Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🧁 | "Midsummer Parfait Fair" will be held at "Shiseido Parlor" Ginza!Use seasonal fruits such as melon

Photo "Shiseido Parlor Ginza Main Store Salon de Cafe" "Midsummer Parfait Fair"

"Midsummer Parfait Fair" will be held at "Shiseido Parlor" Ginza!Use seasonal fruits such as melon

If you write the contents roughly
An elegant adult parfait made by boiling figs, which are characterized by their petit texture and gentle sweetness, in sherbet, sauce, and red wine to make a compote.

"Shiseido Parlor Ginza Main Store Salon de Cafe" in Ginza, Tokyo will start "Midsummer Parfait ..." from August 8st (Sun). → Continue reading

 Crank in! trend

This is a trend information site for active women who want to have fun every day. From events, gourmet and outing information to the latest cosmetics and items, deliver "I want & want to go" information every day!

Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Red wine

Red wine(Red wine,British: red wine,Buddha: Red wine) OrRed wine(Akabudoshu) is black品種 ド ウ 品種Make fromWineThe type of.From the strong purple color typical of young wines to the red brick color of ripe wines to the older brownsColorhave.

Most of the juice of purple grapes is greenish white, and red is present in the pericarp.AnthocyaninDerived from the pigment.例外は比較的珍しいExceptions are relatively rare(English edition,German version,French version)Then you can get red juice.Therefore, many red wine production processes include the process of extracting color and flavor from grape skins.

Production process

Grape processing

The first step in red wine production after picking grapes is the physical processing of the grapes.手摘みまたは機械で収穫したブドウは大きな箱に入れられてHand-picked or machine-harvested grapes are placed in large boxesWineryIt is transported to and hung on a threading machine for physical processing.

Stem removal and crushing

When you arrive at the winery, you will find a mixture of fruits, branches, stems and leaves.If the stems remain during fermentation, the wine will have a bitter taste and the stems and leaves will be removed.To do this mechanically, a rotating basket with fruit-sized holes is used.Inside the cage, there are concentric shafts with radial arms facing the inside of the cage, and when the grapes pass through the holes in the cage, the branches and leaves are ejected through the open ends of the cage.

After the stems are removed, the fruits are usually lightly crushed.破砕器は1対のローラーからなり、これらの間の空隙を調節することによって、ワインThe crusher consists of a pair of rollers, by adjusting the voids between them, the wineBrewerThe degree of crushing can be adjusted according to the preference of.

A mixture of fruits, pericarp, juice and seedsMustIt is called.ムストは発酵のために、ステンレスかコンクリート製のタンクまたはMust be in a stainless steel or concrete tank or for fermentationオ ー クIt is pumped into a barrel made of wood.


Usually when the grapes arrive at the winerypreservative OfSulfur dioxideIs added.The addition rate is 0-70 mg / l.Its purpose isOxidationIs to prevent and delay fermentation.

To extract the color and flavor of the peel and to facilitate squeezing(English edition,French version)Etc. softening酵素May be added at this stage.

At a later stage,TanninMay be added.Its role is to stabilize the color and prevent oxidation and rot.

Must cooling

Some brewers cool the wine to about 1 ° C for 4 to 10 days before fermentation (low temperature soaking).This is a process for extracting the color and fruit flavor into water, except for the tannins that are extracted by immersion in the presence of alcohol.Also, this process is not mandatorynew worldIt is preferred in wine-producing countries.

Inoculation and fermentation

When wine is placed in fermented barrels, it naturally exists in the grape skin and in the environment.Budding yeast Alcohol fermentationIn the mustsugarTheethanolとcarbon dioxideDisassemble into.しかし、多くの醸造家はBut many brewersBudding yeastSpecially selected yeasts such as are added to control the fermentation process.Hundreds of different strains are sold for winemaking, and many brewers believe that a particular strain is suitable for each type of grape and wine.At this stageDiammonium phosphateIt is also common to add nutrients necessary for yeast such as yeast.

Pump up

Immediately after the must is placed in the fermentation barrel, solid phase and liquid phase separation occurs.The pericarp floats on the surface and forms a cap.For efficient color and flavor extraction, it is necessary to maximize the contact between the pericarp cap and the liquid phase.This is done as follows.

  • Pump the liquid from the bottom of the barrel and sprinkle it on the cap.During the fermentation period, it is carried out many times a day.
  • The cap is automatically submerged in the liquid, either manually or mechanically.
  • Hold the cap in the liquid using physical force.
  • The above is complemented by drainage and water injection operations.The liquid phase is once drained to another barrel and refilled from the top of the cap.

Temperature control

Since heat is generated during the fermentation process, the temperature will exceed 40 ° C if the temperature is not controlled, which may spoil the flavor or even kill the yeast.Therefore, the temperature is controlled using various cooling systems.There are various ways of thinking about the ideal fermentation temperature, but in general, a low temperature of 25-28 ° C produces a fruity wine for quick drinking, and a high temperature of 28-35 ° C produces astringent wine for long-term aging.

After fermentation

The density and temperature of the must during fermentation is checked once or twice daily.The density is proportional to the sugar content and decreases as the sugar is converted to alcohol by fermentation.


WinemakingSqueezing in is the process of extracting fruit juice from grapes.this is,Wine pressPerformed manually or using the weight of the grape berries or the bunch itself[1]..Historically, squeezing was done by stepping on a bunch of grapes, but today most wineries mechanically remove the fruit from the stem and crush the peel before squeezing.ChampagneIn rural areas(English edition,French version)With the exception of, here traditionally squeezed grapes with tufts and mixed with stems.PhenolA light must with a small amount is made[2].

White wineIn brewing, squeezing is done immediately after crushing and before primary fermentation.赤ワイン醸造でもブドウは破砕されるが、発酵後または発酵終盤まで圧搾が行われず、この間果皮が果汁に浸漬して、果皮から色、タンニン、その他のフェノールが浸出するRed winemaking also crushes the grapes, but they are not squeezed after or until the end of the fermentation, during which the peel is soaked in the juice and the peel is leached with color, tannins and other phenols.[1]..破砕の段階で果実中の60-70%の果汁が放出されるため、この段階は必ずしも必要ではないThis stage is not always necessary as the crushing stage releases XNUMX-XNUMX% of the juice in the fruit.[2]..圧搾で得られる残りの30-40%は、自然に放出される果汁と比べて高いpH、低い滴定酸度、高い揮発酸度、高いフェノール含量であり、その量は圧搾度や皮の剥き具合に依存し、これが少ないとより渋く苦いワインになるThe remaining XNUMX-XNUMX% obtained by pressing has a higher pH, lower titrated acidity, higher volatile acidity and higher phenol content compared to naturally released juice, the amount of which depends on the degree of pressing and the degree of peeling. However, if this is less, the wine will be more astringent and bitter.[3].

Many winemakers store them separately for bottling or blending them separately.[4][5]..実際に多くのワインは、前者が85-90%、後者が10-15%の割合でブレンドされるIn fact, many wines are blended at a ratio of XNUMX-XNUMX% for the former and XNUMX-XNUMX% for the latter.[6].

Types of squeezing

There are many types of wine squeezing, which can be broadly divided into continuous squeezing and in-barrel squeezing.Brewers in recent years tend to prefer in-barrel squeezing with pneumatic membranes.In this way, the grapes can be squeezed more gently.The squeezed juice is often stored separately from the juice released by crushing for later mixing.

Malolactic fermentation

The second microbiological conversion occurs after alcoholic fermentation.これはthis isMalolactic fermentationIs called and is contained in grape juiceMalic acidBy the action of microorganismsLactic acidIs converted to.ワイナリーに存在するExists in the wineryLactic acid bacteriaDepending on the situation, it may occur naturally, but if necessary, it may be inoculated with commercially available bacteria.

Stand still

After the malolactic fermentation is complete, the residue (dead yeast cells and other solids) is allowed to settle and sulfur dioxide is added as a preservative to prevent oxidation and bacterial spoilage.


Most red wines are aged for a period of time before bottling, for that periodBeaujolais NouveauFrom a few daysBordeauxIt varies up to 18 months or more.During aging, it is placed in stainless or concrete tanks or oak barrels.Oak flavors the wine (smaller new barrels give a stronger flavor).

Clarification and stabilization

Clarification may be performed and excess tannins may be removed.As a fining agentEgg white,gelatinIs used.Some fast-drinking red wines may be cooled and stabilized to prevent crystals from settling on the bottom of the bottle.

Filtration and jarring

Most wines are filtered somewhere before bottling, but some brewers sell unfiltered.Filtration makes the wine completely transparent, preventing the activity of residual yeast and bacteria.It is usually packed in a glass bottle and corked, but aluminum screw caps and plastic stoppers are also used.Tetra PakOr in plastic bottles.

Related item


[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b Jeff cox "From Vines to Wines: The Complete Guide to Growing Grapes and Making Your Own Wine" pgs 131-142 Storey Publishing 1999 ISBN-1 58017-105-2
  2. ^ a b J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pgs 285-286, 545-546, 767 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0198609906
  3. ^ R. Boulton, V. Singleton, L. Bisson, R. Kunkee Principles and Practices of Winemaking pgs 91-95, 219 Springer 1996 New York ISBN 978-1-4419-5190-8
  4. ^ Jim Law The Backyard Vintner pgs 114-117, 140-143 Quarry Books 2005 Gloucester, MA ISBN 1592531989
  5. ^ D. Bird "Understanding Wine Technology"pg 47-53 DBQA Publishing 2005 ISBN-1 891267-91-4
  6. ^ Dr. Yair Margalit, Winery Technology & Operations A Handbook for Small Wineries pgs 41-46 The Wine Appreciation Guild (1996) ISBN-0 932664-66-0


Back to Top