Phantom ingredients and ultimate souvenirs!Shiga's gourmet and spots recommended by locals
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"Futabaso, a taste inn on the shores of Lake Biwa" in Hikone, which once prospered as a castle town.
Shiga Prefecture is now very popular with cyclists, as there is a course called "Biwaichi" that goes around Lake Biwa by bicycle.This time,… → Continue reading
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Wikipedia related words
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castle townWhat is (jokamachi)?JapanIncityOne of the forms of.Lord OfResidenceIt is a city that was established around.Edo PeriodAfter that, the castle is not always the center, and as an administrative facility that does not assume battleJinyaCentered onJinya TownThere are some, but in a broad sense, they are also called castle towns.
CastleIt is also called (joka), and this name was common before the early modern period.
The establishment isSengoku periodBegins with.cityFunction as a defense facility ofAdministrationcity·CommercialcityHas the function as.The greatest contributor to the development of the castle town in the early modern periodOda NobunagaAnd full-scaleSeparation of soldiersForcibly relocate the samurai to the castle with the intention ofRakuichi/RakuzaTo activate the development of commerce and industry..It was further developedHideyoshi Toyotomiso,Toyotomi AdministrationBecame the center of the political economy ofOsaka CastleThe area below is a place of wealth and is extremely busy, and continues to be a commercial center even in the Edo period.World kitchenI was told.
Most of the worldWalled cityIs surrounded by the wallscityAnd the city exists.On the other hand, in JapanSakai,Terauchi TownlikemoatとEarthworksAlthough cities and towns surrounded by walls existed from early on, in the early castle towns, only the lord's residence was surrounded by moats and walls, and the city itself was not surrounded by walls.However, as the castle town developed in Japan as well, its economic and political value increased, and it became necessary to protect the castle town from the war.Therefore, surround the town with a moat and a base wall.Overall attitudeAs the number of constructions increased, it showed a tendency to gradually become a walled city.
Edo PeriodWhen it becomes, the color as a defense city becomes lighter,Shogunate,ClanbyPolitics-EconomyThe color as the center of is darkened.The reason is that there was no war throughout the Edo period, and most of the feudal lords experienced a change of lord, and (apart from Kokudaka) had little attachment to the land itself.In addition, places that emphasize defense capabilities as a fort are not always convenient for transportation, and in many cases the castle was abandoned and the administrative center moved to a camphouse as the color of the trading city became stronger.
The population of the castle town, which was about 300, varies.Kanazawa,Sendai DomainThere are about 12 large-scale castles in total, such as the samurai tradesmen, and TohokuKameda DomainIt is diverse, up to about 4 people, and in many cases it is around 1 people...I think that the
By changing the course of the main road that runs nearby so that it leads to the castle, traffic passes through the castle, aiming for the effect of revitalizing commerce and industry.However, regardless of the terrain's advantages and disadvantages, the trunk road did not pass through the Karamete-mon side, which is the back of the castle, but through the major side, which is the front side, in order to show the prestige of those in power.
In the castle town, ingenuity of urban defense can be seen everywhere.Skillfully use terrain such as rivers to prevent enemy invasion, dig moats, build earthworks and stone walls, and sometimes at key pointsMasugataIn some cases, a strong castle gate like this was set up.When you enter the castleHighwayBy arranging the houses on both sides of the castle without any gaps, you can make the castle difficult to see and bend the road into a key shape.Dead endThe reach to the castle was extended by providing a.Also, for each town discountfence,KidoAnd close the gate at nightGatekeeperIt was blocking the invasion of suspicious persons, such as standing up.The moatcanalIt was also used as a vehicle and played a major role in logistics.
In eastern Japan, the castle towns are often located in the river basin "fluvial terraces", and in western Japan, there are many "estuary deltas" facing the sea.Hikone,Set,Suwa DomainEtc. are in contact with the lake, and there is also a "lake type" facing the lake or swamp..
Town allocationIs centered around the castle, Samurai Town, Ashigaru Town, tradesman,TeramachiEtc. were arranged.Samuraimachi is the so-called residence of vassalsSamurai residenceIt is a town where many people are lined up, and basically, the higher the vassal, the closer to the castle the mansion...The current place names include Sange, Kamiyashikimachi, and Shimoyashikimachi.Light people such as Ashigaru are often placed outside the townspeople's land, and are the names of places that remain today.community・ Yuminocho ・Gun townEtc. often correspond to this.
The tradesman's land is a town of merchants and craftsmen located outside Samurai Town.In the vicinityVillageWas relocated to the castle, or merchants and craftsmen were forcibly relocated by occupation.In the place names that remain today,Gofuku Town・ Aburayamachi ・Carpentry-Blacksmith town-Konya TownAnd so on.The area of the townspeople is smaller than that of Samuraimachi, and they are lined up along the highway without any gaps.For this reason, the house was a so-called "eel bed" with a narrow frontage and a long depth, and was a two-story building.However, if the second floor was used as a place of living, it would look down on the daimyo, so it was used as a storeroom.
In addition, Teramachi played a part in strengthening urban defense, with large temples lined up on the outer shell of the castle town.
A castle town that leaves a lasting impression
In Japan today, more than half of cities with a population of over XNUMX originate from castle towns.
These castle towns have changed their appearance due to the great fire, war damage, and subsequent development, and the number of castle towns that can be remembered from the past is decreasing, and there are very few castle towns where the entire area still exists.However, many old castle towns, if not the entire area, leave traces of the castle town era, and if the roads were divided to prevent the invasion of the enemy as described above, it now hinders automobile traffic. I often come.In addition, traces of the castle town era remain, such as the place that was a tradesman's land in the castle town era still functions as the center of the city, and the festivals and customs from the castle town era are preserved. There are many things.
An example of a castle town that leaves a lasting impression
- Nakacho, Hirosaki City(Hirosaki,Hirosaki DomainHirosaki Castleunder)
- Kakunodate(Semboku City,Kubota DomainKakunodate Castleunder)
- Kajomachi (Yamagata,Yamagata DomainYamagata Castleunder)
- 佐 倉 市(Sakura clanSakura Castleunder)
- Matsumoto(Matsumoto DomainMatsumoto Castleunder)
- Kanazawa(Kanazawa,Kaga DomainKanazawa Castleunder)
- Gujo Hachiman(Gujo,Gujo DomainGujo Hachiman Castleunder)
- Iga Ueno(Iga CityUeno,Iga Ueno DomainIga Ueno Castleunder)
- Hida Takayama (Takayama,Hida Takayama DomainHida Takayama Castleunder)
- Tsuyama (Tsuyama,Tsuyama DomainTsuyama Castleunder,Joto Townscape Preservation District）
- Tsuwano (Tsuwano Town,Tsuwano ClanTsuwano Castleunder)
- Hagi (Hagi City,Choshu clanHagi Castleunder) Hagi Castle TownAs a World Heritage SiteMeiji Japan's Industrial Revolution Heritage Steel & Steelmaking, Shipbuilding, Coal IndustryIt is a constituent asset of.
- Mt. Sasayama Mt. Sasayama Conservation area for traditional buildings(Tamba Mt. Sasayama,Mt. Sasayama ClanMt. Sasayama Castleunder)
- Izushi(Toyooka,Izushi DomainIzushi Castleunder)
- Tatsuno (Tatsuno City,Tatsuno DomainTatsuno Castleunder)
- Fertilizer(Nichinan City,Obi ClanObi Castleunder)
(Other than Little Kyoto)
- Kanegasaki(Kanegasaki Town,Sendai DomainKanegasakiVitalunder)
- Shiraishi (Shiroishi,Shiraishi clanShiroishi Castleunder)
- Obata Town(Kanara Town,Obata DomainUnder Obata Castle (Jinya)
- Murakami(Murakami City,Murakami DomainMurakami Castleunder)
- Ichijodani(Castle town ruins,Fukui City,Ichijodani Castleunder)
- Iwamura (Ena City,Iwamura DomainIwamura Castleunder)
- Higashi Ward (Nagoya City)(Shirakabe XNUMX-chome, Higashi-ku, Chikaramachi, part of Shumokumachi)Nishi Ward (Nagoya City) #Townscape Preservation Area(Shikemichi area,Nagoya city,Owari Domain(Owari Tokugawa family)Nagoya Castleunder)
- Kuwana(Kuwana City,Kuwana DomainKuwana Castleunder)
- Tsu (Tsu City,TsuhanTsu Castleunder)
- Hikone(Hikone clanHikone Castleunder)
- Omi Hachiman/Omihachiman City Hachiman Traditional Buildings Preservation Area(Omihachiman,Hachiman Castleunder)
- Uda Matsuyama(Uda City,Uda Matsuyama ClanUda Matsuyama Castleunder)
- Takatori Tosa (Takaichi-gunTakatori Town,Takatori DomainTakatori Castleunder)
- Kano(Tottori City,Tottori DomainSupporterKano Castleunder)
- Katsuyama(Maniwa,Katsuyama DomainKatsuyama Castleunder)
- Ishibiyacho Furusato Village(Takahashi,Bitchu Matsuyama Domain,Matsuyama Castleunder)
- Karatsu (Karatsu Town,Karatsu DomainKaratsu Castleunder)
- Akizuki (Asakura City,Akizuki DomainAkizuki Castleunder)
- Hirado (Hirado City,Hirado DomainHirado Castleunder)
- Shimabara Samurai Houses(Shimabara,Shimabara DomainShimabara Castleunder)
- Hiji Town(Hiji ClanHiji Castleunder)
- Kumamoto(Kumamoto-shi,Kumamoto DomainKumamoto Castleunder)
- Uto(Amita et al., Uto branch domainUto Castleunder)
- Tomioka (Reikita Town,Tomioka Castleunder)
- Nishimatsuejomachi (Yatsushiro,Yatsushiro Castleunder)
- Sashiki (Ashikita Town,Sashiki Castleunder)
- Kajiyamachi (Hitoyoshi, Hitoyoshi BanHitoyoshi Castleunder)
- Masayuki Miura"How to Make a Castle" (Shogakukan, 2005)
- ^ Osamu Wakita "Nobunaga Oda-The Last Champion of the Middle Ages" (Chuokoron-sha, June 1987)ISBN-978 4121008435
- ^ Some have questioned Nobunaga's separation of soldiers and farming.Susumu Ike, "History of Japan's Times (13) Unification of the World and Invasion of Korea" (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, June 2003)ISBN-978 4642008136
- ^ a b c Toshiaki Ooka"Samurai's picture diary Life and living scenery at the end of the Edo period" (Kadokawa Sophia Library, 2014) p.28.
- Little Kyoto and a town related to Kyoto(National Kyoto Conference)