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JapanThe name "microwave oven" in December 1961 (Showa 36),Express trainBuffet (Sahashi type 153)soToshibaWhen testing and operating the product ofNational railwayIt is said that the person in charge of.. After that, it was used in commercial products and became a popular name.
ThingtemperatureIs about the momentum of a molecule, but a microwave ovenMicrowaveIrradiatepolarityWater with分子Directly gives energy to the molecule to vibrate and rotate the molecule to raise the temperature, so-calledMicrowave heatingAre using.
Other cooking utensils that consume electricity and heatElectric stove,Electromagnetic cookerThere is an electric stoveJoule heatGenerated by heating the heating element withInfraredThe food is heated by, and the principle of heat generation is different. Since infrared rays and microwaves have different wavelengths, their properties are also different. Infrared rays mainly heat the surface of a substance (heating to the inside is due to heat conduction).
On the other hand, in a microwave oven using microwaves, although the inside of a substance is heated by radiation from infrared rays, electromagnetic waves do not contain water molecules and are transmitted.ガ ラ ス,ChinaIs not heated (also, it may be indirectly heated by heat conduction from the heated part).
The high frequency output is about 500-700W for home use,convenience storeFor commercial use and as kitchen equipment, it is about 1500-3000W. Since there is a loss when converting electric power to electromagnetic waves, if the inverter type output (warming power) is 1000 W, the power consumption of the microwave oven itself will be about 1450 W.
in JapanHousehold goods quality labeling methodSubject to the application of electrical machinery and equipment, which is stipulated in the quality labeling regulations.. Also,Radio ActIt corresponds to the above, and it is subject to the type confirmation system because it is a device with a high frequency output exceeding 50 W... Of electromagnetic wavesfrequencyAt 2450MHzISM bandIt shares one of the frequencies無線 LAN,Wi-Fi, 2400MHz band directly belowAmateur radioWhen you operate the microwave oven, etc.Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsnoticeFrequency allocation planIn the footnoteinterferenceMust be accepted”.
Household penetration rateIn Japan1970 eraOver 10% in the middle,1980 era40% level in the middle stageTo over 50%, In the latter half of the 60% rangeFrom 70% levelAnd,1990 eraThe middle stage is in the 80% rangeFrom around 90%And in the latter half, it was in the mid 90% rangeAnd,2000 era90% in the middle half to the second halfIs kept. Worldwide, household appliances are popular because they are economically developed and the electricity situation is good.Developed countryCheap, in many areas ofCheap editionFrom modelMultifunctionalIt has been widely distributed, even to high-performance models, and is widely used because of its convenience.
Discovery of the principle
- In his pocket stood in front of the magnetronChocolate barAccidentally discovered that was melted
- The sandwich that had been left alone was cooked by itself
Legendary episodes such as, etc. are transmitted, but in reality it was developed by the result of careful observation by multiple staff.
The first microwave cooked food was carefully selected,popcornMet. Spencer microwave oven patents corn recipes using paper bags..The next ingredient selected isChicken eggsUsedBoiled eggIt was made, but this isExploding eggFailed due to.
on the other hand,Imperial Japanese Navy The1944Around (Showa 19)Navy Technical Research InstituteAnd Shimada Laboratory (currentlyShimada Rika Kogyo(Predecessor of),MicrowaveTo remotely attack aircraft andRay weaponWas doing research.. The first experiment targetsweet potatoso,Soft potatoIt is said that it became like.. Then from a distance of 5mRabbitAlthough it succeeded in killing the weapon, it could not be made larger than that, and its development as a weapon was stalled..Yamato battleshipUsing the swivel part of the secondary armament removed fromparabolic antennaConstruction was also carried out, but Shimada Laboratory was not put into practical use as a weapon due to air raid damage.Second World WarReached the end of the war.
Was one of the developersShigeru NakajimaLost his military research job after the war, built a machine to roast coffee beans with microwaves, and delivered it to a coffee shop in Tokyo to surpass the glue...However, this "microwave oven" was never commercialized.
RaytheonAbout microwave cooking1945ToPatentTaking,1947Launched its first product on. Height 180 cm, weight 340 kg. The power consumption was 3000W. This product sold very well, and other companies also entered the market one after another.
- 1951(Showa 26) According to a newspaper article on July 7, "Frozen whaling in the Southern Ocean"Whale meatAs a technology for thawing the fish while keeping it fresh” Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology) Is researching "technology for irradiating frozen whale meat with ultra-high frequency and thawing it". According to this article, since the technology for thawing whale meat has already been established, the method for thawing whale meat will be announced at the 8th International Frozen Foods Conference held in London, England from August 29 of the same year. There is an article to that effect. From this, it can be seen that at this point, commercial frozen meat thawing technology had been established to some extent in Japan.
- 1959(34) Tokyo Shibaura Electric (currently Toshiba) Developed the first domestic microwave oven.
- 1961(Showa 36) Kokusai Electric (currently Hitachi Kokusai Electric) Released Japan's first commercial microwave oven.
- 1962(Showa 37) Hayakawa Electric Industry (currently sharp) Manufactured Japan's first mass-produced microwave oven "R-10" (54 yen).
- 1963(Showa 38) Matsushita Electric Industrial (current) Panasonic) Manufactured the microwave oven "NE-100F" (115 million yen), which became a pioneer product for the popularization of microwave ovens..
- 1964(Showa 39)Tokaido Shinkansen-Shinkansen 0 series OfBuffet carEquipped with a microwave oven.
- 1965(40) "NE-500" from Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd. (currently Panasonic) for general householdsWas first released.
- 1966(Showa 41) Hayakawa Denki Kogyo (currently Sharp) is the first domestically produced product.TurntableReleased microwave oven "R-600" (198,000 yen) that adopted the method.
- 1972(47)Ministry of Post(Current Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) systematized type designationWas done. Manufacturers or importers should provide information regarding the technical conditions of the radio law.Postal minister(Current Minister of Internal Affairs and Communications), and the Minister of Post andnoticeBy doing so, the designation of the model designation was made an ellipse with a horizontal diameter of 3 cm and a vertical diameter of 1.5 cm.
- Previously, when setting up individuallyHigh frequency utilization equipment permitWas needed.
- 1977Mitsubishi Electric ovenReleased integrated microwave oven.
- 1985(Showa 60) Transferred to type confirmation systemdid. This is to notify the manufacturer or importer of the type by notifying the manufacturer of the self-confirmation that the technical conditions are met.
- 2006(18) The model confirmation display is an ellipse with a horizontal length of 2 cm or more or a rectangle with a horizontal side of 5 mm or more.Was taken.
- 2017(29) The type confirmation can be displayed by electromagnetic display, and the type confirmation can be done.AnnouncementDecided to.
The advent of microwave ovens, which cook without heating, baffled people in the 1950s. Microwave ovens were expensive at the beginning of the sale, and they began to spread to general households in the latter half of the 500s when the price could be suppressed to $ 1970... In 1970, it was reported that some products leaked microwaves exceeding the allowable amount in the United StatesDissatisfaction with microwave ovens such as health anxiety about microwaves was deeply rooted in 1998.The United KingdomSurvey shows that 10 percent of consumers say "never buy a microwave oven".
At first, in Japan, there was no understanding of why it is necessary to spend high money to purchase a cooking device that is only useful for warming cold foods and thawing frozen foods. It was not easily accepted by the people.
Therefore, the manufacturer may have a microwave ovenpottery-Simmered dishes-Steamed food-Fried food-Stir fry-BoiledI tried to advertise and sell it as if it was a versatile cooker that could perform all kinds of functions.
In contrast, the magazine "Living NotebookIs1975から1976I put up a special feature over the article, published an article entitled "Microwave oven-this strange and stupid product", and criticized "What can the manufacturer sell?" At that time, the product test of "Kurashi no Tebo" was highly trusted by consumers, and the recognition that "microwave ovens are not universal cookers" impressed consumers. In the same issue of "Kurashi no Tebo", we published an article about tips for warming deliciously chilled food using a steamer. Due to the impact of this campaign, the negative image of microwave ovens will remain in part until later years.
However, the convenience of being able to warm the dish with the touch of a button was a great advantage.High economic growthOn the other hand, life becomes richer,Nuclear FamilyAndIndividual dietAs the "family culture surrounding a dining table and eating together" represented by, became a thing of the past, the need for a means to easily warm foods increased and spread.
Manufacturers are also making efforts to improve performance, such as by reading the weight and temperature of food with a sensor so that optimum heating can be performed without spoiling the taste Has arrived.Frozen foodSpread and improve quality, can store frozen foodsRefrigerator with freezerAssuming the spread of food and cooking in a microwave ovenmanufactured foodHas come to be sold, and the penetration rate has increased along with the increase in convenience.Also, accompanying itmass productionとCommoditizationThe fall in prices due to the above has boosted further spread.
Built-in vending machine
This vending machine sold only hamburgers stored in a paper box, and when purchased, the products were automatically put into the built-in microwave oven, heated, and then provided."Bread is steamed, meat is dry", which was a little bit bland compared to a fresh hamburger hamburger chain.[Source required].. In addition, I had to wait about 1 minute including the heating time from coin insertion to product receipt.
However, because it is automatic, it is possible to provide warm food easily even at midnight, and by freezing the food stock, the risk of inventory and food deterioration is almost eliminated.Drive in,highway Ofservice areaThe installation has proceeded mainly.
These vending machines with built-in microwave ovens have steadily penetrated into society with the help of the subsequent increase in the number of installations and the development of frozen foods, and various variations have appeared. CurrentlyGrilled rice ball,Fried chicken,French fries,TakoyakiThere are also models that sell such as.
The situation since the 2000s
In Japan in the 2000s, the penetration rate is in the high 90% range, and a single-function microwave oven that only heats can be purchased for 1 yen or less. Functional types have also appeared.
Due to such a situation, many foods that can be eaten as they are when they are heated in a microwave oven are lined up in stores.convenience storeFrozen food with good flavor and simpleBox lunch,Side dishNow that you have more than one of these items, a menu for microwave ovens is a standard product in the snack food corner. They are eaten by being warmed on the spot or warmed by taking them home. Also,supermarketWith the increase in the handling of products that use microwave ovens such as bento and side dishes at food stores such asHalf boardThe industrial market is also expanding.
- Hitachi Global Life Solutions
- Toshiba(Toshiba lifestyle）
- Mitsubishi Electric
- Iris Oyama
- Ohm electric
Withdraw from production
- Sanyo Electric(Ended in 2011 due to becoming a wholly owned subsidiary of Panasonic. It also produced commercial use)
There are the following two types of conditions inside the warehouse.
- A method with a turntable to prevent uneven irradiation and absorption of microwaves
- A method with a flat interior, which is mainly used for high-output and multifunctional products
In the flat type, the irradiation antenna is rotating.In commercial microwave ovens, there are products that heat the food evenly without rotating it by increasing the output or diffusely reflecting it inside.
The microwave oven has a basic structure,Commercial power frequencyIts ability and output can be affected.For this reason, in order to perform more efficient heating and finely control the output,InverterThere is also a product that has the function of avoiding the influence from the power supply. Such products areAlternating currentOnce powerDCToConvertAfter that, the voltage is converted into high voltage at a predetermined AC frequency higher than the commercial power frequency, so that it is not affected by the power frequency (so-called Hertz-free).
However, old-fashioned products that do not have such functions and "heat only" etc.Cheap productsHowever, this is not the only case, and there are products that are affected by different commercial power supply frequencies in western Japan and eastern Japan, for example.movingIt becomes a problem.In this case, the parts will be replaced and repaired according to the area of use in the form of repair by the manufacturer for a fee.In addition, on the consumer side, the conventional product is discarded and replaced by a new one because it "does not match the power frequency of the relocation destination".
Generally, if the one for 50Hz is used at 60Hz, the output will exceed the rating, and in the opposite case, an overcurrent will occur in the internal transformer, resulting in burning or blowing of the thermal fuse.Taking this as a counter-product, the circuit is designed for 50Hz, and when it is detected that it is being used at 60Hz, the magnetron is automatically set to intermittent operation to adjust the output in "time average". There are also products that are hertz-free by doing so.Further, in order to change the output in a conventional circuit (for example, a model with a rating of 500 W outputs 200 W), intermittent operation is a general method, and the instantaneous output does not change.Therefore, the same result can be obtained for both 500W and 200W in a very short operating time.
Many products with other functions added to the microwave oven have also appeared. A typical example isovenMicrowave oven with function "Microwave oven". The function of "baking" that cannot be done in the microwave oven is performed by the oven function using heating wire or gas combustion, and the advantages of both the oven and the microwave oven are mixed.steam, Or adjust the heating time automatically while measuring the temperature of the food,MultifunctionalA microwave oven has also appeared.
Cooking in a microwave oven is generally started by placing the food on one side of the turntable in the refrigerator and closing the door (microwaves are not sufficiently irradiated in the center). In particular, with a model that controls the temperature of a food item while checking it with an infrared sensor, normal cooking may not be possible unless the food item is placed in the refrigerator.
Regarding the cooking method of the microwave oven, even if it is not a sophisticated microwave oven but a single-function microwave oven, it can be boiled or boiled in addition to the usage of "warming cold foods and ingredients" and "thawing frozen foods". such asCookwareThere is also a position as. In the multi-functional range, it is necessary to select the function suitable for each food and dish as the cooking method.
When doing warm in the microwave, usually in a bowlWrapI will do it. This will occur when the food is warmed upwater vaporAs a secondary use ofevaporationThe dryness of the ingredients due toSteamAn effect similar to can be obtained at the same time. However, do not wrap foods (such as bread and fried foods) that would be softened when the water content is highCooking SheetIt is also devised to spread extra water vapor to prevent food from being softened by dew condensation on the plate.
Vegetables, Especially hard to pass the fireRoot vegetablesKind ofWarm vegetablesCan be made. This is also done as a preparation of ingredients. Cooking goods such as range packs that can make hot vegetables more easily are coming out.cakeThings like can also be made using a microwave oven. TextureSteamed cakeSimilar to
It can be cooked, but the surface of the material is dry and non-scoring, so it cannot be cooked. However, cooking utensils for microwave ovensFrozen foodInside, you can cook pottery dishes like "the ones that have been devised to be browned" using only the cooking function of the microwave oven.Frozen foodAndgrilled fish,friedPackaging materials that can be cooked are also commercialized.
Expression of cooking by microwave oven
- JapanThen, as a signal sound to notify the completion of cooking, a mechanism that makes a "chin" sound (with a mechanical timerbell) Was incorporated into many products for a while,JapaneseAnd "Chin"Or "to rent"Sometimes expressed as.
When the microwave oven was introduced, the act of cooking was not named, but it was a spontaneous expression on a nationwide scale derived from the above-mentioned signal sounds..Agency for Cultural AffairsIn 2013Public opinion poll on Japanese language,” 90.4% said they use “Chin”. The results of this survey show that the word "chinsu" is widely used in Japanese..
- The early microwave ovens in Japan did not have a device for issuing a cue sound to signal the completion of cooking, so the purchaser commented that "I do not notice that cooking is over and the cooked food gets cold." Hayakawa Electric (currentlysharp) It also reached members of the microwave oven development team.
- That memberUnionSponsoredCyclingIt was a hint that the sound of the bell was impressive when I participated inelectromagnetとSpringAn improved model has been developed that has a mechanism for ringing a bell.. In addition, "Because there were many bicycle stores in the neighborhood of the laboratory, researchers at the time went to the store to buy the bell,AluminumThe cost was reduced with a bell that was squeezed, and the strength of the sound was adjusted using a spring and attached to the microwave oven. "MainspringThere was also an explanation from the Sharp Public Relations Office, saying, "The structure is such that the bell is integrated to make a beeping sound.".
- 1970 eraLatter half,Matsushita Electric(Current Panasonic) Is the microwave oven "ElecBy the way, I tried to popularize and establish the cooking act as "elec", but it did not take root and eventually stayed within a very limited range..
- One of the industry terms used in the food industry is “range up”. It is meant to be warmed in a microwave oven, and is used, for example, to "range up and thaw before baking." However Range up. IsEnglishAs completely incomprehensible and completeJapanglish.
- ChineseThen, there is an expression by a similar onomatopoeia, but "turn" which means "turn" (Juan:繁体字: 轉,Simplified characters: turn,pinyin: The verb) is also used to mean heating in the microwave.
- Verbized in English microwave Using,Let's microwave some ○○ is used...Add a suffix that means it is possible to support microwave cookingmicrowaveableIt is expressed as.
In modern times, "chin" is used as a signal sound mainly for single-function types in the popular price range, and for products with high output and multifunction,Piezoelectric elementUsedElectronic soundIs used.
- 2005January,The United States of AmericaOhioDaytonSo, it seems that a 25-year-old mother put her baby daughter in the microwave, pressed the switch, and heated it for more than 2 minutes.As a result, he died due to internal organ damage caused by high-temperature heat.Arrested and charged with murder and sentenced to life imprisonment on September 2008, 9. Also20075,United States of AmericaArkansasAt Joshua Mauldin, a 19-year-old father puts his 2-year-old daughter in the microwave, presses a switch, and whole bodyBurnでThriceWas arrested for seriously injuring him.In March 2011, a 3-year-old mother suffering from epilepsy in California was sentenced to life imprisonment on November 34, 2, for killing her two-month-old daughter by heating it in the microwave. Are.
- Aum ShinrikyoCorpse incineratorMicrowave heatingBecause it was a method, it was likened to a microwave oven..
- Product Liability LawAbouturban legendAs "housekeepingCatThere was a thing called "dry in a microwave oven" (common name "Cat range").The content is that after washing a cat owned by an American housewife, when using a microwave oven to dry the hair, the cat died, and the housewife said, "Dry the cat in the instruction manual of the microwave oven. "Don't do it" is not written, "he insisted that it was a failure of the manufacturer, and the company was defeated and paid a large amount of compensation, and as a result, the microwave ovenInstruction ManualsIt is a story that he came to write a note saying "Please do not put pets" in.However, there is no record that such a proceeding actually took place, and it ridiculed the American litigation society.urban legendIs.There is no obligation under Japanese or American law to add such a note to a microwave oven.As an example that actually happened,2007In 12 monthカナダAlbertaFour 13-15 year old boys robbed at Camrose killed a resident's cat by heating it in the microwave.And2014ToThe United KingdomA woman was sentenced to 1 weeks in prison and banned from keeping animals for life for a woman who died by heating the cat in the microwave for about 14 minute as a punishment for attacking the goldfish that she kept in Japan. There is a case.
- "Navy Technical Research Institute Pioneers of the Kingdom of Electronics] Kodansha, October 1990.ISBN 4-06-184790-2.
- Kazunari Todaka"Hearing notes, History of the Japanese Navy" PHP Research Institute, August 2009.ISBN 978-4-569-70418-0.
- White goods
- Household appliances
- Exploding egg
- Microwave oven - ovenMicrowavecompositeCookware
- JR East E235 series -Sometimes called a microwave oven due to its front design.
- ^ Business Limited Express Men Running Kodama p.160 Shunichi Fukuhara JTB 2003 ISBN 4533050115
- ^ Microwave oven Dictionary.com
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- ^ electronic oven - Weblio dictionary
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- ^ Radio Law Article 100 andRadio Law Enforcement RegulationsArticle 46-7
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- ^ a b c d Bee Wilson, “Kitchen History: Human Food Culture Changed by Cooking Tools,” Translated by Mayuko Sanada, Kawade Shobo Shinsha 2014 ISBN 9784309022604 pp. 140-145.
- ^ # Hearing Japanese Navy History p.70,# Navy Technical Research Institute p. 267
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- ^ "Part of the radiation from the microwave oven exceeds the permissible amount" "Chuoku Shimbun" January 45, 1, page 6
- ^ Management Policy "Background of Growth" (Rock Field)
Top Interview / New Japan Trading - Teraoka Seiko・From New Balance 61 Issued April 2008, 4
- ^ Sharp News Release April 2005("The world's first microwave oven achieves 1 million worldwide production" 2005.4.20)
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- ^ It's easy and tasty, but it's the best ♡ 15 savory side dishes made with only lentin LOCARI
- ^ Just put all the ingredients in and ♪ ♪ Zero feeling of omission! Full meat dish in the microwave Nadia
- ^ Penetrated to XNUMX% of "Chinsuru" = Misuse of idioms increased-Public opinion poll on Japanese language / Agency for Cultural Affairs Jiji Dotcom December 2014, 9
- ^ a b Vol.19 The microwave oven is introduced "Chin" at home The wall of 10 yen Showa 36 (1/2) -Doraku (Asahi Shimbun) / Asahi Shimbun evening edition June 2010, 6
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- ^ Life sentence for mother who killed daughter in microwave oven-US- LivedoorNews (IANS) 2008May 9
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- ^ Killing a cat in the microwave, blaming on the net
- ^ A woman who cooked her cat in the microwave!The ruling given for the pain given was ... = UK
- ^ "smartphone? microwave? Vegetables? The case where the new vehicle on the Yamanote line is too similar to various vehicles”. J Town Net. 2020/7/21Browse.