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🍜 | Ikkyu Don Dashi-friendly curry is delicious Chikugo City, Fukuoka Prefecture


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Chikugo City, Fukuoka Prefecture

 
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The soup stock made from Rausu kelp and dried bonito from Makurazaki, Kagoshima Prefecture has a rich and soft taste.
 

Udon noodles made from wheat from Fukuoka prefecture are characterized by a soft texture.Boil for another 30 minutes, so the core of the noodles is chewy ... → Continue reading

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Kombu

Dietary fiber in 100 g of dry matter[3]
ItemWeight
Dietary fiberTotal amount36.5 g
Soluble fiber7.4 g
Insoluble dietary fiber29.1 g

Kombu(Kelp) isOchrophytaBrown algaeKelp family (Scientific name:Laminariaceae ))SeaweedIs a general name for.Since it is a name from before the birth of biology, it cannot be defined exactly, but edible species with long and thin leaves tend to be called kelp.Even seaweeds belonging to the kelp familyGiant kelp (Giant kelp)Is usually not called kelp.

BiologyThen, although the katakana-written "kelp" is used, there is no such thing as a mere "kelp".KombuAnd, etc., of kelp family plants種 OfStandard Japanese nameUsed for.On the other hand, on a daily basis such as foodKelp,KonbuNotation is also used.Webster dictionaryIt is described as kombu as it is in etc.[4].

Classification and ecology

Kelp familyLaminariaceae Bory de Saint-VincentHas the following 13 genera[5],KombuEtc. belong to, etc. belong toArthrothamnus[6]And distributed from Canada to ChileGiant kelpBelongs toMacrocystis There is a genus etc.[7][8].

  • Arthrothamnus Ruprecht Arthrothamnus[9]
  • Costulariella Petrov & Gussarova
  • Cymathere J.Agardh[5] [10]
  • Feditia Yu.Petrov & I.Gusarova
  • Laminaria JV Lamouroux Deep-sea tangles[11](Goheikonbu genus[12])
  • Macrocystis C. Agardh
  • Nereocystis Postels & Ruprecht
  • Pelagophycus Areschoug
  • Phyllariella YEPetrov & Vozzhinskaja
  • Postelsia Ruprecht
  • Pseudolessonia GYCho, NGKlochkova, TNKrupnova & Boo
  • Saccharina Stackhouse[5] [13](Kelp genus[12])
  • Streptophyllopsis Kajimura[5] [14]

Seaweed of the kelp family is found in the Japanese archipelagoHokkaidoFocusing on the coastSanriku CoastIt is also distributed inCold snap OfOyashioNot only is it a representative seaweed in the ocean and an important edible seaweed, but it is also large.Seaweed bedIt also has the function of forming a diverse ecosystem.

The kelp issporeProliferate by.Kombu spores are 5 in size micronsDegree, twoFlagellaBecause you can swim in the sea withZoospore(Yusoshi) ".The zoospores are released from the surface of the kelp and settle on rocks in the sea.The settled zoospores germinate into minute plants called "gametophytes". One gametophyte can be made from one zoospore, and there are male and female gametophytes.For each gametophyteeggとspermIs made.When this egg and sperm are fertilized and the fertilized egg grows, it becomes a macroscopic "sporophyte", that is, kelp.

Related species

As a closely related species belonging to the same family as the kelp family,WakameEtc. belong to[15](Alaria crassifolia[12]) And it is said to be the primitive form of kelp[16][17],Also,Arame,Ecklonia cavaThe Lessonia family to which etc. belong[12][18].

Fishery:

The production of kelp in Japan is about 12 tons (raw weight in 2005).The ratio of aquaculture to the total production is about 35% (2005).Hokkaido accounts for more than 95% of the production of natural products.In China, about 80 tons are cultivated.

HokkaidoHakodateKombu is actively cultivated along the coast.Since kelp is a sophomore, it takes two years to cultivate it, and there is also a one-year forcible cultivation aiming for quality close to that of two-year cultivated kelp.In addition, aquaculture methods have been established for the industrially important species Saccharina anguata, Risilimb, and Onikombu.As for other species, the aquaculture method has not been established because the natural abundance is large or the utility value is lower than that of the above-mentioned species.

Harvesting and processing

To harvest kelp, insert a rod into the base of kelp while looking at the sea from a small boat with box glasses, wrap it around, and twist it.[19]..The bifurcated stick used for kelp fishing is called "Macca".[19]..There is also a method of throwing a hook with a hook on the tip of a rope from the top of a ship or from the shore to harvest it (McKe towing).[20]..Another method is to pick up the kelp that has been rushing to the shore on the shore or to squeeze it with a hook.

The kelp harvested in this way is carried to a dry place lined with pebbles and dried side by side. Turn it over once or twice and let it dry evenly.If it is too dry, it will break easily, so it needs to be adjusted.The drying time is about half a day, but if it hits the rain during this period, the commercial value will be lost, so on days when the weather forecast shows that it will rain, fishing may be postponed.Not the sunDryerThere is also a method of drying with a dryer, which reduces the quality, but there are some areas where the dryer is frequently used due to heavy fog and lack of sunshine.The kelp drying is specialized in how to dry because it is necessary to turn it over quickly and repeatedly in the optimum weather and dry it properly.Part-time jobIn addition to being recruited, near the kelp fishing groundBanyaThere is also an area where you can sleep[21]..In addition, even after drying, it takes 1 to 3 years for the process of "laying down" (aging) in a dedicated warehouse, and 5 to 10 years for advanced products, which is very time-consuming.[22].

Origin and type

The useful species of the kelp family in Japan are highly valuable and important species as marine products in terms of their usefulness. , Nagakonbu (long kelp), Gaggara kelp and Gagome kelp, and auxiliary species include,Tororo kombu, And, and as a species that is used locally[23]..The main production area of ​​kelp in Japan is Hokkaido, and in particular, kelp, Rausu kelp, Rishiri kelp, Hidaka kelp (Mitsuishi kelp), and Naga kelp are known.

Kombu Saccharina japonica[24](Makombu)
mainlyTsugaru Strait~Funka BayKombu from Southern Hokkaido caught along the coast.It is sometimes regarded as the finest kelp.There are so many brands and ratings, oldMinamikayabe TownThe kelp produced in the surrounding area (currently Hakodate City) is considered to be the finest product, and is called the brand "Shiraguchihama".Other oldEsanchoThe brands such as "Kuroguchihama" produced in the surrounding area, "Genuine Ori" in the Tsugaru Strait, and "Original Ori" in other sea areas are divided.The market value is roughly in this order, but even within the brand, it is divided into several grades according to quality.The soup stock is elegant and clear, and has a unique sweetness.OsakaThis taste is preferred, and when it comes to dashi kelp, this true kelp is usually used, and the handling volume is 90% of that in Japan, which is the highest price in Osaka and other places.Other uses include thinly cut processed products such as Oboro Kombu and White Hair Kombu, and typical Osaka sushi.BatteraThere is a white plate kelp used for.In the current classification, Onikombu, Risilimb, and Hosomekombu are of this species.VariantIt has been.
Saccharina japonica there. diabolic[24](Rausu kelp)
The finest kelp along with true kelp.Because of its rich tasteKanto regionIn the Hokuriku region, this Rausu kelp is preferred as a dashi kelp, and it is the highest quality product used in restaurants.Although it is consumed in large quantities in Kansai, it began to be used in the Meiji era and has a short history compared to kelp and the like.The main uses are udon, oden, seasoning of hot pot, and tsukudani.It is also suitable for food, especially in the Hokuriku region.ToyamaIs a major consumer area.
Saccharina japonica there. ochotensis[24](Rishiri kelp)
It is a high-class product along with kelp and Rausu kelp, and the production area isRishiri Island,Rebun Islandas well as the WakkanaiIt is a coastal area, and the ones from Kafukamura, Rebun Island are considered to be the finest products.The taste is lighter than the former, but it is clear and has a slightly salty soup stock.Because it does not change the color or taste of the materialKaiseki cuisineIt is useful for simmered dishes.also,京都It ’s also the most luxurious and common dashi kelp,Senmaizuke,Simmered tofuIt has a wide range of uses, such as boiling tree buds, and some restaurants use "twisted soup stock" that has been aged for over a year to obtain high-quality soup stock.In addition, because the meat is hard, it can be used as a material for high-grade kelp and tororo kelp.As far as dashi kelp is concerned, about 1% of the production is from Fukuoka's udon shop chain.Maki no UdonConsumed in[25].
Saccharina japonica there. religious[24](Fine kelp)
Oshima Peninsula OfMatsumae~Dohoku OfRumoiMainlySea of ​​JapanKelp caught on the coast.Unlike other kelp, it has a lifespan of one year, so it is cut in the first year.Since the cut end is whiter than any kelp, it is often processed into rag kelp and tororo kelp.The above four species have continuous distribution areas, and the genetic distance is very short, allowing interspecific crosses.
Saccharina angustata[24](Hidaka kelp, Mitsuishi kelp)
The Pacific Oceanshore,HidakaCaught in rural areas.Since it has a lot of fiber, it simmers quickly and becomes very soft, so it is suitable for dishes that eat kelp itself, such as kelp rolls, tsukudani, and oden seeds.In addition, it is consumed in large quantities in the Kanto region and is used as a general soup stock kelp.
Saccharina longissima[24](Naga kelp, Hamanaka kelp)
KushiroA lot of kelp caught in rural areas.It has a total length of 15 m.Although it produces the most, it is traded as a low-priced product because it contains few umami ingredients.Like Hidaka kelp, it is generally used for konbu maki because it is soft.The islands around Okinawa Prefecture have a history of exporting to the continent, and are the most common kelp in the market. ,豚 肉It goes very well with, so you can make it stir-fried.In particular, soft long kelp before maturity, called Sozen kelp, was preferred.There is a theory that this species is a variant of Saccharina anguata because it is genetically close to Saccharina anguata.[26].
Saccharina coriacea[24](Atsuba kelp)
It is a kelp that is often caught in the Kushiro region.GaraAlso called.It lives in the same waters as Nagakombu, but unlike Nagakombu, it prefers places with calm waves.The surface is tinged with white powder (mannitol) and has a unique irritation and bitterness.The main use is for processing, such as tsukudani and salted kelp.
Arthrothamnus bifidus[24](Clawfoot kelp)
The distribution is from the Kushiro coast to the Kuril Islands.It is a brown alga of the family Kelp, but unlike other kelp, it is not of the genus Kelp.ArthrothamnusBelongs to.The length is about 2 m to 4 m, and ear-shaped protrusions are formed on both edges of the base of the leaf.Since the root part resembles a cat's paw, it has come to be called a "cat's paw".Compared to other kelp, it is characterized by its strong stickiness and sweetness, and is mainly used as a material for tororo kelp and rag kelp.Indispensable for other medicines and reagentsPotassium iodideIt was also known as a raw material for.The aquaculture method has not been established, and like the gagome described below, it contains a large amount of a viscous polysaccharide called fucoidan, so the price has skyrocketed and it has become difficult to obtain it.
Gagomekonbu(Gagome) Saccharina sculpera[24](Kagome kelp,synonym : Kjellmaniella crassifolia, Saccharina crassifolia[12])
It has this name because it has a dragon-shaped uneven pattern like the stitches of a basket on the surface of the leaf (to be exact, the leaf-shaped part).In Hakodate, HokkaidoTsugaru StraitCoast-Kameda Peninsula Coast (formerlyMinamikayabe Town) ~MuroranSurroundings (excluding Eruption Bay), Minmaya, Aomori Prefecture-Iwaya, Iwate PrefectureMiyako CityOmoe,KarafutoIt grows in the southwestern part, Primorskaya Oblast, and northeastern part of the Korean Peninsula.It often grows at a depth of 10 to 25 m, and is distributed mixed with kelp on the shallow side, so it was considered as a miscellaneous seaweed in the past.It grows up to about 2 m in length and is thought to have a lifespan of 3 to 5 years.Since it is not used for removing dashi stock, it is mainly used for tororo kelp and natto kelp.MatsumaezukeIt was used for processed products such as.Therefore, the price was low compared to other kelp, but "FucoidanIt was found that the viscous polysaccharide was contained in a larger amount than other kelp, and it seemed to act as a so-called functional ingredient, and the price soared.Until now, naturally distributed products have been collected, but production has fallen to one-tenth of the one-time period.However, the cultivation method has been established now, the number of fishermen engaged in the cultivation of Gagome is increasing, and the production volume is becoming stable.

Major landing fishing ports

Number

Use as an ingredient

Kombu has been eaten all over Japan for a long time and is mainly dried.soup stockTo takeJapanese cuisineWidely used in.It is also used as a food ingredient and is used for knotted kelp and kelp rolls.Paddle kelpIs also called "early boiled kelp" and is a processed product of immature and thin kelp collected before the fishing season, boiled and dried.[27]..Cooking using kelp as an ingredient can be found all over Japan, for example.Kelp tightening TheToyama, Konbu Maki herringYamagata,MatsumaezukeIs in Hokkaidolocal cuisineKnown as one of.Furthermore, in Hokkaido, it was customary to eat young kelp that had been boiled as sashimi kelp.Besides, chop the kelp into stripsChopped kelpAlso processed into (somen kelp)Kelp TsukudaniIs made.Also, scrape the surface thinlyTororo kelp,Oboro kelp(This is a product that is cut into thin strips instead of threads)Vinegar kelpIt is also used as a pacifier kelp for tea making and snacks.

In Russia, Kombu said,Sea cabbage (Sea kale)Is calledsaladIt is sometimes used in food, but it is not so well known as food.

According to a household survey by the Statistics Bureau of Japan, Aomori City, Morioka City, and Toyama City[28]Is a city that consumes a lot of kelp (2003-2005 average: per household), consuming 1 to 1.4 times the average of Japan.Okinawa PrefectureNahaIs 7th (1.1 times the average in Japan).Since Okinawa Prefecture was once a relay point for exporting Japanese kelp to China, a food culture using kelp was born and kelp consumption was high, but in recent years consumption has decreased due to young people's departure from traditional food. ing.Cities that consume a lot of kelp tsukudaniFukui City,Otsu City, Toyama City, Kyoto,Naraな どKinkiThe city continues.Since ancient times in the Kinki regionKitamaebuneDue to the large amount of kelp distributed by the kelp and the unique kelp consumption culture and processing technology, the amount of tsukudani consumed is large.

A relatively new way to use kelp is to ferment and use kelp.Originally, in kelpSulfate groupHowever, the fact that bacteria that ferment kelp without being affected by this sulfate group were found in marine organisms spurred the development of fermented salted kelp. It took. In 2004Kohara Main StoreとOsaka Prefectural UniversityHas partnered to launch fermented salted kelp[29]..The technology for fermenting kelp isTakara Shuzo,Kyowa Hakko KirinEtc. each have their own technology.

Nutrients

The kelp is especially abundantDietary fiberAnd iron,calciumEtc. are includedhealthy foodIt is very popular as.1908 ToKikunae IkedaHowever, in Japan, the umami component of kelp, which has been used as an ingredient since ancient times, isGlutamic acidDiscovered that this isUmami seasoning OfAjinomotoIt became.Besides, for kelpEssential elements for humansIsIodineIs contained in a large amount.

Iodine content per gram of food[30]
FoodContent (μg / g)
Kelp (dried)2100 2400
Kelp (chopped kelp)2300
Kelp (Tsukudani)110
Cut wakame seaweed85
Kelp soup stock (liquid)19 82 [30][31]

Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareAccording to the "Japanese Dietary Intake Standards (2010 Edition)" published by Japan, the recommended amount of iodine for adults is about 130 µg / day, and the upper limit of iodine tolerance is about 2.2 mg / day.[32]..The kelp contains a large amount of iodine, and 1 g of dried kelp reaches the upper limit of iodine tolerance of about 2.2 mg / day.Coastal goiter found in Hokkaido is thought to be due to an overdose of iodine.On the other hand, there is a theory that at least 3 mg / day should be taken to take advantage of the antitumor effect of iodine.[33].

調理

The white powder on the surface of the kelp is the source of the tasteGlutamic acidとMannitolSo, if you wash it with water before cooking, it will be washed away.

When cookingDashi soupMay be colored.Of these, green ischlorophyllThe brown color isCaroteneIs the color of.The discoloration to bluish purple isTap waterincludeChloride ionAs a result, the iodine in the kelp melts out, and the starch that has adhered to the bowl or pot, for example, is removed at an appropriate temperature.Iodine starch reactionThis color disappears when heated.From kelpGlutamic acidIncluded in water for extractionmineralBecause it has an adverse effectSoft waterIs desirable to use[34][35][36].

Medical use

Dried kelp has the property of expanding when it absorbs moisture.Taking advantage of this property, seaweed of the family Kelp is used as a raw material for medical dilators.Cervical canalUsed for expansion of etc.LaminariaIs that.The raw materials are mainly Laminaria digitata Stem root[37][38].

Use as an industrial product

Included in kelpAlginic acidFiberized product,speakerMay be used for audio equipment[39][40].

Etymology

In Japanese, in ancient times, edible seaweed in general (especially wakame seaweed) was called "me".In kanji, it used to be "gun cloth" (Manyoshu, Fujiwara-kyo Mokkan), "Kaifu" (Record of Ancient Matters), "Seaweed" (Heijokyo Mokkan,Fudoki,Shosoin document), "Wakame" (Colored leaf paper) And so on. "Kazuna Honzo(Early 9th century), "Kelp, one person's cloth. Japanese name Hirome, one person's clothing Hisume", especially when referring to kelp, call it "Hirome" or "Ebisume". board. "Hirome" is wide (that is, wide cloth), and "Ebisume" isEzoIt is thought that it is derived from the fact that it came from the land of (that is, cloth). The name close to "Kelp" is a little out of date, and "Konbu" and "Konbu" are published in "Colored Leaf Letters Extract" (1177-81).Iroha type abstract], You can see the lesson of "Koff".

There are various theories about the etymology of "kelp", but the following two theories are particularly influential.

One is the theory that it is an on-yomi reading of the Chinese name "kelp" (others).This Chinese name itself is already in the Shosoin document and "Japanese sequel(797), and even older, it can be traced back to the Chinese Honzogaku book "" (first half of the 3rd century).Li Shizhenof"Herbs』(1596) states as follows.

When you think about it, "Kure Fuhonso" says "Kelp, also known as kelp."Then, "Elegance"The 綸 (pronounced as 綸) is similar to the 綸.Tokai"In" means kelp. The pronunciation of "綸" is "seki (gūan)", which means "string of blue thread", but the accent is "kūn". — Li Shizhen's "Compendium of Materia Medica" Kusanohachi[41]

However, "kelp" in China is described in various ways in the literature, and it is difficult to identify which seaweed was actually referred to.For example, "Kelp is南海The leaves are like hands, and the size is thin (Susuki) And reeds are reddish purple.The thin leaves are seaweed. "[41]It is reminiscent of various seaweeds such as Arame, Ecklonia cava, Wakame seaweed, and Ecklonia kurome.At least at that time, kelp was not available in the East China Sea (East China Sea) or the South China Sea (South China Sea).In addition, Li Shizhen also follows (11th century) and describes "kelp" and "sea belt" (the latter refers to kelp in modern Chinese) as different species.[41].

Another 1 isAinuIt is a theory that is a transliteration of kompu, which refers to kelp.Sea of ​​wordsother).This Ainu language is very similar to the previous Chinese "gūanbù" or "kūnbù", one of which is the other.LoanwordIt may be.

History

"Elegance(Around the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC), "Similar group, Kumi-like group, Ariyuki Tokai. "The 綸 (what is called by the pronunciation) is similar to the 綸. The group (the one called by the pronunciation) is similar to the group. This is in Tokai."[42]In "Kure Fuhonso" (first half of the 3rd century to middle leaf), another name for kelp is kelp.also,Tao Hongjing(456-536) states that "kelp" can be eaten.[41]..However, as mentioned above, it is not clear whether this "kelp" is the same as the kelp in Japan.

In Japan, kelp has been eaten for a long time.Remains of seaweed plants such as wakame seaweed have been found in the remains of the Jomon period.[43], Kelp may have been eaten since this time.As for what remains in the written material, it is possible that the above-mentioned "gun cloth (me)" was a kelp, as inferred from the sound.Japanese sequel(797)Sacred turtleIn October of the first year (715), Yin Fire OxEzo(There is a general theory of Tohoku people who do not belong to the Yamato court and an Ainu theory)Suga Koma HiruSaid, "The kelp presented to the imperial court for generations is something that can be obtained here, and I have never missed it every year."Heian period OfEnki ceremony(927) also states that it was tributed from the land.Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodWas used as a material for sliding stones during castle construction.Azuchi castle,Osaka CastleBut this method is used.

Sengoku periodWas used as a kelp as a camp meal[44]..In the middle of the Edo periodTsurugaBecame the only stopover point for kelpHirokaAfter entering, it spreads to Edo, Osaka and other places.Especially in Osaka, wholesalers have developed.Ezo(Hokkaido) Will spread nationwide due to the development of routes such as the Kitamaebune and the increase in shipment volume.Above allRyukyu dynastyIn the era, kelp was the main product of tribute to China, and since it was unavoidable to devise odd-sized items and low-grade products that were not suitable for tribute, it was later converted into a traditional dish.Okinawan cuisineIs often used for.

Kelp in the upper food culture

If the dried kelp is left in a warehouse in humid Osaka, the astringency of the kelp will disappear and the sweetness will come out as it ages.The reason why kelp spread in Osaka was that commercial ships were on the Sea of ​​Japan route (Kitamaebune) ThroughShimonosekiIt wasn't until it was transported to Osaka via.Azuchi-Momoyama PeriodIn Osaka, which was a major accumulation area of ​​agricultural and dry foods, the humid climate matured the taste of dry foods and kelp, and in the Edo period, these were also considered to be the tastes of Osaka.

In addition to kelp, the dried food brought from Ezo in exchange for agricultural products in Osakascallop,Sticky,Missingand so on.Mainly commercial vessels are now transported on the Sea of ​​Japan route, avoiding the Pacific Ocean side, so from OsakaTsuruga,ObamaThere is a tendency for kelp consumption to be high.

It is also a city of cutlerySakai"Oboro Kombu" was born by a craftsman who dipped dried kelp in sweet and sour sauce and scraped the surface.Since the black part on the surface of the kelp is well-stained with sweet and sour sauce, it becomes a black "Oboro Kombu" (black kelp) with a lot of acidity.Above all, if you scrape the surface thinly, the white part inside will come out.It is not soaked in vinegar and has the original sweetness of kelp.This kelp is called "Taishaku Oboro".The last remaining kelp core is the kelp (white plate kelp) used for batara sushi and pressed sushi.Higher skill by craftsmen is required to cut thinly.

"Oboro kelp" was developed in Sakai mentioned above, and "Oboro kelp" technology was also developed in Tsuruga, which is also the center of Kitamaebune ships.The part of the calyx that has been shaved isClaw kelpIt is called and may be eaten as a sweet.In addition, when kelp is simmered, the stickiness peculiar to kelp comes out strongly, so it was also used by adding it together with the broth when cooking simmered dishes and using the stickiness to facilitate the removal of lye floating on the surface.Other processed kelp products are associated with salted kelp (Hidaka kelp).Sengoku periodIt is believed that the salted kelp, which was cooked in soy sauce at the time of the departure ceremony, was a simmered fine kelp in soy sauce.

Arrange the salted kelp cooked in soy sauce on the net of the brazier, dry it, soak it in soy sauce, and dry it three times on the net.Shiobuki kelpIt was first created and commercialized in the 20's.The powder appears to be blowing on the surface, which is a crystallized umami component of kelp.However, nowadays, it is sometimes sprinkled with seasonings such as inosinic acid and glutamine component of kelp.

Kelp in Edo

Most of the kelp carried from Ezo by the Kitamaebune was consumed above, and the high-quality kelp was consumed above, so the rest of the kelp that went to Edo was mostly Hidaka kelp. there were[45]..In addition, the water quality of Edo is from abovehard waterBecause the water quality was so close that it was difficult for kelp soup stock to come out, it was used as a material for soup stock.BonitoWas often used[46].

In the Edo period, many dishes of seaweed such as kelp boiled in soy sauce were made on Edo Tsukuda Island.BoiledIt has become a local dish.

SieboldAccording to ""Mogami Tokunai Sagaren105 out of 53 people died from the cold when they stayed in (Sakhalin), but it is stated that Tokuuchi was extremely healthy by eating a large amount of kelp.[47].

Kelp overseas

There is a Japanese food boom overseas, where seaweed has been rarely used as food for many years, and kelp is being reviewed as food.In the game Minecraft, you can eat kelp baked in a kamado.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Ministry of education "Japanese Food Standard Ingredient Table 2015 Edition (XNUMXth Edition)'
  2. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare "Japanese dietary intake standards (2015 version)'
  3. ^ Yumiko Yoshie, "Food nutritional study on dietary fiber of seaweed"Journal of the Fisheries Society of Japan, 2001, Vol. 67, No. 4, p.619-622, two:10.2331 / suisan.67.619
  4. ^ Mari Yonehara's "Traveler's Breakfast" states that there was a canned product called "kelp boiled in tomatoes" that was not bought by anyone even when there was a serious food shortage in the Soviet Union.
  5. ^ a b c d Guiry, MD & Guiry, GM (2013). “Family:LaminariaceaeAlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved June 2013, 6.
  6. ^ Kelp family BISMaL (Biological Information System for Marine Life) Incorporated Administrative AgencyJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyConstructed June 2013, 6 Retrieved.
  7. ^ Masao Ohno "16 Overview of Seaweed Resources in the World" "Useful Seaweed Magazine" edited by Masao Ohno, Otsuru Uchida, 2004, First Edition,ISBN-4 7536-4048-5, Pp.318-319.
  8. ^ Guiry, MD & Guiry, GM (2013). “Macrocystis C.Agardh, 1820: 46AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Retrieved June 2013, 6.
  9. ^ Arthrothamnus BISMaL (Biological Information System for Marine Life) Incorporated Administrative AgencyJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyConstructed June 2013, 6 Retrieved.
  10. ^ Miss Dicombe BISMaL (Biological Information System for Marine Life) Incorporated Administrative AgencyJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyConstructed June 2013, 6 Retrieved.
  11. ^ Deep-sea tangles BISMaL (Biological Information System for Marine Life) Incorporated Administrative AgencyJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyConstructed June 2013, 6 Retrieved.
  12. ^ a b c d e Tadao Yoshida and Kazuo Yoshinaga (2010) Japanese Seaweed Catalog (2010 revised edition), Algae Jpn.J.Phycol. (Sorui) 58: 69-122, 2010 Retrieved November 2013, 6.
  13. ^ Laminaria genus BISMaL (Biological Information System for Marine Life) Incorporated Administrative AgencyJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyConstructed June 2013, 6 Retrieved.
  14. ^ Genus Kuroshiome BISMaL (Biological Information System for Marine Life) Incorporated Administrative AgencyJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyConstructed June 2013, 6 Retrieved.
  15. ^ Wakame BISMaL (Biological Information System for Marine Life) Incorporated Administrative AgencyJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyConstructed June 2013, 6 Retrieved.
  16. ^ Kelp eyes BISMaL (Biological Information System for Marine Life) Incorporated Administrative AgencyJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyConstructed June 2013, 6 Retrieved.
  17. ^ Hiroshi Kawai, "Seaweeds that Create the Forest of the Sea, Story of Kelps," Planta, No. 82, Kenseisha, July 2002, pp. 7-55, NOT 40005535422.
  18. ^ Lessonia family BISMaL (Biological Information System for Marine Life) Incorporated Administrative AgencyJapan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and TechnologyConstructed June 2013, 6 Retrieved.
  19. ^ a b “Rausu Natural Kombu First landing in the fog“ Not so much affected by drift ice ””. Hokkaido Shimbun (Hokkaido Shimbun). (May 2014, 7). http://www.hokkaido-np.co.jp/news/agriculture/551355.html 
  20. ^ "2.7 Seaweed”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. October 2020th, 2Browse.
  21. ^ Yomiuri Online from Hokkaido August 2004, 8 [Broken link]
  22. ^ About kelp kelp Okui Kaiseidou
  23. ^ Shoji Kawashima "6 Kombu" "Useful Seaweed Magazine" edited by Masao Ohno, Otsuru Uchida, 2004, First Edition,ISBN-4 7536-4048-5, Pp.59-60.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i Tadao Yoshida, Masahiro Suzuki, Kazuo Yoshinaga "Seaweed Catalog from Japan (2015 Revised Edition", "Algae", Vol. 63, No. 3, November 2015, 11, p. 10, NOT 40020642430.
  25. ^ zuleta42 (1570138200). “Why is the soft Fukuoka udon delicious?"What is more important than Koshi" that the three major chains talk about”(Japanese). Rice | Hot Pepper Gourmet. October 2019th, 10Browse.
  26. ^ Former Director of Hokkaido Prefectural Hakodate Fisheries Experiment Station Shoji Kawashima. “Taxonomic consideration of Hokkaido kelp from the viewpoint of morphological characteristics (PDF)". Hokkaido UniversityGeneral museum. October 2011th, 5Browse.
  27. ^ Early-boiled kelp is not suitable for taking soup stock because the ingredients of the soup stock flow away during the manufacturing process.
  28. ^ Household survey by the Statistics Bureau of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (households of two or more people) By item The city where the prefectural office is located and the city designated by government ordinance (*) ranking (2 (23) to 2011 (25) average) in terms of consumption amountToyamaIs 2205 yen, in terms of consumptionAomoriWas number one with 668 g.
  29. ^ Osaka Prefecture University Harmony Museum Fermented salted kelp Retrieved November 2013, 6.
  30. ^ a b "Food ingredient ranking". October 2016th, 3Browse.
  31. ^ "Iodine content in foods marketed in Japan”. Journal of Japanese Hygiene. P. 729 (September 2008). October 2016th, 3Browse.
  32. ^ "Japanese Dietary Intake Standards" (2010 Edition) 6.2.5 Iodine (PDF) Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  33. ^ Fuse Yozen "Medical Problems Concerning Iodine-The Specificity of Japanese Iodine Nutrition"Biomedical Research on Trace Elements" Vol. 24 (2013) No. 3 p. 117-152
  34. ^ About soft water and hard water
  35. ^ The taste of food changes with hard water and soft water
  36. ^ How are soft water and hard water used properly?
  37. ^ Kazuo Hashizume "" Laminaria "Pole" "Magazine of Physical Instruments" Vol. 17, No. 3, Japan Society for Medical Devices, September 1939, 9, pp. 20-65, NOT 110002532213.
  38. ^ Masayuki Miyabe "On Domestic" Laminaria "(not" Yaporamia ")" "The Journal of Japanese Medical Instruments" Vol. 15, No. 9, Japanese Society of Medical Instrumentation, March 1938, 3, 20-299 page, NOT 110002532165.
  39. ^ "papyrus"Paper Pa Gikyo Magazine, Vol. 45, No. 5, Pulp and Paper Technology Association, 1991, pp. 605-608," two:10.2524 / jtappij.45.605,October 2018th, 1Browse.
  40. ^ "Hokkaido kelp museum”. Konbukan. October 2018th, 1Browse.
  41. ^ a b c d Wikisource Li Shizhen "Compendium of Materia Medica" Kusanohachi
  42. ^ Erya Sugisou 199
  43. ^ Japan Hijiki Council,Wakame healthy learning
  44. ^
  45. ^ Takashi Okui "Konbu to Nihon" Nikkei Publishing Co., Ltd. <Nikkei Premier Series>, 2012, First Edition,ISBN 978-4-532-26177-1, P.71
  46. ^ Takashi Okui "Konbu to Nihon" Nikkei Publishing Co., Ltd. <Nikkei Premier Series>, 2012, First Edition,ISBN 978-4-532-26177-1, P.72
  47. ^ Yoshimi Miyamoto"Health Law for People Who Made History" (Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 2002, pp. 129-130)

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