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- Ichishinoou,Nara period,Heian period Ofroyal(+ 805 ）
- Owari beach owner, Nara period, Heian period,Envoy(+ Year of death unknown)
- Emperor Junin, 47th generationEmperor(+ 765 ）
- Noto-naishinno, Nara period imperial family (+ 781 ）
- Fujiwara no Oguro Maro, Nara period貴族,Military commander(+ 794 ）
- Riku,唐 OfWriter(+ 804 ）
- Seikiro Wake, High-ranking bureaucrats from the end of the Nara period to the beginning of the Heian period (+ 799 ）
- May 2(Tenpyo 5 yearsMay 1)- Prefectural Inukai Michiyo,Nara period OfFemale officer,Emperor Bunmu OfNanny(* 665 ?)
- Yamagami, Early Nara periodpoet(* 660 ?)
|Category: History of Japanese themes|
Nara period(Narajidai) isJapanese HistoryIn one of the period divisions ofHeijokyo(Nara・ CurrentNaraNara) In the era when the capital was placedHeijo periodAlso known as (healthy).In the period division by eraBalanceTimeIt is said thatJapanese BuddhismbyProtection stateAiming forTenpyo cultureIs said to have blossomed.
In a broad sense710 (Wado3 years)Former EmperorByHeijokyoToTransfer of capitalafter,794 (Postponement13 years)Emperor HanmuByHeianjing84 years until the capital was relocated to.In a narrow sense, the same710 From784 (3rd year of Enryaku)Emperor HanmuByNagaokakyoIt refers to the 74 years until the capital was moved to.
"NaraHas the nickname "City of the City"HeijokyoSince the capital was located in, it is called the "Nara period" or the "Heijo period".740 から745 OverEmperor Shomu TheKyokyo(KyotoKizugawa),Nambakyo(OsakaOsaka),Shikakura Palace(ShigaKoka CityShigaraki), Each of them has moved to Miyato for a short period of time.
In the transfer of capital to HeijokyoFujiwara Nori etc.Played an important role.Heijokyo is the capital of ChinaChang'anIt is said that he built a city that imitated.It was a political city where politicians and bureaucrats made up the majority of the population.
Selected and enforced prior to the transfer of capital to HeijokyoGreat treasure lawHowever, it was an era in which trial and error was carried out, such as changing from various directions to suit the actual situation in Japan, aiming for a tyrannical nation centered on the Emperor and a centralized nation.Also,Tenpyo cultureIt was also a time when was flourishing.
In 710, the capital moved to Heijokyo.At this timeRitsuryoku NationIt is,Family registerとAccount bookIf you grasp the people withZu Yong DiaoAnd imposed military service.EnvoyFrequently sent, and introduced continental artifacts such as Tang.NationwideKokubunjiWas built, and the Buddhist Tenpyo culture flourished. "Record of Ancient Matters''Japanese calligraphy''Manyoshu] And other oldest existing history books and literature have appeared.During this period, there were many political disputes in the center and in Tohoku.EzoThere was no end to the war with.
The throne isEmperor TenmuとEmperor emperorIdeally inherited by the direct descendants of the Emperor, from the perspective of preserving the sacredness of the emperorClose marriageWas repeated.As a result, many of the direct descendants of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jito were ill and died one after another prematurely.The instability of the succession of the throne by the direct descendants of Tenmu and Jito evoked various political disputes in the 8th century, and as a result, led to the disconnection and self-destruction of the direct descendants of Tenmu and Jito.
Politically, from the transfer of capital to Heijokyo in 710729 OfPrince Nagaya's strangeUp toEarly,Fujiwara four brothersFrom the exclusive right of764 (Tenpyo Treasure8 years)Fujiwara Nakamaro RebellionUp toMid-term,Emperor ShodeandRoad mirrorAfter the consulLateCan be subdivided into
Completion of the Ritsuryo nation and its transformation
718 (Yoro2 years)Fujiwara Nori etc.Command themYoro RitsuryoWas newly selected.The main focus was on lexical correction, and the root was based on the Taiho Code, but its enforcement was delayed.757 (Tenpyo Treasure9 years),Maru FujiwaraIt was under the initiative.
Emperor power under the decree system
The emperor under the decree system had the following powers.
貴族,Official OfOfficial officeas well as the RankAuthority to amend and abolish,Foreign officer(Ryoge no Kan) installation right, official position and appointment authority,Goeifu(Goefu) and all command and command over army soldiers,Criminal statutory principleFor the punishment of the law in principle, the right to absolve and amnesty, to foreign messengers and messengers dispatched to foreign countriesImperial lawDiplomacy rights such as the use of, and the right to decide on succession to the throne.
762 Around (6th year of Tenpyo Houji)Tankai MifuneIs of the successive emperorsChinese style No.Was promoted.by this,Emperor TenchiOrEmperor TenmuEra of (7st century) Is thought to have been founded in "EmperorThe issue was added retroactively.
Central government system, tax system and local administrative organization
With the enactment of the Taiho Code,Ritual systemThe nation was completed.The central government system is with two governments and eight provinces.Cannon standIt was composed of Goeifu.Local administrative organizationsCountry-county-inIt was unified with.Sato laterTownshipWas said.furtherDoshuseiAs,KinaiとTokaido-Higashisendo-Hokuriku Road-Sanin road-Sanyo road-Nankaido-SaikaidoIt is divided into seven roads, and the inside is 66 countries.Iki Island-Tsushima Island2 islands were distributed (List of restricted countriesreference).LegionIs located in each country,KokujiWas placed under the jurisdiction of.Also, rice fields and people belong to the nation.Public land civil systemIncorporateFamily registerByKumadaWas paid.Tax isCalmとMiscellaneousIt consisted of.
Agricultural land expansion policy and decree nation
The Ritsuryo nation is highly systematicOfficialsIt required stable tax revenues to maintain the organization.On the other hand, the law on the collection of paddy fields stipulated in the Japanese Ritsuryo did not have a clear provision regarding the treatment of cultivated rice fields.. for that reason,Nagaya KingThe imperial court centered on722 (6 years old)Ryoda Million Town Ayumu Clearing PlanAnd to carry out the plan723 Promote paddy field reclamation in (7th year of Yoro)Third-generation one-body method(Sanze Isshin) was enforced.This law is newIrrigation facilityThose who made and cultivated the pond were allowed to own the pond during the three generations, and those who used the original pond groove were allowed to own the pond only for the first generation.
The farmers' motivation for the farmer did not necessarily improve, and the farmer did not progress as expected.743 (Tenpyo 15 years),Tachibana brothersThe administration aimed to further promote TodaKonden Einen Shizai LawWas enforced.This was to find the permanent private ownership of the rice fields within a certain limit if the land was cleared within a certain period of time after applying to the Kokushi and obtaining permission to clear the land.
Both laws and regulationsPublic land civil systemIt is certain that it had the character of overturning the foundation of the decree, but it is also a fact that the motive was to rebuild the decree system by securing the group (Kuchibunda).Aristocrats and aristocrats surrounded by the resources to clear the land,ShrineLand ownership has continued to increase since then.In particular, large aristocrats and large temples enclose vast lands, and ordinary peasants andVagrantExpanded private land by using.This isManorIs happening, but with tax obligationsRice fieldIs the main one,Early manorIt is called (Shoki-shōen).
Heijokyo construction and Wadokaichin
The year after the throne of Empress Genmei708 (Keiun5 years) New Year,Musashi country Natural copper"WadoIn February of the following year,currencyWith castingMiyakonojoConstruction has begun. On February 2th, a suzenji who was in charge of coins was placed, and February 11th was issued.
Heijo relocation and Tachibana
According to the "Apocalypse of the Heijo Relocation", the new city is "Immediately, Heijonochi, Four Birds Kanozu ..."Suitable for the four godsLand of the land "was chosen.Kyo FujiwaraIs located on a terrain that slopes from south to north,Fujiwara shrineIt was sometimes considered that the point where there was a place was lower than the place where the group vassals lived and was overlooked by the vassals, and as a matter of fact, the drainage was poor.However, not only that, Fujiwara-kyo was built at a time when the exchange with Tang was cut off, so it was an old book (""Zhou LiIt is thought that the design was based on ()), which was unprecedented compared to the Chinese capital castle at that time.Actually, I returned to Japan for the first time in more than 30 yearsEnvoy OfMasato AwataHowever, these problems became clear in addition to the morning affairs, and the culture, national power, and capital of the Tang dynasty.Chang'anIt is thought that reporting the greatness and prosperity of Fujiwara-kyo became aware that the difference between Fujiwara-kyo and Chang'an was far apart, and was a factor in deciding the transfer of capital...At the root of this, building a magnificent city is nothing more than showing the emperor's virtues to foreign envoys, remote people such as Ezo and Hayato, as well as local gentry and people. It was nothing but the one that aimed at the small "Chinese Empire" of Dongyi while establishing the rule... In September, Empress Genmei himself inspected the land of Heijo and appointed 9 secretaries, and in October.Ise ShrineToMessengerDispatched to announce the construction of a new city, and in November, to a private house to be relocated for the planned site of Heijo Palace穀物, Cloth provided, in DecemberGround breaking ceremonyAnd started construction work.
In this year (the first year of Wado), Fujiwara no Fuhito, who led the transfer of capital, ranked second.Right ministerProceed to, Fuhito's second wife,Prefectural Inukai MichiyoIs the empressLarge festivalFloat in the cupTachibanaAt the same time, he was given the surname of "Tachibana Yado".It is rare to use the name of a plant as the name of a plant, while the names of places and duties are common, and the princes she gave birth to named Tachibana.Mr. TachibanaBecame the de facto ancestor of.In addition, by thisTachibana brothersKatsuragi King, who changed his name to, and Mitsuakiko, who later became the Empress (Guangming Empress) Is the brother and sister of a half-brother whose mother is Michiyo.
The construction work of Heijokyo was carried out in a very short period of time.In March of the 1rd year of Wado (4), one year and four months after the start of construction, the capital was relocated to Heijo, but it was possible to relocate at such a rapid pace, including temples. This is because many of the buildings were relocated from Fujiwarakyo.According to recent knowledge, the scale of the new capital Heijokyo is almost the same as that of the old capital Fujiwarakyo, but rather Fujiwarakyo is wider.It was only about a quarter of that of Chang'an Castle.The characteristic of Heijokyo is "Foreign capitalIt is not a perfect rectangle because of the overhanging part from Sakyo. "Gaikyo" is rather todayNaraIt is the center of the city.The buildings located in Heijokyo are not only Kara-style architecture but alsoExcavation pillarItajikiStilt buildingAnd the roofCypress skinThere were also many traditional Japanese-style buildings from the previous generation.
Wadokaichin and Savings Order
The construction of Miyakonojo was promoted in a short period of time, but the speed of coining was no longer fast. Suzenji was appointed in February 708, and in May of the same year, it was soon.Wado Kai OfSilver coinAlso in AugustCopper coinHas been issued.It seems that the early issuance of silver was due to the tradition of silver as a weighing currency..
HeijokyoEmperor emperorWadokaichin is also a development of Fujiwara-kyo in the period.Tomimoto SenIt was a development of the Tang dynasty and was modeled after the Tang dynasty.The coins are used to pay for the construction of Miyato, such as payments to people who were struck by the construction of the new city, and the government aimed to further distribute the coins in October of the 4th year of Wado (711). To give a rank to those who have accumulatedSavings orderHowever, outside the area centered on Kyo and Kinai, trade using rice and cloth as goods was widely practiced.The savings order is a kindSalesman systemOn the contrary, the dead stock of money progressed, and smooth exchange of money was sometimes hindered.The government continued to cast bronze coins after this, and in the 10th centuryInuimoto DaihoUp to 12 times, coins were coined nationally.this,Twelve coinsThat.
On the other hand, a ban on Shichusen was issued in the first year of Wado (708), which is the same as Wadokaichin casting.Officials aim to acquire ranksMy coinThe production of private coins was deprived of the official position and punished by "slashing" (capital punishment).
Political disputes and turmoil of imperial power
The change of King Nagaya and the empress Komyō
At the beginning of this eraKamatarison ofFujiwara Nori etc.He came to power and worked hard to establish the decree system, and approached the imperial family to lay the foundation for Fujiwara's development.It was the person who took charge of the administration after the unmatched deathPrince TakaichiIn the childEmperor TenmuIs the grandson ofNagaya KingMet. HeRight ministerHowever, before and after that, the wandering and escape of farmers suffering from burdens increased, and social unrest surfaced, so the government was trying to secure financial resources.723 In (7th year of Yoro), the Third Generation Issei Law was enforced to encourage cultivating.Unmatched daughterFujiwara no MiyakoAs a motherEmperor Shomu 724 (TurtleFrom the time when he was enthroned in the first year)Maro Takechi,Before the room,Uma,Maro OfFujiwara four brothersEntered politics.729 (6th year of Jinki), the four Fujiwara brothers complained to Prince Nagaya, who had risen to the Minister of the Left, that he would tilt (kill) the nation (emperor) by the left-hand path, and forced him to commit suicide (killing).Prince Nagaya's strange), Got power.Immediately after the change, Mr. Fujiwara gave his unrivaled daughter, Mitsuakiko, the first empress of his vassals.Guangming Empress) Succeeded.
Tachibana no Moroe administration and Emperor Shomu
そのFujiwara four brothers 737 In (Tenpyo 9)Smallpox epidemicWhen he died one after another, he was from the imperial family.Tachibana brothersIs Shimomichi Makibi (laterKibi Mabi) And monksGenkyouWas involved in the administration.Uai's eldest son who was dissatisfied with thisHiroshi FujiwaraIn 740 (Tenpyo 12), he raised troops in Kyushu under the pretext of excluding Mabi and others, but was defeated (Hiroshi Fujiwara's Rebellion).The central turmoil caused by this rebellion was tremendous, and Emperor Shomu moved through the city with Kunikyo Yamashiro, Namba in Settsu, and Shigaraki in Omi.The people's hearts were further shaken by the construction work due to the successive transfer of capital, and the plague and natural disasters continued, which further heightened social unrest.Emperor Shomu, who had long believed in BuddhismProtection stateI thought to stop the upset of society by the idea of741 In (Tenpyo 13)The apology for the construction of Kokubunji Temple,743 (Tenpyo 15) issued.This willTodaiji BuddhaIs made,752 (Tenpyo KatsuhoCompleted in 4 years), EmpressEmperor Koken・ A grand memorial service was held in the presence of Emperor Shomu.
The fate of the Nakamaro administration
During this time, the Fujiwara Nanke, who gained the trust of Empress KomyōMaru Fujiwara(Child of Maro Takechi) emerged,Purple middle standTo organize755 In (7th year of Tenpyo Shoho), he robbed Tachibana no Moroe of his real power.757 (Tenpyo TreasureIn the first year)Mariko TachibanaAlso eliminated (Nara Tachibana Rebellion).Nakamaro gains dictatorial power as a puppetEmperor JuninSupport.If you rename yourself to Emi Oshikatsu in a Chinese style,ConfucianismHe promoted Chinese-style politics based on the above, but this time he was a monk who was favored by Emperor Koken.Road mirrorStands out.Oshikatsu to eliminate this764 Defeated in a rebellion (8th year of Tenpyo Houji)Fujiwara Nakamaro Rebellion).As a result, Emperor Junnin was abolished.AwajiWas washed away.
Usa Hachimangu Shrine Case and Emperor Konin
Dokyo soon765 In (the first year of Tenpyo-jingo)MinisterZen Master, next766 (Tenpyō-jingo 2nd year)His HolinessThen, appoint a clan or a confidant monk to a high-ranking official to wield power.Saidaiji TempleConstructionMillion towersI tried to stabilize the administration by Buddhism, such as the construction of.Empress Koken (Empress Koken reinstated) and DokyoUsa HachimanguTooracleHe tried to support Dokyo as a successor to the throne, saying that he was sick.Fujiwara Hyakukawa,Seikiro WakeBlocked by770 (HoukiLost after the death of Emperor Koken (first year)Usahachimangu Shrine Case).Emperor MitsuhitoOf the Fujiwara Kita familyFujiwara NagateAnd the Fujiwara ShikikeFujiwara no Yoshitsugu・ Momokawa et al. Made a breakthrough.Emperor Konin was a descendant of Emperor Tenji, not the pedigree of Emperor Tenmu.Emperor Konin worked on fiscal austerity, such as reducing the number of officials.Kokuji,GunjiStrictly supervised the local politics.But,780 (Houki 11 years)MutsuでIji MaroEzo's resistance increased in the Tohoku region, such as the rebellion.
From Nagaokakyo to Heiankyo
784 (3rd year of Enryaku) Emperor Kanmu is trying to escape from the growing power of temples and shrines.Yamashiro ProvinceA new city in Nagaoka (Nagaokakyo) Was created, but the person in charge of constructionFujiwara TanetsuguWas assassinated and the younger brother of Emperor KanmuSarayaIs caught794 (13th year of Enryaku) Created a new Miyakonojo,Yamashiro ProvinceTheYamashiroAnd changed to ShinkyoHeianjingI named it and moved to the capital.With this transfer of capital, the era called the Nara period has completely ended, and the Heian period has begun.
The government sent students and monks to study abroad in Tang and adopted various cultural artifacts.In addition, exchanges with the Korean Peninsula were also active.These trade items etc.ShosoinEven treasures can be seen at one end.716 In (spirit turtle 2)Abe Nakamaro(Death in Tang) ・Kibi Mabi·monkGenkyouI studied abroad in Tang.They brought various cultures to the archipelago at that time.
Compilation of "Kiki", Fudoki and Manyoshu
712 It is said that it was made in (Wado 5 years).Record of Ancient MattersIs transmitted to the courtTeiki""KyujiBased onEmperor Tenmu Aida HiedaAt the time of Empress GenmeiTaianmanWas written by.myth-LoreからEmperor SuikoIt is a story leading up to, and contains many songs.Oral Japanese is written using the sounds and kuns of kanji.
For it,714 (Wado 7 years)Kiseito・ Collect national historyTonerFrom the godsEmperor emperorEdit history,720 (4th year of Yoro) was selected as "Nihongi (XNUMXth year of Yoro)"Japanese calligraphy) ”Volume 30 ・ Volume 1 of the genealogy.This is similar to the appearance of Chinese history books.Chinese text OfAnnalsIt is written in.After this, "Japan's third generationThe official history of Chinese writing was knitted up to "Six countries history", But" Nihon Shoki "was the beginning of that.
Also, the government713 In (3rd year of Wado)FudokiI ordered the compilation.This is a local product(I.e.,riverIt contains nature such as, its origin, and the legend of the old man.TopographyIs. "Izumo country style soil record』Almost completely transmitted,Hitachi country,Harima country,Bungo,Hizen countryA part of each of the Fudoki is reported.This is a valuable indicator of the appearance of the ancient regionLiterature materialIt has become.
In terms of literary arts751 In (Tenpyo Shoho 3rd year), the oldest existing collection of Chinese poems "Kaifuusou』Edited,Prince Otomo,Prince Otsu,Emperor Bunmu,Nagaya KingIncluding works such as7st centuryAfter the second halfChinese poetryI'm holding back.As a writer of Chinese poetry representing the middle of the Nara periodTankai MifuneとIshigamiIs prominent, and it is presumed that one of them was involved in the editing of "Kaifuuso", but there is no definite evidence.
WakaFrom the Wado year to the Tenpyo yearYamagami,Red man Yamabe,Otomo Ichimochi,Otomo SakagamiThese singers appeared in a hurry. "ManyoshuIs759 A songbook containing about 3 songs up to (Tenpyō-hoji 4500rd year)Emperor YukiThe song is holding the beginning of the book.Emperor Shumei-Emperor SuikoIt contains Japanese poems from the Asuka period and the Nara period, as well as works by famous poets and courtiers.Azuma-uta,Anti-personal songThere are also many works that express the simple emotions of local farmers, including many excellent songs that appeal to the heart.Combining kanji sounds and kunsJapaneseWriteManyo KanaIs also a major feature.
The rise of Buddhism
Nara periodJapanese BuddhismIt is,Protection stateTo develop and protect the nation under the protection of the nation together with the idea ofLegal meeting,prayerIt was done frequently.The government built a large temple in Heijokyo,Emperor ShomuIt is,741 I apologize to (Tenpyo 13) all over the country,Kokubunji Temple,nunneryTo be built all over the countryGood speechAs a teacher of KaisanTodaiji TempleTo build743 (Tenpyo 15)Lusha Na Buddha Gold Bronze StatueHe applied for the construction of (Big Buddha) and prayed for the security of the nation.The construction of the Great BuddhaShikakura PalaceStarted with.752 In (Tenpyo Shoho 4), Emperor Shomu, who left home and abdicated,Empress Komyō・ The daughter of ShomuEmperor KokenThey went to Todaiji Temple and held a memorial service for the Great Buddha.Furthermore, the empress Koken was empressed by the empress Koken.Saidaiji TempleWas erected.
The monkNanto Seven Great Temples(Daianji Temple,Yakushiji Temple,Genkoji Temple,Kofuku-ji Temple, Todaiji Temple, Saidaiji Temple,Horyuji temple) And other temples study Buddhist doctrine.Nanto Rokuso(Sanron,Narumi sect,Hoso sect,Club,Kegon sect,Sect) Was formed.Large-scale sutras have also been made, especially the application of Empress Komyō.At allThe sutra-copying business was a major business along with the construction of the Great Buddha and the construction of Kokubunji.
The development of Buddhism studied abroad according to the envoy to TangShi Daoci(Sanron sect)GenkyouIt is largely due to the efforts of academic monks such as (Hosou Sect),754 (Tenpyo Shoho 6th year) Arriving at Heijokyo at the end of the 1th voyage in January,CommandmentAnd many scripturesFrom Tang who toldKangenOshoFrom India, who became a mentor for the Great Buddha's eye opening memorial serviceBodhisattva, Came to Japan at the same time as BodhisenaChampa KingdomA monk from (Lin-eup)Buddha, Tang SanzangDao-xuanAlso, many Silla monks and other monks from foreign countries were largely responsible for their activities.
The imperial courtstate religionWhile protecting Buddhism, it was strictly controlled by laws and regulations such as the "Monk Ordinance," and the procedures and qualifications for becoming a monk were stipulated to limit Buddhist private missions.GyokiAlthough it was suppressed by propagating to the private sector against the banIrrigationEquipment andFuseyaInstallation of the道路Some monks gained the support of the people when they worked on social projects such as construction.Gyoki was eventually promoted by the government, which paid attention to its popularity, and made efforts to build the Great Buddha.PriesthoodGot the priesthood.
Another person who has done social business is said to have built Ujibashi with Gyoki's teacher.Dosho(Founder of the Hosso sect), to rescue the poor peopleSaidain-PharmacyEmpress Komyō raised a large number of orphansWake no HiromushiAnd so on.
618 ,隋on behalfChugokuUnified唐Built a great empire,East AsiaIt dominated a vast area and had a great influence on the surrounding areas.West Asia,Central AsiaExchanges with such people are also active, and the capitalChang'an TheInternational cityFlourished as.XuanzongThe first half of his reign was "Kaigen no OsamuWas called.Neighboring countries also communicate with Tang漢字-Confucianism・ Chinese translationBuddhismThe East Asian cultural sphere was formed by sharing various cultures such as.
Dongyi's small empire
Among them, in Japan's Ritsuryo national system, the emperor is on a par with the Chinese emperor, and like Tang, JapanChineseIt had an empire structure.It distinguishes the range covered by the sovereignty of the nation from "inside" and the outside beyond it from "outside", further dividing the outside into "neighboring countries" and Korean countries (in this era, Silla). Balhae) should have been called "Various Buddhas", and Ezo, Hayato, and South Islanders should have been called "Small Empire of Dongyi", which defines them as "Tang Dynasty"...It is another matter whether or not the pride or aim of it after the stipulation in the decree was accompanied by the actual situation, especially in relations with Tang and Korean countries.
630 OfInugami Mita hoeFrom Japan startingEnvoyWas dispatched almost once every 20 years during the Nara period.For envoys to Tang, including the ambassadorStudentsWith the addition of scholars and scholars, about 500 people traveled to the sea on four ships.Japan is TangBookletAlthough he did not receive it, he was practically a vassal to Tang.Tribute countryWas treated as..The messengerNew Year OfAsagaWhen he attended, he celebrated the emperor.At the timeshipbuildingArtNavigationThere were still many immature points, and there were many distresses at sea.At risk, the envoys to Tang have many books and / or excellentfabric,Silverware-陶器-Musical instrumentHe brought back a lot of such things, and brought back Tang's advanced political system and international culture, which had a great influence on Japan at that time.Above all, the greed for knowledge was tremendous, and it was even written in the official history of Tang that he sold off the items given by the emperor, bought all the books at the price, and returned them...Not only cultural objects, but also knowledgeable international students and study abroad monks have returned to Japan to play a leading role.Especially when I returned to JapanKibi Mabi,GenkyouWas later heavily used by Emperor Shomu and was active in the world of politics.
Battle of Shiramura RiverLaterKorean PeninsulaUnifiedSillaMany envoys came and went with.However, Japan in the late 7th and 8th centuries raised awareness of China in the process of establishing a decree system (Tang is the "neighboring country" and Silla / Bohai is the "client state"), and Silla was designated as the "client state". Conflicts occurred frequently because they tried to position it and treat it as a subordinate country (Encho Tamura).As a result, the route of the envoy to Tang has been changed several times.Silla is at war with Tang over the unification of the peninsula, in order to restrain Tang so that Japan behind it does not reach the Tang side.I kept sending envoys.Because it was in a situation of engaging with Tang8st centuryUntil the beginning, the Japanese side accepted the tribute form.However, Silla, whose relationship with Tang improved after the establishment of Balhae, began to insist on equal diplomacy because it was no longer necessary to maintain relations with Japan until he made a tribute.Japan did not admit this.When the worsening relations between the two countries materialized, Silla built a castle in preparation for the invasion of Japan.723 , Hair-cutting county castle).To temporarily strengthen the armament in JapanModeratorWas placed.737 The conquest of Shinra was discussed.In Japan at this timesmallpoxWas a pandemic and was a central figure in politicsFujiwara Takechi MaroIncludingFujiwara four brothers, High-ranking aristocrats died one after another, the number of human resources who can do politics decreased sharply, and the country became confused, so it did not become a reality. 755 ,Anshi no RanWhen the turmoil occurs in Tang, the relationship with Bohai, which poses a threat to Silla, is strengthened.Against this background, Fujiwara no Nakamaro is preparing a war to conquer Silla (although it was premised on a joint operation with Balhae, the war was postponed because it was rejected by the Balhae side, and eventually Nakamaro It was not realized due to the fall of Maro).Although the conflict did not occur in this way, Silla, who no longer needed to maintain diplomatic relations at the request of the Japanese side, stopped dispatching envoys and was finally cut off in 779.
The above theory has been disputed.In response to the request from the Japanese side to send the national book in the above table format, Silla never sent the national book of King Silla until the end of diplomatic relations.While Silla was under Tang pressure, the "Silla Envoy" tolerated the form of tribute to Japan, but after the middle of the XNUMXth century it began to reject Japan's request for tribute.It is doubtful that King Silla had never sent a national book to Japan, and that Silla had approved Japan's tribute system in the first place, and Silla's envoy may have cheated on the spot (Toshikazu Hori).Also,Yoshiaki KawamotoSilla says that the above theory has certain problems, considering its Chinese consciousness, such as the fact that Silla built a building that is only allowed by the Chinese emperor more than 100 years earlier than Japan.On the other hand, Silla is focusing on private trade, and the exchange with Japan is larger than that of Tang, and the current situation isShosoinIt is said that many of the treasures in the Tang and Southern regions of the Touya are mediated by Silla merchants... At the end of the 8th centuryEnvoyAlthough the official dispatch of Silla has ceased, the activities of Silla merchants are rather active.
713 ,MorayOld with the tribe as the main bodyGoguryeoFounded in northeastern China with people (Koma)BohaiThere was a close exchange of envoys with.Bohai is against Tang and Silla727 In Japan (4th year of Kamikame)Bohai ambassadorDispatched and asked for diplomatic relations.Due to the crisis situation inside and outside the country, such as the rebellion of Heishui Mohe under the control of Tang and Silla, he compromised with Japan seeking a tribute form as a successor to Goguryeo, and allowed him to become a tribute envoy. ..In the national books from Balhae, the number of words that correspond to Japan's Chinese consciousness increased and decreased in proportion to and inversely proportional to the crisis situation in Balhae.The Japanese side welcomed the tribute to Balhae as the return of Goguryeo, the "country of paradise"., From the rivalry with Silla, attach great importance to communication with Bohai,Sea ambassadorWas dispatched.Like Silla, Japan requested Bohai to send a national book in the form of a vassal and the above table (in the form of a vassal and a document dedicated to the monarch).Unlike Silla, Bohai sent the national book to Japan, but the format was "Kei."Balhae is the first in Asia to use "Kei", which is used for communication between individuals, in official documents between nations.Kei is not a form used for national books, but a letter that asks about the residence of individuals, so it fits the general purpose of national books, and since it is originally an ascending document, it should be polite toward the other country. Will be shown.It is believed that it was the wisdom of Balhae that diverted such personal correspondence into national books.The Japanese side, which demands the "ministerial title / upper table" format, often criticized this, but Bohai consistently refused to send the national book in the "minor title / upper table" format.In the end, the Japanese side also acknowledged Kei as a "custom".Exceptionally, there is an article in the Shoku Nihongi that Bohai sent a national book in the above table format, but the articles are concentrated only in the Houki year, and it is thought that the enlightenment from Bohai was regarded as the above table. There is.
As relations with the Tang dynasty improved, the military role of Balhae missions to Japan declined, the weight of trade became heavier, and the frequency of visits to Japan increased.It was completely altered in the early Heian period. Minister of the Right in 824Fujiwara no OtsuguSaid, "Because the Bohai mission is a merchant, do not treat it as a diplomatic mission in the future."..On the other hand, the national book sent from Japan to Bohai is in the form of a memorial service from the emperor, but the writing is consistently "King of the Emperor Balhae" or "King of the Emperor Balhae" as for Silla. It was.This format was modeled after China, and in China it was a format issued to an equal country or a partner country with special respect.It was the Japanese side's intention to try to make Balhae and Silla a client state, and in reality it did not go according to Japan's intention.The affiliation relationship between nations was established for the first time through the "book seal" given by the government office, but the book seal relationship was not established between Japan and Silla / Balhae.Such a relationship naturally adopted a polite form.
Hayato and South Island
Southern KyushuKofun periodToUnderground grave-Itahi Stone Coffin Grave(Underground slab stone masonry tomb) ・Earthen graveIt is an area where a unique grave system such as, People in this area are oldBear attack, From the latter half of the 7th centuryHayatoWill be called.. The influence of the Yamato administration gradually permeated from the end of the 5th century, but even when the Taiho Code came into effect, it was still a region that was not under the control of the Taiho Code. Established in 699, the Ritsuryo nation begins to rule against the backdrop of military power. In 709, Hayato's tribute system began, indicating that Ezo and the different ethnic group "Babbarians" belonged to the imperial court.Given an important role in national rituals..However, there is strong resistance to control, especially in 720, which was newly established seven years ago.Osumi countryNational guardFumi MaroWas killed.On the other hand, the Ritsuryo governmentOtomo TravelerAfter dispatching a large army as a general, it took until the following year to suppress it (Hayato rebellion).As a result, for the first time in 722RegistrationWas carried out, and Hayato's systematic resistance disappeared thereafter.However, Hayato in the Nara period was the object of tribute to the end, and OsumiSatsumaIt was in the Heian period that the group was held in both countries.800 (19th year of Enryaku).
On the other hand, nowNansei IslandsFrom the first half of the 7th century, messengers had already begun to "tribute" to the Yamato administration, but in 698, the ambassador of the nation was dispatched to the South Island, and the following year, Tane (Tanegashima), Yaku (Yakushima), Amami (Amami Oshima), Degree (Tokunoshima) Visited the tribute, and in 702 as an administrative organizationTane IslandWas installed.Special products such as turbomarmoratus and Akagi, which are materials for crafts, were brought from the South Island, and ironware was brought to the South Island..DazaifuFrom the traces, "Amamijima" (Amami Oshima) and "Iaijima" (Amami Oshima)OkinoerabujimaA wooden tablet with the words "ka) has been excavated, and Amami OshimaAmamiA trace of shellfish production by turbomarmoratus has been found at the Kominato-Fuwaganek site in Japan. In the 9th century, the interest of the Ritsuryo nation diminished, as it was said, "There is no enemy without a country, there is a loss and there is no profit.".
There are still various theories as to what kind of people were called Ezo in history, but for the Ritsuryo nation based on Chinese thought, "the concept of people outside of their own control". Was only.
However, in the Nara period, the construction of HeijokyoLegionAs the financial situation deteriorated due to the development of the government, the battle was intensified by starting a large-scale invasion in order to collect taxes from Ezo, which was not considered to be under control until then... It is said that Abe no Hirafu and others reached the present Akita and Tsugaru regions and further north in the middle of the 7th century, but it is now that they were stably incorporated into the Ritsuryo nation at the beginning of the 8th century.YamagataShonai regionMiyagiIt was from the central part to the south.At that time, castles and fences (facility called castle fence officials) were built, and around themFence doorPeople called were immigrated from the Kanto and Hokuriku regions and cultivated.Koriyama ruins(Miyagi PrefectureSendai city) Is believed to have been the central government agency at the time.Before and after the relocation of Heijo, the government took a rapid expansion policy. Dewa-gun was established in Echigo Province in 708, and in 712DewakuniAnd said.In addition, the people of Tokai and Tosando countries will be moved to the castle fence.It was used for farming and defense.On the other hand, Ezo rebelled in 709 and 720, and in 720, Rikuoku.PressHiroto Kameno was murdered.The government sent a large army to suppress it, as a new county and fence, and as a facility to control them.Taga CastleWas built.On the Sea of Japan side, on the other hand, in 733Dewa fenceIs the currentAkita CityWas relocated to (laterAkita Castle).
After that, the government appointed the chief of Ezo as a county priest to indirectly control the tribal group, and those who had been individually subordinatedPrisonerWas immigrated to countries as..In this way, the southern part of the Tohoku region was gradually incorporated into the Ritsuryo system, but the area north of the northern part of the Tohoku region was still outside the control of the Ritsuryo nation.However, cultural and economic exchanges continued,Satsumon cultureWas influenced by the ancient burial mounds in the Dewa regionTerminal burial moundWas built and againEniwaThen Wadokaichin has also been excavated..
The Fujiwara no Nakamaro administration also actively implemented an anti-Ezo policy.757 (Tenpyo TreasureNakamaro's child in the first year)Morning huntingBecame a land guard and became a new land that was out of powerMomou CastleandYukatsu CastleWas built.Also762 Tagajo was renovated and transformed into a magnificent facility suitable for providing Ezo.774 (HoukiIn 5th year), Momoo Castle was attacked by Ezo and abandoned, and in 780 (Houki 11th year)Iji MaroAzechi Mutsu no Azechi murdered Jun Norihiro and burned down Tagajo.Thirty-eight year warEnter into an endless battle called.The battle was not settled during the Nara period, and it finally ended with the appearance of Sakanoue Tamura Maro.The war against Ezo, which was later touted by Fujiwara no Otsugu as "the place where the world suffers now is military and tactics," "played a major role in strengthening the emperor's political authority."It is.
- ^ Kitayama (1979)[Page number required]
- ^ a b c Yoshida (1992)
- ^ Ozawa (2005) pp.142-148
- ^ Sato (2002) p.20
- ^ Kanae (2008) p.88
- ^ The so-called Jianzhen future sutra.
- ^ Ishimada (1989) pp.15-17
- ^ Sakeyori (2002) pp.271-272
- ^ Kanae (2008) p.134
- ^ Kanae (2008) p.78
- ^ Kimiyuki Mori"After" Baekgang "" Kodansha, 1998,ISBN 4062581329
- ^ Sakeyori (2002) p.285
- ^ Sakeyori (2002) p.295
- ^ Ishii (2003)
- ^ Sakeyori (2002) p.283
- ^ This "Kei" has a special property.According to Chinese books such as Uirojo and Sima's writings, it is the format used when officials escalate to the secretary of the government office, as well as the ancestors / chiefs and husbands of women among relatives. It was used in a wide variety of ways, such as giving advice, congratulations, rewards, and recommending acquaintances, when comforting the death of not only the ancestors but also the ancestors.Therefore, "Kei" is classified into "private book" and "housebook", and it is "not the place to apply to Kumon", that is, it is used for personal communication and not suitable for official exchange between nations. Was done.
- ^ Sakeyori (2002) pp.296-305
- ^ Sakeyori (2002) p.274
- ^ However,Underground grave,Itahi Stone Coffin GraveThe idea of directly linking the underground tomb system in southern Kyushu with Kumaso and Hayato is not currently practiced.
- ^ Kanae (2008) pp.156-157
- ^ Kanae (2008) pp.158-159
- ^ Sakeyori (2002) pp.306-307
- ^ Kanae (2008) p.149
- ^ ""Emishi" and "Ezo"”. Aomori Prefectural Folk Museum. October 2021th, 4Browse.
- ^ Sakeyori (2002) pp.280-281
- ^ Sakeyori (2002) pp.287-290
- ^ Sakeyori (2002) p.304
- Shigeo Kitayama "Nara Period" Japanese History Dictionary Editorial Board "Japanese History Dictionary Volume 7"Kawade Shobo Shinsha, October 1979
- Takashi Yoshida"History of Japan 3 Ancient Nation History"Shogakukan<Shogakukan Library>, October 1992,ISBN-4 09-461003-0
- Masatoshi Ishii"East Asian World and Ancient Japan"Yamakawa Publishing<Japanese History Libretto>, May 2003,ISBN-4 634-54140-8
- Ishimoda Sho"The Emperor and" Various Buddhas "-In Relation to the Significance of the Enactment of the Taiho Code-", "Ishimoda Shoshu Vol.ISBN 4000914049.. (First appeared in 1963, later recorded in the first part of "Ancient Japanese National Theory")
- Masashi Sakayori"Ancient Japan and Ezo / Hayato, East Asian countries"Shin SatoHen "History of Japan 4 Ritsuryo Nation and Tenpyo Culture", Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2002,ISBN 4642008047
- Hiroyuki Kanegae"Ritsuryo Nation and Manyobito" Complete Works Japanese History Volume 3, Shogakukan, 2008,ISBN 9784096221037
- "Ancient City" Uehara et al., "Social Groups and Political Organizations" Ancient History of the Islands People, Things, Things 3, Iwanami Shoten, 2005,ISBN 4000280635
- Shin Sato"Ritsuryo Nation and Tenpei Culture" edited by Makoto Sato, "History of Japan 4 Ritsuryo Nation and Tenpei Culture", Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 2002