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🍺 | This year too!Released a unified label for Akita's brewery


写真 

this year too!Released a unified label for Akita's brewery

 
If you write the contents roughly
Sake made by each brewery is included, centering on Junmai Ginjo, but the brand of sake cannot be specified for each set of "3", "6", and "12".
 

That series, which sold out last year on the day we started making reservations, is back again this year.Made with a unified label by XNUMX breweries in the prefecture "... → Continue reading

 AAB Akita Asahi Broadcasting

This is a news account of the AAB Akita Asahi TV station in Akita Prefecture.
Politics, economy, sports, events in the prefecture, etc.
We will tell you various information about Akita.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Sake

In this item,JIS X 0213Contains characters specified by :2004 (Details).

Sake(Japanese), orJapanese sake(Washu) is usuallyRice(mainlySake rice)WhenmaltとWedIs the main raw materialSakeRefers to.JapanWith a unique manufacturing methodbrewingWas doneliqueurso,Brewed sakeare categorized.

Definition

Name / name

Japanese old languageThen, "sasa"BuddhismMonk OfSecret wordso"HannyaHot water (Hannyato) ",Edo PeriodIsDifferenceAnother name was "water." In today's world, young people are given "ponshu (ponshu)[Annotation 1])” is sometimes called.

in America"nihon-shu(Nihonshu) "is not common and"SAKEOften called "(salmon)"[1].

Liquor tax law definition and alcohol content

Alcoholic beverages in Japan[2]aboutLiquor tax lawIs a comprehensive law. "Sake" in the law means alcoholic beverages that meet the following requirements:Less than 22 degrees alcohol(Article 3 No. 7)[3].

  1. Rice,Rice koji,Wedas well as the Sake cake and other articles specified by a Cabinet Order[4][5]As a raw materialfermentationLet meRubbedthing
  2. SakeToSake cakeIn addition,Rubbedthing

It should be noted that liquor that is similar to sake is a mixed liquor whose "flavor, color and other properties are similar to sake".Synthetic sake(Article 8 of the same article),Doboku[6]There is some "other brewed sake" (Article 19 of the same article).

Of common sakeAlcohol degreeIs 15-16%.Including consumers who prefer light alcohol such as women and young people, and exportsWineTo respond to competition withbeerA slightly higher level of 6-8%,WineLow-alcohol sake of the same level (in the low 10% range) is also being developed and sold one after another.[7].Sparkling sakeThen there is also a product of 5%[8].

On the contrary, it is technically possible to produce sake with an alcohol content (22% or more) higher than the definition under the Liquor Tax Law by using the same raw materials and manufacturing method as sake. "Echigo Samurai"(Tamagawa Brewery), there is also sake that has an alcohol content of 46 degrees while being produced by the method of making sake (manufacturing by adding alcohol to brewed sake and adding water).LiqueurTreatment).

Sort

Specific name classification

Ordinary liquor

Ordinary liquorThe term “sake” refers to sake other than the specific name sake described below. Most sake that is generally distributed is classified as ordinary sake.

Rice,Rice koji,WedIn addition,Sake lees),Cabinet OrderRaw materials specified inAuxiliary material) Is manufactured. This article includesBrewing alcohol,Distilled spirits,GlucoseOtherSugar,Organic acid,Amino acid salt(Umami seasoningEtc.) or sake (the liquor tax law enforcement order Article 2). These auxiliary raw materials are permitted to be used under the condition that the weight of rice does not exceed the weight of rice or rice koji (Liquor Tax Law, Article 3 No. 7B).

Triple brewed sake, Or a blend of it,2006 (HeiseiWith the revision of the Liquor Tax Law in 18), it is no longer included in the category of sake.Synthetic sakeIs not sake from the beginning, so it is not ordinary sake.

Even sake whose manufacturing method and quality correspond to a specific name sake may be sold as ordinary sake without displaying the specific name.[9][10].

Specific name liquor

Among those that meet the requirements for sake, those whose ingredients and manufacturing methods meet certain standardsNational Tax Agencynotice[11]The specific name specified in paragraph XNUMX can be labeled on the container or packaging. Sake with a specific nameSpecific name liquorThat.

Named sake is based onRice grain inspection[12]Brown rice rated 3rd or higher bybrown ricePolished riceWhite riceThe ratio of the weight of Jiuqu rice to the weight of white rice (the ratio of the weight of Jiuqu rice to the weight of white rice) is limited to 15% or more.

Labeling of sake with a specific name is supposed to be based on the specific name, and words similar to this or terms that give an impression of excellent quality such as "superior", "excellent" or "luxury" may be used in addition to the specific name. Can not. However, it can be displayed only if it is included in the ranking of the company's products, including sake with a specific name (excluding "special").

Sake with a specific name is a raw materialRice polishing rateByHonjozo,Pure rice wine,Ginjo sakeare categorized.

Display of sake with a specific name[13]
Specific nameRaw materials usedRice polishing rateFlavor requirementsKoji rice usage rate
HonjozoRice, rice koji, water, brewed alcohol70% or lessGood flavor and color15% or more
Special Honjozo60% or less or special manufacturing method (display required)Especially good in flavor and color
Pure rice wineRice, rice koji, water-Good flavor and color
Special pure rice sake60% or less or special manufacturing method (display required)Especially good in flavor and color
Ginjo sakeRice, rice koji, water, brewed alcohol60% or lessGinjo-zukuri, unique flavor, good color
Junmai Ginjo SakeRice, rice koji, water
Daiginjo sakeRice, rice koji, water, brewed alcohol50% or lessGinjo-zukuri, unique flavor, and iris are especially good
Junmai Daiginjo SakeRice, rice koji, water
Express the regularity of specific names
Ginjo making
And
Rice polishing rate:50% or less
Ginjo making
And
Rice polishing rate:60% or less
Special manufacturing method
Or
Rice polishing rate:60% or less
-
Brew alcohol:None(Pure rice)Junmai Daiginjo SakeJunmai Ginjo SakeSpecial pure rice sakePure rice wine
Brew alcohol:Yes(Also)Daiginjo sakeGinjo sakeSpecial HonjozoHonjozo
(Rice polishing rate:70% or less)
Honjozo
HonjozoIs the rice polishing rate70% or lessThis is a name that can be used for sake produced from white rice, rice jiuqu, brewed alcohol, and water, which has a good flavor and color.Less than 10% of the weight of white rice used (white rice 1)TApproximately 120literBrewed alcohol can be added only in the amount of (below).
Special Honjozo
Special HonjozoMeans that the brewed liquor has a "particularly good" flavor and color, and that the fact is clearly indicated on the container or packaging of the sake with the raw materials used, the manufacturing method and other objective matters (polished rice). When displaying the explanation with the percentage,60% or lessIt is a name that can be used).
Pure rice wine
Pure rice wineIs a sake produced using only white rice, rice koji and water as a raw material, and is a name that can be used for those having a good flavor and color. However, as for the white rice, brown rice graded 3 or higher or brown rice equivalent to this is used like the sake with other specific names, and the total weight of rice koji must be 15% or more of the total weight of white rice. Is.
Special pure rice sake
Special pure rice sakeThe meaning of pure rice liquor is that the flavor and color is “particularly good”, and that fact is clearly indicated on the container or packaging of the sake with the raw materials used, the manufacturing method and other objective matters (rice polishing rate). If you explain with, the rice polishing rate is60% or lessIt is a name that can be used).
Junmai-shu has a richer taste than ginjo-based sake (including pure rice) and honjo-zake, and it is said that each brewery has a unique character.
1991 (3)Sake class systemSince the abolition of2003 (December 15, 12) To maintain the quality of "Junmaishu" above a certain level,70% or lessIt was legally regulated as "things".At that time, there was a general belief that the lower the rice polishing rate (shaving more brown rice), the higher the quality of sake.
However, in recent yearsDeregulationAs part of2004 It was deleted on January 16, 1, and if it was made only from rice, the name "Junmai Sake" would be accepted even if the rice polishing rate was the same as that of edible rice.Regarding this amendment, the evaluation isconsumerThere is a position to support "the expansion of the rights of consumers" and a position to criticize "the cause of deterioration of brewing technology".
With this deregulation, even without adding brewing alcoholrice flourThere was a suspicion that many brands that could not name "Junmaishu" due to the use of such as "Kojimi Sake" would actually be upgraded, but as mentioned above, "Koji ratio 15% or more" "Standard rice" There is a restriction such as "use", and liquor with a malt ratio of less than 15% or liquor using nonstandard rice, scrap rice, or rice flour cannot be called "pure rice liquor".
On the other hand, after satisfying the above conditions, we will bring out the unique quality of sake by dare to achieve a high rice polishing rate that was not used in ordinary sake.Low-purity sakeThe development of new pure rice wine such as
Ginjo sake
Ginjo sakeIs the rice polishing rate60% or lessOf white rice, rice koji and water, or brewed alcohol with these,Ginjo makingIt is a name that can be used for sake produced with good flavor and rich color. Made by fermenting at low temperature for a long time,Ginjo incenseと 呼 ば れ るApple,banana,melonA gorgeous aroma component reminiscent ofIsoamyl acetate,Ethyl caproateEtc.)[14]..In ginjo brewing, by adding brewed alcohol just before squeezing the mash, the aroma component can be transferred from the sake lees side to the sake side.The amount of brewed alcohol that can be added is less than 10% of the weight of white rice (white rice 1).TApproximately 120literThe following) is stipulated.
Junmai Ginjo Sake
Junmai Ginjo SakeIs a name that can be particularly used for ginjo sake that is produced using only rice, rice jiuqu, and water as raw materials without adding brewed alcohol.Generally, the aroma is milder (modest) and the taste is thicker than that of Ginjo sake with brewed alcohol added.
In general, including this articleGinjo-based sakeWhen expressed as, it is a general term for sake such as Ginjo Sake, Junmai Ginjo Sake, Daiginjo Sake, and Junmai Daiginjo Sake.
Originally, it meant "specially brewed sake" for appraisals.1920 eraStarted development from1930 eraImprovement of rice polishing technology,1950 eraDistributing yeast more suitable for subsequent Ginjo sake production,1970 eraThe quality control has been improved by the progress of the temperature control technology and the selection and breeding technology of koji and yeast, and eventually, it became possible to secure the production amount enough to reach the general market. Ginjo sake came to be distributed in the Japanese market1980 eraAnd later,2000 eraAfter that, even outside JapanJapanese food boomDemand has increased along with (see:"Birth of Ginjo Sake").
Daiginjo sake
Daiginjo sakeIs the rice polishing rate of ginjo sake50% or lessIt is a name that can be used for products that are produced from white rice and have a particularly good unique flavor and color.It is fermented at low temperature for a long time more thoroughly than Ginjo sake.Finally, a small amount of brewed alcohol is added to bring out the ginjo aroma.The amount of brewed alcohol that can be added is less than 10% of the weight of white rice, like Ginjo sake.
Junmai Daiginjo Sake
Junmai Daiginjo SakeIs a name that can be particularly used for Daiginjo liquor, which is produced by using only rice, koji and water as raw materials without adding brewing alcohol. Compared to Daiginjo liquor with brewed alcohol added, it has a milder aroma and a deeper taste.

Other classification

In addition to the specific name, there are various classifications depending on the characteristic raw materials and manufacturing method, but these are the notifications of the National Tax Agency (Sake production quality display standard), and those traditionally and conventionally used by brewers and industry groups. The former is a specific name and some description itemsOptional information・ The prohibited items are stipulated.In the latter, there are various classifications that are not defined in the former to increase added value, but even in the classification of consent, different terms may be used depending on the region and generation (intermediate / medium pumping, etc.). Not unified. The names such as "special selection", "upper selection", and "good selection" are also used in some cases as a ranking unique to the brewer.

Before the use of a specific name was decided, it was called "special grade (liquor)", "first grade (liquor)", and "second grade (liquor)".Classification systemExisted (for details, see "History of sakeSee).

display

Label display term

Optional information

National Tax Agency OfSake production quality display standardThe optional items described by are as follows.

Variety name of raw rice
Suitable rice for brewingFor example, when 50% or more of the raw rice is used for a particular variety, the variety name and its usage rate can be displayed.
Sake production area name
When manufactured in a single production area, the production area name can be displayed.
Storage years
Over a yearStorage/agingThe number of years of storage can be displayed on the sake that has been made.Depending on the sake brewer, sake that is more than a year old may be sold under the names of old sake, old sake, large old sake, aged sake, aged old sake, and treasured sake.There is no uniform standard for years and terminology,Sake storehouseAccording to the long-term aged sake study group organized by liquor stores, it often refers to sake that has been aged for 3 years or more.[15].
Original wine
Rowingrear,Split waterOrWater adjustmentSake that does not (excluding water adjustment within the range of less than 1% alcohol).
Fresh sake
After production, heat treatment (Burning) Sake that never does.yeastSince microorganisms and enzymes such as these remain and the quality is likely to change, it is necessary to pay attention to the freshness and store it in a refrigerator.
Fresh storage
Sake that was stored without burning after being made and was burned when moving out of the manufacturing site. No storage period is specified.
One raw
The quality labeling standard for sake manufacturing is stipulated as "when the sake is pure rice brewed only at a single factory".Before the display standards were restricted, "Nada-shu" was called as a synonym for a single bottle.[16]
Barrel wine
WoodenBarrelStored inIncenseSake with (including those refilled in bottles and other containers).

Other display

Raw sake
Contrary to raw storage sake, after production,BurningSake that is stored after being stored and is not burned when it is moved out of the manufacturing site.
Chilled
After brewing in winter, in a cool brewery during spring and summerStorage/agingSake that was bottled and shipped in the fall when the temperature drops.This page "Chilled"reference.

The following three items areUpper tankSometimes they are classified according to the period during which they are squeezed (early, middle, late, etc.), but there is no clear standard.

Rough run
When in the upper tank, iegrooveUsing a squeezer calledNigiriWhen squeezing (moromi), it is the part of the sake that comes out like a spill. Without pressure, the weight of the sake bag loaded first will come out naturally. Generally solidSlagIt has a lot of scents, its alcohol content is relatively low, its scent is high and its sharpness is good.
Nakadori, Nakagumi, Nakadare
The part that comes out as an intermediate layer after rough running in the upper tank.Alcohol content and taste are moderate midpoints.It is also said that it has the best balance of taste and aroma, or that it has a more refined taste than rough running.Strictly speaking, even in one stage of this medium-sized, medium-pumped, and dripping, the weight of the pile of sake bags came out when the sake bags were piled up until the tank was full. In addition to that, there are two stages of what came out when more pressure was applied.
Blame (seme), push-through (shishiri)
The part that comes out last when the upper tank.Especially in tank squeezing, the part that comes out by squeezing.It has a high alcohol content and a strong, well-kneaded taste.
Bag hanging, bag squeezing, drop squeezing, hanging
In the upper tank, moromi is packed in a bag, the bag is hung and the liquor dripping from it is removed. It is often used for high-grade sake such as auctioned sake. The sake thus collected isShizukuSometimes called (Shizuku Zake).
Doo bottle picking, doo bottle enclosure
At the time of the upper tank, the sake that came outFightHow to divide into bottles (18 liter bottles) and choose a good one from them.It is often used for high-end sake such as exhibited sake.
No filtration
There is no clear definition of "no filtration" under the Liquor Tax Law, and the way it is used differs depending on the manufacturer. "Do not filter at all" "Do not filter other than a coarse filter to remove unnecessary solids" "Activated carbonIt is displayed as a meaning such as "Do not adjust the flavor by filtration"[17].
Muddy liquor, Origami
Muddy liquor is squeezed with a coarse cloth in the upper tank to intentionally leave slag.If not fired, fermentation will continue inside the bottle and it will become effervescent.The slag is the one that has not been slagged.Both are made to enjoy the umami contained in the slag and the rich aroma and taste peculiar to moromi. Even if it says "Nigori Sake", you can't see the other side of the bottle because there is a slight slag in the sake.DobokuThe degree of turbidity is wide, even for products in the shape of a circle.
Sparkling sake
Due to fermentation and inclusioncarbon dioxide gasEnjoy the bubbling ofSparkling sakeAs a result, the sake breweries of the manufacturers gathered to establish the “awa Sake Association” in 2016.[18].
Geographical indication
National Tax AgencyMatter to set display standard about geographical indication of alcoholic beverages (27 National Tax Agency Notification No. 19)As a result, in areas designated by the Commissioner of the National Tax Agency, the labeling can be done and the raw materials and manufacturing methods are restricted so that the characteristics of the production area can be utilized. In addition, since "geographic indications that indicate the origin of sake produced by the Commissioner of the National Tax Agency must not be used for sake produced in areas other than the origin," Similar labeling (“○○ style preparation” “○○ style sake”) is prohibited, and local brands can be protected.2020 Currently, there are the following 5 areas for sake.

Has been designated, and "Sake" that protects the entire country of Japan as a production area is also designated.[19].

Display of foreign sake

As mentioned above, the labeling of "Sake" or "Japanese Sake" is permitted only for sake produced in Japan under the Geographical Indication Protection System.Sake produced outside Japan cannot be called "sake", and labels and advertisements such as "Japanese style" and "Japanese style manufacturing method"Over-the-counter popIt cannot be displayed on the screen.When selling foreign sake in Japan, it is necessary to indicate the name of the country of origin and the fact that foreign sake was used.[20].

How to drink and use for cooking

Sake is "sleet liquor" that is half-frozen in a sherbet shape, "chilled" at room temperature, and "cool" up to about 60 ° C.Hot waterIt is drunk in a wide temperature range.There are other examples where it is normal to taste the same type of alcoholic beverage in the same area at different temperatures.Chugoku OfShaoxing sakeTo some extent, it is relatively rare (about hot sake, "Hot sakeSee also).

To prevent sickness and maintain physical and mental health,Japanese waterCalled water[21]Sake-related groups recommend to drink with.

Sake is often drunk as it is in any temperature range, but in hot sake, it is seasoned by dipping cooked fish.Bone wine,Fin liquorThere is also a tradition of.More modern times, put ice in a cupon the rocks, Divided water and hot water and how to drink.Highball[22],CocktailsIt can also be used as a material.

Japanese sake isseafoodIn addition to eliminating the smellSimmered dishesSuch as adding flavors and aromasseasoningAs used in cooking. For cooking onlyCooking sakeIs also manufactured and sold. Occurs during the production process of sakeSake leesIs theSake lees shochuOther than the raw material ofSweet SakeEtc.Pickled rice cake,Meal soupIt is used for cooking such as.

History

Production/sales volume, number of manufacturers, and production area

The production volume of sake in fiscal 2018 (FY30) is 40 kiloliters, and the sales (consumption) volume is 6,064 kiloliters.[23]. Famous placeNadaThere is a concentration of major breweriesHyogo(About 26%), sameFushimiHaveKyoto(About 22%) is high.to this,Niigata(About 8%),Saitama(About 4%),AkitaContinued with (about 4%)[24]..Niigata Prefecture has the highest sales (consumption) volume of sake per adult.Tohoku-Hokuriku regionEach prefecture follows this[23].

The number of sake manufacturers in 2017 (29) was 1,371, of which 99.6% were SMEs.[24].

Of the area where the brewery is locatedMunicipalitiesSake is one of the important local industries. For this reason,TokyoOpened a storeAntenna ShopでLocal sakeSelling or recommend drinking local sake first at banquets etc.Toast regulationsIs enacted, and various promotion measures are being developed.

Of sakeLiquor manufacturing licenseNew sake can be obtained only when an existing sake brewer intends to make sake by establishing a new factory to streamline the company.[25], New entrants are restricted[26][27]..For new entrants, we acquired a brewing company that was closed.Sake storehouseThe method of transferring the license is used (HokkaidoExample of Kamikawa Taisetsu Sake Brewery)[28].. In 2021, an export sake production license was set to support exports overseas.[29][26]..The first issue was issued to Fukushima Prefecture.[30].

原料

The main ingredients of sake are rice and watermalt(Malted rice). Broadly speaking, it supports sake brewingyeast-Lactic acid bacteriaAll of these are sometimes called "raw materials for sake."Professionally used to adjust flavorBrewing alcohol, Acidulant,seasoning,amino acid,SugarIsAuxiliary materialTo distinguish it.

Rice

Depending on the applicationMalted riceFor (Kojijima)RiceThere are two types (for dizziness).

Usually for koji riceSake rice(Sake brewing suitable rice) is used. All or part of the riceGeneral rice(Non-glutinous rice) Is used,Specific name liquorIn Case ofSake riceOften only used.Ordinary liquorMost of koji rice and sushi rice are all made of ordinary rice.

How to select and use the raw rice is the typical sake rice that once became a high-grade sake such as a specific name sake.Yamada AkiraEven though there was a tendency to be a bit enthusiastic, today sake is gaining high praise from general rice, and in recent years the change has been remarkable due to the development of new varieties.

RiceGood harvestIn that year, brewing may fail due to the quality of the rice.This is because the rice in a good harvest year is relatively hard, so it takes time for yeast to propagate sufficiently, and germs propagate during that time.Taisho4 years(1915 ), this phenomenon (later called "Taisho Taifu") failed to brew in various parts of Japan and caused serious damage to the entire brewing industry.

Wed

WedIs an ingredient that makes up 80% of Japanese sake, and is a major factor affecting quality. Because of thisMiyamizuFor example, it may be called with a special name depending on the area. Most of the water sourceUnderground water,groundwaterSuch aswell waterIs.Where the conditions are good, use these as water sourcesTap waterIs sometimes used, but breweries often secure their own water sources.In urban breweries, water may be transported from remote areas due to deterioration of water quality, or relocated in search of a good water source.The water used for sake brewingWater for brewingIt is used as feed water and as water for washing bottles, manufacturing equipment, etc.BrewerSome of them sell water as a product.

TokyoCity centerLocated inTokyo Port BrewingDare to use tap water.The reason isTokyo Metropolitan Waterworks BureauTakes waterTone River-ArakawaThe water systemMedium soft waterAnd some of them are not suitable for sake brewingmineral(iron,manganese) Is small, safe and hygienic, and for sterilizationchlorineAlso mentions that there is no problem because it comes off in the manufacturing process.[31].

硬度
Water硬度Is one of the factors that influence the taste of sake. Roughly speaking,Soft waterIf you make it with, soft liquor of fermentation,hard waterIf you make it with, it will be a hard sake that has been fermented.The reason is that when hard water is used in the brewing process, minerals activate yeast.Alcohol fermentationThat is, the decomposition of sugar progresses rapidly, and conversely, when soft water is used, the amount of minerals is small and the function of yeast is weakened and the fermentation does not proceed easily.
Edo PeriodSinceNadaThen.MiyamizuHard water called was used,1897 (Meiji30 years) in HiroshimaMiura SensaburoWas developed by.
Hardness is measured in everyday life in Japan.American hardnessUsed in the brewing industry for a long timeGerman hardnessIs used (American hardness is also used)[32].
Water quality
The water quality standards imposed on sake brewing water are much stricter than those of tap water.Sake breweries use water in advance for each region.Health center,, I have to send it to a brewing guidance organization for inspection.
The inspection is conducted on the following items.
Most of the water in Japan varies from place to placeMedium hard waterIt can be said that it is suitable for brewing because it contains a small amount of iron and manganese that impair the flavor.Pacific WarbeforeManchuriaAlthough we tried to produce sake locally for Japanese residents, the water here was hard and not suitable for brewing, so it was difficult to produce it stably.[35].
In addition, the minimum amount of salts necessary for promoting fermentation subsidies or safe brewing (Acidic potassium phosphate,Acidic calcium phosphate,Magnesium chlorideEtc.) can be added to the charged water.[36].
Uses of water
Brewing water used for brewing is classified as follows.
  • Brewing water -Water taken as an ingredient in sake during the brewing process.
    • Water for soaking in rice-Water for washing and soaking rice. It is also the water that is absorbed in the rice before it is prepared.
    • Water for preparation-Water added as the main ingredient during brewing.
    • Aqueduct for chores-cleaning andboilerWater used for.Also for thisWater qualityWater for brewing is used that has passed the strict standards as described in.
  • Bottling water
    • Water for bottle washing-Water for washing bottles.
    • Water for adjusting water --- Water added to adjust the alcohol content.Incorporated into sake after brewing.
    • Aqueduct-tanks andbucketWater used for cleaning.For this, sake brewing water that has passed strict standards as described in the section on water quality is used.

Koji麴")

Used for sakemaltIs a koji mold (Japanese Aspergillus Ofspore) Was raised and raised,Malted riceAlso known as (komekoji). This is riceStarchTheGlucoseChange toSaccharificationTo work.

The main ingredient of rice from sake isPolysaccharideHowever, yeast cannot be used as an energy source as it is (directly from starchAlcohol fermentationCan't be done), so first of all,Molecular weightNeeds to be broken down into small sugars. In other words, rice malt plays a role in saccharifying starch to produce glucose so that yeast can produce alcohol from glucose. Rice malt decomposes starch produced by Aspergillus niger.酵素Isα-amylase,Glucoamylase, And saccharification is performed by these functions. BesidesproteinIt also contains the degrading enzyme ofamino acid,peptideAffects the growth of yeast and the flavor of the finished sake (see:#Koji making).

Representing Western sakeWineThen is the raw materialGrapeSince glucose is already contained in the juice, this saccharification process is not required.Simple fermentationIt became a cultural area. In the Orient, not only sake, but also other alcoholic beveragesmiso-sweet sake-Soy sauceKoji is used in many foods such asMultiple fermentationCultural area,MoldIt is also called cultural area. this isSoutheast AsiaからEast AsiaIt is called a middle-high temperature humid area overclimateIt was possible due to the above characteristics,microorganismIt is a brewing method that uses the effect of mold as above. There are various types of koji mold used in the Orient,Distilled spiritsWhite koji, black koji (black koji mold), yellow koji,AwamoriBlack koji,Shaoxing sakeUsually, red malt is used formiso,sweet sake,Soy sauceSame asYellow koji(Kikoji,Aspergillus oryzae-Aspergillus flavus) Is used.However, even if you say "yellow", the actual color is close to green or yellow-green.

Other than the microorganisms that have long been established in koji and sake breweries used by brewing companiesNattoFungusMiscellaneous bacteriaEtc. adversely affect liquor. Especially when natto fungus breeds on koji rice, it becomes a koji like slippery koji such as natto that is slimy. For this reason, we ask visitors not to eat natto just before visiting.Sake breweryAlso[37]There are also places where brewers during the brewing period do not eat natto.[38].

The koji used in Japan is shaped like rice grains as far as the naked eye can see.KojiIt is called (Barakoji).On the other hand, other companies such as ChinaOrientalJiuqu used in each countryRice cake maltIt is called (mochi koji) and is the raw materialRice-wheatな ど穀物It exists in nature in a mixture of water and kneadedKumonosukabi,Mold OfsporeIt can be formed by attaching and breeding.

yeast

Glucose produced from rice starch in koji isyeastDisassembled byethanolAnd carbon dioxide is produced.YeastFungiBelongs toUnicellular organismAnd not a raw material, but this doesAlcohol fermentationIs a big factor in the process of sake brewing, so I will write it here (for details,Sake yeastSee). Among the wide variety of yeasts used in sake brewingSake yeast80% or more of the seedsSaccharomyces cerevisiae(Budding yeast). Hundreds of thousands of species are widespread in nature, each with different qualities. Yeast diversity is an important key in determining the taste, aroma and quality of sake.

In the pre-modern period, in the process of combining koji and water, yeast that naturally exists in the air was taken in, and it settled in a sake brewery.Brewery yeastI had to rely on (yeast with a house), and it was up to the occasion. Because of this, scientificReproducibilityThe quality of the brewed liquor was not stable.

Meiji EraTo become andMicrobiologyUseful by the introduction ofStrainBy separating and nurturing the sake and distributing it, the quality of the sake as a whole was stabilized and improved.1911 (Meiji 44) 1stNational new sake appraisalIs opened,Japan Brewing AssociationBegan to collect useful yeast on a national level, and distributed the purely cultivated yeast, which was objectively evaluated as excellent at being ranked first in the review meeting. Distributed yeast (Association yeastorAssociation yeast) Is named "Association n No." (n is a number) after the Japan Brewing Association. Emit carbon dioxide bubbles during alcohol fermentationFoamy yeast(Association No. 1 to Association No. 15 etc.)Yeast without foamIs roughly divided into Bubble-free yeast is a yeast that is produced by mutation and does not produce bubbles during fermentation. It has many advantages, such as no need for foam protection in the process of sake brewing. Many bubble-free versions of good seeds were made.

Originally, sake had only the sober scent of rice and did not have the fruity scent of wine, but it was devised to brew sake with an excellent scent for the appraisal.Ginjo sakeWas born, and brewing ginjo came to be carried out in warehouses in various places. Among the association yeasts that played a major role in thisAssociation No. 7 (Masumi Yeast)とAssociation No. 9 (Karou Yeast, Kumamoto Yeast)Met.1980 eraWhen Ginjo liquor is widely accepted by the general public and consumption increases, in addition to this, low acid yeast, high ester producing yeast,Malic acidBubble-free yeast that produces a high scent, such as highly productive polyacid yeast, is made,1990 eraAfter that, the place name of the development site is named respectivelyShizuoka yeast,Yamagata yeast,Akita yeast,Fukushima yeastEtc. appeared, and the yeast used for ginjo-making also diversified.

recently,Alps yeastRepresented byEthyl caproateHigh productivity yeast,Tokyo University of Agriculture Pink,Beconia,VineIsolated from flowersFlower yeastSuch as strongGinjo incenseThe ones that bring out the yeast are attracting attention, and various yeasts are still produced by major manufacturers, bio-institutes, and universities.Nearly 70% of the yeast currently distributed as association yeast is foamless yeast.

On the other hand, depending on the newly developed yeast, the ginjo aroma may be unnaturally too strong and spoil the taste of sake, which may not be preferred. Therefore, it is not desirable to make the aroma strong and vivid.

Lactic acid

Lactic acidIs important, especially in the early stages of preparation, to prevent the growth of other germs.Also, including lactic acidOrganic acidHowever, it gives sake a "waist".Standing upAt the time ofLactic acid for brewingWhen adding andLactic acid bacteriaIn some cases, lactic acid is produced in the former, and the former is called the Sokujo system, and the latter is called the Kimoto system.

More

FormallyAuxiliary materialThose that are classified into.

<Item displayed on label>

  • Brewing alcohol -For a refreshing taste or to leave a scentmashIs added to.The added one is called "Al Sake".
  • Sugar --Add sweetness to sake.Rice bran starch, which is a by-product of milled rice, is saccharified and refined (rice bran saccharified liquid) is added as a substitute for rice and fermented in some cases.[39].
  • amino acid -Add flavor to sake.
  • Acidulant -Add sourness to sake.

<Items not displayed on label>

  • Enzyme agent-made by Jiuqu酵素"Enzyme agent" may be used to supplement.If it is less than 1,000/1 of the raw material weight, it is not treated as a raw material.
  • Activated carbon -Get the taste of sake. If you use it too much, the taste of the sake itself will be diminished.
  • Fining agent
  • Filter aid

Sake manufacturing method

Sake isbeerAnd wineBrewed sakeThe raw material is fermented to obtain alcohol. However, unlike wine and sake, sake and beer are used as raw materials.SugarDoes not containSaccharificationThat process is necessary. For beer, completelyWortSake is fermented after being saccharified, but a major feature of sake is that it has a process of performing saccharification and fermentation in parallel.Parallel double fermentationThis brewing method, which is unique to Japanese sake, is a factor that makes it possible to obtain a higher alcohol content than other brewed sake.

Sake is brewed through the following processes.

Polished rice

From brown riceBran-GermAnd removeendospermSharpen[40]. The rate of scrapingRice polishing rateRepresented by

Included in riceprotein-fatIs abundant on the outside of rice grains.Because proteins and fats cause miscellaneous taste in the brewing process[41]The rice is carefully scraped off so that it does not crumble, which can bring out a refined taste.On the other hand, the lower the rice polishing rate, the more difficult it is to utilize the individuality of the rice varieties, and the mineral content that promotes fermentation.vitaminSince kind is also lost, advanced technology in a later process will be required.

If the speed of milling rice is too fast, the rice will be transformed or shattered by heat, so it must be done slowly with extreme caution. In the case of Ginjo and Daiginjo, not only the part to be ground is large, but also the target becomes smaller and the nerves are used, so the time required for rice polishing may exceed two days.

1930 (ShowaAfter about 5 years)Vertical rice millWith the advent of, it became possible to carry out a more sophisticated and quick rice polishing operation, which in turn enabled mass production of Ginjo sake (see:).The birth of Ginjo sake). Recently, this vertical rice millComputerThere is also a major manufacturer that controls rice and polishes it.

Allow to cool and die

Leave the white rice after milling, the liquor mother after splitting, and the koji after malting until it is used in the next step.

A lot of rice that has been milledFrictional heatBears. The lower the rice-polishing rate and the longer the rice-polishing time, the greater the amount of heat it takes. As it is, the quality of rice is not stable to proceed to the next process (Mr. TsujiAnd in the words of the brewers, "rice is not cold"), so put it in a bag and let it cool in the warehouse for a while. Also, the water evaporated by the friction heat is returned to the original state. thisCooling(Horei), again in the words of Mr. Mori and the brewerWithered(Mustard). Even if you say "for a while", it is not a work that takes hours, but it usually takes 3 to 4 weeks until the friction heat is completely dissipated and the rice settles down completely.

Washed rice

The milled rice is thoroughly cleaned of rice bran and rice debris on the surface during the rice polishing process. This isWashed rice(Senmai)

Ordinary liquorA large amount of rice is washed at once by a machine.On the other hand, the rice used to make high-quality sake is about 10 kilograms by hand, 5℃It is washed little by little with cold water before and after using the flowing water pressure.Even while washing, the rice begins to absorb the necessary water, and it is a process that pays close attention to what is called the "second rice milling work".The rice washed in this way is sent to immersion.

Soaking

The washed rice is soaked in water to absorb water. thisSoakingIt is called (shinseki or shinshi).

Immersion is a process that is performed in order to spread water throughout the rice grains so that the steamed rice does not become uneven. From the outside of the rice grain, waterWhite heart(Mr. TsujiWhen it penetrates into the starchy part called "Mentama" in the Kurodo language, the rice grains are literally transparent.How to make rice, the daythe weather,temperature,(I.e.,Water temperatureDepending on various conditions such as, the time required for immersion varies precisely.

At this time, the taste of the finished liquor varies remarkably depending on how much water the rice is made to suck. Depending on the rice varieties and the quality of sake, the soaking time can range from a few minutes to several hours.Rice polishing rateThe lower the rice, the greater the difference will affect the result, so in the case of high-quality sake, use a stopwatch to strictly control the soaking time down to the second.Since rice continues to absorb water for a while even after being lifted from water, the soaking time is determined after taking that time into account.

Depending on the concept of the quality of the finished sake, the rice is allowed to absorb water for a certain period of time, such as intentionally raising it from the water. thisLimited water absorptionIt is called "Genkikyusui."

Steamed

Steamed rice is steamed to make steamed rice. Steamed rice is used in each process of making koji, sake mother and rice mash.

Spread the soaked rice to keep the humidity. During this time, rice continues to absorb water.

After that, the rice is steamed so that the enzyme of koji easily decomposes the starch of the rice. This process is officiallySteamed(Today: "Kyoto" is "strong to eat"), or in the words of Mr. MoriSteamedSay. For ordinary sake etc., it is a machine called automatic steaming rice machine, and for high-grade sake etc.NephewA big one called (Koshiki)Steam basketTransfer to (seiro) and steam for 40 minutes to 1 hour.

Steamed rice is called "outer hard and inner soft", and it is said that it is better that the outside is dry and the inside is soft.It has the meaning of maintaining the hardness that the shape of rice remains to some extent in the later process and effectively promoting the growth of Aspergillus.If the outside is melted, rot may start before the Aspergillus colonizes, and if the core remains inside, the growth of hyphae is suppressed and the part containing the highest quality starch in the rice This is because there is a possibility that it will not be saccharified or fermented.

In addition, after the last steaming of the sake brewing period is over, remove the zebra from the Japanese kettle.DefeatIt's called (Koshikidaoshi).

Koji making

maltIs steamed riceNeisseria gonorrhoeaeIt was grown by sprinkling the spores of Aspergillus niger,StarchyTheGlucoseChange toSaccharificationFunction (for details,maltreference). Koji making is officiallyKoji makingIt is called (Seikiku, Seigiku).

Masticatory manufacturing methodExcept for the early sake brewing that was brewed inNara periodIt is thought that the manufacturing method using Jiuqu had already been established at the beginning of.Since then, for a long time, koji brewing has been important in the sake brewing process.miso,Soy sauceAs a profession separate from the liquor store business due to supply demand for other foods such asMuromachi PeriodIt has been run until1444 OfThe Koji riot of BunanAbsorbed by force into a part of the liquor store business (see:The history of sake-Muromachi period).

Currently, most breweriesKoji roomThere is a special room called (Kojimuro) where koji making is performed. Floor heating andAir conditionThe temperature is close to 30 ° C and the humidity is kept at 60%.The reason why the temperature is high is that the yellow aspergillus is not cultivated otherwise, and if the humidity is higher than that, molds and other germs other than the yellow aspergillus will propagate.In order to prevent the invasion of germs, it is common to wash hands and change shoes when entering the room, and only those involved are allowed to enter.In addition, double doors, closed windows, heat insulating walls, etc. have been carefully constructed with considerable capital to prevent germs from entering from the outside.It is often said that the Jiuqu room is the property of the sake brewery.

"maltAs described in detail in the section, from koji, in addition to starch-degrading enzymes for saccharification,proteinDecomposing enzymes are also available, which dissolve steamed rice and determine the quality and taste of sake. If too much enzyme is produced, the desired quality of sake will not be achieved, so it is necessary to make koji so that it stops when the rice melts just right.

Destruction
It is here and there that the focus is on identifying itBreaking(Haze). Just as plants grow roots in the soil,AspergillusThat the mycelium extends into the steamed riceDemolition(Hazemomi), its modeDestructionIt is called "Hazeko Miguai". Koji has a breakthrough type (Tsukuzegata), a total sperm type (Souzegata), a coating sperm type (Nurihazegata), and a stupid sperm type. It is classified into
Breakthrough typeIt is,Aspergillus OfMyceliumDoes not cover the entire surface of the steamed rice, and the part that does not smash and the part that does not do so are clearly separated, and the hyphae are in a state of firmly eating deep inside the steamed rice. strongSaccharification powerAs a general tendency, it becomes an ideal koji with moderate proteolytic power and is finished in a light and elegant sake quality.Ginjo sakeOften used for.
Total crushing typeIs a state in which the hyphae of Aspergillus cover the entire surface of steamed rice, and the hyphae are deeply digging into the inside.It has strong saccharification and proteolytic power, but it tends to be a tasty sake depending on the amount used.Generally, it is a rich and solid sake.Pure rice wineIt is preferred to be used.
Painting typeThe hyphae of Aspergillus cover the entire surface of steamed rice, but the hyphae do not deeply bite inside.Both saccharification power and proteolytic power are weak and high, and it tends to be a weak liquor.
Idiot breaking typeIs the previous step,SteamedI made a mistake at the stage of, so the steamed rice was too soft and mycelia ate too much on the surface and inside, and it became messy. In this case, there is a risk of being contaminated with various bacteria. It cannot usually be used to make sake.

Mr. TsujiIt is often said amongst the brewers that "Ichikoji, Ni酛(Momoto, Sanzukuri). There are even Mr. Mori and the brewers who said, "If you can make good malt, you can make XNUMX% of the sake."

There are the following methods for making koji, depending on the desired quality of sake.

Lid koji method
Lid koji method(Futakoujiho) is a method mainly for ginjo sake or higher quality sake. The time required for making koji is 2 days or more, about 50 hours, and the work is done in the following order. Be seen.
  1. Seed cutting Spread a thin layer of steamed rice near 35 ℃,SieveFrom (sieve)Seed koji(Tanekoji), that is, sprinkle powdery Aspergillus oryzae. When finished, gather rice in the center like a big bun and wrap it in a cloth.
  2. Cut back Eight to nine hours after the seed cutting, the rice has hardened due to the evaporation of Aspergillus oryzae, so the rice is hardened and the heat is dissipated.
  3. Prime Around the next day, the activity of yellow aspergillus becomes active and the temperature of rice rises remarkably.So I unraveled the big bun andKoji lid(Jiuqu) orMoro lidRice is divided into small boxes called, about 1.5 kg to 2.5 kg, and these boxes are stacked and managed in a designated space.This process is done by putting rice on the lid of the kojiPrimeCall.
  4. Transshipment After 3-4 hours from the prime, the rice will bring heat again, so stack the koji lid up and down to lower the temperature.
  5. Working together(Working) Spread the rice and lower the temperature to dissipate the heat again.
  6. Closing work(Shipping) To spread the heat, spread the rice. This means that the work of dissipating the heat of rice is overClosing workBut this isn't the last thing in practice.
  7. Maximum transshipment The temperature of rice rises even after finishing work. When the temperature reaches its maximum, the koji lids are top-bottom transposed for the final temperature adjustment. Because it’s done when the temperature is highestMaximum transshipmentSay. After this, the work of watching the temperature of the rice several times and reloading it appropriately to lower the temperature continues.
  8. Malted rice(Dekoji) When about 50 hours have passed,ChestnutIt smells like roasted.This is the sign that the jiuqu is made.When this happens, take out the Jiuqu from the Jiuqu room.
Box koji method
Box koji method(Hakoko Ujiho) is a method that simplifies the method after "3. Prime" from the lid koji method.Koji lidInstead of rice, about 15 to 30 kg eachKoji boxServe in.Space and labor can be saved because the amount that can be piled up on one sheet increases.
Floor koji method
Floor koji method(And Koukoujiho), without using a koji lid or koji box,Koji floor(Kojijido) is a method of making rice by dissipating the heat of the rice with a table on which rice is sprinkled with yellow malt. It is used for quality sake, mainly ordinary sake.
Mechanical koji method
Mechanical koji method(Kaikai Seigikuho) is a method of mass-producing koji using a machine. Although it does not take time and labor and the production cost can be suppressed, it is said that it is not suitable for high-grade liquor because the quality of liquor that can be produced is limited. It is used for quality sake, mainly ordinary sake. Recently, Mr. Young Morino's work on small quantities of high-quality sake in a small warehouse has been receiving attention. It has the merit of suppressing an unexpected increase in acidity caused by contamination of various bacteria due to human intervention, and it is possible to manage the growth condition of koji more strictly with a small number of staff more efficiently, and at the same time collect and accumulate data. I can. Up until now, it is possible to make koji exactly as intended, which is not uneven and does not rely on experience, so premium sake brewing is actively carried out using small-scale mechanical koji making machines.

Sake brewing

yeastThe process of increasing.Mr. Tsuji・In the kurajin language,酛stand up"(Motodate).

For yeastGlucoseThealcoholTo change tofermentationAlthough it works, one or two yeasts, which are microorganisms, are not enough to ferment a large amount of rice that can be handled in sake breweries, and a large amount of yeast that is commensurate with the amount of rice is required. Become.

Under these circumstances, in the sake brewery, the small amount ofGood yeastWill grow in large quantities in a particular environment. What was cultivated in such a large amountLiquor mother(Shubo / Original) or酛Originally called.

As for work, first酛桶Put the jiuqu and cold water in a tub or tank with a height of about 1 m called (Motooke) and mix them well.thisMalted riceCalled (Mizu Koji).酛The tubs are of high quality these daysStainless steelSurfaceenamel(Enamel) Processed metal tanks are often used, but as a brewer酛It is called "Oke". On the other hand, there are also sake breweries that continue to use wooden tools and restore them, including jars and barrels used in the processes before and after the sake brewing process.[42].

After that, for kojiLactic acid for brewingAnd put only a small amount of yeast decided to be adopted. A wide variety of yeasts are usedSake yeastTherefore, only one type is usually selected that is considered suitable for the sake quality desired by the maker, but when the yeast has too strong characteristics, another type of yeast is blended to alleviate it. I often put it in.

When steamed rice is added to the above, the preparation of sake brewing is completed. After waiting for 2 weeks to 1 month depending on the manufacturing method, a large amount of yeast is cultivated in the tub that has been charged,酛Will be completed.

The place where sake mother is made isLiquor roomOr酛PlaceCalled (Motoba),Miscellaneous bacteria,Wild yeastThe room temperature is kept at around 5℃ to prevent the entry of. However, compared to the Koji room, it does not require stricter management, so some sake breweries may even welcome visitors. Inside the liquor room, a small, unique sound of yeast fermentation is heard.

When making a sake liquor, the lid of the tank is left open, so there is a lot of air in the tank from the air.Miscellaneous bacteria,Wild yeastComes in easily. ThereforeLactic acid bacteriaIt is necessary to kill and destroy various bacteria and wild yeasts by adding lactic acid to produce lactic acid. Depending on how you add this lactic acid, sake brewing will greatlyLiving酛system(Kei Kimoto)Quick brewIt is classified into two categories.

Raw chicken

Kimoto Kei's sake mother making is now bigGingerとMountain ruins(Yamaha Imoto).

Ginger
Ginger(Kimoto) is the oldest manufacturing method still in use today,Lactic acid bacteriaIt takes in from the air to make lactic acid and destroys various bacteria and wild yeasts. It takes about one month to become an liquor mother. It takes a lot of time and labor, and the fermentation stage also takes a long time.Complete fermentationThis is because I will let you. Even now, there is a tendency to be shunned because it takes time and labor, but if it succeeds, the quality of sake will be solid, so more and more sake breweries are working to restore the tradition. The main steps are as follows.
Put rice, jiuqu, and water into a tub (tank)> Wholesale> Temperature control> Yeast addition> Temperature control> Sake mother completed
However, since there was a high risk of rotting and rancid,1909 )National Brewing Laboratory(Current independent administrative agencyLiquor Research Institute) By abandoned酛Was developed. See the next section.
Mountain ruins
Mountain ruins(Yamahaimoto) is raw酛One of the preparation methods belonging to the systemMountain wholesale abolitionAbbreviation of (Yamamoto or Ishimoto). The sake brewed this way Mountain scrapping(Yamahaishi/-jijimi) or justAbandoned mountain(Yamaye).Roughly speaking, from the process of making raw sardinesMountain wholesaleHowever, it is not just the omission of the wholesaler, and other related details of work are also different. "Mountain wholesale" is the process of mixing rice, koji and water with a paddle, and is also called "dripping".

Quick brew

Quick brew(Sokujokei) is necessary to prevent contamination by germs and wild yeast.Lactic acidA manufacturing method that artificially adds.Most of the sake currently made is fast-brewed.

Fast brew酛
43th year of Meiji (1910 ) Was devised.Lactic acid for brewing is added to the water to be brewed, mixed well, and then the rice and jiuqu are added.To distinguish it from the high temperature saccharified sardines described belowNormal fast brewingAlso called.It takes about 2 weeks.The process is as follows.
Mix rice, jiuqu, water and lactic acid> Yeast addition> Temperature control> Sake mother completed
High temperature saccharified syrup
A method of rapidly advancing saccharification by raising the temperature (55 ° C to 58 ° C) in the first stage of brewing sake.Sweet SakeIt is the same principle as the manufacturing method of.It takes about one week.In raw sardines and ordinary fast brewing, it is necessary to cool the liquor mother to 1 ℃ or less, whereas in high temperature saccharified sardines it is only necessary to lower it to about 10 ℃, so areas with relatively high winter temperatures such as western Japan and Kyushu It is said that it is suitable for making sake mothers in Kyushu.[43][44]..The process is as follows.
Add rice and jiuqu to hot water and saccharify> Mix lactic acid> Yeast addition> Temperature control> Sake mother completed

More

There are bodhi and boiled chicken.

Bodhi
Bodhi(Bodaimoto) is similar to raw koji in the sense that it takes in lactic acid bacteria from the environment such as rice and water, and it is a quick brewing type in terms of the fact that the brewed water contains lactic acid when the sake mother is brewed. near.
Boiled sardine

Made with moromi

Ingredients (liquor, koji, steamed rice, and water) are divided into 3 parts and placed in a tank to make mash and ferment.

Nigiri(mash)Is a highly viscous liquid that is white, turbid, and foamy, in which sake mother, jiuqu, and steamed rice are integrated in the tank used for preparation.Moromi mash is also simply called "zukuri". "One Jiuqu, Two酛"Zukuri" when we say ", Sanzukuri" means this.The place to makeStockyardIt's called (Shikomiba).

In the process of making mash, koji turns starch of rice into sugar, and at the same time, yeast decomposes sugar to produce alcohol (and carbon dioxide). This simultaneous change is characteristic of sakeParallel double fermentation.

When mashing the mash, add steamed rice and jiuqu in three portions.This preparation methodStep preparationOrThree-stage preparationCalled the record of the Muromachi period "Sake diary] Has already been described.If the whole amount of steamed rice and koji are mixed at once and fermentation is started, the acidity and yeast density of the liquor mother will be greatly reduced, and the breeding of germs and wild yeast will make it easier for the mash to fail.Staged preparation is a preparation method in which yeast can be grown while stabilizing the fermentation environment and preventing the growth of germs, and sugar, which is a material for alcoholic fermentation of yeast, can be added to the final amount in the state of rice jiuqu or steamed rice while maintaining that state. Is.As a result, yeast can be fermented without losing its activity, and alcohol with an alcohol content of over 20% is produced at the end of mashing.This is a high alcohol content rarely seen in brewed sake, and it is a unique method unique to sake, and it can be said to be a technological heritage that can be proud of in the world.

The first step of preparationFirst attendance(Hatsuzo is abbreviated as "Sozo"),danceIt's called the second timeNakazoe(Nakazoe, abbreviated as “Naka”), 3rd timeAttachment(Tomezo is abbreviated as "dome"). Ferment for 20-30 days.

Appearance of bubbles
thermometerSince the days when there were neither sensors nor sensors, Mr.MoromiBy observing the state of foaming on the surface and dividing it into several stages, we have been able to understand the progress of fermentation inside. The state of foaming on the surface of this mash(Foam) appearanceIt is called (Jobou) and is shown as follows.
  1. Muscle foam(Sujiawa) AttachmentAfter a couple of days from, it is a streak-like foam that tells the start of fermentation inside the mash.
  2. blister(Mizuawa) About two days after muscle foam.crabWhite foam that blows from your mouth. The sugar content in the mash has reached the top.
  3. Rock bubbles(Iwaawa) About two days after the blisters. Bubbles that look like rocks. Since the heat is dissipated during fermentation, the temperature rise is also remarkable.
    Capsize The bubbles that cover the top of the charging tank may turn upside down in about 5 days after the addition.[45].
  4. High foam(Takaawa) About two days after Iwafoam.AttachmentFrom 1 week to 10 days when you add up. The whole rock bubble shows excitement. Chemically, fermentation is trying to catch up with saccharification.Foamy yeastとYeast without foamIs often determined by the presence or absence of this high bubble.
  5. Bubbles(Ochiawa) Around 12 days after the stay. The rising of the bubbles calms down. Chemically, fermentation has caught up with saccharification.
  6. Ball bubbles(Tamaawa) About two more days, and about two weeks after the stay. For more informationLarge bubble→Medium bubble→Small bubbleIt is divided into The bubbles become ball-shaped and become smaller and smaller. The smaller it is, the more calm the fermentation is.
  7. Ground(D) About 5 days, or nearly 3 weeks after the stay. The bubble is getting smaller and disappears this time. Fermentation is also near the end. However, it is up to Mr. Mori to decide at what stage it should be considered as the end of the entire process of "Murashi". This is because, depending on the desired quality of sake, it is better to allow a few days as it is, and in the case of the Ginjo system, it is preferable to further maintain the state.
in recent years,Yeast without foamHas been developed a lot, but todayFoamy yeastIn brewing using, you can see the above-mentioned changes in appearance every day in the preparation tank.

Add alcohol

Diluted to about 2% from about 2 days to 30 hours before the upper tankBrewing alcoholTo add.

The word "alcohol addition" or abbreviated as "alten" is often used to give the impression that an industrially impure additive is added.Delicious Shinbo』) But in the old daysEdo Period OfPillar shochuIt is one of the traditional processes that goes back to the technique.It has the following purposes.

  1. Antiseptic effect The pillar shochu of the Edo period, which is the origin of the current addition of alcohol,RottingTo preventDistilled spiritsIt was a technique to add. In the past, antiseptic effect was the most important purpose of alcohol addition. In a modern age where hygiene management has advanced, such implications have faded.Sherry,Port wineEtc.Fortified wineAlso, alcohol is added for the same purpose.
  2. Adjusting the flavor This is the primary purpose of current alcohol addition.Appropriate alcohol addition brings out the latent aroma of the undiluted sake from the mash.In particular, many of the flavor components of Ginjo-type sake are insoluble in water, and it is necessary to add alcohol to dissolve them.In the first place, Ginjo Sake itself was a type of sake developed on the premise of adding alcohol (see:The history of sake # the birth of Ginjo sake).Many sake breweries that produce Ginjo sake consider that the addition of alcohol is essential to improve the quality of sake.
  3. Lighter taste The second purpose of the current alcohol addition.MoromiSome were produced during the fermentation processsugar,acidIf left untreated, the finished liquor will have a profound taste at best and a dull taste at worst.If alcohol is added here, they will be adjusted.Also, due to its nature, pure rice sake remains more or less sour after drinking.The addition of alcohol suppresses the acidity and makes the mouth mellow.Furthermore, in modern eating habits, umami and oil are often used, and as beverages are required to have a light taste, alcohol addition is used to improve the sharpness of sake. is there.
  4. Increase SanmasuDuring its heyday, it was done to inflate the amount of sake. It is sometimes excused that "the process of'alcohol'is generally a negative legacy of the previous era to have a bad image," but "actually'alcohol' The liquor that has been made has an increased odor. "

Only alcohol rice produced in Japan can be used as the raw material for the added alcohol.TraceabilityThere are also efforts to appeal[46].

Upper tank

Upper tankWhat is moromi?mash) Is the process of squeezing raw sake (Namazake).Mr. TsujiWas judged to be "aged"NigiriWhat,Add alcohol,Auxiliary materialIs added and squeezed to separate into solid components such as white rice and malted rice, and liquid components serving as sake. In the words of Mr. MorinozoSqueezed(Squeezing),Upper tankAlso called (Agefune).

The solid content is so-calledSake leesIt becomes (salmon). The ratio of sake lees to raw riceMeal ratioIt's called (Kasuuai).

The place to do the upper tankUpper tank(Josoba) orTank fieldIt's called (Funaba).In many cases, it is squeezed by an automatic squeezing machine such as "Yabuta type", but some sake breweries adopt tank squeezing such as "Sase type".[47][48]..Delicate sake such as Daiginjo sake has less pressure on the mash.Bag hanging,CentrifugeSqueezed by such a method[49].

Where the squeezed sake comes outTank mouthIt is called (Fukuchi).

Also, in the sake brewery, when the first liquor of the year is placed in the tank,Sugitama(Sugitama) orSake forestThere is a practice to hang (sakabayashi) and inform that new sake has been made. The freshly hung cedar balls are lush, but eventually wither and brown. This change of color is also theAgingIt plays the role of letting people know how well they are.

Slag pulling

Slag pulling(Oribiki) refers to waiting to remove the turbidity of sake that has finished the upper tank. The sake that has just been squeezed from the tank mouth (Fukuchi) still contains a lot of carbon dioxide,yeast, Starch particles, proteins, polysaccharides, etc. are floating and have a cloudy golden color.This turbid componentSlagThese are called (ori)precipitationThe sake is left in the tank for a while to make it happen. The effect of slag removal is not limited to simply removing turbidity, but removing excess protein prevents turbidity due to protein denaturation caused by temperature changes and changes over time after bottling, and in the subsequent filtration process. It also reduces the burden.

The portion of the skimmed supernatant isFresh sake"(Namashu). Be careful because it is a different concept from "gama".

Completion sake is raw sake (namazake) orNofiltrationliqueurAlthough it is different when it is tailored to (Murokashu), in the case of the majority of general sake, it is often the case that the slag is lowered twice from the upper tank to the shipment.It is normal that slag such as yeast and starch particles still remains in the raw sake (Namashu) after the first slaging, and there is also a considerable amount of miscellaneous taste, which is filtered to strain them. Process is required.

In recent years, taking advantage of consumers' "raw" orientation, sake breweries that ship as "unfiltered raw sake" without performing the process after slagging have appeared.

It should be noted that the term "slagging" is often confused with slagging, but it is a different concept from slagging.

filtration

filtration(Roka) is to remove the fine slag and miscellaneous flavors that still remain in the slag-lowered raw sake (Namashu).There is also the purpose of making the color of the liquid as close as possible from golden to colorless and transparent.In many cases, this step is intentionally omitted and the sake is shipped as unfiltered sake.

  1. Activated carbon filtration Powdered powder in NamashActivated carbonThe filtration performed byCarbon filtration(Or not)Activated carbon filtrationIt is also called (Kasseitarooka). This activated carbon powder is simplycarbon(Sumi)Call. Basically, deodorizing charcoal used in refrigerators in general households,tobacco OffilterIt is the same as the black powder contained in it.Activated carbon is added to raw sake (Namashu), and the components and colors to be removed are adsorbed on the charcoal and precipitated.After that, the charcoal is removed together with the unnecessary components.The difficulty of this process lies in the fact that the components and colors that can be removed differ depending on the type and amount of activated carbon added, rather than simply throwing in activated carbon.in this way,Charcoal(Sumikagen) is very delicate, so at the home of local sake, among the brewersSumiyaThere were many specialists in this process called (Sumiya).If you add too much activated carbon, the liquor will become clear, but the taste, color, and aroma will all be nullified, and the liquor will be interesting and nothing.In the past, 1 kilogram of charcoal was added to 1 kiloliter of raw sake (Namashu), commonly known as "kilo kilo", but nowadays the amount of activated carbon used is decreasing, and the number of people who do not use it is increasing. Professional occupations are on the decline[50]..In addition, since activated carbon is often used and then filtered by another method, the presence or absence of "use of activated carbon" and the presence or absence of "filtration" are different stories.
  2. Diatomaceous earth filtration PurifiedDiatomaceous earthLayer to remove contaminants and, after activated carbon filtration, the activated carbon itself. What is diatomaceous earth?diatomKind offossilAnd, it has a shape with many very small holes, and it also removes substances that cause color, taste substances, and scent substances to some extent. This advance in filtration technology also helps reduce the use of activated carbon.
  3. Filtration with filter paper In some cases, filtration is performed using a special filter paper.
  4. Filter filtration It has been increasing recently.A method of filtering using a cartridge type filter.Since it is a cartridge type, it can be replaced, and it has the advantage of being easy to use.Especially when shipping as raw sake (Namazake), it is possible to perform high-precision filtration (about 0.22-0.5 μm).Burned-out fungusMay remove microorganisms including[51].

Tank mouthSake, freshly squeezed from (Fukuchi), is usually as beautiful as the ear of autumnYellow goldAre doing OnceNational new sake appraisalThen, the sake was coloredExhibition sakeThere was a time when I was targeting points. In many cases, sake breweries worked hard to remove the color by activated carbon filtration and then shipped it in a colorless and transparent state like water.

The colorless and transparent tones that are commonly associated with the so-called “sake” are a remnant of such times. Nowadays, it is no longer required to remove the color regardless of miscellaneous taste and aroma, so the liquor that is still distributed in color is revived, and the number of consumers who like the simplicity of natural colored liquor is increasing. ing.

Burning

Burning(Hirai) is to heat and sterilize brewed sake.FireAlso called (Hitate). The sake before burning is still inyeastIs alive and active.In addition, the enzyme produced by Jiuqu also maintains its activity, so the quality of sake is likely to change.Also,Lactic acid bacteriaIs a type ofFire fungusMay be mixed in. If this is left unattended, the liquor will turn white and cloudy (burning out). Therefore, by burning, these yeasts, enzymes, and drop bacteria are sterilized or inactivated to stabilize the quality of sake. This allows liquor to be stored for a long time even at room temperature. However, if it is overheated, alcohol and volatile aroma components evaporate and fly away, impairing the quality of sake. Therefore, this is also difficult to adjust, it is performed at 62 ℃-68 ℃[52]. In addition, if you heat at 65℃ for 23 seconds,SterilizationKnown to be able to[53]..Ginjo sake may be bottled and then burned so that the aroma does not fly away. (Bottle burning)

The technique of burning isMuromachi PeriodBrewing technical book written inSake diary』Already described inLate Heian periodからKinaiIt can be seen that it was mainly done.This isWesternInBacteriologyAncestor of theLouis Pasteur 1866 ToPasteurizationbyHeat sterilization500 years before the introduction of the law into winemaking, it was common practice in sake brewing in Japan[Annotation 2].

Meiji EraBritish who came to JapanAtkinsonIt is,1881 The optimum temperature (about 130 °) is about "I can finally write the letter" "on the surface of sake" by visiting liquor stores in various places.F(55 ℃)), I observed the state of precise temperature control in an environment without a thermometer, and wrote with surprise.

Relationship between burning and "sake"
Sake that has not been set to fireUnfiltered raw sakeIt is popular as such.Such "raw" liquor is fresh, the fragrance is young and gorgeous, and the remaining slight effervescence is pleasant to the throat.When you burn themThe delicacy of sake is lostTherefore, “sake” has a taste that is not possible with burned sake, even if the preservation is thoroughly managed.
In the past, it was difficult to control storage and distribution at low temperatures, and it was rare for "raw sake" to hit the market.In recent years, when preservation and management have become more thorough, "raw sake" has become available on the market, and "raw sake" has become one of the new ways to enjoy sake.
However, if sake is not burned, it will deteriorate quickly and soonRaw incenseIn order to emit, raw sake must be stored and managed properly.
Also, the taste of "raw" sake is rough,Storage/agingSake that has undergone the conventional burning process does not lose its appeal as sake because it lacks the flavor, mellowness, and depth of the past.
Display Problems Concerning "Sake"
Fresh storage(Namachozoshu) andRaw sakeExcept for the case of making (Namazumishu), the majority of ordinary sake is fired twice between the upper tank and shipping.That is, the first time is before storage and aging, and the second time is just before bottling and shipping.In particular, the first firing calms the ingredients and influences the direction of how they mature during further storage.The chart below is an easy-to-understand chart.

Upper tank → First slag drop → First filtration → First firing →Storage/aging → First slag drop → First filtration→Split water→First firing → bottled → 出 荷

  • Fresh storage Do not burn the first time.Mr. TsujiIn brewer's language, it is called "teacher" (SakiNama), "live savings" (Namacho), etc.
  • Raw sake Do not burn for the second time.In the words of Mori Kurodo, it is called "afterlife".
  • Namazake Neither the first nor the second firing. In the words of Mr. Mori's kurajin, it is called "seisei" (namama), "honsei" (honma), etc.
  • Original wine This is the sake in the supernatant that has been subjected to the first slag drop.
Under the above premise, raw sake and raw sake are burned at least once.Not really "raw"That's whyIt is not appropriate to include "raw" in the name, Has been discussed.
In addition, using the consumer sentiment of "raw" preference, only the "raw" characters of raw sake and raw sake are printed on the label in large or conspicuous colors, and other characters are added small and plain. There are also breweries that produce and distribute raw sake as if raw stored sake or raw sake is "raw" sake.On the other hand, even if some of Ginjo sake and Junmai sake are labeled as "raw", real sake (Namazake), so to speak, "raw" has come to be distributed.

Storage/aging

Aging overview

Aging(Jukusei) refers to the process of growth and completion of sake quality that proceeds during storage.Upper tank,Slagafter,No filtration,Fresh sakeTo ship asfiltration,BurningSome sake does not go through these steps, but after going through these steps, sake is usually stored for a while to bring out the flavor, mellowness, and depth of taste of the sake.

The specific changes due to aging are

  1. Color tone-yellow green → brown → reddish brown → black red.
  2. Fragrance- Brown sugarIncense → honeyIncense → キ ャ ラ メ ルIncense → Old sake incense.
  3. Taste enrichment-Expanding the range of taste, increasing bitterness,Gohara tasteHarmony.
  4. Tactile-Roundness, increased smoothness.
  5. Physical properties-Ori generation.

Is said to be[54].

Ginjo systemMany liquors have a aging period of half a year or longer to stabilize the aroma and taste. But one by oneAncient wine,Old sakeSuch a label is usually not labeled because it seems to be unfashionable from the point of view of Ginjo's dignity.

Non-Ginjo systemEvenHonjozo,Pure rice wineThen, the natural conditions of the climate with a sake brewery,Feed waterFeatures ofMr. TsujiFor various reasons, such as the concept that is intended, some are stored for a long period of time and aged.

Aging mechanism

Fermentation does not stop in sake that does not pass the burning,Ripening actionThe natural harmony of flavors continues due to amino acid decomposition and saccharification.Therefore, it is an indispensable part of the process to store and ripen the sake without shipping it immediately for the brand that finally produces the characteristic of the sake by the aging action.TypicallyComplete fermentationLetPure rice wineMatures slowly and does not easily deteriorate.Incomplete fermentationThe sake liquor contains a large amount of components that have not been decomposed into alcohol, so it is said that the quality of liquor changes quickly but it is prone to deterioration.

The causes of aging are roughly divided into heat applied from the outside andoxygenDue toPhysical factorAnd internal amino acidsNitrogen oxide,aldehydeDue toChemical causeThere are many unclear points regarding the specific theory. For example, when stored in a specific place such as an abandoned mine or an abandoned tunnel, the taste will be clearer than when stored in other places, regardless of how scientifically the conditions such as temperature and humidity are the same. There is an example such as[55]..Looking at the chemical causes in detail, amino acids, proteins, etc. during storageNitrogen compoundsActs on the remaining sugarMaillard reaction(Aminocarbonyl reaction) occurs and browning occurs.On the other hand, sulfur-containing amino acids produced by yeast ()[56] Volatile sulfur compounds derived from, worsen aroma propertiesDimethyl disulfide(DMDS),Dimethyl trisulfide(DMTS),Methyl mercaptanCauses an increase in substances such as[57].

Although all depends on the raw rice, protein can be reduced by using raw materials with a high rice polishing rate, but sulfur has a great influence on the ingredients contained in the raw rice.

Mutual complement with food

Shiga OfSalmon sushiAs in the case of land where basic foods in that region can be eaten after being stored and aged for a certain period of time, the same amount of time as the food is aged will naturally take to complete the quality of sake. Some sake is brewed in. In other words, food and sake are prepared at the same time and eaten at the same time and at the same time. This kind of aging is exactlyFood culture:On the basis ofMutual complementThat is the origin of local sake.

New sake, old sake, treasured sake

Sake is from July every year to June of the following yearManufacturing yearIt is stipulated that the items shipped within the manufacturing year are usuallyFresh sakeCalled. However, recently, the liquor to be shipped before June without waiting for the autumn of the year when it was in the upper tank, was labeled with "new liquor",ChilledThe definition of "new liquor" is becoming confusing as more and more liquor is differentiated and appealing for its freshness.

From winter to spring, there are many sake breweries, liquor stores, and restaurants that sell freshness as "freshly squeezed," "new sake," and "raw sake."[58].. As a selling method emphasizing the freshness of new sake, the Japan's prestigious sake association made at sake breweries and liquor stores has beenSpring"Lichun morning squeezing" has begun shipping on February 2th.Bottling with the upper tank from dawn, depending on the warehouse, as a lucky charm in the neighborhoodShrineWe will ship after praying for disease-free breathing and family safety. In 2018, 34 breweries from 43 prefectures will participate and squeeze about 31 bottles.[59].

Conversely, sake that is shipped and provided after the storage period has passed, not within the manufacturing yearAged liquor,Ancient wine,Old sakeorTreasured sakeSometimes called. SakeMaillard reactionBy[15]brownLong-term storage until it changes toRed wine,SherryThere is also a brewing company that transfers the aroma by putting it in the barrel where it was put. There are also cases where sake purchased from liquor stores and restaurants is laid down to make old sake. Depending on the brewery,WineInvintageThe idea is introduced and the year of liquor production is specified on the label. These vintage sakes, which are made to be deeper in taste when aged, have a long aging period of 20 to 40 years.[60]..The long-term aged sake study group made by sake brewing companies defines "sake that has been aged in the brewery for more than 3 years, excluding sugar-added sake" as aged old sake.[61].

Great old sake

Great old sakeThe word (Daikoshu/Okoshu) is not currently clearly defined. However, as a general rule, it needs to be matured by an order of magnitude, which is suitable for being “large”.1968 (Showa 43) openedGenroku's great old sakeEven if you don't go to 279 years like this, those with an aging period of more than 100 years are generally called Daikoshu.

Chilled

ChilledIs a sake brewery that is brewed in winter and then cool from spring to summerStorage/agingThe sake is bottled and shipped in the fall when the temperature drops. At that time, this name was created because it is not burnt (whose wholesale is kept cold).Brewing yearIn the sense that it is shipped over, it is originally classified as old sake, but it is customary.Fresh sakeTreated as a kind of.

Split water

Split waterWhat is (Waimizu)?AgingTo the liquor taken from the storage tank for, just before shipping, more preciselyWater for water adjustmentRefers to the work of adding. Also called "hydration adjustment" or simply "hydration".By the wayDistilled spiritsIn the manufacturing process of, the exact same process is called "Wasui".

The purpose of this process is to reduce the alcohol content of sake.Immediately after the moromi is made, most of the sake isParallel double fermentationClose to 20 degreesAlcohol degreeIt has become.The higher the alcohol content, the lower the risk of spoilage, so storage and aging are carried out with the alcohol content close to 20 degrees, so it is necessary to reduce the alcohol content to the target level when shipping. (""Low concentration sake"reference. )

On the other hand, sake that is shipped with the alcohol content at the time of mash without splitting water is called undiluted sake (however, water with a change in alcohol content of less than 1% is permitted).When you think of undiluted sake, it seems that you generally think of the original sake that uses the mash and yeast that was the source of the sake, or the sake that looks like a thick, thick extract. It's not a thing.However, since the water is not split, the alcohol content is higher than that of ordinary sake, and it is certain that it is richer in comparison.

blend

Blended sake, which is a mixture of sake produced by multiple breweries, may be sold.Impact of new coronavirus infectionIt was planned in various places after 2020 when the demand for sake decreased in Japan.[62][63].

Bottling/shipping

In this way, the sake that made the final adjustment such as water splitting,Water for bottle washingThey are bottled and shipped in bottles that have been washed in, and ride on the distribution route that each brewery has independently developed.

Manufacturing terms and expressions

Includes expressions related to historical manufacturing methods that are not currently used.

"commission"

The terms ending with "-proportion" are:

"Preparation" "Make"

Supplementing on the premise that it is for general understanding, not academically or professionally, only in the context of sake production,

"Preparation" = "Make", "Preparation" = "Made"

You can think of it as a synonym.

The terms ending with "- preparation" or "- construction" are as follows.

"Chinese" "Sake mother"

Supplementing on the premise that it is for general understanding, not academically or professionally, only in the context of sake production,

  • "Origin" = "Sake Mother"

Can be thought of as synonyms.

The terms ending with "-" or "-" are the following:

More

Terms that do not fit into the above categories include:

Sake evaluation criteria, terms and expressions

Sake degree

Of sakeproportionA unit that indicates.

The target sake is brought to 15°C and the specified floating balance is used. en: hydrometer) Float and measure. At that time,Distilled waterThe sake degree of sake of the same weight as is set to 0.Lighter ones have a + (plus) value, and heavier ones have a- (minus) value.The higher the degree of sake (the larger the + value), the more dry it tends to be, and it is often displayed on the label as a measure of taste.As an index that more strictly indicates the dry and sweet taste of sakeSweetnessThere is (Amakarado).

Measurement LawIn the system, sake degree is defined as[64].. Here, the specific gravity of sake is the pressure of 101325 Pa (Standard atmospheric pressureMeans ), 4°C.

  • Sake degree = (1 / specific gravity of sake-1) x 1443

When this is back calculated, the following equation is also obtained.

  • Specific gravity when the temperature of sake is 15 ℃ = 1443/ (1443 + sake degree)

acidity

10 required to neutralize 0.1 ml of sakeMole/ LiterSodium hydroxideThe titration volume of a solution. If this value is large, the expression is "refresh", and if it is small, the expression "is rich" is used. However, similarly to the degree of sake, the taste of a person greatly varies depending on the scent, eating, and physical condition.

Sweetness

The degree of sweetness is a value that indicates the degree of sweetness of sake.Of sakeGlucoseIt is calculated from the concentration and acidity as follows.

  • Sweetness = 0.86 x glucose concentration ―― 1.16 x acidity ―― 1.31

In addition, using sake degree instead of glucose concentration,

  • Sweetness = {193 593 ÷ (1443 + sake degree)} ―― 1.16 × acidity ―― 132.57

Can also be

This formula can explain 81% of the feeling that humans feel that sake is sweet and spicy. The relationship between the degree of sweetness and spiciness of sake is as follows.

Very spicy-3
Pretty spicy-2
A little spicy-1
Neither0
A little sweet1
Pretty sweet2
Very sweet3

Lightness

The tint level is a value that indicates the degree of tint of sake. Calculated from the glucose concentration and acidity of sake as follows.

  • Lightness = 0.42 x glucose concentration --1.88 x acidity --4.44

Glucose concentration is a direct reducing sugar,分子Large structuredextrinIt means the amount of sugar remaining after removing. The more intense the shade, the deeper the taste.

Although there is little indication of sweetness and lightness, it is more reliable than sake as an index of taste.

Amino acid content

Similar to the case of acidity, 10 ml of sake is added at 0.1 mol/literSodium hydroxideでneutralizeAfter that, neutralformalinThe number of titrated milliliters required to add 5 milliliters of liquid and neutralize again with 0.1 mol / liter of sodium hydroxide (measured by).The value is equal to the latter sodium hydroxide titration amount.If the value is largeRich, Small andTanreiTend to. This is also the same as the case of sake and acidity, and the taste of the general person greatly varies depending on the scent, eating conditions, and physical condition.

In generalLiving酛system,Abandoned systemThen tend to have more amino acids. Parable酛Abandoned酛However, keeping the amino acids low is said to be the method of making by Mr. Mori who is said to be a master.酛Abandoned酛It is also a fact that many drinkers love the generous taste.

The main cause of the production of amino acids is the proteolytic enzyme,Koji making OfWorking togetherからClosing workDuring, most are produced in the temperature range of 34 ° C to 38 ° C.Therefore, Mr. Mori, who wants to make the final finish lighter, keeps the koji rice from drying out.BreakingAnd proceed through this process as quickly as possible. On the contrary, if you want to finish it with a heavy taste, take more time.

Expression of taste

spicy
The taste evaluation of sake is basicallyGomiIt is (sour and bitter sweet and salty rice), but the concept is very different even if you use the same words as those in cooking. In spite of being “spicy,”Xin(Red pepper,pepper(Taste like)saltyNot (salty). Also,tongueOn the surface ofTaste buds(Mirai) is caught and sent to the braintasteHas only sweetness, sourness, saltiness, bitterness, and umami, and there is no receptor for spicy taste.Pain sensationIs thought to be only stimulated by alcohol.
Therefore, in general,Sake degreeThe higher it is, the more dry it feels.Also,"DryIs the basic condition for good sake (see:Dry boom) Was widespread, but dry has good dryness, and good taste has good taste, so there is not much point in the reputation that "this sake is sweet / dry". (reference:Sake degree-Sweetness-Amino acid content).
Sweet
Please note that it is often confused with the meaning.Since most of the ingredients that increase the specific gravity of sake are sugar, generally "Sake degreeCan be said to be sweet.
However,Muddy liquor(Smiling) orOrigamiSake containing solids has a large specific gravity,Sake degreeIs lower, but not always sweet.
Good feeling
Generally speaking, “sweetness” is often referred to in sake as it is. Because the spiciness is not relatively stimulated, it is easily mistaken for "sweet". Umokuchi has a rich and deep flavor that is richer than sharpness that tends to be a dry element. In order to bring it to the desired finish, it is said that the taste is even more difficult for the builder because it cannot be deceived by the high alcohol content.
Beautiful / Tanrei
An expression used when you feel a beautiful and smooth feeling when you hold it in your mouth. Originally "nrei" is correct in Japanese, but1980 eraBegins withDry boomの 間 に商標It began to be written as "tanrei" through such means, and now it is written as "tanrei" for the taste of sake.
Richness / Fertility (Hojun)
It has a high fragrance and a good taste.Originally, "richness" is correct (there is no "richness" in the Japanese dictionary, and there are also "goodness" and "goodness"), but商標It is also generalized by the name of sake and sake, and is also written as "richness".
Nojun
It has a strong taste. It is this richness that is the opposite of "tanrei."
pin
It has a tight aftertaste. Woven with a balance of spicy, sweet and delicious taste. It can be said that the balance determines the outline of the taste of sake.
Sharp
When the aftertaste is refreshing and light, it is said to be “sharp”. In some regions, it is said that "bamboo is good".
rough
When it is contained in the mouth, it refers to the state of irritation in the mouth. Speaking well, it has a lively and youthful taste, to put it simply, it lacks a sense of aging.
Ginji
It refers to the light taste of sake that is aged at low temperature over a long period of time.
Bulge
It is a well-balanced, firm and rich taste that spreads in the mouth. It is also expressed as "goku taste" or "width of taste".
Goku taste
Of liquorGomiIt is expressed as “there is a rich taste” when it is in good harmony and has a well-balanced richness.
Astringency
Astringency that you can feel when you're still young and that makes you want to purse. Usually, it disappears naturally as the sake ages. On the contrary, it can be measured with the tongue of the aging of sake, as it disappears.
Pressed taste
It has a swelling aftertaste after liquor and a stable and lingering taste.
Koshi
When there is a firm taste and a stable taste is left, it is said that there is a firmness and a firmness, and when the aftertaste is blurred, it is a lack of stiffness and a weakness.
Heavy
Easy to have bulge and elasticityMiserableAn expression that is used for the taste of elaborate, unrefined production.
Tightly
Easy and stable and firmMiserableAn expression that is used for the taste of elaborate, unrefined production. In a sense, “firm” is used more frequently than “heavy”, but it is also difficult for beginners to judge whether it is firm or not. As a simple judgment method that is easy for beginners to understand, divide sake into water with alcohol up to about 14 degrees.Slimy rice cakeIt is to try it. At that time, the sake that has a good taste is "firm". If there are many undecomposed components in the sake or if the yeast is rapidly killed at the end of the period, extra amino acids will be produced from the yeast, which may result in poor taste. This kind of sake is generallyComplete fermentationIt doesn't say that the taste is "firm" and that it deteriorates faster than the sake. This is best judged by the individual's subjectivity, that is, the taste, and is displayed on the back label.Amino acid contentIt's not something you can see.
(Taste/fragrance) open
In the cold, the taste and aroma that the sake quality originally has is trapped in the depth of the cold, which may not be felt as a sensuality.Slimy rice cakeWhen warmed to the point, they feel like the flowers open slowly.This is an expression used in such cases.However, if you heat it too much, you will not feel it.
By the way, at the Japan Study Group, there is no practicality in classifying tastes with "sweet/spicy" and "tanrei/concentrate" as the coordinate axes.Drinking temperatureAnd food,DeviceWith the new coordinate axes of "high/low fragrance" and "deep/light taste", which is easy to associate with, the following quadratic method is used.
Jukushu
Sake with a strong aroma and a strong taste. Rich taste that has been aged over time. Aged sake,Ancient wine, Treasured sake, etc.
Junshu
Sake with a low aroma and a strong taste. A so-called rich taste.Pure rice wine,Living酛system(Kei Kimoto) etc.
Kunshu
Sake with a high aroma and a light taste. What you can appreciate the way Ginjo incense is.Daiginjoetc.
Refreshing sake
Sake with a low aroma and a light taste. Light and smooth.Fresh sake,Fresh storage, Low alcohol, etc.

Color expression

The freshly made sake that comes out of the tank mouth of the sake brewery is originally a color close to golden like the ear of rice in autumn.AlsoAgingGoes to deep brown, and a little greenish. OrRice polishing rateIs high and the structure is solidDaiginjoEtc.diamondWith a brilliant shimmer like.

HoweverNational new sake appraisalIn the past, however, there was an era when the sake that was displayed while it was colored was the target of deduction, so at the sake breweryActivated carbon filtrationI desperately pulled out the color. The result is colorless and transparent water, which is commonly imaged today by the word "sake."

Nowadays, the number of sake breweries that can be put on the market in their natural colors has increased, so you can enjoy the colors of sake again.

Sharpness
Beautiful and transparent luster.Especially, the state that looks a little bluishBlueIt is called (Aozae) and is highly evaluated.
Territory
SlightlyBright yellowA glossy state.Mostly preferred.
Blurred
It should be a little cloudy and the colors should be blurred.
Transparency
An index that tells how transparently it was made.
Clarity
Naturally made clear fresh water glitter.
Golden color
The most preferred color tone in shine.
Brown (Banchairo)
A slightly darker aged color that is often found in old sake. Colors are often not the object of appreciation as much as golden colors.
Akizawa is good
A classic expression that tells you about the favorable color tone that is told at appraisal meetings.
Rich Sakizawa
It is quite colored. Many people find it preferable.
Turbidity
Being muddy in various colors. It's hard to get a good reputation, but it's not always the case that these sakes don't taste good.

Aroma terms and expressions

Similar to the terms and expressions related to the manufacturing method, this also varies depending on the times, generations, and regions, but the standard ones are shown below.

Aged incense
AgingThe strong scent produced by the scent is also called "old sake scent".There are various scents, eachShaoxing sake,Sherry,caramel,Dried grapesIt is expressed as an analogy.
Ginjo incense (Ginjokou)
It is often said that "Ginjokou" is the correct reading, but even among experts, there are those who bother to use the word "Ginjoka" and call attention to the reader.[65]So be careful.
Ginjo sake,Daiginjo sakeAroma peculiar to.Apple,bananaThe most common scent is, but some liquors produce ginjo scents such as malon, cream, and chocolate.Yeast is produced during low-temperature fermentation such as ginjo-zukuri, rather than adding spices.esterKind, especiallyEthyl caproate,Isoamyl acetateIs due to the scent (see:Moromi). Good buildPure rice wineThere are many things that can be felt other than Ginjo sake.Not all of the produced ginjo incense stays in the mash, and most of it is released into the atmosphere.For this reason, it was once practiced to collect and liquefy it with an apparatus and return it to the mash, or add it to sake other than the original mash.Recently, with the development of new yeast, it is said that such a need has disappeared.
Incense
A kind of Ginjo incense,Ethyl caproatecaused byDelicious appleAroma like.Moderate apple aroma is said to add elegance to Ginjo sake.
Banana incense
A kind of Ginjo incense,Isoamyl acetateBanana-like fragrance due to. A moderate banana fragrance is preferred as it adds a sweet and fruity aroma to sake, but if it is too strong, it gives off a strange odor and is called an "ethyl acetate odor" or "cemedine odor" and is subject to deduction. It is also the main scent component recovered by the device.
New sake banana
mainlymaltIt has a youthful scent that is unique to sake and fades as it ages.Kanzake #Expression of temperature (drinking temperature)Skilled drinkers who prefer to eat shy often avoid shinban, which was strengthened by sardine.
Alcohol odor
Add alcoholSmells like a chemical when things go wrong. Unlike the alcohol component produced by fermentation, the added alcohol, which is not integrated with the sake itself, appears to float.
Old incense
"AgingA strange scent that occurs when sake is oxidized due to reasons such as "too much progress (over-ripening)", "deterioration before aging", and "incorrect storage method".Aged incense and a single layer of paper, and if it is unpleasant, it is considered to be an old incense.Therefore, on rare occasions, a small amount of old incense may be positively evaluated as a foil for sake.
Raw old incense (Namahineka)
A violent, stuffy odor that results from the action of enzymes for reasons such as "the sake is out of date" and "the storage method was incorrect".Activated carbon filtrationHowever, it cannot be removed, and if it occurs before shipping, it will be a fatal injury to the warehouse, but in reality, it is largely due to the poor storage method and temperature control of the distributor / retailer after shipping or the consumer after purchase. "Rice is ricemilkIf you think, there is no doubt.
Morning scent
It is called this because it causes nausea due to the smell of rotten dairy products caused by the failure of fermentation of the fermentation. TechnicallyDiacetylIt is called "odor" and is similar to "flame burnt".
Burning odor
Burned-out fungusIt is an odor generated by the breeding of sickness, and although its appearance differs depending on the type of fungus, it is generally similar to morning sickness.
Filtered odor
filtrationA general term for offensive odors that are attached in the process of. It is said to resemble the smell of Japanese paper when it is wet with water.
Charcoal odor (Sumishu)
Activated carbon filtrationThe offensive odor that comes with using poor quality charcoal or adding too much charcoal in the process. Since the charcoal itself easily absorbs the odor, it often occurs when the odorous component absorbed by the charcoal from the outside during storage is released into the liquor when it is put into the liquor.
Rancid odor
Various germs called rotting bacteria contaminate the mash,Acetic acidExtremely unpleasant odor that is generated and attached.
Bag odor (Fukuroshu)
The smell of the sake bag that squeezes the mash is transferred to sake. It occurs when the liquor bag is not properly managed and there are oxidized deposits.
Sunlight odor
An irritating offensive odor that occurs when exposed to light. Also called "hinata odor" or "kemono odor". IndoorFluorescent lightOther than sunlight光線Occurs even when exposed to for a long time. It is often due to poor storage methods of post-shipment distributors / retailers or post-purchase consumers. You can prevent this by wrapping the bottle in newspaper. In the past, the smell of bottles was thought to be attached to sake, and the word "bottle smell" was used, but now it is considered to be a mixture of sunlight and old aroma.
Kika (Kika / Kiga / Mokuga / Mokuka / Mokka)
It is often said that "Kika" is the correct way to read, but some experts bother to use ruby ​​as "Kiga" to draw the reader's attention.[66]So be careful.
Cedarな どBarrelThe scent of wood is transferred to sake. Depending on the degree of aroma and the quality of sake, it may be evaluated as positive, but at criticisms, it is often a negative point to say that it smells of wood. By the way, during fermentationAdd alcoholThe woody scent-like odor that may be produced is called the "woody scent-like odor," which is essentially a different thing but is easily confused.

In addition, the aroma felt at each stage from picking up the sake set to swallowing it is called as follows.

Uechika
An incense that does not contain alcohol in the mouth yet and smells from the surface of the alcohol to the tip of the nose. SakeInoguchiA volatile fragrance that rises when you pour it into a circle and shake it round. Sake that emphasizes ginjo incense,AppraisalIn the sake that is exhibited at, it is very important.
Incense incense
An incense that goes through your nose when you put sake in your mouth and roll it with your tongue.As a scent component, as much as the incense stickvolatilityIt's not expensive, so you can't feel it until you put it in your mouth.
Ginka
The incense that you feel when you swallow alcohol or pass your throat. At a review meeting, etc.Dominant sakeWhen you do, you can't taste Ginka because you don't swallow sake and spit it out after you taste it. Therefore, there is a problem that it cannot be evaluated at the evaluation meeting. Now it refers to almost the same thing as "Ginjo incense".
Return fragrance
An incense that feels like it comes out of your nose after swallowing. There are many experts who regard this as a problem because it will be omitted from the evaluation target at the evaluation meeting.

Expression of temperature (drinking temperature)

This is also not a unified term, but I will show you a standard one. However,2000 eraAt the beginning, "cold" is expanded and interpreted, and it is sometimes used to refer to something that is colder than normal temperature.[67].

Temperature expression of sake
NameDrinking temperatureRemarks
TorikarikanAround 55 degreesThe scent is condensed and feels the dryest.
Hot water(Atsukan)Around 50 degreesThe aroma is sharp and the taste is sharp.
Upper armAround 45 degreesThe aroma is crisp and the taste is soft and firm.
Around 40 degreesThe aroma is the strongest and the taste is bulging.
Around 37 degreesThe aroma of rice and jiuqu stands out and the taste is smooth.
HinatakanAround 33 degreesThe scent comes up. Smooth taste.
Normal temperatureWhat is chilled in a refrigerator is not "chilled".
Cool (Suzubie)Around 15 degreesYou can feel the fruitiness and freshness.
Cold flowerAround 10 degreesRecently, it is also called "chilled" to distinguish it from "chilled".
Snow coldAround 5 degreesSo-called "chilled to kinkin".
(Sleet)Around -10 degreesAfter cooling gently in the freezer for a short time, it changes from transparent to sherbet when poured.

Generally speaking, as the temperature rises, the sourness felt on the tongue decreases relatively and the umami taste increases. It will have a savory taste and you will feel the spiciness again.Living酛system,Pure riceFor sake made by traditional methods, such as sake, which was not so impressive even when drunk cold, it often shows its true character when it is cooked and develops a deep taste. Such sake is "Kanzake(Kanbae) ". In addition, when it is cooked, the warmth spreads evenly over the entire area of ​​sake, and the goodness of the sake is brought out well.Kanagari(Get up) ". The surest way to get it to cook well issake bottleIt is to put it in a water bath and boil it in hot water.InoguchiIt is a little effective to put it in the microwave and heat it in the microwave, but it is easy for unevenness to occur inside. "The fact that the sake that has been cooked once gets cold again"KanzakeIt will be (Kanzamashi) ". Carefully made sake has a certain taste even when it is cooled, but if it is not, the flavor is out of balance and it has an alcoholic odor like chemicals.IncenseClimb as. this"Kanzake(Kankuzu) ".

Units related to sake

1升(Sho) = 10Together(Go) = 1.8liter
1stone(Koku) = 10Fight(And) = 100升
thesevolumeAll units are JapaneseUnit systemIsShakunuki methodIs part of.
What is 1 sho?Liquor storeA large bottle of sake that you usually see inOne bottleIt is the capacity to enter.1901 (Meiji34 years)White craneHas been the mainstream for over XNUMX years since the company began selling sake in a single bottle.In recent years, some people have argued that the size and the muddy smell of the image that accompanies them are the reasons for the decline in consumption, and there is a tendency for them to become smaller (see:#Sake manufacturing method).
The so-called medium bottleFour go bottlesSo, literally 4 go (720 ml) is included.
In the sake brewery, 18 liters can be storedDoo bottleIs used, and the description such as "Tobin Enclosure" that consumers see at retail stores is derived from it (see:#Other display).
Koku is mainly used to indicate the production of sake breweries.This is also a very rough guide, but it is about 500 stones a year for a general small sake brewery and more than 5,000 stones a year for a large sake brewery.
Naturally, there is no correlation between the production stone height and the quality of sake produced.
1 load (or) = 2 barrels = (approx.) 70 liquor = 126 liters
"Load" is a unit mainly used for land transportation of sake.BarrelIt is,Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodIt has been a means of carrying sake since that time. It is derived from the fact that human feet carried the barrels one by one on the front and back with a balance pole.
BarrelIs a 4 ton barrel, but usually you don't put a full 4 ton, but 3 to 5 squares.Therefore, it was calculated as 70 squares.Sake degreeAs you can see, the specific gravity of sake also varies slightly. If you think of it as almost the same as water, it means that human feet were the work of carrying a load of about 126 kilograms and going on the highway.
1 cup (yes)
In modern times, even if you say "Let's have a drink" in greetings,wine glass,CupIt does not necessarily mean "one cup" in a container such as. Go backEdo PeriodPreviously, a "cup" was a well-established volume unit. However, in rural areasClanIt was not strict because it was different depending on the type.Hideyoshi Toyotomi Taiko Inspection SiteWhen you wentWeights and measuresThe standard is shown, and the volume is also "Kyomasu(Today) ”has been established.However,Edo PeriodEven ifTohoku regionIt did not spread to the clan of.
Even if there is a small difference, generally "100 cups = (about) 4FightBecause it was, it means "1 cup = (about) 720 ml", which is about the same amount as 4 bottles or 1 bottle of wine. At that time, when it came to drinking "one cup," it meant drinking up four bottles.
Dedication
Nowadays, it is used to mean "drink together", such as "let's give a dedication". In the olden days, it was "Ichizen" to fill a sake cup with Minami and sake and go around the liquor table. For example, there was an expression such as "If the party is about three offerings."
Spoon(Chuck)
1 sho = 10 go = 100 sho
One 勺 is about 1 ml.

Sake maker and sales ranking

Empire data bankAccording to the statistical survey of, as of December 2017 (Heisei 29), there are 12 manufacturers of sake all over Japan.PrefecturesLooking at another location, the leader isNiigata84 companies, 2nd placeNagano64 companies, 3nd placeHyogoThere are 57 companies. More than 100 years oldLong-established storeCompanies account for 903% with 7 companies, and by era of establishment, 431 companies ranked first in the Meiji era, and second place.Edo Period399 companies, 3nd placeShowa時代で266社であった。このうち日本酒製造を主業とするのは1,077社で、2016年(平成28年)度の総売上高は4,416億900万円で、2012年(平成24年)度から2016年(平成28年)度まで5年連続で総売上高が小幅上昇している。特に売上高増加が顕著なのがAsahi Shuzoso,"FestivalDue to the overseas expansion of the brand, sales have increased by 6% compared to the previous year.The top 20 companies by sales are listed below.[68].

Of sakeBrewer(Sake brewery) Is sometimes called a sake brewery.Liquor manufacturing licenseIt is estimated that about 1000 of the sake breweries that have[15].

RankingCompany nameAddressMajor stocksamount of sales
(One million yen)
1Shiratsuru Sake BreweryHyogoWhite crane34,808
2Laurel WreathKyotoLaurel Wreath27,387
3Takara HoldingsKyotoShochiku plum24,822
4OzekiHyogoOzeki16,376
5Japan primeHyogoJapan prime14,770
6Koyama Honke Sake BrewerySaitamaGold crest world hawk11,358
7KikumasuneHyogoKikumasune11,018
8Asahi ShuzoYamaguchi Festival10,803
9Yellow cherry treeKyotoYellow cherry tree10,000
10Oenon HoldingsTokyoOyuki Nozo, Fukutokucho9,105
11Asahi ShuzoNiigataAsahiyama Senju Hai8,589
12Hakkai brewingNiigataMt. Hakai6,169
13Tatsuma Honke Sake BreweryHyogoWhite deer6,063
14Kikusui Sake BreweryNiigataKikusui5,452
15Kato Yoshihira ShotenFukuiBrahma4,829
16Kenbishi BreweryHyogoKenbishi4,300
17Konishi Sake BreweryHyogoShirayuki4,085
18Sawa no CraneHyogoSawa no Crane3,980
19Nakamori Sake BreweryAichiKunimori3,700
20Cheongju Sakura BreweryAichiKiyosu cherry blossoms3,500

Popular outside Japan

Export outside Japan

In recent years in Japanbeer,whiskyConsumption of alcoholic beverages in general, including alcoholic beverages, is declining, and sake is no exception.[69].

On the other hand, outside of Japan, the popularity of sake has been increasing since the beginning of the 21st century.Japanese"Sake" after "Sake"EnglishThe reading is called Saki) ". (Reference: "History of Sake" -since the Showa period).The United States of America,FranceConsumption of sake, especially ginjo sake, has expanded in the marketThe United KingdomBut since 2007International Wine ContestThe sake department was set up in. In Asia, the consumption of sake will increase compared to before, and Japanese food will become especially popular in 2015.Seoul,Hong Kong,Taipei,SingaporeShows a high value in[70].Kingdom of ThailandThen, due to the rapid increase in demand for sake, Japanese breweries entered the market and competition intensified.[71]..In addition, foreign tourists visiting Japan are increasingly buying high-quality sake in bulk.[72].

The changes in the export volume of sake are 2001 kiloliters in 7052, 2008 kiloliters in 1, and 2151 kiloliters in 2012.[73]In 2018, it was 2 kiloliters, and the trend of doubling in about 5747 years continues.[74].

The export value of sake exceeded 2013 billion yen for the first time in 100[75].. The value of sake exports in 2020 increased 11% year-on-year to 3.1 billion yen, the 241th consecutive year of increase, accounting for 710% of the total liquor exports of 34 billion yen, but the export value increased sharply.Japanese whiskeyIt was overtaken by (271 billion yen, 38.2%) for the first time in 20 years, and fell from the position of the highest export value item in liquor.The top five sake export destinations (regions) were Hong Kong at 5 billion yen, China at 62 billion yen, the United States at 58 billion yen, Taiwan at 51 billion yen, and Singapore at 14 billion yen.[76]

In this way, sake exports have been strong, but France's wine exports amounted to 1 billion yen (181).[77], Northern UKEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu OfScotchExport value is 6,500 billion yen (2017)[78]There is a difference of 30 to 50 times the export value of sake.

Regulations and tax systems regarding alcohol are different in each country.For example, in the United States, sake with alcohol added is tax-friendly.Distilled liquorSince the liquor tax is significantly higher than that of pure rice sake, most of the sake exported to the United States is pure rice sake.[79].

Export-only licenses have been set up to boost high-priced exports[26].

SAKE production outside Japan

Efforts to make sake overseas were made in the Meiji eraJapanese immigrated to HawaiiHas a history since it went. In modern timesGeographical indicationDue to (GI) regulations, it is not possible to call yourself "sake", so "SAKEIt is sold under a name such as ".

It has been pointed out that sake produced overseas has a different taste from that produced in Japan due to differences in water and rice, so it does not become a rival and may increase the number of sake fans.[1].

The situation of SAKE making in each country is as follows.[80].

other than thisメキシコ,Australia,New ZealandEach one company is brewing sake.

Tools related to sake

Sake bottle

Tools used when drinking and serving[83].

Brewer

A tool used to make sake.

Facilities related to sake

Religious facility

Most areShintoIn the systemShrine,Shrine(Hokora).There are nearly 40 shrines related to sake all over Japan, and more than 55 gods are enshrined in total.Somemalt,Feed waterThere are also shrines that specialize in worshiping objects. In Japan, in EuropeBacchus, It is said that there is no god that can be identified as a god of sake only like China.

The main gods enshrined

Interestingly, the shrine about sake isChibaからFukuokaIt is said that it is located only between[84].. Above all, it is concentrated in Kyoto and Nara.

Main shrine

Ojin Shrine
NaraSakurai.. Omononushi, the god of sakeTakahashi KatsumeiIs dedicated. With Miwa Myojin.
Matsuo Taisha
Kyoto City.. Believed as the god of brewing, there is also a liquor museum[85].
Yuzuruha Shrine
NadagogoOld shrine.
Umemiya Shrine
Kyoto City.HereDeityHa (this Hanasakuya Hime) and his father,Mt. Ooyama Gion(Oyamatsumi no Kami), "Japanese calligraphy"Kinohana Kaiyahime brews Tenjin sake with rice from Sanameda," and is said to be the first god to make sake in Japan.[86]
Izumo Taisha
Shimane Izumo.
Saka Shrine
Izumo City, Shimane Prefecture. Sake rice developed by Shimane PrefectureSaka NishikiIt was also derived from the name of.
Hiyoshi Taisha
ShigaOtsu City.
KyotoKyotanabe City.. Enshrines the Saga Yazu Goddess and the Saga Yazu Goddess.
Tsubomiwa Shrine
Nara.. Enshrines the Saga Yazu Goddess and the Saga Yazu Goddess.
Sakami Shrine
AichiIchinomiya.. Enshrines the Saga Yazu Goddess and the Saga Yazu Goddess.
Misakadonokami
MieIse City.. The deity is the same Misakadonokami as the company name.

Other than the shrine

Bodaisen Shoryakuji Temple
Nara.. OnceMonk SakeIt was the central temple that was building. There is a tradition that sake was brewed here for the first time, and a monument of "the birthplace of Japanese sake" is erected. (reference:Origin of sake)

Museums and museum

Cultural events related to sake

Family events

  • Toso(Tososan)
  • Another fire (Wakarebi) Peach festival.SmokedRefers to stopping.
  • Hanami sake(Hanamizake)
  • Iris liquor(Shobuzake) Drink at the Dragon Boat Festival on May XNUMXth.The iris stalks are soaked in sake and tasted, and it is said that if you drink it, you will get rid of evil spirits.
  • (Nagoshizake) On New Year's Eve in June, this sake is for the purpose of washing away dirt for half a year.To survive the hot summer in the future, this is a hot sake.[87]
  • Chrysanthemum(Kikuzake) Chrysanthemum festival.. It was also the beginning of putting on the kanzake.
  • Tsukimi sake(Tsukimizake)
  • Yukimi(Yukimizake)

Festival

Academic research on sake

Regarding sake brewing technology, in addition to being devised and inherited by each brewery, the first brewing science department was established in Japan.Tokyo University of Agriculture[88]Research and education are carried out at such places.

Known as a local sakeNiigataHas the only prefectural research institute that specializes in sake.National in the prefectureNiigata UniversityConcluded a partnership agreement with the prefecture and the sake brewing association, and established the "Sake Science Center" in 2018.furtherOenologyBased on this model, not only the sake manufacturing technology but also the economic aspects such as distribution, the impact on physical and mental health, history, and the relationship with culture and art.InterdisciplinaryLeading the establishment of the "Sake Study Group" (2019), a national organization for research学会Aiming for the transition to[89].

Sakeology

Sake studiesIs a comprehensive area that includes areas related to consumption such as distribution and sales, as well as areas related to consumption such as distribution and sales, as well as areas from a broader perspective such as health, liquor tax, regional characteristics, history, culture, and law. A new academic field as science[90]..Overseas, the academic field of "oenology" has also been established, and even what seems to be an emotional area such as pairing is being discussed based on scientific grounds.

2018 Niigata University Sake Science Center was established on April 4st.Niigata UniversityIn cooperation with Niigata Prefecture, we are offering "Sake Studies A-3 and A-1" for students of all faculties.In addition, the number of applicants was changed to 2 because the number of applicants greatly exceeded the originally planned capacity of 200.

Universities conducting sake-related projects

Works on sake

Literature, manga, video works

  • 藏 - Tomio MiyaoThe novel of the work.Pacific WarbeforeNiigata OfSake breweryA woman born as a daughter ofBrewerDraw a figure that grows as. In 1995Takako MatsuStarringTV drama,Yuko AsanoIt was made into a movie starring.
  • Natsuko sake - Akira OzeWorkComic.. The daughter of a sake brewery in Niigata prefecture, who was an office lady in Tokyo, takes over the brewery after her brother's death and confronts various problems.Turtle tailThere is a depiction of the revival of phantom sake rice, modeled after the revival. In 1994Emi WakuiIt was made into a TV drama starring.
  • Natsu no Kura --By Akira Oze. "Natsuko sakeThe half-life after Natsu, the grandmother of Natsuko, the main character of the movie, married to the brewery, is depicted along with the development of sake brewing technology and the historical background of the war.
  • Delicious Shinbo - Satoshi KariyaOriginal workHanasaki AkiraDrawing mangaAnime..From the beginning of the series, in contrast to the French cuisine "Cooking and Wine Marriage", in JapanJapaneseIt also introduces that there is a culture of complimenting sake, or a marriage of Western food and sake.On the other hand, there are some criticisms of major manufacturers and non-junmai sake.
  • Moyashi monon - Masayuki IshikawaManga, anime, and drama.It depicts the life of the main character, Sawaki, who can see bacteria such as inoculum and yeast, and the people around him at an agricultural university.Sawaki is the son of a bean sprout shop, also known as a bean sprout shop, and his childhood friend who entered Tokyo together is a successor to the brewery, and sake brewing is an important theme for participating seminars studying fermentation. Various sakes will appear.
  • Cook under the Ambassador - Nishimura MitsuruA recollection of the book, and a adaptation based on thisHiroshi KawasumiDrawing cartoon. The hero who is a chef is an employerDiplomatIn addition, although he explains the goodness of sake, he cannot accept it because the fashion of sake outside Japan is limited to the younger generation who are vulnerable to fashion. In the end, there is an episode that the true value of sake is recognized.
  • Sake no Hosodo - Roswell HosokiWritten.Cartoon.Single Sotatsu Iwama, who lives as a salaryman in Tokyo, and his surrounding drinkers,SavingsIntroducing slapstick with plenty of seasonal feeling.
  • Kurodo Claude --By Akira Oze.Cartoon.Japanese Sansei AmericanClaude becomes a brewer of a sake brewery and tries to revive the phantom sake.
  • BAR Lemon Heart - Mitsutoshi FuruyaWorkbarA manga set in. Many sakes, including sake, appear in the film.
  • Sweet and spicy rice(Second half of 1997NHKContinuous tv novel)-Daughter of sake rice farmer in Mt. Sasayama, Hyogo prefecture due to typhoon disaster and mother's remarriageNadaA story about becoming a family of a sake brewery and aiming to make pure rice sake, which was the goal of his father in his lifetime.Yumiko SatoStarring.
  • Love's Water Drop (Movie)(Released in 2018) -Agricultural University female studentsInternshipPreviousHiroshima cityA story about struggling to make sake at a sake brewery in Saijo.Naoki Sekidirected by,Kawaei RinaStarring.
  • SAKE NEW WORLD - TV AsahiMini program.Hidetoshi NakataActs as a navigator.

Music / drama / dance / rakugo

  • "Drinking Hu" (Konju) (Gagaku) --Togaku,BalanceIn a year Lin-eupmonkOne of the "" that Buddha Satoshi conveyed.Hu (Western Region) It is also a solo dance that makes people get drunk and play this song.
  • "heavy drinker(Shojo) (can)
  • "Ataka(Ataka) (Noh)- YamabushiI got rid of myselfYoshitsuneMaster-slaveOshuHiraizumiWhen escaping toHokuriku RoadAtaka no SekiWhen I try to pass, I am suspicious and stopped.BenkeiWith Togashi of SekimoriYamabushiAsk questions, read a fake Kanjincho, and desperately try to overcome the crisis.Impressed by his appearance, Togashi allows the passage of Seki, knowing that he is a master and servant of Yoshitsune, and acts as a sign of apology.Benkei, who drank the sake daringly, thanked him.Year-end danceWhile showing off, the party urged and fell to Oshu.kabuki"Souvenir book』The original.
  • "" (Boushibari) (Kyogen) --In the absence of the Lord, the servantTaro crowner, Jiro crownerOne day, when he goes out, he ties the Taro crowner to a stick and ties the Jiro crowner to his back when he goes out. While they were tied up, they tried various things to try to drink, and finally opened the lid of the sake, let them drink each other, and when they were completely drunk and sang, it became a fuss about dancing, and they were talking badly about the Lord. The owner is back. In addition to being incorporated into Kabuki with almost the same scenario,Takarazuka RevueIt is also famous as the first program with the theme of drinking.
  • "" (Local song-Koto)- Cultural and cultural eraTo京都Played an active part inblindmusicianKikuoka inspection schoolIs composed as a local song,Yaezaki inspection school KotoI made a moveThingsA big song of (Tegotomono).A song that praises the virtue of sake by drawing various parts related to sake from various events in Japanese and Chinese. "Sasa no dew" is also a beautiful name for sake, and the other name for this song is also called "sake". Two long placesProcedure (A long instrumental interlude part played only by musical instruments) is rich in skill, but三味 線There are a lot of conversations between the koto and the koto, which is said to represent the way sake is being poured.
  • "Souvenir book』(kabukiandNagauta)- 1840 (Tempo11 years) Premiere. Composed by Rokusaburo Yonsei. It is one of the XNUMXth Kabuki and is very popular. The content is Noh's "Ataka』Same as. It is also known as a Nagauta song, and in many cases only Nagauta is performed at concerts.
  • "New Edition Sake Mochi Battle" (Shinpan Sakamochi Gassen) (Nagauta-Tokiwabushi-Gidayu Bushi (Interaction song) --40,Contemporary Japanese musicThe work of the composer. Foods such as alcoholPersonificationThe song I did.KinakoFirst yearAzukiAfter that, based on the pride of each other, with the sake clanMochiThe clan is in the tatami roombattleUnfold.I heard itWhite radish Nerimasuke OfYour kitchen・ The white oneGinsengRed Princess,BurdockEntering arbitration with a female warrior such as Kurohime, the conflict is settled and peace is reached.
  • "Kuroda Setsubun』(FukuokaFolk song)
  • "No liquor store』(Rakugo) --It is interesting to see how he tries to fool the eyes of the banya, which was set up to prohibit the bringing in of alcohol.
  • "Trial sake(Rakugo) --- "My younger son, Kuzo, is a heavy drinker and can drink 5 sho," Owariya's owner offers a bet on whether Kuzo can really drink 5 sho.Kuzo is confused and goes out to the table, saying, "I'm thinking a little, so please wait."Kuzo, who came back after a while, splendidly drank 5 shos of sake one by one.When Owariya, who lost the bet, asked, "Why can you drink so much? What did you do when you went out?", Kuzo said, "I had never drank 1 sho I've been drinking 5 sho
  • "Parent and child sake(Rakugo) --Parents and children who like sake.At the suggestion of his father, who was worried about his son's bad drinking habits, the two of them stopped drinking, but one day, while his son was out, he started drinking.The son who came back there was also drunk and drunk as recommended by his business partner.After an argument, the father said to his wife, "Grandma, you can see many faces of this guy from a while ago.SubstituteI can't give it. "My son didn't lose, "I don't need such a spinning house."
  • "Second decoction(Rakugo) --On a cold winter night, suddenly when the people on duty at night are poking a pot in the cottage and drinking prohibited alcohol.How to go around concentric(Samurai) visits there.Everyone in a hurry tries to hide the pot and sake, but only sake cannot be hidden.When I said, "This is a decoction," he said, "Well, I am here too.coldIt's a little bit.I want to examine the medicine of the townspeople, "he says. "Um, it's a good medicine. Do you want to serve another cup?", Concentric eventually finds a hot pot, and the sake and hot pot are completely flattened. When he said, "I don't have any decoction anymore," he said, "I'm going around the town now. Decoction No. XNUMX."
  • "Shibahama(Rakugo) --Katsu of the fishmonger is a big drinker and doesn't make his job fragile.One morning, my wife struck me up and headed for the market, but I found a leather wallet with a lot of money on the beach and flew home to hold a big banquet.next day,hangoverKatsu who got up in the room is told by his wife how he wants to swallow and pay.He complains about the money in the wallet he picked up, but his wife says he doesn't know that and that he was so drunk that he wanted money and dreamed.Katsu is stunned, but finally convinced.After reflecting on it, he decided to stop drinking and started working crazy.Three years laterNew Year's EveNight.Now that I have a store on the main street, my life has become stable.The wife said, "I have a story," and told the truth about the wallet three years ago.TenBothAt the time when it was said that if you steal it, your neck would fly, and if the embezzlement of the gold you picked up was revealed, you would be sentenced to death.While Katsu is drunkRow houseAfter consulting with the landlord, the landlord delivered the wallet to the government office, and his wife decided to take advantage of Katsu's drunkenness and say, "I haven't picked up my wallet from the beginning."Katsu, who was shown the wallet that was handed over from the government office because the dropper did not appear, strongly appreciates his wife's wit for recovering himself who was about to go off the road.My wife aims at her husband who has worked hard and recommends sake for the first time in a while.At first it was a win that he refused, but soon he got a cup. "Yeah, that's right, then, do you want to drink it?" I once carried the cup to my mouth, but after all I left the cup without drinking. "What's wrong?" "Yeah. I hope I can dream again."

Entertainment

  • Presided over by Miss Nihonshu, a general incorporated associationMiss Contest"Miss sake”Holds a contest every year for the purpose of selecting ambassadors who have acquired the aesthetic sense and intelligence to disseminate the charm of traditional sake and Japanese culture both inside and outside Japan.The elected Miss SAKE is engaged in PR activities for sake at domestic and overseas events.

Reference book about sake

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Read Japan as Japan, JapanPon sakeStands for.
  2. ^ ChugokuSo more than 700 years before Pasteur宋Teenager1117 (ZhengheIn the brewing technology book "" with the preface written in 7 years), "酵", And the technique of" boiled sake "which means heat sterilization is described.However, it is uncertain whether the book was brought to Japan by the Muromachi period, so the Japanese burning technique was used.Mainland ChinaIt is not yet known whether it came from Japan or whether Japan arrived on its own.

Source

  1. ^ a b c Nikkei Inc., Nikkei BP. “Awarded for the first shipment Super self-styled SAKE-making that Japanese people challenge in the United States | Gourmet club | NIKKEI STYLE”(Japanese). NIKKEI STYLE. October 2021th, 6Browse.
  2. ^ Article 2 of the Liquor Tax Law describes "alcoholic beverages" as "alcoholBeverages of 1 degree or more ... Is defined.
  3. ^ Classification and manufacturing process of liquor Asahi beer(Retrieved September 2020, 9)
  4. ^ Article 2 of the Enforcement Ordinance of the Liquor Tax Law states that "articles specified as raw materials for sake" include alcohol.Distilled spirits,GlucoseMoreMinistry of FinancemakeSugars specified inOrganic acid,, Sake is decided.
  5. ^ The total weight of goods specified by this Cabinet Order is limited to those that do not exceed 50% of the weight of rice and rice jiuqu (Liquor Tax Law, Article 3 (b)).
  6. ^ Under the Liquor Tax Law, "Other Brewed Sake" (Article 3),Structural Reform Special Area LawThen, "Other brewed sake (rice ..., rice jiuqu and water or rice, water and wheat, etc." prescribed in Article 3, Item 19 of the Liquor Tax LawFinanceMinisterial OrdinanceFermented products specified in (28) as raw materials and not rubbed. ) ”(Article 1, Paragraph 2, Item XNUMX),“ Liquor tax conservation and liquor industry associations, etc.Muddy sake(Article 11-5, "Fermented rice, rice jiuqu and water as raw materials, not rubbed").
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  8. ^ ~ Alcohol content 5 degrees! Introducing a slightly sweet effervescent sake with a pleasant refreshing foam ~ Shochikubai Shirakabezo "Mio" Sparkling Sake New Release Takara ShuzoNews Release (June 2011, 6)
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  40. ^ The scraped partrice flourOrfeedIt has been diverted and reused.
  41. ^ However, since many of these miscellaneous flavors contain many umami ingredients that are effective for cooking, some sake brewed for cooking sake uses a brewing method that intentionally leaves the miscellaneous flavors. is there.Which one should I use? [Five differences] between "cooking sake" and "sake"Useful at home Tokyo GasLiving information site Uchikoto viewed on July 2019, 7
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