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🍴 | Refreshing and super delicious!Seven's "298kcal lunch" You can get full with lots of ingredients!

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It's refreshing and super delicious!Seven's "298kcal lunch" You can get full with lots of ingredients!

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The amount of pasta is small, but the fresh pasta is chewy, so you can get a feeling of fullness by accumulating in your stomach!

Suddenly, I love Seven's cold pasta ... I went there the other day and found something that looked delicious again ... → Continue reading

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食(Shoku) is usuallyHeterotrophic organismsToPhysiological calorieFood to supply and enable growthintakeIt is to be.Eating is essential for the survival of heterotrophic organisms such as animals.CarnivoreIs the meat of other animals,HerbivoreEat plants,OmnivorousAnimals eat both animal flesh and plants, and nectar-sucking birds such as hummingbirds have specially adapted brush-like tongues, often designing beaks for cohabiting flowers. ..(English edition) TheDetritusI eat the.FungiIn the bodyfoodNot outside the bodyorganic matterConsume.For humans, food isActivities of daily livingone of.However, some people may limit their nutritional intake.This is the result of lifestyle choicesHunger,famine,dietIt may be part of a religious fast.

Human eating habits

Many homes have large kitchens for food and cooking preparation, and alsoCafeteria,cafeteriaThere may be a designated place for meals.In many societies, you can eat on the go, when you don't have time to cook, or even in a social setting.Restaurants,food court, Food stalls serve meals on the street(English edition)Exists.[1]..With the highest level of sophisticated technology of the people, these places are "global"CosmopolitanismとmythIt becomes a theater-type scene.[2]picnic,(English edition),(English edition)There are also places for socializing with the primary purpose of eating.At many social events, participants are provided with food and drink.

Humans generally eat a few meals a day[3]..Between meals,Light mealMay be taken in small amounts.British doctors every 4-6 hours[4] , Recommended 1 meals a day (3-1 kcal per meal)[5][6]..A balanced diet (half of the plate is vegetables, 1/4 is protein such as meat, 1/4 is carbohydrates such as pasta and rice[7]) Three times, the total is about 3-1800 kcal, which is the average requirement of a normal person.[8].

Sharia methodIn the applicable area ofRamadanAdult Muslims are possibly banned from eating during the daytime[9][10][11].

Human development

NewbornDoes not eat adult food,BreastmilkAnd live only with formula milk[12]..Toddlers 2-3 months old may be given a small amount of pureed food.However, most babies do not eat adult food until they are 6 to 8 months old.Young babies have few teeth and an underdeveloped digestive system, so they are puree-like.Baby foodI eat the.When you are 8-12 months old, your digestive function develops and you start eating by hand.However, their diet is still limited.Because the baby at this timemolar,CanineAnd alsoincisorThis is because the number of is often limited.At 18 months of age, babies have sufficient teeth and digestive function and can eat the same foods as adults.Learning to eat is a tedious task for children, and eating etiquette is often learned only after the age of 5-6.

Many animals, including humans, respond to food they see for the first time.fearThey have a tendency to remember their feelings and take vigilant behaviors, and these instinctive behaviors and psychologyPsychologySo we call it novelty horror[13]..Also, after eating certain foods, you may feel sick.VomitingAfter experiencing a feeling of strange odor or taste discomfort from the food you ate, you may not be able to eat the food due to physiological repulsion, and these reactions are learning food aversion. It is called[13].

Likes and dislikes about certain foodspartial eclipseIn order to overcome this, we may change the texture or pick the nose to eat, but the change in likes and dislikes for specific foodsSimple contact effectThere is a correlation with.Likes and dislikes of a food depend on the number of times it is exposed to the food, and the taste of the food increases when the experience of eating the food is repeated many times without any particular problem.[13].

Eating posture

In each region of the world, eating habits depend on the affected culture.For exampleMiddle EastIn areas such as these, it's natural to sit on the floor and eat, because it's said to be healthier than using a table.[14] [15].

Ancient greecePeople,SymposiumI liked to eat while sitting at the celebration.And this tradition remains the sameAncient romeBut it is taken in[16],Ancient HebrewsIs also a traditional celebrationPassoverIncorporated this attitude[17].

Obsessive-compulsive overeating

Obsessive-compulsive overeating(EmotionalTomo) is "the tendency to eat in response to negative emotions"[18]..Experimental studies have pointed out that anxiety reduces dietary intake in people of normal weight and, on the contrary, increases it in obese people.[19]

In addition, many experimental studies have shown that people overweight have stronger emotional responsiveness, and they overeat when suffering compared to people with normal weight. It is pointed out that it tends to be easy[20].

A natural study comparing emotional responsiveness based on the emotional diets of normal and obese female college students revealed a tendency of obese people to overeat.However, the results of the study applied only to snacks, not to ordinary meals.In short, it was found that obese people did not tend to eat more during meals, but rather ate more snacks between meals.From there, obese people often eat with others, but don't eat more than average because the presence of others reduces pain, and obese people eat. At that time, it can be explained that they eat less than other people because of their social desirability.On the contrary, snacks are often eaten alone.[20].

Hunger and fullness

There are many physiological structures that control the start and end of a diet.Controlling food intake is a physiologically complex and intentional behavioral pattern.Cholecystokinin,Bombesin,(English edition),(English edition),Calcitonin,(English edition),Leptin,Corticotropin-releasing hormoneAll hormones such as are known to have a function of suppressing food intake.[21][22].

Start of meal

There are many signals that make you feel hungry.The signal that makes you feel hungry depends on the environment,Digestive tractDue to themetabolismThere is due to.Environmental signals are the body'ssenseActivated by.Hunger can be caused by thinking about the smell of food, seeing a plate, or hearing someone talking about food.[23]..The signal from the stomach isPeptide hormoneIsGhrelinIs started by being released.Ghrelin is a hormone that promotes appetite by giving the brain a feeling of hunger.[24].

The signals that cause a feeling of hunger are not only due to the environment and ghrelin, but also due to metabolism.As time passes between meals, nutrients begin to be absorbed by the body from where they are stored.[23]..In the cellglucoseThe body begins to feel hungry when it senses a decrease in concentration, and it encourages the body to eat by sensing a decrease in intracellular lipids.

End of meal

Some short-term satiety signals originate from the head, stomach, intestines, and liver, and signals that provide long-term satiety signals areAdipose tissueIs sent from. [23]

The taste and smell of food can lead to a short-term feeling of fullness, and can tell when the body stops eating.There are receptors in the stomach that tell you if you are full.There are also receptors in the intestine that signal satiety to the brain.duodenumEmitted fromCholecystokininHas the function of controlling the speed at which the stomach is emptied,[25]This is thought to be a signal of satiety towards the brain.Peptide YY 3-36 isSmall intestineIt is a hormone sent from, but it is also used as a signal of satiety to the brain.[26] ..Insulin also plays a similar role.The brain senses insulin levels in the blood, from which nutrients are taken up by cells, indicating that the human is full.A long-term feeling of fullnessAdipose tissueStored infatcaused by.Adipose tissueLeptinIt secretes a hormone that suppresses appetite.Long-term satiety signals due to adipose tissue control short-term satiety signals[27].

The feeling of fullness depends not only on the physiological phenomenon but also on the perception of the taste of the living body.For example, if you continue to eat the same food, it will be said to be delicious.SensibilityWill decrease and you will not be able to eat any more, but after eatingDessertThere is a so-called "dessert is a different stomach" phenomenon, in which another appetite springs up and you can eat deliciously.This phenomenon is called emotional satiety.[13].

The role of the brain

The brainstem has internal neural circuits that detect hunger and satiety signals from different parts of the body, thus limiting food intake.[27]..The involvement of the brainstem in food intake has been studied by experiments with rats.Brain stem movementNeuronMice that have been disconnected (demyelinated) from the neural circuits of the cerebral hemisphere cannot approach food and eat[23]..Instead, demyelinated mice must get their food in liquid form.This experiment shows that the brainstem is involved in the diet.

HypothalamusIs(English edition)(MCH) andOrexinTwo that cause hungerpeptideExists.In mice, MCH has a feeding-promoting effect, and mutations that cause hypersecretion of MCH cause binge eating and obesity accordingly.[28]..Orexin plays a major role in controlling the relationship between diet and sleep.In the hypothalamus, there are other peptides that induce feeding, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AGRP).[23].

The feeling of satiety in the hypothalamus is stimulated by leptin.Leptin targets receptors in the arcuate nucleus and suppresses the secretion of MCH and orexin.In addition, there are two additional peptides in the arcuate nucleus that suppress the feeling of hunger.The first is,(English edition)(CART), the other is α-MSH (α-melanocyte stimulating hormone)[23]


Meals are generally(English edition)Caused by.But,appetiteThere are many physical and psychological abnormalities that affect and disrupt normal dietary patterns.depression,Food allergy, Ingestion of certain chemicals,Bulimia,anorexia,Pituitary glandDysfunction,EndocrineAbnormality, and many otherssickAnd eating disorders are included in this.

Chronic shortages of nutritious foods can cause a variety of illnesses and ultimatelyhungerLeads to.What happens on a large scale in a certain areafamineIs considered.

手術Often seen in later recovery periods, but eatingDrinkIf you can't dripEnteral nutrition[29]and(English edition)Substitute feeding with[30].

Other animals


Mammals need a nutritious and abundant diet because they require energy to maintain a homeothermic temperature.The oldest mammals are probably predators, but since then different species have adapted to their diet in different ways.Some mammals eat other animals, but this is a carnivorous (worm-eating) diet.on the other hand,HerbivoreWhat is calledcelluloseComplex such ascarbohydrateEat plants that contain.Herbivores(English edition),(English edition),(English edition),Nectarivore,(English edition),(English edition)It can be divided into variants such as.The digestive tract of herbivores is home to bacteria that ferment these complex substances, and their presence in the stomach and cecum, which are divided into numerous chambers, prepares for digestion.In some mammals, to absorb nutrients that were not digested when the food was first ingested,CoprophagySome do.OmnivorousThose eat both prey and plants.Carnivorous foods are contained in meatprotein,Lipid,mineralSimple because it requires almost no special digestion such asDigestive tracthave.But among themBaleen whaleWith the exception of terrestrial herbivores, in the stomach, which consists of multiple rooms,Intestinal bacteriaI'm living.

The size of the animal is also a factor in determining the type of diet (Allen's rule).It is said that small mammals require a large amount of energy and tend to have a high metabolic rate because the ratio of the surface area that loses heat to the volume that generates heat is high.Weight is about 18Ounce(510g; 1.1lbMost of the following mammals eat insects because they cannot tolerate the time-consuming and complex digestive processes of herbivores.On the other hand, large animals generate a large amount of heat and do not often lose heat.Therefore, large mammals have a slow food recovery process (large).vertebrateCan withstand both carnivorous animals and slow digestive processes (herbivores).In addition, mammals weighing more than 18 ounces (510 g) are usually unable to collect enough eating insects to sustain their body while awake.Large insectivorous mammals are huge insectscolony(ア リ,Termite) Is the only thing that eats.

Some mammals are omnivorous, with different degrees of carnivorous and herbivorous, but are generally biased towards one or the other.Also, because plants and meat are digested differently, bears may prefer either, as they are divided into carnivorous and herbivorous species.Carnivores(English edition)(The proportion of meat is 50-70%),(English edition)(The proportion of meat is 70% or more),(English edition)(The proportion of meat is 50% or less), it is classified into three categories.The dentition of carnivores is composed of blunt triangular flesh teeth that grind food.The dentition of small carnivores is composed of blunt triangular flesh teeth that grind food.Supercarnivores, on the other hand, have conical teeth and sharp flesh teeth to cut through,hyenaIn some cases, they have strong jaws to break bones, and such animals can also chew and eat animal bones.


The bird diethoney, Fruits, plants, seeds,Carrion, Various small animals including other birds, and so on.The digestive system of birds stores what they eatCropIn addition, there is a stone that I swallowed to make up for the lack of teeth.GizzardThere is.On the contrary, like pigeons and parrots,gall bladderSome species do not have.Most birds are adapted for rapid digestion in time with flight.Some migratory birds have adapted proteins that have accumulated in various parts of the body, including the intestines, to be added during migration and used as energy.

Birds that use many tricks to get food and eat a wide variety of foodgeneralistBirds that focus their time and effort on a particular food or have a single strategy to obtain foodス ペ シ ャ リ ス トIs considered.The strategies that birds forage vary greatly from species to species.Many birds collect insects, invertebrates, fruits, seeds, etc.Some hunt insects by suddenly attacking from the top of the branch.Species pursuing pests are considered beneficial "biological pest control agents"Biological controlIts existence is encouraged in doing so.Insect-eating birds eat 4-5 million tonnes of arthropods annually. 

Hummingbirds and Sunbirds,LoriinaeBirds that suck nectar, such as, have a specially adapted brush-like tongue, and their beaks are often tailored to co-adapted flowers.Kiwi with a long beak(English edition)Searches for invertebrates.Sandpipers and plovers have different beak lengths and different feeding methods, sonicheIs divided.Those who use their wings and feet to chase their prey in the waterGenus,Greater scaup,Penguin,Auk familyEtc,Sulids,Kingfisher,Tern familyThose that prey in the air, such as, will chase their prey and plunge to the ground.Flamingo,Part ofNorthern fulmar,Duck TheFiltered feedingI do.gun,AnatinaeIs mainly herbivorous.

Frigatebird,Seagull,Pomarine jaegerSteal food from other birds, etc.Labor parasiticSome species do.Kleptoparas are thought to complement the hunting diet rather than play an important role in the diets of various species.A survey of kleptoparasitism performed by frigatebirds on masked booby estimated that up to 40% of frigatebirds actually do so, with an average of only 5%.VulturelikeScavengerSome are seagullsCrowSome, like other birds of prey, are opportunistic.


  1. ^ John Raulston Saul (1995), "The Doubter's Companion", p. 155
  2. ^ David Grazian (2008), "On the Make: The Hustle of Urban Nightlife", 32
  3. ^ Lhuissier, Anne; Tichit, Christine; Caillavet, France; Cardon, Philippe; Masulo, Ana; Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre (December 2012). “Who Still Eats Three Meals a Day? Findings from a Quantitative Survey in the Paris Area.”. Appetite 63: 59–69. two:10.1016 / j.appet.2012.12.012. PMID 23274963. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234011608 2020/9/19Browse.. 
  4. ^ Sen, Debarati (July 2016, 7). “How often should you eat?”. The Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/life-style/health-fitness/diet/How-often-should-you-eat/articleshow/15616282.cms 2017/5/25Browse. 
  5. ^ "Be calorie smart 400-600-600”. Nhs.uk. 2017/5/25Browse.
  6. ^ "Cut down on your calories”. Nhs.uk (October 2015, 10). 2017/5/25Browse.
  7. ^ "Vegetables and Fruits". The Nutrition Source (September 2012, 9). Template: Cite webCall error: argument accessdate Is required.
  8. ^ "Daily Calorie Requirements of An Adult Male, Female". www.iloveindia.com. Template: Cite webCall error: argument accessdate Is required.
  9. ^ Sharia and Social Engineering: 143 pages, R. Michael Feener --2013
  10. ^ FOOD & EATING IN MEDIEVAL EUROPE --Page 73, Joel T. Rosenthal --1998
  11. ^ Conscious Eating: Second Edition-9 pages, Gabriel Cousens, MD --2009
  12. ^ "How to combine breast and bottle feeding”. Nhs.uk. 2017/10/5Browse.
  13. ^ a b c d Kayo Miura and Junichiro Kawahara (ed.) "Psychology of Beauty and Charm" Minerva Shobo 2019,ISBN 978-4-623-08659-7 pp. 132-133.
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  15. ^ Brito, Leonardo Barbosa Barreto de; Ricardo, Djalma Rabelo; Araújo, Denise Sardinha Mendes Soares de; Ramos, Plínio Santos; Myers, Jonathan; Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares de (2012-12-13). “Ability to sit and rise from the floor as a predictor of all-cause mortality” (English). European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 21 (7): 892–898. two:10.1177/2047487312471759. ISSN 2047-4873. PMID 23242910. Archive as of 2013-01-12. .. error: |archivedate=If you specify|archiveurl=Must be specified.. http://cpr.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/12/10/2047487312471759. 
  16. ^ "The Roman Banquet". The Met. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2019/4/13Browse.
  17. ^ "Reclining". A Virtual Passover. 2019/4/13Browse.
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  22. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/dispomim.cgi?id=164160&rn=1
  23. ^ a b c d e f Carlson Neil (2010). Physiology of Behavior. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Pp. 412–426 
  24. ^ Funai, MD Edmund. “Ghrelin, Hormone That Stimulates Appetite, Found To Be Higher In PWS". 2012/4/29Browse.
  25. ^ Role of cholecystokinin in appetite control and body weight regulation.. 6. 297-306. two:10.1111 / j.1467-789X.2005.00212.x. PMID 16246215. 
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  27. ^ a b Quote error: invalid <ref> It is a tag. "CarlsonText is not specified for an annotation named "
  28. ^ Shimada M. “MCH (Melanin Concentrating Hormone) and MCH-2 Receptor". 2012/4/29Browse.
  29. ^ (English)"Pediatric Feeding Tube”. Feeding Clinic of Santa Monica. 2017/1/7Browse.
  30. ^ Heisler, Jennifer. "Surgery." About.com. Np, May–June 2010. Web. 13 Mar. 2013.

Related item


pasta(Yi: pasta) Ismacaroni,Penne,spaghetti,Lasagna, Etc.ItalianIt is a general term for noodle foods in.Italian foodOne of the main elements of.The main ingredients areWheat flour(EspeciallyDurum wheat) And othersWed,salt,Chicken eggsEtc. are used.

Pasta can be roughly divided into two types: small short pasta represented by macaroni and noodle-shaped long pasta represented by spaghetti.otherdumplingSome are shaped or plate-shaped.

イタリアIt is said that there are 650 types of pasta, including those unique to the region, and new types are announced every year.Many dried pasta is on the market, but you can also make fresh pasta at home.


Italian pasta Has several different meanings.BothEnglish: Easter(paste),French: pastry(Pate) and English pastry(Pastry), French pastry(Patisserie), Italian confectioneryIt has the same etymology as (pasticcheria),Profane latin Of pastaIt is derived from (pasta, dough, paste).

  1. Italian food OfStaple foodone of,Wheat flourIt refers to kneaded products (raw pasta) and dried products (dried pasta).More preciselyPasta Alimentale(Yi: pasta alimentare, "Edible pastaIt is also called (meaning).Japanese"noodlesThe usage is similar to ", but the difference is that it does not stick to the elongated shape.[Note 1].Udon,Japanese buckwheat noodlesHowever, from the perspective of Italian speakers, it is "Japanese pasta".
  2. As a slightly broader usage,ConfectionerySo-called flour using wheat flourPowderRefers to all fabrics.VariousBread,pizza,Focaccia, VariouscakeKindMulti breadIncluding various fabrics such as.The closest usage to the original meaning of Vulgar Latin.In a broad sense, "noodle" in Chinese also has an example of this meaning.
  3. Especially in confectionery, it may refer to the type of product made by baking dough.
  4. As a derivation, there is a usage that refers to pasty products and substances in general, including those other than food.Pasta dutchuge (pasta dutchuge) as an example of daily necessitiesYi: pasta d'acciughe, AnchoviesPaste), Pasta Dentifreecha (Yi: toothpaste paste, Toothpaste) etc.

The usage in Japanese and English is similar to 1. above, and in addition, "pasta dishes" using the pasta in 1. are often simply called pasta.This section explains based on these usages.

As a synonymPasta Shutta (Yi: pastasciutta), Which may be used in almost the same meaning as 1. above, or as another name for dried pasta, but this is originally "SoupIt is a term that refers to "pasta dishes other than pasta."Soup pasta (pasta in broad,Yi: pasta in brodo) Was the most common pasta menu, instead of putting pasta in soupソ ー スExplicitly "pasta ashtta" (Yi: pasta asciuttaIt's a remnant of what we call dry pasta)[1].


The history of pasta on the Italian peninsula is very old.CerveteriIt is in4th century BC OfEtruscanTools for making pasta of almost the same form as the current one have been excavated from the ruins of[2]..In ancient Roman times, there was a pasta called lagana, but it was not boiled as it is today, but baked or fried.

Then the pastameat,ミ ル クIt was boiled and eaten together with. From around 1000cheeseEat with13st century OfHoly Roman EmperorFriedrich III sugarThe rich people started to eatcinnamonI was spicing[3].

The oldest book that records eating the same way as it does today is1224As of April 8GenoaFairnessCertificate(BergamoThe text by the doctor Ruggeno to the patient's wool merchant Bosso).

The reason why dried pasta as seen today has become widespread is16st centuryMidwayNaplesIt is said that it was triggered by the need for preserved food to prepare for famine.However, at the same time, it is said that this spread has given the people the opportunity to eat pasta on a daily basis, and it has become possible for people other than the wealthy who have tasted the taste of freshly made noodles to enjoy it rather than as a "feast".[4].

18st centuryUntil the beginning, spaghetti was a popular food, with only cheese sprinkled on it, grabbed by hand, held over the head and eaten from below.1770 era, King of Naples who loved the customs of the common peopleFerdinand IOrdered to serve spaghetti every day at the court, and at this time to eat spaghetti elegantly, there are four tips to make it easier to get entangledforkIs said to have been devised.

1554, Doctor Andrea MattioliTomatoI tried to make a sauce using. Spanish style of chef Antonio Latini at the end of the 17th centuryTomato sauceAs a result, the way of eating pasta with tomato sauce became popular.[3].

1995May 10Toイタリア-RomeOctober 1th every year to commemorate the 10st World Pasta Conference held inWorld pasta dayWas established in.EUAnd the Italian Pasta Manufacturers Association are jointly conducting pasta sales promotion campaigns.[5].

In each country

Italian foodAntipasto "Appetizer, Primo piatto "first dish", secondo piatto "second dish", dolce "Dessert"coffeeorGrappaIn order), the main dish, secondo piattomeatCookingFishServe as "primo piatto" ("first plate", primo piatto) before cooking.From the Japanese point of view, it is sometimes said that "pasta is an appetizer, so you can't just order pasta", but even for Italians, the full-course meal in Italy is too much, so it's part of the lunch. It is common to finish the meal with the secondo piatto and bread.Therefore, ordering only pasta is not a problem unless it is a very high-class restaurant.

English-speaking countries

The United States of AmericaとThe United KingdomThen.Macaroni and cheeseIs often eatenCafeteria,supermarket OfSide dishIn addition to being offered in the corner, variousInstant FoodIt is also sold as.Also in the United StatesSpaghetti with meatballsIs also world famous.Anglo AmericaLet's have boiled short pasta and raw vegetablesSalad dressingMixed withPasta saladIs also popular.There is also a restaurant chain that specializes in pasta dishes,Shopping mallAnd rest areafood courtBut it is often seen.


(For details, see "History of spaghetti in Japan",as well as"Napolitan Introduced to Japan(See)
JapanThen, at the end of the Edo periodForeign settlementIt started to be eaten in France, and around 1883, the FrenchMarc Marie de RotzIt started when the priest manufactured it in Nagasaki City. In 1928, Japan's first domestic spaghettiVolcanoIs manufactured and sold1955, Established Japanese macaroni (ma macaroni), Oh my brand (Japanese milling) Has begun to be released.What contributed to the spread of pasta in Japan after the warspaghetti-NeapolitanIs in fashion[6]..Meat sauce spaghetti and Napolitan became standard menus in postwar department store restaurants and coffee shops.

In the 1970sfamily restaurantIn the 1980s, a full-fledged Italian restaurant was opened by Italians and Japanese who had trained in Italy.ItamiThe epidemic happened[3].

Not only as the original Italian foodItalian spaghetti,plumShiso,Cod roe spaghetti,NattoAnd choppedSeaweedThere are many spaghetti dishes that are uniquely seasoned in Japan, and there are also restaurants called spaghetti shops and pasta houses.Meat dishesBox lunchSpaghetti andMacaroni saladIs often added as a garnish.

South Korea

South KoreaSo when you order pastapicklesIs not uncommon to come with[7][8]..In addition, spaghetti ramen, which is a dry noodle type instant noodle, is on sale.[9]..Recently, there is also a new pasta dish called bread pasta with cream pasta in the bread.[10][11].


ThailandThen, it ’s called Spaghetti Kimao.basilAnd garlic, chili,NampulaUsedPucky MaoThere is a seasoned pasta dish[12].


In each countryRetort food,Bottling-canning Ofソ ー スIs on sale and you can easily eatRice,BreadTo replaceStaple foodPasta is widely used as a product.

Raw material / manufacturing method

The main ingredients areWheat flourAnd above allDurum wheat OfSemolinaThe one using (coarse ground powder) is said to be the best.Durum wheatガ ラ スCharacterized by translucent hard endosperm called quality,Bread,UdonThe properties are different from those of wheat suitable for such purposes.

Basically this durum semolina powderWed,saltAdd ingredients such as, mix, and knead to remove air.Raw pasta is finished in the same way as Japanese noodles (both methods of cutting and extruding noodles), but in the case of dried pasta, put the kneaded material in the molding machine and extrude it while removing air as much as possible. It is usually molded into noodles and dried as it is (during this molding, the semi-solid kneaded material is extruded through a die (reference:).Extrusion molding), The shape and surface properties of the dice will determine the shape of the pasta and the properties of the noodle surface.In recent years, by devising the shape of the dice, pasta with a spaghetti thickness of about 3 minutes has come out from each company. ).

In Italy, the law[13]Mandates pasta producers to make dried pasta with durum semolina flour and water.Raw pastaOrdinary wheatOften made from wheat flour.

On the dough to give it flavor or colorSquid ink,Red peppers,Spinach,TomatoIn some cases, such as is kneaded.For fresh pastaChicken eggsIs often entered.

LombardyValtellinaIsBuckwheat flourIt was usedPizzockeriThere is pasta called.

Other,rice flourPasta made from is also made.I can't eat pasta with wheatCeliac diseaseIt is one of the few pasta that people can eat.

Nutrition and health

Main pastaNutrients ThecarbohydrateBecause it is (sugar)Carbohydrate restriction dietIt tended to be the enemy of the eyes.But2018,カナダ-Toronto Of(English edition)In fact by our research teamGI valueIt is a low-grade food, and even if it uses refined wheat as a raw material, pasta has an average higher content of micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals than other refined wheat foods.Whole grainIt became clear that the GI value is not much different from the normal one even when using.

As a result, it became clear that "the same carbohydrate is different from white rice and bread", and the research team wrote in a treatise.

The findings are important because of the flood of information that eating carbohydrates makes you fat.This information is affecting the daily table, and consumption of carbohydrates, especially pasta, has recently tended to decline.

It is written.

In addition, John Sieben Piper, a clinical scientist who belongs to the clinical nutrition and risk mitigation center of the hospital, said, "Pasta that is shunned when fat is actually healthy as a low GI diet. "It looks good in addition to the diet menu," he said, "with some certainty that eating pasta won't make you fat."

The results of this research are published in the academic journal "(English edition)Was published in[14].

Pasta type

Long pasta

spaghetti (spaghetti)
Durum wheat OfSemolinaLong pasta with a circular cross section.The thickness varies, but it is mainly around 1.8 mm.The name comes from the diminutive "string (spago)".
Spaghettini (spaghettini)
The name is spaghettiDiminutiveAnd it means "thinner spaghetti".It varies in thickness, but as the name implies, it is thinner than spaghetti, 1.6mm-1.7mm.
Narrow spaghetti. 1.4mm-1.5mm.
Vermicelli (vermicelli)
The name is a diminutive finger of "verme" which means a long insect such as an earthworm or a leech, meaning "small verme".NaplesThen, spaghetti and spaghettini are often called Vermicelli.2.08mm-2.14mm, slightly thicker than spaghetti.English reading "VermicelliAlso known as.
Capellini (capellini)
It is the thinnest type of long pasta with a circular cross section, and its name comes from the analogy of fineness to "hair" (capelli).Capelli d'angelo(Capelli d'angelo, "angelThere is another name for "hair").Used for soups and cold dishes.
Linguine (linguine)
Pasta with an oval cross section.The minor axis is about 1 mm and the major axis is about 3 mm.
Bucatini (bucatini)
Long pasta with a hole in the center.Slightly thicker than spaghetti.The name comes from "hole" (buco).
Kitalla (chitarra)
Pasta with a square cross section,AbruzzoUsed in local cuisine.Also known as spaghetti alla kitalla. chitarra means "guitar" and is also the name of the stringed tool that makes this pasta.
Tagliatelle (tagliatelle)
Fettuccine There is also an area called (fettuccine).Pasta that is made by spreading dough containing eggs and cutting it into flat pieces with a width of 7-8 mm.There is also dried pasta.
Pappardelle (pappardelle)
Hand-made pasta spread into thin plates cut into 20-30 mm widthsribbonShaped pasta.
Pizzockeri (pizzoccheri)
Spread a thin layer of soba-based dough,KishimenHandmade pasta cut into shapes.
Passatelli (passatelli)
Bread crumbsとcheese,nutmegIs mixed to make dough, and it is molded into a thick and short spaghetti shape with a special extruding tool.
Spaghetti-likeMarcheAnconaLocal handmade fresh pasta.
Tagliolini (tagliolini)
Soba-shaped to flat-string-shaped pasta that is made by stretching egg-containing dough and cutting it into strips with a width of 1-5 mm.Also known as tagliolini.PiedmontPopular pasta in TongPiedmonteseKnown as tagliolini.Tayarin is often slightly thinner than regular tagliolini.
Trenette (trenette)
Width 3-4 mm, thickness 1-2 mm, rectangular cross sectionLiguriaPasta.

Short pasta

Macaroni (maccherone)
in JapanmacaroniIs common.Macaroni originally refers to a stick with a hole.
Sedani (sedani)
Slightly larger than macaroni and slightly curved.
Penne (penne)
ペ ンCylindrical pasta cut diagonally as before.Those with wavy streaks on the surfacePenne rigate (penne rigate), small onesPennette Called (pennette).
Rigatoni (rigatoni)
Thick short pasta with wavy streaks on the outside.
Farfalle (farfalle)
Meaning of "butterfly" in Italian.Butterfly-shaped pasta.
Conchiglie (conchiglie)
Meaning of "shellfish" in Italian.Pasta rolled into small pieces like seashells.Large onesConchilioni (conchiglioni), small oneConchiriette Also called (conchigliette).
Fusilli (fusilli)
spiral(Spiral) short pasta.
Pasta shaped like a wheel.ChugokuThen, as this variant, the inside is "fortune" or "壽" etc.漢字The thing changed to is made.JapanThen,Hello KittyIt is commercially available as a character macaroni such as.
Orecchiette (orecchiette)
It means "small ears".ApuliaMade of.
(Italian version) (garganelli)
RomagnaLocally produced handmade macaroni.
Ligurian pasta with a knot tied in a cross and the ends are in close contact.
Star-shaped pasta.
Tubular pasta thicker than macaroni.
Pasta with an S-shaped cut and two pastas intertwined.Born in Sicily, it is eaten mainly in Southern Italy.
it: Trofie

Stuffed pasta

ravioli (ravioli)
Stuffed pasta. It is closed with two sheets.In the Piedmont region, (Del PlinThere is also a ravioli with a unique texture called).
(Italian version) (tortelli)
Stuffed pasta. It is closed with one sheet.
Tortellini (tortellini)
Small tortelli.Wrap the stuffing in a square dough, fold it in half to make a triangle, and fasten it in a ring shape with both ends together.物 め 物 TheMinced meat,RicottaOften cheese.
(Italian version) (anolini)
Northern ItalyEmilia-RomagnaSmall pasta with stuffing.
Stir frybrainAnd stuffed with egg paste and shaped into a triangleRomeLocal pasta.
Cannelloni (cannelloni)
Pasta with stuffing wrapped in a cylinder.in Japan"CannelloniIs also written.
Square stuffed pasta.
Northern Italy, mountainous regionSpinach,Dried grapes, Pasta stuffed with egg paste.
SardiniaRavioli in the region.
Panzerotti (panzerotti)
Half-moon shaped pasta with stuffing.Fried and eaten.
it: Agnolotti

Other pasta

Lazanje (lasagne)
Plate-shaped pasta.Some have wavy kinks on the edges, and some have jagged edges.The name "lasagna" is common in Japan.It's like making this smallerLasagnetteThere is also pasta.
Gnocchi (gnocchi)
Crushedpotato, Spinach, ricotta cheese,PumpkinMade by mixingDumpling(Dango) -shaped pasta.
Couscous (couscous)
Durum wheat OfSemolinaSprinkled with water and rolled into miliary tuberculosis.Not treated as pasta outside the United States.Origin isNorth africaso,BerberIt is said to be a traditional dish ofMoroccan foodIt is used in.In italySicily,Sardinia,LivornoMade of.
Orzo (paddy rice)
Rice grain pasta.originallyBarleyBecause it was made from raw materials, it means barley in Italy.Orzo(OrOrzo)” (Orzo)[Note 2]..But in Japan, in ItalyBarillaCompanyJapanese millingThrough "risoni" (ItalianThis name is firmly established because it is sold under the product name (meaning big rice).CurrentlySemolinaIs used as a raw materialmacaroniIt may be classified as a kind of.
(Italian version) (maltagliati)
Elongated handmade pasta cut into an irregular ladder shape.
(mixed pasta)
Meaning of "mixed pasta". Also known as "pasta mischiata".Pasta Mista is not a type of pasta, but a mixture of pasta of different shapes and sizes, and the main use is pasta (minestra,Soup(A type of) (described later in "Cooking method / sauce").Until the widespread market of packaged pasta after World War I, pasta was sold by weight in grocery stores.A small amount of leftover pasta was mixed with chipped or broken pasta and called "minuzzaglia" or "munnezzaglia" and sold at a low price.Nowadays, mixed pasta in boxes and bags is commercially available under the name "Pasta Mista".[15].
SardiniaA type of pasta.

Cooking method / sauce


Pasta is eaten in combination with sauce.Below are the main types.

Oil sauce

Tomato sauce

meat sauce

Cream sauce

Basil sauce

  • Vongole : ClamsThe one with.White wine-based Vongole Bianco is common, but there is also Vongole Rosso based on tomato sauce.It is close to Pescatore and Marineta, but does not contain seafood other than shellfish.
  • Marineta : White wine-based seafood pasta.
  • : Red wine-based soup pasta.There is a specialty store with the same name in Ginza, Chuo-ku, Tokyo.




Pasta and sauce go well together. For example, in Naples, spaghetti (Vermicelli) is often combined with tomato sauce or minced meat sauce, and linguini is often combined with seafood.

in JapanCod roe spaghettiAndNatto,plum,mushroomThere are many Japanese-style sauces that use such as, and they have been served as light meals.NeapolitanIs also unique to Japan.

Wedding soup with pasta

CampaniaIn rural areas, beans (Green beans,lentil,Chickpeas,Greenpeace),Potatoes,pumpkinSoup made by boiling pasta and so on is often made.Pasta in soup is usually stewed until tender.Al denteIt is unlikely that you will eat it in this state.The shape of the pasta in the soup varies from tubular pasta to wide pasta, pasta mista, folded vermicelli or capellini.The type of pasta preferred depends on the ingredients. For example, in soups containing beans, tubular pasta with beans inside is particularly preferred, but the type of pasta to be added to the soup varies from region to region.[16].

Pasta is also used in other parts of Italy.Green beans and pasta minestra ((Italian version)) Is the most common.AlsoTuscanyProvince of LuccaThen, the minestra made by simmering folded potatoes and tomatoes.[17].


  1. Boil plenty of water in a large deep pot and add about 1% salt.[18]..Basically, 100 liter of water and 1 grams of salt are used for 10 grams of pasta. Even if you boil less than 200 grams of pasta, you need at least 2 liters of water.For salt, for pastaSeasoningIt has the roles of putting on porridge, tightening pasta, and preventing the surface from becoming slimy like udon (inhibiting gelatinization of starch).EuropeThen water硬度Because it is expensive, there is no problem even if you do not add salt.
  2. Put the pasta in a pan.Soak the whole in hot water and gently stir with chopsticks to loosen it so that it does not stick.If you mix too much, the surface of the pasta will be damaged, so be careful.The heat is not too strong and not too weak, and the pasta keeps boiling and dances quietly.[18].
  3. Moderate pasta (generally for long pasta)Al denteIn the state of[18]) If it is boiled, raise it in a colander.Boiled juice can be used to adjust the concentration by adding it to the sauce, add a small amount to the sauce or ingredients to make it easier to entangle with the pasta, or add a small amount to the pasta when it becomes sticky or dry.

Pasta manufacturing company




注 釈

  1. ^ Rather in that it does not stick to the elongated shapeChineseof"surface"(Simplified characters"surfaceIt can be said that it is very close to).
  2. ^ In Japan, names such as "Orzo pasta" or "Orzo pasta" are also found to distinguish it from the original meaning of barley.


  1. ^ Emily Wise Miller --A Food Lover in Florence
  2. ^ Schwartz, Arthur. Naples at Table. Harper Collins, New York, 1996. p.128
  3. ^ a b c Shunichi Ikegami "History of Italy Followed by Pasta" Iwanami Junior New Book
  4. ^ Naomichi Ishige "Cultural Geography of Food and Food in the World" P234 Kodansha Academic Bunko.
  5. ^ "October 10th is World Pasta Day". 2014/10/25Browse.
  6. ^ Yuko Shibukawa "Beginning of Nippon Classic Menu"Sairyusha, 41.
  7. ^ "Are pickles friends of pasta in Korea? | Study by yourself / Korean language course Hangul.com”(Japanese). study.1hangul.com (September 2015, 3). 2021/1/11Browse.
  8. ^ "[Hirosaki University] Enjoy Korean-style Italian food at Hanok / PERMIL│ One more Korea”(Japanese). onemore-korea.site. 2021/1/11Browse.
  9. ^ "How to make Korean instant spaghetti ramen and what kind of taste do you care about? | Korean Blog Ken-Korean Life Information Delivered by Japanese Living in Seoul”(Japanese). Korean Blog Ken-Korean Living Information Delivered by Japanese Living in Seoul. 2021/1/11Browse.
  10. ^ "Korean idols also visit!Did you know that Korean Italian in Samcheong-dong is famous for its super-Umaika food and bread pasta?". PlayLife. 2021/1/11Browse.
  11. ^ "What is the Korean gourmet trend "bread pasta"? |”(Japanese). Asajo. 2021/1/11Browse.
  12. ^ "Thai food: Spaghetti Kimao (สปาเก็ตตี้ผัด ขี้เมา) | Thai Navi”(Japanese). thailand-navi.com (September 2019, 3). 2021/1/11Browse.
  13. ^ DECRETO DEL PRESIDENTE DELLA REPUBBLICA 9 febbraio 2001, n. 187
  14. ^ "Pasta does not get fat even if eaten" ── Canadian study April 2018, 4 Newsweek
  15. ^ Schwartz, Arthur. Naples at Table. Harper Collins, New York, 1996. p.134
  16. ^ Schwartz, Arthur. Naples at Table. Harper Collins, New York, 1996. p.93-95
  17. ^ Anne Bianchi. From the Tables of Tuscan Women. Ecco, Hopewell, New Jersey, 1995
  18. ^ a b c Osaka Abeno Tsuji Culinary InstituteWritten by "Hidden Techniques of Pasta Pro" Kobunsha, 2000.ISBN 4-334-97285-3.P.20-23
  19. ^ a b Only children use spoons when eating pasta in Italy Money Post WEB, August 2018, 8
  20. ^ a b I don't know unexpectedly! ??Explain the manners of eating pasta! DELISH KITCHEN, August 2020, 8

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