year of culture)Kanto crackdown officerWas placed.Tadakuni Mizuno felt signs of change that had never existed before.Peasants and tradesmen from all over the country have been angry, smashed, and accused every year.In 6, the national lawsuit by Settsu, Kawachi, and Izumi 1823 villages demanded the free sale of cotton and the free sale of rapeseed, and became an unprecedented scale of appeal. Was something to change[7].

Even in the Edo period, when the "world of Taihei" was enjoyed, while including structural conflicts with each government (each clan) that had an excessive number of samurai who are administrative officers of the ever-developing economic activities and land capital system.19st centuryAt that time, the rigidity due to rapidity begins to stand out.Also, from around this time until the first half of the Showa period, the country entered the Little Ice Age.1822(Bunsei5 years)Sumida RiverIs frozen.

In addition to that, in the latter half of the 18th centuryIndustrial revolutionByWesternCountries are rapidlyModernizationFrom the political and economic circumstances of eachAge of DiscoveryNot just an "adventure", but for your own industryresourceMarketIn search of all over the worldColonyStarted to advance for acquisition.Far EastThe number of Western ships infested in the region and in the waters near Japan has increased.For example, in Meiwa 8 (1771), Penufsky drifted to Awa Amami Oshima, Yasunaga 7 (1778), a Russian ship, visited Ezochi Atsugi and asked the Matsumae domain for commerce, Kansei 4 (1792). Russian envoy Laxman, Ise drifter Daikokuya Kodayu, etc. are escorted to Nemuro and seek commerce, but the Shogunate responds to contact with foreign envoys and foreign ships seeking a diplomatic route with Japan.1825(8th year of Bunsei)Foreign Ship Discharge OrderThe seclusion policy was continued, such as by implementing.In the second year of Bunsei (2), the Shogunate increased the number of Uraga magistrates to two.

Tenpo period of turmoil

1832It started from (Tenpo 3rd year)Tempo's Great FamineHas spread all over the country, flooded with needy people in both urban and rural areas, and many starved to death.1837(Tenpo 8th year), indignant at the shogunate's inactionOsaka Town Magistrate's OfficeFormer YorikiHeihachiro OshioWas armed uprising in Osaka.Many peasants followed Oshio, and they also struck local areas and had a great impact on the shogunate and various clan.In order to respond to such a crisis, after the death of Ienari1841(Tenpo 12 years), RōjūMizuno TadakuniTo strengthen the power of the shogunateTempo reformと 呼 ば れ るFinancial reconstructionImplemented various policies for[Annotation 3], Both are less effective, especiallySuperior decreeWas an ambitious policy aimed at both stabilizing the shogunate's finances and enhancing national defense, but it failed due to fierce opposition from all levels of society, and Tadakuni was also dismissed in just three years.[Annotation 4]..The Shogunate, as part of the Tenpo Reforms, against the ShogunateImperial Palace ReformHas been launched.This reform plan was to have a deputy officer re-examine all the cultivated land of the shogunate to increase annual tribute.This reform plan was perceived as a nuisance to the representatives who knew the local situation.[8].

Tadakuni alsoOpium WarIn (1840)clearIn July 1842 (Tenpo 13), due to the defeat of the former foreign ship, the Edict to Repel Foreign Ships was revised.Firewood water supply orderIs announced and converted to a flexible route.In June of the same year, the Netherlands reported a plan to visit a British warship in Japan.

In the same monthEgawa Eryū,Takashima AkihoWestern styleGunneryWas introduced and modern armaments were prepared.The shock of the Opium War ran around Japan,Wei Yuan"" Was printed in large numbers and had a strong influence on the political situation at the end of the Edo period.[Annotation 5].

Due to the defeat of the Opium War, China opened five ports in Guangzhou, Xiamen, Shanghai, Ningbo, and Fuzhou in 1843 (Tenpo 14), and in July 5 (Tenpo 1844), the Qing dynasty was favored. Trade agreement (Treaty of Wanghi) Concluded, in October, the Qing and French trade agreement (Treaty of Whampo) Has been concluded.Meanwhile, the United States has decided to send an envoy to establish diplomatic relations with Japan and Korea in order to expand commerce. 1846 (Koka 3rd year) Leap May 5, Commander-in-Chief of the East India SquadronBiddleEntered Edo Bay with two warships.In negotiations with Uraga Bugyo's subordinate, the Japanese government (Bakufu) retired on June 2, confirming that it was not prepared to open a port for trade.

Under these circumstances,Satsuma Domain,Choshu clanSuch"Male clanThe influential clan called "Successful financial reforms" had a strong voice in the political affairs of the late Tokugawa period.

Economically,LandlordAnd some wholesalers工場To carry out factory-produced industrial production through division of labor and collaborationManufactureAppears during the Tenpo period.Manufacture production is around OsakaOwariCotton fabric industry,Kiryu-Ashikaga-Yukiな どNorth KantoRuralSilk fabricIt was done in karma.

Late Edo period

(Around 1850-1868)

Opening of the country, Convention of Kanagawa

1853(Kaei 6th year) In Uraga, which is just a stone's throw from Edo Bay, contrary to the Shogunate's policy of negotiating with Dejima in Nagasaki.Black shipForced landing inThe United States of America OfMatthew PerryThe shogunate, who had no choice but to negotiate, succumbed to the power of the Perry fleet, which showed a stance of forcibly rushing into Edo Bay when it arrived the following year.Japan-US Treaty of Peace and AmityAfter that, a similar treaty was concluded with the Western European countries that had been in high-pressure contact following the example of the United States.OpeningI had to do it.On June 6, the same year, the 22th shogun, Ieyoshi, died at the age of 12, leaving behind saying, "I will leave the future politics to Nariaki Tokugawa and Masahiro Abe."On July 61st of the same year, the shogunate and national books were shown to various daimyo and asked for their opinions, and on the 7rd, the shogunate who appeared and above were also asked for their opinions. It was a big change for the Shogunate, which had been based on the principle of "don't know, don't know" for 1 years.[10].

After the opening of the country, foreign ships may come to any coast or coast of Japan, and construction of Odaiba in Edo Bay began in August 1853 (Kaei 6).Then, on September 8, the same year, the Shogunate decided to permit the construction of large ships.[Annotation 6]..In addition, he ordered warships, guns, and soldier books from the Netherlands.

After that, in April 1858 (Ansei 5),Naosuke IiBecomes an elder.The five countries of the United States, Orchid, Russia, Britain, and France, the Treaty of Amity and Commerce, and the so-called trade ordinance.Ansei Five-Country Treaty(Inequality treaty) Was signed, and the Japanese economy was hit hard. In August, a foreign delegation will be established.In the same month, he sent a dissatisfied royal command to the Mito clan and others to conclude the Emperor Komei Treaty.Also, give it to the shogunate.In July of this year, the 8th generation Iesada died, and on October 7th, the 13th generation Iemochi was appointed as the Shogun General and Naidaijin.From June of the following year, free trade with five countries, Russia, France, Britain, Orchid, and the United States, began at the three ports of Yokohama, Nagasaki, and Hakodate.The transaction took place in a settlement where foreigners were allowed to live and operate because activities in Japan were prohibited by the treaty.The center of export was raw silk and tea[Annotation 7]..The increase in exports led to a shortage of domestic supplies and caused prices to soar.On the other hand, cheap Western cotton fabrics and woolen fabrics produced in large mechanical industries have flowed in.At Yokohama Port, 94.5% of exports and 86.8% of exports are made, and in the partner country, 88.2% of Britain, 9.6% of France, then exports to the United States and Orchids, followed by Britain with 88.7% of imports, followed by Orchids and France. , US, Prussia, and Russia, and mainly traded with the UK for both imports and exports.In addition, the gold price relative to the domestic silver price was lower than in Europe and the United States, so a huge amount of gold coins were washed away overseas.In this way, economic fluctuations due to the opening of the port spurred the downfall of lower-level farmers and urban residents.[11].

Lower samuraiIntellectualIt is said that it was against the theory that "Sakoku is the ancestral law since the opening of Japan", centering on the class, and public opinion that violently opposes its foreign policy arose.ArrogantI pressed Asano as an exercise.public opinionThe fact thatBakuhan systemIt was something that couldn't happen when it was robust, but as a spiritual pillar of this "public opinion"京都 OfEmperor= The existence of the emperor (Mikado) is highlighted.For this reason, Kyoto, which had been a politically quiet city for a long time due to the policy of the Shogunate, suddenly became noisy, and the famous "BakumatsuSedition "occurs.

Bunkyu's domestic politics

At one point, the elderNaosuke IiForced repression route (Ansei no Hell), And it seemed that the dissatisfaction "public opinion" would subside, but on March 1860, 7 (Ansei 3).Outside of SakuradamonLater, the situation changed rapidly while the shogunate shook due to the issue of succession to the shogun.

Prior to this, in January 1860 (Ansei 7)Katsu KaishuRagaKanrinmaruHeading to the United States. January 1862, 2 (1nd year of Bunkyu), RōjūAndo NobumasaIs attacked and injured by 6 people including Ronin MitoWeirdness outside SakashitamonIs happening.On February 2, the same year, a grand wedding ceremony between Shogun Iemochi and Kazumiya was held at Edo Castle.On July 11, the same year, the Shogunate made Yoshinobu Tokugawa the guardian of the general, and on the 7th of the same month, Yoshinaga Matsudaira became the governor of the political affairs.Matsudaira YohoTheKyoto guardianI can get it.Last July, it allowed the purchase of ships from various hans.On the other hand, as the city and port continued to open due to the opening of the country, the first and second stages were held in 7 (the first year of Bunkyu) and the following year by Ronin and others.Tozenji IncidentIs happening.Satsuma DomainThen,ShimadzuThe feudal lord who succeeded after his deathShimazu TadayoshiIs the father ofHisamitsu Shimazu Choshu clanTo restrainKobu Gattai MovementIn April of the same year, the sect of the clan was purged.Teradaya riot) And demanded reform from the Shogunate (Bunkyu's reform). In 1862 (2nd year of Bunkyu), Hisamitsu Shimazu returned from Edo to Satsuma.Namamugi IncidentCause[Annotation 8],following yearSatsuei WarThen you will realize the recklessness of Joi.

1862 (2nd year of Bunkyu) Leap August, the purpose was to relax the shogunate attendance change system and make it a 8-day stay in the prefecture once every third year to strengthen the national security.[Annotation 9]..On September 9, the same year, it was promulgated that the Shogun would be promoted in February of tomorrow.Public military coalitionIt is a strengthening measure of.In December of the same year, the Shogunate established a military system.[Annotation 10].

In the Choshu clan, where the Sonno Jōi faction and the Kobu Gattai faction were fighting for the initiative of the feudal affairs, the Sonno Jōi faction came to take the initiative and collusion with the Kyoto Kuge and urged the shogunate to carry out the expulsion.[Annotation 11]..As a result, the shogunate1863(3rd year of Bunkyu) May 5thAnniversary of Joi ExecutionPromised to[Annotation 12]..The Choshu clan bombarded a foreign ship passing through the Shimonoseki Straits[Annotation 13]..However, the day after the bombardment of foreign ships, the Choshu clan departed Inoue Kaoru, Nomura Yakichi, Endo Kinsuke, Ito Shunsuke, Yamao Yozo and others on the British ship Kiroseki from Yokohama to the United Kingdom on the 12th.The leader of this planMasanosuke SufuSo, in anticipation that the day of exchange and trade with each country would inevitably come after the expulsion, I thought that it would be a big disadvantage for Japan if I had to be familiar with Western affairs, so I sent them to Japan.[15][Annotation 14].

In response to these executions, the forces of the Aizu and Satsuma domains in Kyoto1863(3rd year of Bunkyu) On August 8, the lord of the Sonno Jōi faction was excluded from Kyoto.August XNUMX political changeIs.next day,Mimi SanjoLanoSeven Lords..There was a widespread rumor in Kyoto that the lord of the Choshu domain, Mori Takachika's son, Sadahiro, would come to Tokyo with Sanjo Sanetomi, who had fallen into the capital.The purpose was to eliminate Nakagawamiya, the Konoe family, the head of the five regents, the Aizu domain, and the Satsuma domain.1864(First year of Genji) June 6,Shinsengumi IkedaAttacked. On June 6, Kusaka Genzui led the clan soldiersTennoyamaOn the 27th, a clan soldier led by Kijima MatabeiTenryu templewent inside. On July 7, the Choshu clan held the shogunate army (Satsuma clan) at various gates in Kyoto.Aizu Domain-Kuwana Domain) And engage (Forbidden).In November of the same year, the Choshu clan ordered the three chief retainers of the Kinmon Incident to commit suicide.

First and second Choshu expedition, Hyogo port opening problem

Because of the Kinmon Incident, the ShogunateFirst Choshu Expedition(July 7th).At the same time, he was hit by a fleet of four British, American, French and Dutch fleets, landed and occupied the battery (Shikoku Fleet Shimonoseki bombardment case) (August 8th).On the 5th, the Choshu clan signed a peace treaty with the four-country fleet.afterwards,Takusugi Takasugi,Takato KidoThey took control of the feudal affairs.

The illusion that the Shogunate's authority was restored due to the change of the Kinmon Incident to the Choshu dynasty.[16], 1864 (the first year of the Genji era), September 9,Change of attendanceThe system will be restored to before the 1862 amendment (leap August 8, relaxed to departure once every three years). On September 22, Saigo and Katsu met at the lodgings in Osaka.Saigo hears from Katsu about "republican politics" (a coalition government based on the collegial system of the lords of the male feudal clan) and is impressed.

1865(2nd year of Genji)May 5, Departed from Shogun Edo, and entered Tokyo and Sannai on May 5nd, and entered Osaka Castle on May 22th.On September 25, the same year, the shogun left Osaka and entered Tokyo on the 9th of the same month, requesting permission to pursue Choshu.

Under such circumstances1866(Keio 2nd year) On January 1, the Saigoku Yuhan, who had repeated political conflicts with Satsuma and Choshu,Ryoma Sakamoto,Shintaro NakaokaA secret agreement between Saigo and Katsura on the oral anti-curtain alliance (Chief alliance) Was done. On June 1866, 2 (Keio 6), the ShogunateSecond Choshu ConquestHowever, it was organized by Shinsaku Takasugi.Strange soldiersThe general commander, who is hindered by the activities of the mixed army of the common people,Tokugawa IgemoOn January 7Osaka CastleOn August 8, a letter was issued to suspend the conquest due to the death of the general, and on September 21, a truce was agreed upon. On December 9, the emperor died of smallpox at the age of 2.Rumor(Okurina) was designated as Emperor Komei.

The trust and authority of the Edo Shogunate, which has been unable to control the daimyo who set up the clan's residence in Kyoto against the law of the shogunate, and who cannot even maintain the security of Kyoto on their own, and the "samurai" who are the basis of the shogunate system, This defeat quickly disappeared.Satsuma isTosa Domain,Hizen clanSince the opening of the countryMistake"Joi" who insists on the opposition to the treaty and the expulsion of foreigners and tries to put it into practice,SinologyAs a head of state problem that has spread since the latter half of the Edo period due to the progress ofReverenceIn connection with, "Reverence"Was the flaghead and formed the public opinion of" defeat ".

Approximately four months after the death of the 14th shogun, Iemochi, on December 4, 1866 (Keio 2), a shogun's proclamation ceremony was held, and Yoshinobu became the 12th shogun.This period is called the "general vacant period."Yoshinobu immediately worked on reforming the personnel of the shogunate, and changed the system to share responsibility for the shogunate, such as young people and the elderly.Also, the French Minister to JapanRocheModernization of the shogunate army system, seizure of diplomatic rights with reference to[Annotation 15]And so on[17].

On the other hand, in the domestic situation, this year (1866 (Keio 2nd year)), the number and intensification of farmers nationwide was unprecedented.[Annotation 16].

Taisei Hokan, Restoration

1867(Keio 3rd year) January 1,Emperor Meiji Practicedid.Pro-Choshu factionNakayama TadayasuTadayasu Nakayama, his grandfather, was banned from serving and visiting others after the Kinmon Incident.This relationship alone did not mean that the punishment officials were reinstated. On January 1867, 3 (Keio 1), Prince Arisugawa Taruhito and former Kampaku Kujo Hisatada were exempted, and on January 15, Prince Arisugawa Taruhito and Tadayasu Nakayama were exempted.[18].. On May 5, a secret agreement was signed between Saigo in Satsuma and Katsura in Choshu.[Annotation 17].. In June, Ryoma Sakamoto came up with a plan that would be the basis of future political plans.This will be laterEight measures on boardIt is said to be.

In August of the same year, the people who were pleased because the bill of Ise Jingu fell in the Tokai region disguised themselves.Come on, it's okI danced while singing.This spread to a wide area from Kinki / Shikoku to Kanto from summer to autumn.In this monaka1867May 11On (October 3, 10rd year of Keio), the 14th ShogunYoshiki TokugawaAs a measure for rejuvenationResignationOn the 15th, he obtained a letter of edict.And on the 24th, he resigned from the shogunate.The defeated forces who were trying to completely defeat the Edo Shogunate by force temporarily lost the name of the attack, so they took the initiative, but the Satsumacho and other defeated factions were on the same day as the Taisei Hokan.Secret imperial religionThe stance of destroying the shogunate was not broken.1868May 1(December 3, 12rd year of Keio) Connected with Tomomi Iwakura, Takamori Saigo, Toshimichi OkuboGreat command of the royal revivalIs issued, the customs and generals are abolished, and three jobs are established.Prime MinisterThe system was launched.This dayKogosho meetingThen, Yoshinobu was ordered to resign from the Minister of the Interior and to give a part of the territory, and the conflict between the new government and the old shogunate became clear. Under this order, the Tokugawa shogunate was subdued.

January 3rd and 1th, 3rd year of KeioBattle of Toba and FushimiAs an opportunityBoshin WarOutbreak.And1868May 5(Keio 4th year / April 4th, 11),Katsu KaishuSaigo TakamoriAs a result of negotiationsEdo Castle is surrendered to the new government army, Yoshinobu lived in Mito, and the Edo Shogunate disappeared in both name and reality.January 3, 1rd year of Keio,3 jobs and 7 departmentsTo determine. March 3thCharter Oath, "Shinkan"[Annotation 18], The same 15th,Presentation of the Five Public NotificationsThe measures of the new government were implemented one after another. September 1868, 9 (first year of the Meiji era),Ichigen systemAfter being stipulated, it was changed to the Meiji era.LaterMeiji EraCalled.

Even after the collapse of the Edo Shogunate, some of the remaining soldiers of the Shogunate and the pro-Bakufu DaimyoKanto regionandTohoku region(April 5Ouetsu Reihan AllianceI resisted with (establishment) etc.1869May 5 OfGoryokakuDue to the fall of (Hakodate War), The Boshin War is over.This ended the samurai era, which lasted for more than seven centuries, both in name and reality.SamuraiEthnic family,SamuraiAlthough he won the title, he lost his privilege and dignity,Because all the rebellions also failed, Was absorbed by the general public.

Politics / Society

Central politics

In the Edo periodConqueror GeneralTokugawaCentered onsamuraiClass dominatedFeudal societyMet.MainStatus systemDegree is the ruling classsamuraiAnd the ruling classCommon people-TradesmanIt was based on the above three statuses.Until then with the samurai農民Was not separated, butHideyoshi Toyotomi OfSword huntSaid the samuraiCastle-TradesmanThe samurai class and the peasants were clearly separated from each other due to the fixed villages and residences of the townhouses and peasants.Separation of soldiers).However, some liquidity can be seen in each level of the Edo period.Especially in EdofamineThere are many farmers who have flowed in from rural areas due to such reasons, and the shogunate often issues them.Also, nationwideClanIsSquireThere was also a self-supporting samurai called.They areCastleLive inLordからSacrificeIs a samurai who was givenFeudal lordIs clearly distinguished from, and as a lower statusDiscriminationIt was sometimes done.For those who were active at the end of the Edo periodEmperorRegardless of the person or the shogunate,Squire-TradesmanMany of them were from the hierarchy.

There are various theories about the relationship between the shogunate and the imperial court.[21].Kanpaku-MinisterIeyasu Tokugawa was appointed as Shogun, as was Hideyoshi Toyotomi.Consort kinThe authority of the imperial court was used by connecting.Since the Warring States period, it has controlled the territory in a circle.Public authorityTheOfficial riteEspeciallyEmperorRefers to the Tokugawa Shogunate, which achieved national rule by uniting with the authority of.The shogunateForbidden Nakanami officialsEstablishment ofPurple clothing incidentThrough such means, the imperial court rule was strengthened.Arai ShiroishiIsTokushi YoronThe establishment of the Edo ShogunateZhu ZixueBased on this, he regarded it as a revolution and insisted on the legitimacy of the shogunate.Noricho Motoi,Matsudaira Sadanobu TheLarge government delegation theoryWas chanted, but it was in a position to affirm the power of the Shogunate (Matsudaira SadanobuOne caseConflict with the imperial court).Holy calendar case OfTakeuchi ShikibuAndMeiwa case OfYama prefecture,Emperor ReigenSome tried to regain the power of the imperial court. "Japanese history』Established in the process of compilationMito Manabu,Yoshida ShoinThinkers such as preach the legitimacy of the rule by the emperor,Overthrow movement-Meiji RestorationI learned from a priest.

The shogunate is Edo,Osaka,京都ToTown magistrate-Kyoto ShoshidaiWas emphasized, but other than thatIzu-Hita-Nagasaki-Niigata-HidaAnd importantmineToDeputy officialArranged and ruled.These dominance is not limited to just one cityKyoto office TheYamashiro-Tamba-OmiSuch,Osaka Town Magistrate TheWest JapanNationalHeaven OfSaihaiAre allowed, etc.jurisdictionIt also had the role of inspecting the daimyo of the earth (Kyoto office TheImperial courtWas also monitoring).However, they used very little force and were in the early 18th century.Nagasaki magistrateThere were more than 10 people, and there were only 30 people at the Gojo Daikan office at the end of the Edo period.

The shogunate separates political power from economic power.Most of the Fudai Daimyo, who could be the Shogunate, were devoted to low stone heights of about 5 to 10 stones, while many of the Tozama Daimyo who never allowed them to be involved in the Shogunate government. With a large seal of hundreds of thousands of stonesNational DaimyoWas given the form.Moreover, even the curtainThe elderCapacity 4-5 people, except for special casesOld ageHowever, important matters are consensus, and daily matters are settled on a monthly basis, which is a relatively early diversification of power.This is in the Muromachi ShogunateThree KanreiA family of multiple powersGuardianDoubled asMr. HosokawaHowever, it is a reflection of the fact that it eventually became a hereditary power that monopolized the Kanrei position and overwhelmed the Ashikaga clan.

Local politics

Daimyo who obtained permission from the Edo Shogunate were allowed to govern the land for only one generation in principle.Feudal systemIs.The control system of the territory varies considerably depending on the scale of each daimyo, but it is almost the same as the control system of the shogunate.The same applies to the status system.However, the daimyo was not able to freely control the controlled land, and from the shogunateLarge scaleThe administration was monitored and regulated by the inspector messenger issued by.For this reasonSamurai lawsA considerable number of daimyo were in violationReform-UnpackingAlthough he was punished, this punishment was carried out regardless of whether he was a Shinpan, Fudai, or Tozama.

The daimyo was stipulated by the shogunateChange of attendanceI was obliged to help.This was a major cause of poverty in Daimyo.To overcome thisClan administration reformIs carried out in each clan from the 18th to 19th centuries (at the earliest, the Tosa clan17st centuryI went in the middle).Initially frugalClanIt was mainly promulgated, but in the middle of the 18th century, local products such as salt and potteryMonopoly systemIs carried out in a considerable clan.In a strange placeKishu clanThere is a "", and even the daimyo himself becomes a financial company and takes interest.Also,Sendai DomainIs in Osaka's MasuyaThe beginningIsYamagata BantōSome clan has left the finances to the merchants, just as the clan's finances were reviewed.

Part ofNational DaimyoExcept for the clan, the territory of the clan is a little far from the central castle and the castle town area, and the others.EnclaveI had(Remuneration).This tendency is especially common in Fudai Daimyo around 10 stones.Near KyotoYodo DomainHad territory not only in Kinki such as Yamashiro but also in Kazusa far away.

As a method of controlling the daimyo, wartime military service is a change of attendanceWorld buildingIn addition to being left in the form of an obligation to participate in the event, influential daimyo were given measures similar to taking over the house by sending the shogun's child as an adopted child or a bride.

In addition, with some exceptions, each clan is a clan officer.ChiyukiBy the beginning of the 18th centuryLocal knowledge system(Allows the feudal lord to give a part of the territory to the feudal lord, and the annual tribute income raised from it belongs to the feudal lord) to the salary system The brewed rice is paid to the clan as an annual salary).

In the early Edo period, each clan fought for boundaries with neighboring clan.In a famous placeKubota DomainMorioka DomainThe Kazuno territory has developed to the point where it crosses the tide, but in addition to thisSendai DomainSoma Nakamura Domain,ClanTokuyama Domainand so on.These were mostly resolved by the mid-term, and the boundaries decided at that time are still being carried on.

Region

A town centered around the castle where the shogunate and daimyo are based (castle townOther than), it was basically considered to be a rural area.For this reason, income from port profits and minerals from mines was also converted into rice.The daimyo thought that the prosperity of the castle town, which contributes to the payment, was synonymous with their own development, and implemented a protection policy.

However, in the middle of the Edo period, the development of port towns and post towns, and the cultivation of highly cashable cotton began in rural areas.資本主義The decline of the castle town became conspicuous, as the donations to the daimyo became too heavy and some of the merchants collapsed.The shogunate tried to cool the farmer's business feverEi Tabata Trading BanPromulgation of ya etc. had no effect.

In rural areasLord,ShoyaExists as a bridge between the shogunate / daimyo and the village, and in principle the samurai were not in the village (Local knowledge systemThere are exceptions such as the Sendai Domain, which preserved the.thisLord,ShoyaIs often the descendant of a leading peasant who owns the land for a long time or an indigenous samurai.Family name swordAlternatively, there were many who had the privilege of exemption from various roles and were listed as locals.Also, in a large village, there are multiple masters, Shoya.YoriOpened and ruled the village.Not only did they keep their annual tributes in check, but they also served to lower the orders of the administration.Although there are differences depending on the clan, if the peasant is in trouble, he will tell the administration on behalf of them, and in the case of a riot, he will stand on the rural side and take the lead. In some cases, the lower-ranking officials, who are at the end of the control mechanism, were strongly targeted at the time of a riot.In the latter half of the early modern period, when the landowner's aspect became stronger, such as accumulating the land of poor microfarmers, many of them had the latter aspect.

Focusing on reading and writingTerakoya,private school, In rural areasHometown(Hometown school) was set up, and Japanese peopleLiteracy rateWas expensive.Also of the Okayama domainSecluded schoolWith this as a starting point, the clan and Hatamoto here and there created a school where even locals could enter.Something like thisMogami Tokunai,Mamiya RinzoIt can be said that it plays a role in the success of people from rural areas.

The Edo period, when the shogunate drastically relocated daimyo, was also an era of active cultural exchange throughout Japan.For example, in MikawaMizunoWas established in Bingo Fukuyama, so the language of Mikawa flowed into the Bingo area, and the dialect of the Fukuyama region was mixed with the Mikawa dialect.He also ruled ShinanoMr. SengokuWhen transferred to Tajima Izushi, Shinano'sJapanese buckwheat noodlesBecause I brought it to IzushiIzushi sobaWas born.Exchanges of such things are occurring in various places, but in many areas this is a current specialty.

社会

Far away in the Edo periodShrinePilgrimage and worship became popular.This probably has an entertaining meaning, and the peopleTravelIt is also said to be the origin of this.Travel agencies and information services also appear inside, and on the side of temples and shrinesRed light districtThere is also a place whereIn addition, guidebooks such as the current travel guidebooks have been published.In the background of this pilgrimage to the distance,Gokaido,PostInfrastructure such as town maintenance and security improvement has been put in place.These typical ones33 countries in the west,88 locations in ShikokuThere are pilgrimages and so on.Also, at the end of the Edo period,Tenrikyo,Golden lightShinto new religions such as are appearing.

The identification system can be broadly divided.samuraiThe ruling class and the controlled classTradesman-Common people・ Although there were drinkers and renters, there was some liquidity in the status, such as influential tradesmen and peasants sometimes buying stocks of samurai.In addition to theseOfficial house,School inspection, Actor, priest,Chief officer,Tadashi,outcastThere were various classes such as, but the classes called by the same name in different areas have virtually different actual conditions, and the classes that are regarded as different classes in one area are equated in other areas. It presents a complicated situation depending on the region and time.The chiefs, Tadashi, and non-humans, who are considered to be discriminated against, manufacture and process leather.Death penaltyHe was assigned jobs that people dislike, such as cleaning the corpses of executors and cows and horses, and was discriminated against by other classes, but he was financially stable to some extent because he monopolized those occupations.LaterMeiji RestorationInstitutional discrimination was abolished by the four-people equality policy incivilianBut by thatRight to acquire dead cows and horsesSuch asPrivilegeMany people were in need because they lost their lives.Social discrimination still remains in the private sector, modern timesBuraku Liberation MovementLed to (Buraku problem).

Economy / Trade / External Relations

Economy

During the Edo period, economic development was rapid, and the accumulation of capital wasMeiji RestorationIt will be the driving force for subsequent economic development.

Since the daimyo of each region sold rice and fish agricultural products produced by their own clan in Osaka in order to cover the cost of the Edo clan's residence and the change of attendance, Osaka is the name of the daimyo.KurashikiWas placed, and special products from all over the country were lined up, and it was booming.In addition, many daimyo stayed at the inns and hatago on the highway due to the change of attendance and the help contract, so the economic distribution became active.The Edo ShogunateStock companyWas formed to allow the monopoly of a specific merchant to control the commerce.However, in reality, in the latter half of the Edo period, the rise of emerging merchants began in both cities and regions, and they began to show active development.The Shogunate was unable to adequately respond to these movements in economic development, which contributed to the upset of the Shogunate without being able to calm the social turmoil caused by price fluctuations.

According to Angus Madison (see pp.195-196 below), the GDP as of 1820 (Kyoho year) is 1 times that of Japan, 1.75 times that of the Netherlands, and 0.3 times that of the United Kingdom, assuming that the United States is 2.8. In 1850, the United States nearly doubled that of Japan (Michifumi Isoda, "The Inner Curtain of Japanese History," Chuko Shinsho, 2th Edition, 10, pp.2018-195).The per capita production in the Edo period was 196% (Masanori Takashima, "Japanese History of Economic Growth, 1").

As an external policy, the shogunateSea ban(So-calledIsolation) The policy was in place.However, he came to the prefecture when he replaced the shogun.Korean communication ambassadorI often visited the Qing dynasty again.Director of the Dutch Trading HouseIt is said that he had grasped the trends in Europe to some extent (Dutch book).For example, the old man who reformed TenpoMizuno TadakuniImmediately withdrew the Edict to Repel Foreign Ships when the Opium War broke out in the Qing dynasty, but this was also due to the fact that the Western powers, including Britain, were aware of their diplomatic stance toward the Qing dynasty.In addition, a Western medical school in Narutaki, Nagasaki (Narutaki Cram School) OpenedSieboldMany Japanese were studying under the school, and there was a limited range of exchanges between Westerners and Japanese.

Agriculture / Forestry
Agricultural technology: Advances in agricultural equipment,Thousand teeth handling-Bichu hoe,Gold fertilizerFee (Dried sardine,Oil cake),Industrious Revolution
Agriculture:Ninomiya Sontoku
Fishing industry
Bales: Sea cucumber, (Abalone,Shark fin… BothChinese cuisineLuxury ingredients)
Mining
Sado Kanayama,Ikino Ginzan,Iwami Ginzan,Besshi Copper Mine
Handicraft
Commodity crop,Manufacture
Transportation
Land transportation:Gokaido(Tokaido,Nakasendo,Nikko Kaido,Koshu Highway,Oshu Kaido
Water transportation:Bensai Ship,Ryo Kadokura,Mizumura Kawamura,Tokai Kaiun,West shipping
communication:Hikyakusystem
city
Sandu: Edo / Osaka / Kyoto,castle town,Post town,Monzen-cho(Nagano,(I.e.Such)
businessman
Edo merchant, Kamigata merchant (Osaka merchant,Omi Merchant),Ise merchant

Monetary policy

The Edo Shogunate reformed the monetary system using a large amount of accumulated gold and silver as a source of funds.Before the founding of the Shogunate1601To (6th year of Keicho)Kinza(Oval) andGinzaFounded,KeichokinSilverOrdered the casting of.From KeichoKaneiUntil around the timeJinshanandSilver mineIs one of the largest in the world, and the 5th ShogunTokugawa TsunayoshiUntil that time, the gold and silver reserves of the Edo Castle Ruins were plentiful.And it was an imported productYongle TongbaInstead of1636(Kanei 13 years),ZenzaProvideKanei TreasureDomestic currency such as was coined and distributed.

However, high-value money isEast Japan TheGold coin(oval)But,West Japan TheSilver coin(Chogin) Is the basis of distributionMarketAlso fluctuated dailyMoney changerSuch asFinancial industryHas developed.Also to avoid carrying large amounts of moneyBillTrading has also developed.Also,1620(Genwa6 years) Around the world ahead of the restOsaka(Osaka)DojimaInFutures tradingWas being done.As the economy developed, it became necessary to transport a large amount of goods.Bensai ShipThe distribution of goods around the coast of Japan has greatly developed.

Also, after the Kanei period, the production of gold and silver began to fade, whereaspopulationGradually increased, the economy developed, and the shogunate's spending increased, leading to financial difficulties, and the stockpile of gold and silver began to bottom out.1695(8th year of Genroku)GenrokukinSilverStarting with the issuance of, recasting will be carried out to reduce the quality in order to obtain a roll and expand the currency.

1772Gradually after the issue of Minami Ryuji Zhu Gin (first year of Anei)BothThe number of counting silver coins with units of minutes and vermilion, which is based on1837(Tenpo 8th year)IchibuginWhen it comes to issuance, it's like a choginWeighed silver coinThe silver coins were to be incorporated into the oval currency system.

The Shogunate will change the ratio of gold and silver coins after the Genroku periodMoney recastFrequently[22]..This is a policy whose main purpose is to improve the finances of the Shogunate, and to increase the money issuance profit by adjusting the rice price, reducing the money contained in the money, and increasing the amount of money issued. The policy was to improve the public finances, but on the other hand, this policy also had the purpose of increasing the amount of money in the market and adjusting the gold and silver prices inside and outside the market.[23].Tokugawa TsunayoshiOf the eraGenroku recast TheReflationIt had an effect and improved the economy[24],Hoei's recastThen, the rice price rose by 83%, causing rapid inflation.[25].Arai ShiroishiLed byShotoku recastCaused deflation due to a decrease in currency circulation[26]..after thisTokugawa YoshimuneMade byGenbun recastWas carried out for the purpose of deflation measures, and it was decided to stabilize the rice price for 80 years.[27].Tokugawa IemitsuDue to the financial difficulties of the Shogunate, large-scale recasting was carried out, and the circulation of money increased by 40%.[28]..In addition, this Bunsei recast andMizuno TadakuniLed byTenpo recastExchanged gold and silver coins at face value, and the shogunate earned a large amount of money.As a result, the shogunate's monetary spending increased, and although it was slower than in the Genbun period, it was evaluated as having brought about inflation that stimulated the economy.Hiroshi Shinbo) Also[29]..After the opening of the country, Ansei will adjust the price difference between domestic and foreign gold and silver.Man'en recastHowever, this led to a further nominal increase in the circulation of money, and the economy suffered dramatic inflation.[30].

finance

Ieyasu Tokugawa uses the income of the samurai as the basis of the samurai's rule structure.RiceWas dependent on.Therefore, the main economic policy of the Shogunate was to stabilize the US market.However, if we increase the production of rice in order to increase our income, it will be difficult to think that the price of rice will decrease, and the samurai class will be in distress.Frugality,Tokusei OrdinanceWill be issued.These factors have given merchants control of the economy.

In the 18th century, famine began to occur frequently in Japan, andTempo's Great FamineWhen it becomes, the harvest is zero depending on the clan (Tsugaru DomainEtc.) will also appear.Look at thisTanuma TheMercantilismAttempts to adopt the policy have failed due to opposition.The main purpose is to improve finances,Money recastFrequently[22].

Trade

"Sakoku" (Sea ban)policy[Annotation 19]UnderNagasaki OfChinese mansionKiyoshi, Nagasaki inDejimaTrade with the Netherlands was carried out by the Shogunate.Also,Tsushima domainMediatedMr. LeeWithJapanese-style buildingThe trade in Japan was also officially recognized by the Shogunate.Although it is not an official trade relationship by the Shogunate,Satsuma DomainWas under the control ofRyukyu KingdomThrough intermediary trade with Qing and Southeast Asia,Matsumae clanWas under the influence ofAinuTrade with was also carried out.These four places are sometimes called "four mouths".Although different from trade, some were wrecked overseas due to unseasonable weather.The now-known drifters were uniformly well protected by foreign countries, gained foreign knowledge, and returned to Japan. Drifted to Russia at the end of the 18th century, EmpressCatherine IIAudience toKotaro DaikokuyaAnd Manjiro Nakahama who was educated in the United States and was active at the end of the Edo period (John Manjiro) Is one of them.
The Edo Shogunate is the only oneMr. LeeHad formal diplomatic relations with.

外交

Religious

Confucianism

Confucianism developed as Confucianism in Japan, from the early to mid-Edo period.Zhu Zixue,Positive studyBecame popular.

Buddhism

Buddhism is from HatamotoShozo SuzukiOr on your ownSutraPublishedTetsugen Doko, Sanskrit study, advocated the restoration of preceptsCiyun, Called the ancestor of Rinzai sect ChukoHakuinIt was not without such excellent monks, but because it was used as a measure of popular rule as part of the religious policy of the Shogunate (Danke system), It was generally sluggish.It was during this period that the inside of Buddhism was also corrupted and so-called "funeral Buddhism" was established, and the corpse of Buddhism was criticized by both Shinto and Confucian factions.The Nichiren sect refusal group, which was regarded as an evil sect by the Oda administration and the Edo Shogunate, was thoroughly suppressed.

Shinto

In Shinto, Shinto and Confucianism are united with the encouragement of Confucianism by the Shogunate and various feudal lords.Suika ShintoConfucian Shinto such as appeared.Then, with the rise of Kokugaku, the restoration Shinto that abolished the Buddha was advocated, and in some cases the separation of Shinto and Buddha began.Reconstruction Shinto excluded the teachings of Confucianism and Buddhism, while Suika Shinto and Reconstruction Shinto also influenced the ideas of the late Tokugawa shogunate and the policies of the Meiji era.Due to the restoration of imperial court power in the Meiji Restoration, shrines of the Emperor were erected in various places (Minatogawa Shrine was also around this time), and the tombs of the Emperor were established in various places.

Yasokyo (Christianity)

Following the flow of the expulsion of Batteren by Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Christianity called Yasokyo was thoroughly cracked down throughout most of the Edo period.

Since Christianity was introduced from trading countries such as England and Portugal in the early Edo period, the ban was not enforced.However, the crackdown on Christianity strengthened as the seclusion policy was strengthened.

  • In 1622 (8th year of Genna) in Nishizaka, NagasakiGreat Martyrdom of GenwaMass executions known as were carried out.This 3rd ShogunTokugawa IemitsuIn this era, the establishment of a feudal system, the strengthening of trade and immigration control and control (thorough "isolation"), and the ban on Christians became the three major policies, and Christians had to choose between martyrdom and abandonment. lost.
  • 1635 (Kanei 12) The job regulations for Nagasaki Bugyo ("Third Sakoku Ordinance") abolished the Shuinsen trade, which was used as a means of smuggling missionaries by prohibiting Japanese from coming and going to Southeast Asia. did.
  • 1637 (Kanei 14)Shimabara's turbulenceOccurs.After this, the crackdown on Christians was thoroughly enforced nationwide, and Christians were caught by systems such as the danka system.The few remaining religiousHidden ChristianThe faith was maintained until the end of the Tokugawa shogunate.
  • In 1865 (the first year of Keio), hidden Christians confessed their faith to French missionaries and became global news.They were subsequently cracked down by the Meiji government (Urakami Yoban Kuzure).

Academic / Thought

During the Edo period, the war was calmed down and society became stable and peaceful.EconomyAs the activity became more active, people's speech activities became more active and diverse.LearningHas blossomed.Also due to economic developmentCommon peopleThe rise of the scholarship gave birth to academic leaders.The characteristics of academics in the Edo period are centered on the intuitive and associative thinking of individual researchers.中 世It can be mentioned that the attitude of conducting empirical research based on literature, etc., has emerged, rather than proceeding with research based on a specific idea.Also in someidentityThe idea of ​​denying the system has emerged.Thus, leaving the Middle AgesModernThe Edo period is historically close toThe early modern periodIs defined as.

In the middle of the Edo period, as part of the feudal government reformClan schoolOpening of the school will be held in various places.Basically, Cheng-Zhu school is a child of a feudal lordFencingHowever, there were some lectures on medical techniques and Western techniques, and even ordinary people were eligible to take the lectures.At the common people levelMonkThe intellectual class gathered the children of the common people and taught them basic reading and writing.thisTerakoyaAs the number of literacy increased, the literacy rate in Japan increased, and it became the driving force behind the modernization from the end of the Edo period to the Meiji era.Also, in large towns such as Kyoto and Osaka, from the early Edo periodHitoshi Ito KogidouOpen, etc.private schoolHowever, from the middle of the Edo period, a private school called a village school appeared in the village.

Confucianism

ArgumentConfucian scriptures such as are introduced to Japan together with Buddhist scriptures from ancient times.Muromachi PeriodToFive mountainsWas read by a monk.Hideyoshi Toyotomi OfKorean troop dispatchAt the time ofGingerThe Cheng-Zhu scholars were brought back, and Ieyasu Tokugawa loved the analects.FujiwaraAnd its disciplesLinsanBy making heavy use ofZhu ZixueResearch has begun in earnest.The shogunateShoheisaka Academic Exchange CenterWas established as a private school of the Tokugawa family.Called "Omi Saint" in the private sectorNakae FujikiAnd Zhu Xi's "Original Statement"Yamazaki YakusaiCheng-Zhu school was also transmitted to the private sector.Hellman OhmsSuppose that "Tokugawa Ideology" was completed by the Yamisai School, which integrated Cheng-Zhu School and Shinto School.[32].Matsudaira Sadanobu TheBan of Kansei EdictLectures other than Cheng-Zhu School are prohibited at Shoheizaka Gakuin, and it is a tradesman school in Osaka.KaitokudoWas officially recognized.Positive studyIs a disciple of Toju NakaeKumazawa Mt.Was learningHeihachiro Oshio,Yoshida ShoinI also learned from the priests at the end of the Edo period.

The criticism arose as Cheng-Zhu gained momentum.YamagaIs called holy scienceAncient studiesBecame a pioneer of the factionKaihara EkikenRevealed skepticism about the Cheng-Zhu doctrine.Hitoshi ItoToto ItoEstablished an ancient scholarship that clarifies the meaning of ancient Chinese words written in the scriptures regardless of Zhu Xi.Ogyu RidingThe ancient philology of the ancient philology culminated in these, discussing the "production" of "names" (concepts) for "things" (things, rituals) by ancient saints, and advocating political retrospectiveism.Learned at KaitokudoTominaga Nakamoto,Yamagata BantōInsisted on a demon theory that denied all Confucianism, Buddhism, and Shintoism.

Sinology

person

Culture / arts / customs

In some regions, the average age of marriage for women was 24 and for men 28.The average first child was born three years after marriage.Half of the married couples had two children or less, and the other half had 3 to 2 births (childcare) per couple.[Annotation 20].

Literary arts
Entertainment
Music
building
Art
Gardening
Customs
Food culture:

disaster

The Edo period was also a time of many catastrophes.The shogunate's request for disaster recovery was mostly limited to the Tenryo, and most of the relief for each daimyo was in the form of loans.[34].

Among them, huge disasters occurred in quick succession from Genroku in the early 18th century to the Hoei period.[34]In 1708, after the eruption of Mt.[35]..Nitta development, which had been actively carried out until around Genroku for the purpose of increasing income from the territory, will be forced to change in the wake of the Hoei tsunami, and the development area after that will decrease sharply.[36]..The population, which had been increasing since the Keicho period, entered a period of stagnation, and during the Kyoho famine and the Tenmei famine, there was a declining phase, and the population hardly increased until the end of the Edo period.[36].

Great famine More than 1 dead
Big fire More than 1 dead
big earthquake Mw8.5 or more and about 1 dead
large eruption, And volcanic disasters Volcanic Explosivity IndexVEI 4 or higher level, or 1 or more dead

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ For the beginning,Hideyoshi ToyotomiSqueezed1598(Keicho3 years)Battle of SekigaharaTokugawa Ieyasu won1600May 10(Keicho 5th yearMay 9), orToyotomiOf extinction1615(GenwaThere is also a view that begins with (first year).
  2. ^ Due to opposition from the Shogunate, the proclamation of King Norihito was postponed.One caseResigned in 5 (Kansei 1793).
  3. ^ On May 5, the same year, it was announced throughout Edo City.A crackdown on luxury customs in the city, a ban on luxury, and frugality were enforced.
  4. ^ However, in June 1814 (Tenpo 15), Tadakuni became a senior citizen again.
  5. ^ Ryoen MinamotoIn "Differences in the reading of" Illustrated Treatise on the Sea "in Japan, China and South Korea", the reaction to "Illustrated Days' Sea" In Korea, which was dull, 23 kinds of reprinted books (including 16 kinds of Japanese translations) were published and opened to the public, comparing Japan, which was extremely interested.[9].
  6. ^ Eight years later, in 8, the Shogunate allowed the common people to build large ships and purchase foreign ships.
  7. ^ Raw silk, which ranked first, accounted for 1-50% of the export value, and tea, which ranked second, accounted for 80-2%.
  8. ^ In November 1863 (Bunkyu 3), the Satsuma Domain issued $ 11 to the British minister.Namamugi IncidentIs being resolved.
  9. ^ Takako was allowed to stay in the country.The return of the daimyo's wife and children was allowed.
  10. ^ For Hatamoto, 3000 people for 10 stones, 1000 people for 3 stones, 500 person for 1 stones were submitted, and for 500 stones or less, the infantry group was formed with this number of people.[12].
  11. ^ When Choshu softened the officials and issued various orders one after another saying that he was the emperor's royal palace, the "fake royal royal affairs" that the emperor did not remember occur one after another.This is also called "consideration coming out from below"[13].
  12. ^ I ordered all the daimyo, but few clan did it.
  13. ^ Kanmon StraitsHe attacked a foreign ship (US ship Pembroke, 300 tons) sailing in Japan with a cannon made by his own clan, and carried out "Joi".KoshinmaruBombarded from and happened to be heading to ShimonosekiYin Water PigAlso participated in the bombardment.However, the US ship escaped at full speed, and the difference in speed between the two ships was too clear to track.The enthusiastic Choshu side bombarded the French warship Kinshan on May 5 and the orchid ship Mejusa on May 23.[14].
  14. ^ Three years later, on April 3, 1866 (Keio 2), the Shogunate allowed overseas travel for academic and commercial purposes.
  15. ^ I visited Osaka to see the representatives of each country in Japan. We met with Parks on March 3, the Consul General of the Netherlands on 25th, Roche on 26th, the representatives of the three countries of Britain, France and the Netherlands on 27th, and Falkenburg, the US Minister for Japan on April 28st.
  16. ^ In May, it was destroyed in Nishinomiya, Osaka, Sakai, Hyogo, and Edo. In June, the Musashi 5-yen coin was beaten (Musashi rehabilitation) and the Rikuoku Shintatsu counties were beaten (Shinda riot). In July, the Iyo Ozu clan and Dewa Murayama-gun were destroyed. In August, the Ogura clan broke out from the turmoil of the Choshu War.The Shogunate permits the common people to sell foreign rice and make friends due to bad harvests and soaring rice prices. In November, the number of poor people in Edo increased.The shogunate declares that it will hire a tough man in poverty as a soldier.
  17. ^ The six-article secret agreement and agreement were primarily for Satsuma to provide political assistance for the Choshu clan for the Second Conquest. In Article 6, when the shogunate held the imperial court, sought justice, and blocked the path of circumstantial efforts, Satsuma Habakufu put in the phrase, "Finally the decisive battle and nothing else."The content was a defensive alliance, but for the first time it showed that there could be a downfall in some cases.[19].
  18. ^ On March 1868, 4 (Keio 3th year), Emperor Meiji swore five things in front of the shrine at the Shishinden Hall of the Kyoto Imperial Palace.At that time, the Emperor Meiji's own beliefs were announced along with the oath.This was called "Shinkan". (The emperor was 14 years old at this time, and 16 years old when he was full.) It is said that he wrote it by Takayoshi Kido.

    "Shinkan

    With my childhood, I suddenly introduced the president, and since then I have no choice but to confront all the nations and to serve my ancestors in the morning and evening.
    To think secretly, Nakaba's politics declined and he became more samurai rights, and the table respected the imperial court and actually respected it and kept it away, rather than never knowing the feelings of the baby as a billion-dollar parent. It's immeasurable, and finally the billion-dollar prince has become just a name, and because of that, the respect of the imperial court is doubled in the old days, and the morning power is doubled, and it is separated from each other. It's like a shojo.What will reign over the world in such a situation?
    At the time of the renewal of the morning affairs, when even one million trillion people in the world cannot get the place, if everyone is guilty, today's thing will be hard work, suffering from the will, standing ahead of the tribulation, the old line Only after the exhaustion of the bones and the progress of the cure, can we dedicate our vocation to the trillions of princes.
    I wouldn't conquer this as a general if I had a parent (Mizuka) and a non-minister (Fusin), and I wouldn't respect all the politics of the imperial court in this way. Seeing, I loved the top and bottom, and Tokusawa was a national prestige all over the world.
    However, when Unai opened up a lot in the near future, and when he flew to all sides of each country, he was alone in the world, adhered to the old customs, did not measure the effect of renewal, and settled in Kuju unnecessarily for a day When he loses his peace and forgets the sadness of a hundred years, he is finally overwhelmed by each country, and he scorns his ancestors on the top and hurts the trillions on the bottom.Therefore, I have inherited the great achievements of the lords of the Hyakumaki lords and the ancestors of the ancestors. I want to proclaim national prestige in all directions and place the world in the peace of Tomitake.Becoming a thou billion trillion old tradition, only respecting the imperial court, unaware of the urgency of Shinshu.Once I raise my foot, I am very surprised and raise various suspicions, and when I swear my ambitions as a mischief, not only do I lose my way, but I also line up. Losing the world of my ancestors.
    Thou shalt be happy if I embrace my ambitions, take the lead, leave my personal opinion, take public council, help my work, conserve Shinshu, and comfort and serve the spirits of my ancestors. "
    [20]
  19. ^ The foreign relations of the Edo Shogunate have been called "isolation", but there is an argument that it should be called "haijin" because it only restricted trade with Europe to the Netherlands and traded with Qing and Korea.[31].
  20. ^ "I've looked at the vast old records of some villages to get an accurate picture of the population composition," he said.Hisako Matsubara, "Modern History of Japan to Fight the White Beloved" (Two or three people to raise, two or one peasant[33]

Source

  1. ^ Toru Haga "Tokugawa Japan as a Civilization" Chikuma Shobo, 2017.
  2. ^ Kuranami Ministry's own edition, "Development of Early Modern Japan," Yachiyo Publishing, 1977, pp. 2-3. 
  3. ^ Shinsaburo Oishi"Administrative structure of the Edo Shogunate"Gakushuin University Economic Review," Vol. 10, No. 1, 1973.
  4. ^ Reiko Hayashi, Shinzaburo Oishi "New Book, Edo Period 5 Birth of Distribution Islands" <Kodansha modern new book>,1995.ISBN 4-06-149261-6.
  5. ^ Seizaburo Sato,Hisahiko Okazaki"Japan's Failure and Success-Lessons of Modern 160 Years"Fusosha, 2000.ISBN 4-594-02917-5.
  6. ^ Masao Maruyama "Masao Maruyama Lecture Record Volume 1948 History of Japanese Political Thought 1998" University of Tokyo Press, 151, p. XNUMX
  7. ^ Shuhei Fujisawa "Shuhei Fujisawa Complete Works Vol. 17" Bungei Shunju, 1993, p. 420
  8. ^ Satoru Fujita, "Mechanism of Taihei-Administration and Society in Edo," Iwanami Shoten, 2012, p. 202.
  9. ^ Ryoen Minamoto "Differences in reading" Illustrated Treatise on Sea "in Japan, China and South Korea" "Meiji Restoration made possible by the Edo period" Kanji Nishio, Sankei Shimbun News Service <Earth Japanese History 3>, 1999.ISBN 4-594-02665-6.
  10. ^ Kazutoshi Hando, History of the End of the Edo Period, Shinchosha, 2008, pp. 50-51
  11. ^ Supervised by Masato Miyachi, Sumio Obinata, Akira Yamada, Takao Yamada, Yutaka Yoshida, "Reading Modern and Contemporary History of Japan," Shinnihon Shuppansha, 2010, p. 17
  12. ^ Miyaji 2012, p. 321.
  13. ^ Kazutoshi Hando, "History of the End of the Edo Period," Shinchosha, 2008, p. 157
  14. ^ Tanaka 2007, p. 46.
  15. ^ Tanaka 2007, pp. 46-47.
  16. ^ Miyaji 2012, p. 423.
  17. ^ Miyaji 2012, pp. 39-40.
  18. ^ Miyaji 2012, p. 40.
  19. ^ Shuhei Fujisawa "Shuhei Fujisawa Complete Works Vol. 7" Bungei Shunju, 1993, p. 77
  20. ^ Shunsuke Tsurumi "The Storm of the New One" <Shunsuke Tsurumi Collection-Continued-2> Chikuma Shobo, 2001, pp. 152-153
  21. ^ The following is based on Masahide Bito's "What is the Edo Era?"
  22. ^ a b Otsuka 1999, p. 74.
  23. ^ Otsuka 1999, p. 73.
  24. ^ Otsuka 1999, p. 83.
  25. ^ Otsuka 1999, p. 84-85.
  26. ^ Otsuka 1999, p. 86.
  27. ^ Otsuka 1999, p. 87.
  28. ^ Otsuka 1999, p. 87-88.
  29. ^ Otsuka 1999, p. 89.
  30. ^ Otsuka 1999, p. 91.
  31. ^ Yasunori Arano "Modern Japan and East Asia", Ronald Toby "Modern Japan's National Formation and Diplomacy", etc.
  32. ^ Herman Ooms "Tokugawa Ideology" Makoto Kurozumi, Masayuki Shimizu, Ichi Sawa, Mitsuko Yorizumi, Perikansha Publishing, 1990.
  33. ^ Kodama Kota "History of Modern Farmers' Life"
  34. ^ a b Itoko Kitahara "History of Japanese Disasters" Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2016.
  35. ^ Shigehei Hisamitsu, "The Story of Japanese Money," Mainichi Newspapers, 1976.
  36. ^ a b Michishi Isoda"Foundation of Edo" Taihei Tenka "" published by NHK Publishing <NHK dating back to Japanese history 6>, 2012.

References

Related literature

A list of documents related to the article, although not quoted or visited in the article text.

  • Sanji Mikami "History of the Edo Period (Upper and Lower Volumes)" Kodansha Academic Bunko, 1992 (original version 1943-44). 
  • Kaichiro Oishi "Edo Period" Chuko Shinsho, 1977. 
  • Mitsuhiro Mizutani "Is Edo a Dream?" Chikuma Gakugei Bunko, 2004. 
  • Tetsuya Sugimori "The Modern Age of Japan" The Open University of Japan Teaching Materials, 2020. 
  • Michifumi Isoda, "Social Structure of Modern Daimyo Vassals," Bungei Gakugei Library, 2013. 

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