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🧁 | Mei Mei | A store specializing in sweets and cafes using freshly picked fruits from the local area will open on Thursday, July 7st!


写真 

Mei Mei | A store specializing in sweets and cafes using freshly picked fruits from the local area will open on Thursday, July 7st!

 
If you write the contents roughly
The luxurious fresh cream that raises the milk fat ratio to the limit of 40% is very smooth to the touch.
 

A new sweets & cafe will open in Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku!The name of the shop is "Mei".Made in Shizuoka Prefecture ... → Continue reading

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The contents of Hamamatsu's natural contents, attractive events, unique shops, inspirational culture, etc. are expressed in content and conveyed!
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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

body fat percentage

body fat percentage(Ishibo Uritsu,British: body fat percentage; BFP) IsAnimalContained in the body offat Ofmass OfWeightThe ratio to.In this article,Human capitalHandles the case of.

The definition is the mass of fat in the body (kg) / body weight (kg)) x 100 (unit%).Since it is not easy to directly measure the mass of fat in the body, there are various measurement methods as described later.

Relationship with obesity

obesityIndicates "a state in which body fat has increased more than necessary", but it is difficult to measure the body fat percentage, and thereforeBMISimple diagnostic methods were widely used. However, in recent yearsBody fat meter(Body composition meter) has become popular, and the number of cases of determining obesity based on the body fat percentage is increasing.

Proper body fat percentage

The lower the body fat percentage, the better, but not too low.body temperatureMay lead to weakness and weakness (because muscles are broken down to produce energy)[1].FemaleIn the case ofhormoneOut of balancephysiologicalIrregularity and early onsetmenopauseMay be invited. For professional athletes, less than 10% is not uncommon.

The proper body fat percentage is said to be as follows. No clear global standard has been set.

Tokyo Jikei University School of Medicine Health Criteria (1993)
SortMen under 29Men over 30Women under 29Women over 30
Appropriate range14 - 20%17 - 23%17 - 24%20 - 27%
obesity25% or more25% or more30% or more30% or more

The above criteria are for 1993Jikei University School of MedicineA value used as a criterion in health medicine. Of yoreTanitaIt is described in the manual of[2].

Tanita standards[3]
Sort18-39 year old man40-59 year old man60-99 year old man18-39 year old woman40-59 year old woman60-99 year old woman
Thin10% or less11% or less13% or less20% or less21% or less22% or less
-standard11 - 16%12 - 17%14 - 19%21 - 27%22 - 28%23 - 29%
+ Standard17 - 21%18 - 22%20 - 24%28 - 34%29 - 35%30 - 36%
Light obesity22 - 26%23 - 27%25 - 29%35 - 39%36 - 40%37 - 41%
obesity27% or more28% or more30% or more40% or more41% or more42% or more

Exclude those who are pregnant, undergoing artificial dialysis, or have swelling symptoms.

OMRON standard[4]
SortWomen over 15Male
healthy20 - 29%10 - 19%
Mild obesity30 - 34%20 - 24%
Moderate obesity35 - 39%25 - 29%
Severe obesity40% or more30% or more

OMRONAccording to the standard, the standard of the body fat percentage that is considered healthy is 10 to 19% for men and 15 to 20% for women over the age of 29, and when the body fat percentage is higher than that, it is considered obese.

American Council on Exercise Standards (2009)[5]
SortFemaleMale
too skinny10 - 13%2 - 5%
athlete14 - 20%6 - 13%
healthy21 - 24%14 - 17%
Average25 - 31%18 - 24%
obesity32% or more25% or more

Main body fat percentage measurement methods

There are several methods for measuring body fat percentage, and the following are the main ones.

Underwater weighing method (underwater weighing method)

Archimedes principleThis is an application of the above, in which the whole body is submerged in water, the weight is measured with a scale in water, and the body density is calculated from the difference from the weight in the atmosphere. Although it is a relatively accurate measurement method and is used as a reference for other measurement methods, it has the following problems. The density of adipose tissue is generally 0.9007 g/cm3And the density of tissues other than fat is 1.1000 g/cm3Is said to be[6].

  • In order to eliminate the effects of buoyancy caused by air on the body surface or inside the body, measurements must be taken while exhaling. Therefore, the measurement is painful.
  • The equipment is inevitably large and measurement is not easy.
  • There are few facilities with facilities

Air replacement method

How to measure the body pressure by entering the sealed device and measuring the pressure change of air[7].. It is a relatively accurate measurement method based on almost the same principle as the underwater weighing method, and it is a method that is simple and does not cause any pain.Grand Sumo OfWrestlerIs known to measure this. The device called "BOD POD" by Life Measurement, Inc. in the US is famous.

Dual energy X-ray absorption method (DXA, DEXA)

Of two different wavelengthsX-rayA method of irradiating the whole body and measuring the body composition from the difference in transmittance[7].. OriginallyBone densityAlthough it is a method of measuring, the measurement accuracy of body fat mass and muscle mass is also high, and in recent years, it has been said that it is the gold standard as a measuring method instead of the underwater weight measuring method. DXA or DEXA is an abbreviation for “Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry”.

Subcutaneous fat thickness method (Caliper method)

A method of measuring the thickness of subcutaneous fat using a subcutaneous fat gauge (caliper) and then substituting the measured value into the calculation formula.[7].. This is a simple method, but there are drawbacks such as the distribution of subcutaneous fat varies from person to person, and there are errors, that measurement requires some skill, and visceral fat cannot be measured.

Bioimpedance method

A weak electric current is passed through the body,ImpedanceThe method of measuring and estimating the body fat percentage from it. This is the most convenient and most popular method at present, and most of the commercially available body fat meters are this method.[7].. However, it is difficult to calculate an accurate value due to the following problems.

  • The bioelectrical impedance changes greatly depending on the physical condition immediately after waking up or immediately before going to bed, and there are large variations in the measured time even on the same day.
  • Estimate body fat percentage from bioelectrical impedancealgorithmHowever, it differs depending on each manufacturer of measuring instruments. Therefore, there are large variations among devices.
  • A person with a high muscular ratio cannot measure accurately because the bioelectrical impedance is different from a general person.
    • Some devices have an "athlete mode" to overcome this drawback.
  • Heart pacemakerIf you are using a, the current may cause the pacemaker to malfunction and cannot be used.

Other methods

Other methods include the following.

CT method, MRI method
CT,MRIA method of taking a cross-sectional image of the body using and calculating the body fat percentage from it. Although the accuracy is quite high, it is not often used because the device becomes large. Abdominal CT examination indicates "visceral fat type obesity" when the area (cross-sectional area) of visceral fat at the navel is 100 cm² or more.[4].
Internal potassium measurement method
In the bodypotassiumIs a method that focuses on the fact that is not contained in adipose tissue, measures potassium in the body with a large-scale device called a "human counter," and calculates the body fat percentage from there.[8].
UltrasonographyIt uses the same device asUltrasoundTo take and measure cross-section images of the body by[9].. It is relatively accurate.
Near infrared spectroscopy
BicepsIn the center ofNear infraredIrradiates and absorbs its lightSpectrumTo calculate body fat percentage based on[9].
Sulfur hexafluoride dilution method
It is based on almost the same principle as the air displacement method,Sulfur hexafluorideThis is a method of adding a certain amount of gas.

Source/Footnote

Related item

Cream (food)

cream(English: cream) IsfatとproteinIs a thick white or light yellow liquid that is concentrated. In principlemilkIt is a product derived from the ingredients.Milk ministerial ordinanceIs "Raw milk,milkorSpecial milkからMilk fatRemoves all but 18.0% milk fat%That's what I said above."

Sort

Fresh cream

Raw milkmilkCreams that are separated and extracted from "milk fat only" and labeled "Type: cream" are generally treated as "fresh cream". Some product names also have the designation "Junsei". 18-30 depending on fat content for intended use%"Light cream" is "for coffee", 30-48% of "heavy cream" is "for coffee"whipIt is classified as "for".The United KingdomIs divided into 18% single cream (or cream), 48% double cream, 55% clotted cream, etc. according to fat content.

Foods whose main ingredients are milk or dairy products

To milk fatAdditive,Vegetable oilThose with the addition of "Name: Milk orDairy productsIs a food whose main ingredient is.

Pure milk fat type
Milk fat with “additives” such as emulsifiers and stabilizers added, and sold under the designation pure milk fat.
Compound type
Part of milk fat replaced with "vegetable fat" such as vegetable oil. It is also called "compound cream".
Vegetable fat type
It does not contain milk fat and uses only vegetable fat for fat.

These whipped cream alternatives areWhipped creamCalled[1]It is sold under the names such as, whipped, and fresh.JapanIn the US, alternatives using vegetable oils and fats are widely used.(English edition)"Craft foodsThe whipped state lasts for a long time without the need for whipping and is widely used. The milk fat content of the product has a rich flavor, and the vegetable fats and oils make it easy to melt in the mouth.

Whipped cream

Whisked creamWhipped creamCalled,Whisk and hand mixerMake using Also known as chantilly cream and crème chantilly. Milk fatバ タ ーSolid at low temperatures as seen in℃Melting starts before and after the melting point, and when the temperature is higher than the melting point, the fluidity increases and the formed bubbles are easily broken. If it is agitated too much, it will separate into butter and whey.

IndustriallyNitrous oxide,carbon dioxideManufacture by adding[2].

Method

Heat unrefined milkSterilizationAfter that, let stand and cool to separate the cream into upper layers.IndustrialTypicallycentrifugeIs manufactured using. Not so much from milk, but richer in milk fat than milkbuffaloMuch can be taken from milk. Buffalo milk cream is thick enough to cut with a knife,TurkishでCaimak(slide) Called.Middle East TheDessertBuffalo milk cream is preferred as the cream to be added to.

Use, processing, etc.

As cream

In any case, since a fat may be separated when a cream having a high milk fat content is added as it is, it is preferable to use a cream having a low milk fat content.

Whipped cream

  • sugarAdd the mixture and whisk it firmlycake OfIcing(Sugar coating), etc.SweetsOften used to decorate. AlsococoaAnd so on.
  • When I put it in coffee,Wiener Coffeebecome.
  • In Anglo America,Lady whip"(Reddi-wip)sprayCanned whipped cream is commercially available.

Processed goods 

  • バ タ ー -When vigorously stirred, fat is separated and becomes butter.
    • Ghee -Also called refined butter. A type of clarified butter. From butterWhey protein(Water and milk protein) removed. A mixture of butter heated and stirred at low temperature to evaporate water, precipitate milk protein, and then collect the supernatant.
  • ice cream -Made only with cream or mixed with milk.
  • sour cream -Fresh creamLactic acid fermentationWhat was made.

Nutritional value

Main of cream (fluid, heavy whipping) (in 100g)fatty acidType of[5]
ItemQuantity (g)
fat37
saturated fatty acid23.032
6:0 (Caproic acid)0.71
8:0 (Caprylic acid)0.413
10:0 (Capric acid)0.928
12:0 (Lauric acid)1.039
14:0 (Myristic acid)3.721
16:0 (Palmitic acid)9.732
18:0 (stearic acid)4.484
Monounsaturated fatty acid10.686
16:1 (Palmitoleic acid)0.829
18:1 (oleic acid)9.308
Polyunsaturated fatty acid1.374
18:2 (Linoleic acid)0.836
18:3 (α-linolenic acid)0.538

footnote

  1. ^ Frequently Asked Questions: About whipped cream. How is it different from fresh cream? | Monterey Co., Ltd..
  2. ^ "Recruitment results of opinions and information on the examination results regarding the food health impact assessment of nitrous oxide (pdf) ”. Cabinet Office Food Safety Commission. 2015/1/8Browse.
  3. ^ Ministry of education "Japanese Food Standard Ingredient Table 2015 Edition (XNUMXth Edition)'
  4. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare "Japanese dietary intake standards (2015 version)'
  5. ^ USDA National Nutrient Database

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