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The spicy spiciness accentuates the taste.
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It is generally a radical stimulus and can often be unbearable.However, in many cases, it has the effect of increasing appetite and promoting metabolism, so it is effective in losing heat.In different culturesCuisineThere are many cultures around the world that prefer the spiciness of red pepper and use it in large quantities on a daily basis.
Is spicy taste?
Pungency is important in cooking and eating foodtasteIt is considered to be one of.HoweverPhysiologyTaste based on the definition is a suitable stimulus for taste receptor cellsBitterness,acidity,sweet taste,Salty,tasteOne kind of (Five basic tastes), And pungency does not apply to this.The core of pungent as a nerve stimulus istongue-Oral cavityFeel at the vanilloid receptor (capsaicin receptor)Pain sensationOr feel with cold stimulus receptorsIn the case of red pepper, sweating and fever are integrated with this, which is called pungent taste.In recent years, capsaicin receptors have been isolated, but since they are not specific to the oral cavity but are distributed throughout the body and are different from conventional taste receptors, 5 basic tastes are 6 basic tastes. Will never be.
Pungency and health
The spicy taste of red pepper, which is especially popular all over the worldCapsaicin) Promotes sweating,MetabolismIt is said that it has the effect of promoting.However, there are concerns about adverse effects on chronic overdose.Stomach in countries like South Korea and India that consume a lot of chili pepperscancerIs high, and it has been pointed out that it is related to overdose of chili peppers... Especially,CapsaicinCan promote the development of cancer when taken in large amounts with certain substancesKonkuk UniversityRevealed in the study of.
Various pungent and pungent ingredients
There are several types of pungent taste, each of which basically corresponds to the chemical properties of the pungent ingredient.
- Wasabi-MustardAndLeek-garlic-Japanese radishPungency such as is perceived as a pungent stimulus to the tongue and nose with a refreshing sensation.In Japanese, it is often expressed as "spicy tongue".this isAllyl sulfide-Allyl isothiocyanateThese are the actions of allyl compounds such as, which activate cold stimulus receptors.Unlike capsaicin below, allyl compounds are volatile, so to relieve spicinessteaOften drink hot drinks such as (conversely, drinking cold water increases spiciness).
- The spicy taste of red pepper warms the body and encourages sweating.It causes heat and sometimes pain-like irritation to the tongue. It is sometimes described as "spicy tingling".Such an actionCapsaicinIt activates the capsaicin receptor.The pungent taste of pepper is similar to that of pepper, but slightly milder.The main component of this taste isPiperineIs called.Capsaicin and piperinealkaloidare categorized.
- For gingerGingerol,Shogaol, Sansho contains pungent ingredients such as, which brings sweating and refreshing sensation.At the same time, the spiciness of Japanese pepper gives a numbing sensation to the tongue.
Also, in Japanese, it has a strong salty taste,mint-soda drinkThe strong stimulus of is sometimes expressed as "karai".Nowadays, this is often distinguished from "pungent", but in the old days, it seems that the concepts were close to each other in the sense of "overly stimulating" (See Contrast of "sweet water" and "karai water", and "dots are sweet" and "dots are karai").
Culture and spiciness
Pungency, or similar concepts, vary from culture to culture, and how to classify and name their sensations is not uniform.The following is an example.
Indian traditional medicineAyurveda6 tastes (Lhasa) Was considered.
In modern Chinese, there are several taste concepts that correspond to or are close to the Japanese "pungent taste".
- 辣 (Ra, là)
- Spicy taste with heat such as red pepper.
- Hemp (má)
- Numbing spicy taste such as Japanese pepper.
- Spicy (Shin, xīn)
- Yuzu-cinnamonA taste that does not stimulate pain so much and does not fall into the category of Japanese spicy taste.
Correspondence / proximity concept of "pungent" in English is as follows.
- Spicy taste such as red pepper.
- A general term for the taste of various spices.In Japanese, it may be translated as "spicy".
Pungency in cooking
The taste of pungency varies greatly depending on the cultural background.
Globally, there are many cultures that respect spiciness in cooking.in particular,Korean Peninsula,Southeast Asia-South AsiaPeppers are indispensable for cooking (currySuch).Especiallyブ ー タ タIn Japan, dishes containing whole peppers as ingredients, not as spices, are eaten on a daily basis, and the country's dishes are said to be "the hottest in the world."Latin AmericaHowever, many dishes use spicy sauces (TacoSuch).Age of Discovery OfEuropeInpepperOf the same weightFriThe anecdote that it was exchanged for is widely spread.
Traditionally in Japan, spicy ingredients such as horseradish, radish, leeks, and ginger have been actively used, but since modern times, polarization has progressed, and horseradish, ginger as a spicy seasoning, and less spicy ingredients. The position in the dish has come to be divided in the style of horseradish and green onion.However, from a retrospective standpoint, or from a standpoint that emphasizes the usefulness of pungent ingredients,Spicy radishThere are also ingredients that have revived the spiciness.
In addition, since the end of the 20th century, the acceptance of the spicy taste of red pepper has progressed in Japan, and many foods featuring a strong pungent taste have appeared.These foods often change from some trade namesExtremely spicy (from geki)It is called after the word (spicy curry, spicy snack, etc.).Especially if you have a professional taste for these foods, you may be called a spicy maniac. ("Spicy" is1986"New Word/Buzzword AwardWon the silver medal in the new language categoryTanpei Kanda"SpicyRice crackersIs the originCoined wordIs. )
The position of respecting the pungent taste itself and the sweating action of capsaicinWeight lossCombined with the position of paying attention to the bactericidal action of allyl isothiocyanate oil, spicy foods and dishes may form a certain fashion.
Toddlers are more likely to avoid spicy foods than adults.For this reason, spicy foods and dishes are astringent.BitternessIt is sometimes called "adult taste" along with some foods and dishes.
As a unit that quantitatively expresses the degree of pungencyWilbur ScovilleDevised byScoville valueThere is.However, since this is a value representing the content of capsaicin, it is not possible to measure the pungent taste of those that do not contain capsaicin (other than peppers).
- Capsaicin --The spiciness is 1600 million Scoville
- Resiniferatoxin ――The pungent taste is 1000 billion Scoville, which is 160 times that of capsaicin.It is toxic to living things because even a small amount causes chemical burns.
- Bereral, Isobererar- ChichitakeA pungent ingredient contained in mushrooms of the genus.Very spicy.
- Tadeonard- Water pepperThe pungent ingredient contained in.
- Cumin aldehyde - cuminSpicy ingredient.
- Eugenol - clovesSpicy ingredient.
- Sanshool- Sun showSpicy ingredient.
- Sun show
- Red pepper
- Japanese radish
- Water pepper
- Chili Oil
- Pea soy sauce
- Chili miso(Nanban miso, Kanzuri, Kanzuri)
- Yuzu pepper
- chili sauce
- Grated radish
- Pickled wasabi
- Mabo tofu
- Fire pot
- Tom yam kung
- Menta cod roe
- ^ "Taste" is an Ateji, originallySpicyWrite. "Mi" isadjectivestemからnounTo generateSuffix.
- ^ Shinjuku Kenkojuku News October issue "Gustatory disorder" [Health Index] FINE-club-Healthy and healthy living information
- ^ Mathew A, Gangadharan P, Varghese C, Nair MK (2000). “Diet and stomach cancer: a case-control study in South India”. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 9 (2): 89–97. two:10.1097 / 00008469-200004000-00004. PMID 10830575.
- ^ López-Carrillo L, López-Cervantes M, Robles-Díaz G, et al (2003). “Capsaicin consumption, Helicobacter pylori positivity and gastric cancer in Mexico”. Int. J. Cancer 106 (2): 277–82. two:10.1002 / ijc.11195. PMID 12800206.
- ^ Archer VE, Jones DW (2002). “Capsaicin pepper, cancer and ethnicity”. Med. Hypotheses 59 (4): 450–7. two:10.1016 / S0306-9877 (02) 00152-4. PMID 12208187.
- ^ López-Carrillo L, Hernández Avila M, Dubrow R (1994). “Chili pepper consumption and gastric cancer in Mexico: a case-control study”. Am. J. Epidemiol. 139 (3): 263–71. PMID 8116601.
- ^ Capsaicin promotes cancer development, Konkuk University professors elucidate 2010/9/6 Union News
- ^ "Kanda Tanpei" The secret story behind the birth of the original spicy rice cracker