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🍜 | Kyoto ・ The famous curry Chinese food that you can enjoy at the shop that was founded as a Japanese sweets shop in the Taisho era of Hyakumanben!Mitaka Mochi


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A specialty curry Chinese food that you can enjoy at a shop that was founded as a Japanese sweets shop in the Taisho era of Hyakumanben, Kyoto!Mitaka Mochi

 
If you write the contents roughly
When I looked it up, it was founded as a Japanese sweets shop in the Taisho era, and now it is a popular local shop that mainly offers udon and soba at reasonable prices.
 

We visited Sanko Mochi, who has a shop in Hyakumanben, Kyoto, for a late lunch.Recently, Rame ... → Continue reading

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Japanese sweets

Japanese sweets(My own)JapanTraditionalConfectioneryThat. Japanese sweets can be divided into fresh sweets and dried sweets.

Overview

MeijiAfter the eraEuropeNewly entered JapanWestern confectioneryIn words toSweet potato,Yokan,Manju,In the middle,Fallen,Rice crackersEtc. are included. AlsoEnvoyBrought byKara confectioneryIn modern timesSpain-Portugal- NetherlandsBrought to Japan and made its own development in JapanNanban confectioneryIs also treated as a type of Japanese sweets[1].

Compared to Western confectionerygrease,Spices,Dairy productsIs rarely used,Rice-wheatSuch asCereals,Azuki-soySuch asBeans,ArrowrootSuch asStarch,andsugarCharacteristic is that many of them are made from[2].. Especially made by processing beansBean pasteIs often an important factor[3].

In generalGreen TeaNot only is it popular as a daily tea-making confectionery,tea ceremonyDeep relationship with[2].. It is also used for various other annual events and gifts for condolences.[4].

(I.e.One of the features is that it has a strong connection with[5]In particular, high-quality namagashi, called namagashi, uses various manufacturing methods to express not only the taste but also the visual beauty with a rich sense of the season.

History

Ancient JapaneseRice,millet,FissureI used to eat as a staple food and obtained protein through hunting, fishing, etc.Tree nut,fruitIt is thought that they were eating after eating, and this is thought to be the beginning of confectionery as a snack[6](Fruits used to be called "sweets"[7]).At first, it was eaten raw, but gradually it was dried for preservation, made into porridge-like powder from nut powder without lye, or rolled into dumplings.dumpling,MochiThe prototype of[7].. 『Record of Ancient Matters''Japanese calligraphy],Emperor SurenAt the life ofMamoru TadomaWent to the eternal and immortal utopia, and after 10 years of explorationOrangeIt is said that he brought back the fruit), which makes the fruit (fruit) the first of the confectionery and Mamoru Tadoma is the confectionery god.[8].

The prototype of Japanese sweets isEmperor SuikoSince the 600sEnvoyWas dispatched and started to interact with the Chinese mainland.Emperor BunmuIn 704 of the reign ofEnvoy OfMasato AwataThere are 8 kinds of Karako (karakushi) and 14 kinds of mochiKara confectioneryWas brought to Japan[9].. Some of these were made by frying in oil, which was a method of making sweets that was not available in Japan until then.[7].. These sweets have been esteemed as ritual deities, and even todayAtsuta Shrine,Kasuga Grand Shrine,Yasaka ShrineIt retains its shape as a sacred dish.Nara period Of754 ToKangenBysugar,honeyBut,SafeEarly806 ToKukaiByRice crackersThe manufacturing method of[9].

Kamakura PeriodIs宋I brought back the tea seedlings fromEisaiByteaCultivation and spread ofTea drinkingDue to the spread of culture[Annotation 1].点心Confectionery making as one of the The sweets that were eaten at that time hardly retain their shape today,1341 Brought to JapanManju(Steamed Manju) is one of the oldest confectionery that continues to this day[10].. ManjuNinna-ji TempleSecond generationTatsumi YatsuyamaSong of the discipleForest purification factorIt was brought to you by Jyoin, who settled in the village of Nara and put on sale the "Nara Manju," the first manju in Japan. Originally, Chinese buns were made with sheep pork meat as bean jam, but in Japan there was no meat eating habit at that time, so Jyo created a bean jam instead of meat. , Manju of this shape spread to the whole country[11].. From the Kamakura periodMuromachi PeriodBrought overYokanOriginally, literallysheepWas used in Japan, but in JapanAzukiIt has been improved to the one using and gradually became the present shape.[7].

In the Muromachi periodPortugal,Spain, Netherlands OfMissionaryBy usCastella,Bolo,Konpeito,CarmelaSuch asNanban confectioneryIs broughtWheat flour,sugarThese sweets that used to have had a great impact on the production and development of Japanese sweets[12].. In addition, many of these Nanban confectionery have greatly changed from their original shape due to subsequent improvements.[13]. afterwards,Edo PeriodSince the isolation system was put in place, the development of confectionery will be temporarily stopped, but on the other hand, the import of sugar, which was a valuable item until then, has increased, and peace has continued. Was developed, and Edo confectionery popular with samurai and common people in Edo, Kyoto's MiyabinaKyoto confectioneryHas arranged its shape. AlsoChange of attendanceDepending on the systemstreetWith the maintenance of the, the exchange of people and the exchange of information became popular, and the famous confectionery and famous confectionery in each region became known.[13].. In this way, most of today's Japanese sweets were formed during the Edo period.[12].

Meiji EraAt that time, with the opening of the country, Western culture rushed in,チ ョ コ レ ー ト,Biscuit,cake,Candy such asWestern confectioneryWere introduced to Japan one after another. Along with this, the Western-style confectionery that has newly arrived in Japan is called "Western confectionery" and the Japanese confectionery up to that point is called "Japanese confectionery".[Annotation 2].. After thatAnpan, Japanese and Western eclectic sweets such as cream-filled buns were born, and in today's Japan, various sweets are lined up side by side.[12][13].

Types

There are various classification methods for confectionery, but in Japan, from the viewpoint of shelf life, first, based on the water content,Sweets,Dried confectioneryandIt is common to roughly divide into (also used for Western confectionery)[15].. Confections containing more than 30% moisture, 10% or less are dried confectionery, 10% to 30% are roughly classified as semi-confectionery (the Food Sanitation Law has more detailed regulations.Sweets(See other)[16].. "Raw" does not mean that it is not heated, and baked confectionery with a high water content becomes raw confectionery. Half-baked sweets have a better shelf life than half-baked sweets, and dried sweets tend to last longer. As will be described later, mochi confections and steamed buns are fresh confections, rice crackers and fallen geese are dried confections, and middle ones belong to semi-raw confections. YokanFertilizationAs shown in the figure, the water content depends on the manufacturing method, and it may become a raw confection or a half-baked confection.[17].

Classification by manufacturing method

It is classified into "mochi confectionery", "baked confectionery", "nerigashi confectionery", etc. according to the raw materials and manufacturing method.[18][19]..As mentioned above, even if the same raw materials and the same manufacturing method are used, the water content changes depending on the details of the manufacturing method.[20].

Mochi sweets
Category: Namagashi
Product: Product:ohagi,Red rice,(I.e.,Kansai style sakura - mochi,Suma,Habutae mochi
Glutinous rice,Non-glutinous riceProcessingrice flourMade from the main ingredient.
Steamed confectionery
Category: Namagashi
Product: Product:Manju,Karukan,Uiro,Yubeshi
Made by molding and steaming the dough.Or it is made from steamed dough.
Baked goods
Classification: Namagashi, semi-namagashi, dried sweets
Product
Flat pot thing:Dorayaki,Kanto style Sakuramochi,Imagawa ware,Taiyaki,Tea connoisseur
Oven stuff:Kuri manju,Mooncake,Momoyama,Castella, Yolk Unpei
Dried sweets:Bolo
Made by baking."Hiranabemono" that uses an iron plate or a roasting mold depending on the baking method for namagashi and semi-namagashi[21]It is roughly divided into "oven things" that use kilns and ovens.In the case of dried sweets, the same ingredients are used and roasted to create a crisp finish.
Sinking confectionery
Category: Namagashi, Semi-namagashi
Product: Product:Amber kingyoku,Yokan,Water yokan
cold dayIt is made by pouring a fluid dough whose main material is such as, into a mold and molding it.Those that have been finished to improve their shelf life are classified as semi-namagashi.
Nerigashi
Category: Namagashi, Semi-namagashi
Product: Product:Chopped,Doing,Fertilization,
Made from bean paste and rice cake flour as the main ingredients, and kneaded with sugar and starch syrup.
Fried sweets
Classification: Namagashi, dried sweets
Product
Namagashi:An-doughnut, Fried moon cake
Dried sweets:Karinto,Fried rice cracker,New hail, Fried beans, fried potatoes
Made by frying in oil.
Anko
Category: Half-baked sweets
Product: Product:Ishigoromo
Using sugar and starch syrup to improve the preservation of namagashi.
Candy
Category: Half-baked sweets
Product: Product:In the middle,Kanoko Mochi,State beach
It is made by combining and molding dough made by different manufacturing methods such as mochi confectionery, baked confectionery, and nerigashi confectionery.
Candied confectionery
Category: Half-baked sweets
Product: Product:Amanatto,Bundan pickles
Made from beans, fruits, vegetables, kelp, etc., and pickled in sugar. It may be classified as "hanging confectionery".
Dagashi
Category: Dried sweets
Product: Product:Fallen
Fine powder-KinakoIt is made by mixing sugar with powders such as, adding honey, etc., putting it in a wooden mold, compacting it, and punching it out.
Pressed sweets
Category: Dried sweets
Product: Product:Shihogama,Village rain
It is made by adding kneaded bean paste to the ingredients used for confectionery and pressing it against a wooden frame.It has more water than sweets.
Hanging sweets
Category: Dried sweets
Product: Product:Hina hail,Okoshi,Gohei
It is made from roasted beans, candy, jelly, etc., and sprinkled with sugar solution or chocolate.
Candy
Category: Dried sweets
Product: Product:Yuhei Sugar,Okinawan candy
It is made from sugar, starch syrup, etc., boiled down, cooled and hardened.
Bean confectionery
Category: Dried sweets
Product: Roasted beans
Made from beans.
Rice confectionery
Category: Dried sweets
Product: Product:Hailstone,Rice crackers,Yatsuhashi
It is made by baking glutinous rice, glutinous rice, rice flour, etc. as raw materials.

Classification by use

Of the namagashi, the ones that are used as everyday tea confectioneryNormal sweets(Namimagashi, or "normal sweets") orMorning sweetsIt is called (Asanagashi, Asamade), and the above-mentioned rice cakes, steamed sweets, baked sweets (flat pot), and sweets belong to this category.[22].. "Morning confectionery" means something that you make in the morning and eat during the day.[23].

forDoing-ChoppedExpensive and high-quality namagashi such as those made mainly from fertilizer and fertilizer, and yokan made from a mixture of different colored materials.High quality sweetsCalled (Jonamagashi).Using these as materials, various finishing methods are used in high-quality sweets, and seasonal features are vividly expressed in a realistic or abstract way.[24].

In addition, the following examples can be given as classifications and names according to the purpose and purpose.

Tea confectionery
Confectionery used in the tea ceremony. At the tea ceremony, namagashi is called the main confectionery (omogashi), dried confectionery is called the confectionery, and dark tea is the main confectionery, and light brown is the confectionery. At a tea ceremony with only light tea, both the main confectionery and the confectionery are used, but only the confectionery may be used. A few tea ceremony sweets are suitable, and sweet ones that do not lose the flavor of the main ingredients are suitable, so it is preferable to choose a design and confectionery name that takes into consideration the season of the tea ceremony.[24].
Sweets and sweets
Hikigashi is a sweet that is used as a gift for celebrations and non-celebrations.[24].. The ones used for the celebration are red and white buns and rice cakes. For uncertain pulling sweetsFuneral bunand so on[25].. Shikigashi is a confectionery that is used according to convention, and is often regarded in the same way as confectionery.[26].
Scroll sweets
dance,Qin,NagautaConfectionery to be given as a souvenir to acquaintances and friends invited at the presentation of lessons such as. Many of them have been designed or designed after the performance to be announced.[27].
Lucky cake
a kind ofLucky charmConfectionery sold as. Shops along the approach to temples and shrines境内In addition to the venerable items sold at, there are also items like idea products by confectionery stores in modern times.[28].
Craft confectionery
Confectionery as a craft that is not edible but is made for exhibition and ornamental purposes. (Unpei)Yuhei SugarMany of them are realistic representations of Sansui and flowers and birds.[29].

Classification by season

One of the characteristics of Japanese sweets is that they are closely related to the four seasons. Some Japanese sweets are sold only in a specific season, and especially in the case of high-quality sweets, the seasonal features are expressed by the sweets themselves, and the names are given to each sweet. In addition, there are also sweets such as chick sweets and tray sweets that are offered or eaten at specific annual events.[30].. Some of these Japanese sweetsSeason wordsIt is also treated as.

Example of Japanese sweets for the New Year
Kagami mochi,Hanabiramochi, Zodiac sweets, etc.
Example of Japanese sweets in spring
Sakura mochi,Camellia rice cake,Uchimochi,Homochi,, (Hina hail,Hishi mochi,Shredded,Kusanagi)Such.
Example of Japanese sweets in summer
Kashiwa mochi,Chimaki,Young sweetfish,Minazuki,Kuzukiri,Mizuyokan,Water Manju,Fu manjuetc.
Example of Japanese sweets in autumn
ohagi,Tsukimi dumpling,Chestnut-steamed yokan,Chestnut bun,Sweet chestnut pasteetc.
Example of Japanese sweets in winter
Aikomochi,Chitose candyetc.

Ingredients

Beans and bean paste

There are various ingredients for Japanese sweets, but the basic one isbeansKind,rice flourPowders such assugarKind[31].. Especially made from legumesBean pasteIs so important that it is said to be the basis of Japanese sweets. The black bean paste that is often seen is called red bean paste, mainlyAzukiMade by When making bean paste, the one with the bean paste removed by straining is called koshian, the one with the bean grains left is called the bean paste, and the one with the whole skin mashed is called mashed bean paste. AlsoSyrupThe one with a lot of candy is called Neki-an or Ame-an.[32].

White beanSuch as Tebo and OfukumameKidney beansIt is made from the types of red bean paste, but there are also high-class products made from white azuki beans. BluepeaBoiled sweetly to make warbler beans, and also blue bean paste.Uguisu 餡It becomes the raw material of[31].

White beanFromGyuhiEtc.Chopped,Wheat flour,rice flourMake by mixingDoingAnd so on. Also, the ones made by straining various kinds of bean paste with a strainer are called soboro (YamSome are made with). Kamishama confectionery is a combination of these, and is colored and finely crafted to beautifully express the seasonal flavor.[33].

In addition to these bean jam, beans can also be used as ingredients for roasting to make roasted beans or entwining sugar liquid.[34].

Flour/rice flour

Powder isrice flour-Wheat flourIs central,Japanese buckwheat noodles,millet,milletGround powder is also used[35].. Rice flour is a material for rice cakes, dumplings, gyohi, rice crackers, etc., and wheat flour is used for the dough of various baked goods. Below is a description of rice flour.

Rice flour is stickyGlutinous riceDue to, relatively less stickyNon-glutinous riceIt is roughly divided into Raw glutinous rice is called raw powder (or fertilizer powder), which is called mochi confectionery orGyuhi,dumplingIt becomes the material of (mix with Kamishin powder). Sticky rice crushed while adding water and driedShiratama powder(Or cold bleaching powder), and this is alsoShiratama DumplingBecome the material of[35].. "Gyuhi" isSyrupDepending on the composition, it is also called "Keifuku Mochi" or "Keifame Ame" and is widely used as a material for various Japanese confectioneries.[36][37].

After glutinous rice is steamed, it is dried to make a rough ground.Domyoji powderThen, it becomes the material of Ya. The same thing is finely crushed and baked (Shinbikiko),FallenIt is also used for dusting powder that is sprinkled from above to finish sweets. It's similar to Domyoji powder, but the one that's ground and then groundFine powder(Or cold plum powder), which is also used as a binder for various fabrics.[35].

Non-glutinous rice processed rawNew powder,New powder,Up powderSay This is called by the fineness of the grains. New powder has the largest grain, and powder for use has the smallest grain. Kamishin flour isKusanagi,Kashiwa mochi, It is mixed with rice cake flour to make dumpling flour, which is used as the material for dumplings. From the powder for overuseUiroAndYamMixedWharfIs made[35].

Sugar, other

sugarPlays a role not only to sweeten sweets, but also to maintain softness and enhance shelf life by retaining water. For Japanese sweets, general white sugar (White sugar),White sugar,Granulated sugarIt is also used, but it is especially prized for luxury itemsWasanbonHowever, it has a slightly yellowish color and a unique flavor, and it is often pressed into dried confectionery.brown sugarAlsoKarintoUsed to make[35].

In addition to the above, there are various other ingredients for Japanese sweets.SyrupAs mentioned above, it can be used as a material for making candy, and it can be hung on beans to make hanging candy, or used as a bean jam or a binder for dough.cold dayIs yokan/water yokan or kendama yokan,Honey beanAnd other materialsKuzukiriAnd makeArrowroot,WarabimochimakeBracken powderThe Japanese sweets with a transparent taste are made from the above.Yam(Yama no yam) uses the whiteness to make the yam bun,KarukanIt is used as a material for kneading.

Japanese and Western eclectic confectionery, neo Japanese confectionery

Sweets that incorporate both Japanese and Western sweets are not uncommon.Hakata street mon,FreakAnd other names "Western Japanese confectionery" "Japanese and Western eclectic confectionery", and raw materials such as white bean paste and butter are used. These Japanese and Western eclectic sweetsFamous confectionery, souvenir confectioneryIt is often said that. In addition to dorayakiWhipped cream,Roll cakeIt is also rare to see bean paste, etc., and flexibility is seen in the consumption style of Japanese and Western confectioneries.

Japanese and Western EclecticThe idea isMeiji EraGoing back to "The Encyclopedia of Japan" (Sanseido, 43), Jasmine bean paste, lemons, chocolate, etc. are introduced.[38].

In recent years, the traditional technique of Japanese confectionery has used modern elements and Western ingredients that were not used in Japanese confectionery.Neo japanese confectioneryThe concept of[39][40][41],Social MediaThere are many sweets that look great, so the younger generationForeignerIs also gaining popularity[42].Long-established storeThere are many examples of Japanese sweets shops working as alternatives, but they are famousPastry chefAre opening new stores as a new field[43].

Recipient name of Japanese sweets merchant

In the Edo period, confectionery merchants in the city added the name of Fukukuni to each store.NakamikadoBecause it belonged to the rule of. Every other year, several subordinates from our office traveled to the office in Matsudaira Saifukuji Temple in Asakusa Shinborihata, and simply stated ``XXya XX without mentioning the official name such as Senkoku No. in Edo city. I searched for a confectionery shop that was commonly known as "bei". And send a slip sheet to the landlord and landowner, summon unlicensed people to the home office, confectionery merchants belong to the control of Kyoto, the Nakamikado family, and that they should operate under the official name of the Senkoku issue from our family. I was instructed and awarded the name of the country of Sengoku upon request.

Fujiwara's last name is the highest[44]Then, Yamashiro, Yamato, Kawachi, Izumi, Settsu, etc., and Musashi, Kii, Owari, Hitachi, etc. were never allowed, and other country names and XX halls, XX houses, etc. This is commonly known as the "mochi-yakan," and the rank of Ozoku is later on.CommanderCorresponds to the treatment,XNUMXth placeIs equivalent to.

Old literature on Japanese sweets research

  • "Okina Famous Gozen Confectionery Secret" Kyoho3 years(1718 ) Spring Author unknown. Published by Kyogoku Gojobashi Shorin Umemura Suidodo. Describes 105 types of manufacturing methods such as Konpeito, Castella, balls, carmela, mochi confectionery and candy. It is presumed that the author is the author of the Nakamimon family, including the Mochiin family, the garden family, the Higashi garden family, the Mibu family, the Takano family, the Ishino family, the Ishigami family, and the Rokkaku family, based on the above-mentioned “name of the recipient of the Japanese sweets merchant”. To be done.
  • "Okinamu Gozen Confectionery" Treasure calendar10 years(1761 ) By Kyoto Fugaitei and Yoshiyo Hasegawa. Two volumes up and down. Includes a total of 2 types of confectionery methods such as steamed sweets, dried sweets, yokan, candy, and pomegranates, and colored patterns for each confectionery shape.
  • "Mochi confectionery handmade collection" culture10 years(1813 ) Tokosha XNUMXHen. Describe 75 Edo-style confectionery methods such as rice cake, bun, yokan, and candy.
  • "Old and new sweets encyclopedia" Tempo11 years(1840 ) New Year's "Okina Famous Gozen Confectionery" has been renamed, and the content has been republished as it is.
  • "Confectionery Funabashi" Tempo12 years(1841 ) Yuharu cultureA manuscript of Gunjiro Kishimoto, the first generation of Orie Funabashiya who moved from Osaka to Edo for a year. Kameido Hanagasa Bunkyo school revision. Published by Izumibe Izumiya, Shinsen Maendou Shoten, Shiba-ku. Mainly kneaded yokan, it describes 77 kinds of manufacturing methods such as steamed sweets and dried sweets.
  • "Ding left secret" Kaei4 years(1851 ) December. Published by Nihei Sakaiya, Tokudaku, Sanjo Ryababa, Kyoto. The author is Kuniyama, a resident of Kuniyama, Tamba. 12 kinds of recipes for rice cakes, candy, and dried sweets, mainly of green candied vegetables.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Tea was introduced to Japan in 729 in the early Nara era, and was brought about by the envoy Sui.[10].
  2. ^ The word "Japanese confectionery" has become established as a wordSecond World WarAfter. Before that, there were various names such as "Japanese confectionery" and "Japanese confectionery".[14].

Source

  1. ^ Yamamoto Kazumitsu, "Hyakka Dictionary," page 278.
  2. ^ a b "Japanese sweets"World Encyclopedia 2nd Edition, read August 2016, 8."
  3. ^ Page 16 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  4. ^ Yukio Hayakawa "Introduction to Confectionery", pp. 46-47.
  5. ^ "Part 2 Seasons and Japanese Sweets | National Japanese Sweets Association”(Japanese). 2021/6/14Browse.
  6. ^ Yukio Hayakawa "Introduction to Confectionery", pp. 7-8.
  7. ^ a b c d "Basics of Japanese sweets" page 26.
  8. ^ Page 8 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  9. ^ a b Page 8 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  10. ^ a b Yukio Hayakawa "Introduction to Confectionery", pp. 8-9.
  11. ^ Page 9 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  12. ^ a b c Page 10 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  13. ^ a b c "Basics of Japanese sweets" page 27.
  14. ^ Naoki Aoki, Illustrated Japanese Pastry, Past and Present, page 13.
  15. ^ Page 11 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  16. ^ Page 16 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  17. ^ Page 12 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  18. ^ Hayakawa Yukio, "Introduction to Confectionery" 12/16-47.
  19. ^ "Basics of Japanese sweets" pages 30-31.
  20. ^ National Confectionery Industry Association. “Classification of Japanese sweets". Information center for sweets. 2021/3/16Browse.
  21. ^ Akira Miyauchi, Takateru Nishiura, "Confectionery (Part 2)Cooking Science Volume 17 (1984) Issue 3 p.156-164, two:10.11402 / cookeryscience1968.17.3_156
  22. ^ Yukio Hayakawa "Introduction to Confectionery", pp. 45-46.
  23. ^ "Basics of Japanese sweets" page 42.
  24. ^ a b c Page 46 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  25. ^ Keiko Nakayama, Encyclopedia, The World of Japanese Sweets, pp. 121-124.
  26. ^ Keiko Nakayama, Encyclopedia, The World of Japanese Sweets, p. 276.
  27. ^ Yukio Hayakawa "Introduction to Confectionery", pp. 46-47.
  28. ^ Keiko Nakayama, Encyclopedia, The World of Japanese Sweets, pp. 274-275.
  29. ^ Page 47 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  30. ^ "Basics of Japanese sweets" pages 22-25.
  31. ^ a b "Basics of Japanese sweets" page 28.
  32. ^ "Basics of Japanese sweets" page 33.
  33. ^ Yukio Hayakawa "Introduction to Confectionery", pp. 34-37.
  34. ^ Page 44 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  35. ^ a b c d e "Basics of Japanese sweets" page 29.
  36. ^ "Gyuhi [Kyuhi]"World Encyclopedia 2nd Edition, read August 2016, 8."
  37. ^ Page 37 of Yukio Hayakawa, "Introduction to Confectionery".
  38. ^ Fusion of Western food, Western food and Japanese food Kikkoman International Research Center for Food Culture May 2018, 5
  39. ^ Daily Neo Japanese Sweets Next Generation Creator Feature(My feb)
  40. ^ I am curious about the topic "Neo Japanese confectionery"!(Bow Communications Inc., February 2016, 2)
  41. ^ Eat art, 10 neo Japanese sweets(Nihon Keizai ShimbunElectronic version, March 2017, 3)
  42. ^ Adult cute Japanese and Western collaboration neo Japanese sweets that can be bought at Kanazawa Station(All About, December 2015, 6)
  43. ^ Attention is focused on the "Neo Japanese confectionery" of the long-established second generation and Star Patissier "best 5 souvenirs"(Ananweb, November 2018, 11)
  44. ^ Yasubei Hosoda"Edokko Confectionery Shop Snacks" Keio University Press, May 2009, 5, p. 25.

References

  • "Basics of Japanese confectionery" Shogatsu Publisher, 2016
  • Naoki Aoki, Illustrated Japanese Sweets, Past and Present, Tankosha, 2000
  • Keiko Nakayama "Encyclopedia of the World of Japanese Sweets" Iwanami Shoten, 2006
  • Yukio Hayakawa "Introduction to Confectionery" Nippon Shokuhin Shimbun, 1997
  • Yamamitsu Mitsumitsu ed. "Physical Dictionary", Tokyodo Publishing, 1997

Related literature

  • Keiko Nakayama "Japanese confectionery story" Asahi Bunko Asahi Shimbun ISBN 4022642572
  • "Culture magazine of sugar-Japanese and sugar" supervised by Pan Ito Yasaka Shobo 2008 ISBN 9784896949223
  • "Modern confectionery recipe book compilation" 1, 2 Toyo Bunko Heibonsha

Related item

外部 リンク

Taisho

Taisho(I want to)It is,Japan OfEraone of.

MeijiAfter,ShowaBefore.Dahua245th since then[Note 1]It is the era name of.Emperor TaishoIs the reigning period of1912 (First year of the Taisho era)May 7から1926 (Taisho 15)May 12Until.

For the first time as a Japanese era, the entire period from the first year to the final year, 15 yearsGregorian calendarWas used.The period when the era was TaishoJapanese history period classificationAs,Taisho era(Great)To say[1].

Change

Rescript of the Taisho era (July 1912, 45 (Meiji 7))
The first year of the Taisho era, after July XNUMX, XNUMX, the ancestral sect Enforcement of the master of the family (Omitted below)[2]
  • 1926 (Taisho 15)May 12 --Emperor Taisho died at the age of 47, and his eldest son, Prince Hirohito (later)Emperor Showa) Was practiced at the age of 25ShowaRevised to.The same day was "December 12, 25".In addition, Prince Hirohito1921 (Taisho 10)May 11Since then, Emperor Taisho's illness has become seriousregentIs serving.

Source

The origin of the Taisho era is "I Ching"Hexagram"LTorupositive, Michiya Amano (L(Oh)InToilet(Toho)Rite以(Mot)Onpositive(However)Shiki isday(Ten) Ofroad(Road)Nari) ". "Taisho" has been played four times in the past (""Motohiro""Compliance""Manji""SacrednessAt the time of era change[3]) I was nominated, but was adopted for the 5th time.

According to the "Taisho Emperor Jitsuroku", there were "Taisho", "Tenko", "Xinghua", "Eiyasu", "Inui", and "Akitoku" as new era proposals to replace the Meiji era. It was decided in the Taisho era by the deliberation of the Privy Council, focusing on "Taisho", "Tenko" and "Xinghua".

Mori OgaiIn writing the "Era Name"Kako Tsurushoに宛てた書簡で「『TaishoIsEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euで使用があり、御幣を担ぐわけではないが中国では『正』の字の元号を嫌う。『正』の字は『一而ニシテ止ル』と読めるので、『正』の字を付けて滅びた例を調べるべきなのに不確認である」と不満を述べている[4].

Features

The Taisho era (1912-1926) refers to the period during which Emperor Taisho reigned.

Japanese history period classificationIs usually (Ichigen systemBefore),Old tomb-Asuka-Nara-Safe-Kamakura-Muromachi-Azuchi-Momoyama-EdoIt is a name given by the center of the administration.The Taisho era (the number of years is 15 years from the first year of the Taisho era to the 15th year of the Taisho era, and the period is1912 ~1926 14 years)Japanese historyIt is the shortest period division in.


Twice in the Taisho era[5]Extend toGuardian movement(Constitutional defense movement) has occurred since the Meiji eraTranscendental CabinetPolitical system is shaking,Political partyThe power will advance.They areTaisho democracyCalledYukio Ozaki-Dog breedEt al.[6]Became the leader.

Taisho democracyTimes1918 (7th year of Taisho)Rice riotOften distinguished before and after, but for the first time in the same year of the rice riotsKnighthoodNon withoutEthnic familyIs a classHouse of RepresentativesHave a seat inTakashi Hara(Nicknamed "Principal Minister of the People") is a full-fledged political party cabinet (=Hara Cabinet) Was organized.

Hara is a politician with an outstanding political sense and leadership.Education"Improvement of the system", "Transportation"Maintenance of institutions", "industryandtradeTradePromotion ","National defenseWe promoted the four major political platforms of "enhancement ofCommon election lawIt ended without reforming as much as expected by the commoners during its appearance, such as opposition to1921 (Taisho 10)Otsuka StationWas a memberYuichi NakaokaByTokyo StationOn the premisesassassinationWas done (Takashi Hara assassination case).

Before and after thisGeneral selection exerciseIs activated,Hiratsuka Raicho,Fusae IchikawaLanoWomen's suffrageThe exercise was also active.

1925 (Taisho 14)Takaaki Kato CabinetBelowCommon election lawWas established, but at the same timeRussian RevolutionIn Japan due to the outbreak ofSocialism-CommunismFrom a sense of caution about the rise of thoughtPublic Security ActWas enacted.The speech world is also booming and has an imperial familyMonarchyとDemocracyTried to eclecticYoshino Sakuzo Ofdemocracy[7],Tatsuyoshi Minobe OfEmperor Organization TheoryEtc. appeared.

1921 (Taisho 10)May 11Prince Hirohito became ill due to the worsening of the condition of Emperor TaishoRegent PalaceIt became.It was a powerful eraMeijiFrom the momentum to review the timesEmperor MeijiとEmpress ShokenEnshrineMeiji JinguWas founded on November 9, 1920 (Taisho 11)[8].

1923 (Taisho 12nd year)Yuzaburo KatoEight days after the prime minister died during his tenureGreat Kanto EarthquakeThe capital, Tokyo, was devastated, but it soon recovered.After the earthquakeYamamoto GonbeiFormer Prime Minister returns to power again,Second Yamamoto CabinetWas established.After that, the second constitutional movement (constitutional defense movement) took place.Three guardiansThe Takaaki Kato Cabinet was established as the Cabinet.

Japan tooAlliesAs on the side of the winnerStrong line"Five powersBecame a member ofWorld War ILater,Versailles-Washington systemAdaptive toKijuro ShimeharaBy Foreign MinisterZiyuan diplomacy(Takaaki Kato Cabinet) was deployed andRepublic of ChinaNon-intervention in domestic affairs,Soviet UnionCertain, such as establishing diplomatic relations withDove・ Showed internationally cooperative colors.

In the Taisho eraFeudal clanLed the CabinetEdo PeriodBornelder statesmanIn an era when we retired from politics or passed away and changed generations from the late Tokugawa generation to the Meiji era.Higher educationThe generation of people trained by the institution became the center of society.[9].

AbroadWorld War IAs a result, a revolution overthrowing the royal government took place.Of the defeated countryGermany,AustriaReconciled with Germany from the Allies and withdrew from the frontRussiaThe monarchy was abolished.Russian RevolutionThen the world's firstSocialist country OfSoviet UnionWas established.In germanyWeimar ConstitutionUnderGermany(Weimar Republic) Was born.The establishment of a republican nationdemocracyWas considered a victory.

However, the birth of the republic in Japan has the meaning of abolishing the emperor system and the imperial family, and be wary of the spread of communism by taking advantage of the growing labor movement.Public Security ActWas enacted.The abolition of the monarchy in many countries was an excuse.CommunismThought is JapaneseIntelliInfluencing the layers, in the Taisho eraIntellectualIt is,Remodel-innovation-revolution-維新4 types of political movementsloganListed in.

As a characteristic of culture and customs,Modern cityUrban culture, with the development of the economy and the expansion of the economyPopular cultureHas blossomed and entered a glorious era called "Taisho Modern"[10]..The number of women working has increased, and until thenFemale workerInstead of, such as a telephone operator or a female clerk, "Occupational ladyNew professions such as cafe women's salaries, bus girls, department store clerk, female doctors, and movie actresses have become popular in Tokyo.Yokohama,Osaka,KobeAnd so onlarge company,Foreign-affiliated companiesWork forUniversityGraduation and high incomeWhite collarAppeared, with haircut and western clothingMoga(Abbreviation for modern girl. Men are mobo) has appeared[10].

Throughout the Taisho era, this kind of enjoyable culture is born in the city, but on the other hand,SlumFormation, outbreak of public turmoil,UnionAnd a peasant union was formed,Labor disputeSocial contradictions have deepened, such as intensifying.

Constitutional movement and politics

1911 (Meiji44 years)Second Saionji CabinetJapan's national finances were very bad when it was established,Chugoku OfXinhai RevolutionStimulated byarmyWas annexed in the previous year as a measure against the anti-Japanese movement.KoreaTo be stationed inExpansion of 2 divisionsStrongly urged the government.AusterityOf policySaionji public aspirationRefused this, and the government and the ruling party (Constitutional society) And the Army, many people were indignant at the Army's domineering, and the momentum for political reform increased.Also1912 (Meiji 45 / Taisho XNUMXst year)May 7ToEmperor MeijiDemise of the crownEmperor TaishoIs enthronedTatsuyoshi MinobePublished "Constitutional Lecture"Emperor Organization TheoryAnd advocating the political party cabinet theory also made the people expect new politics.

1912 At the end of (Taisho 2st year), protesting that the expansion of two divisions was not approved by the Cabinet,Yusaku UeharaMinister of the Imperial Japanese Army resigns aloneEmperor TaishoSubmitted to the ArmyMinister of the Military Active military systemThe Saionji Cabinet was forced to resign because he did not recommend his successor.BehalfChoshuMarriage of State and Army ElderKeitaroBut just took officeMinisterとSamurai chiefResign3st Katsura CabinetWhen organizing, ignoring the principle of "Fuchu Miyanaka"MiyanakaTo change from the position ofFeudal clanThere were criticisms that the forces were trying to monopolize the administration with the new emperor.[11].

Rikken Kokumint OfDog breedとConstitutional society OfYukio OzakiOpposition forces led byNews (Chinese)In addition, with the addition of commerce and industry and intellectuals in urban areas, the movement to "defeat the clan and defend the constitution" has spread nationwide (First Constitutional Movement).KatsuraConstitutional DoshikaiI tried to counter this by organizing myself, but the Constitutional Movement was only getting stronger.1913 (Taisho 2), while the people surrounded the parliament, he resigned in just over 50 days (Taisho XNUMX).Taisho Political Change).

After Katsura,SatsumaFromNavygeneralIsYamamoto Gonbei Constitutional societyOrganized a cabinet in the ruling party.The Yamamoto Cabinet will reorganize the administration andCivilian appointment orderRevised to open the way for political party members to become high-ranking bureaucrats, and to change the active military officer system of the military ministergeneralExpand your qualifications toOfficials-MilitaryI tried to expand the influence of the political party on1914 (Taisho 3) Corruption of senior Navy officials over the import of foreign-made warships and weapons (Taisho XNUMX)Siemens scandal) Was discovered, the protests of the urban people increased again, and he was forced to resign.[12].

I saw thisYamagata YuhoEt al.VeteranIs popular among the common peopleOhte ShigenobuIn a hurry to recommend to the successor prime minister,Second Okuma CabinetWas established.OkumaConstitutional DoshikaiDeparted as a minority ruling party,1915 (4th year of Taisho)electionThe ruling party such as Rikken DoshikaiConstitutional societyOverwhelmed.As a result of this2 divisions expansion planPassed the parliament.Also in the same cabinetWorld War IIs outbreak and alliesUnited Kingdom German EmpireWhen Japan declares war onJapan-UK AllianceDeclared war on Germany for the reason of the German colony in ChinaQingdao,Shandong,Southern Ocean IslandsOccupied part of[13]..Then, taking advantage of the fact that European countries cannot afford to intervene in the Chinese issue due to the war,1915 (Taisho 4nd year)Yuka ShikaiTo the governmentTakaaki KatoThe Foreign Minister has submitted twenty-one requests (Request for 21 articles from China).

In the subsequent Terauchi administration, the Beiyang Clique, who succeeded the Go administration,Duan QiruiGive the Cabinet a huge loan (Nishihara Loans), Strived to expand Japan's powers in China across politics, economy and military.To retain interests in the Far East4th Japan-Russia Agreement,United KingdomMemorandum of understanding,Correspondence AmbassadorKikujiro Ishii OfIshii-Lansing AgreementConcluded.1917 (6th year of Taisho)Russian RevolutionSeemed as an opportunityTerauchi Cabinet TheNorth Manchuria-PrimoryeI tried to expand my power toSiberian troops).

Masateru TerauchiAgainst the Transcendental CabinetConstitutional societyWhen was formed, Prime Minister Terauchi1917 Dissolved the House of Representatives in (Taisho 6),electionAs a result, the Rikken SeiyukaiConstitutional societyon behalfHouse of RepresentativesBecame the first party of.Rapid due to the warinflationとSiberian troopsRice prices soared in Japan due to the hoarding of rice in anticipation1918 (Taisho 7) In AugustToyamaNewspapers report that housewives demanded a bargain sale of rice in a fishing villageRice riotSpread all over the country.In addition, there was a movement to improve the treatment of workers and reduce tenant fees for tenants.[14].

The government finally subdued it, but Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, who promoted the Siberian intervention,1918 (Taisho 7)May 9Resigned to.

Elders who witnessed the power of the popular movement finally admitted the party cabinet,Constitutional societyPresident'sTakashi HaraTo the Prime Minister,1918 (Taisho 7)May 9Is the first full-scale political party cabinetHara CabinetWas established.Ethnic familyHara, who was not, was called "Principal Minister of the People" and was familiar to the people.Against the backdrop of increasing demand for universal suffrage, Hara expanded his party's power while raising the status of the political party, and built a deep relationship with large capital and landowners.He also tried to reduce the political power of the elders while avoiding conflicts with the elders.However, Hara continues to refuse the introduction of the universal suffrage system, contrary to public expectations, as "a threat to the organization of today's society."[15], Reduced the tax qualification for voting rights to 3 yen or more,Single-seat constituency systemIt was limited to the election reform to introduce.These have led to public distrust as "party interests".Also on the diplomatic side1919 (Taisho 8) Japan-China army clashes in ManchuriaKanjoko caseOccurs.1920 (9th year of Taisho)Amako Port IncidentThen the Japanese residents and the Japanese troops stationed thereRed ArmyとChinese armyThe cabinet was blamed for being killed.1921 (Taisho 10) On November 11, Hara was assassinated by railroad worker Konichi Nakaoka at Tokyo Station (Taisho 4).Takashi Hara assassination case).

Then became the president of SeiyukaiKosei TakahashiBecame prime ministerTakahashi CabinetTried aggressive policies in response to the economic downturn, but this caused internal conflicts, raising expectations for the Kenseikai, which appeals for austerity and universal suffrage.On the diplomatic side, in early 1922 (Taisho 11)Washington ConferenceThe Washington system was established in Asia.As a result, internationalism has strengthened in Japan as well.The Takahashi Cabinet collapsed due to internal conflict, and was replaced by Admiral, who had full authority over the Washington Conference.Yuzaburo KatoOrganized a cabinet with Seiyukai as the de facto ruling party.Kato performed naval disarmament in accordance with the Washington Naval Conference agreement, and furtherYamanashi HanzoBy the Minister of the ArmyYamanashi disarmamentThe army disarmament called[16].

After Kato's illness, in the crisis of the Great Kanto EarthquakeSecond Yamamoto CabinetYamamoto, who returned to power after being established, appealed for the need for a national unity government and the adoption of universal suffrage, but could not obtain the cooperation of the Seiyukai.Toranomon IncidentWas forced to resign after taking responsibility for[16].. continueAristocratWas the motherKiyoura CabinetWas established and showed an anti-party political attitude, but in opposition to it, the House of RepresentativesConstitutional society-Innovation club-SeiyukaiThe three factions ofSecond Guardian MovementCaused1924 (13th year of Taisho)electionThen.Three guardians(Kenseikai, Seiyukai, Kakushin Club) won a big victoryCabinet of the Three GuardiansAsTakaaki Kato CabinetWas established.Since then, it has become customary for the leader of the first party of the House of Representatives to serve as prime minister (Constitutional road)[16].

The Kato CabinetUgaki Disarmamentと 呼 ば れ るTakada Army Division-Toyohashi Army Division-Okayama Army Division-Kurume Army DivisionWith the cost of reducing troops by reducing the number of four army divisions and reducing the number of officerstank-Automobile-aircraftな ど20st centuryPlace a large amount of military equipment introduced inarmyModernized and secondary school (currentlyhigh schoolThe curriculum of the boys' school above (almost equivalent to the course) was provided with military training, and the excess officers were made instructors.[17]1925 (14th year of Taisho),Common election lawTo all adult males over 25 years old regardless of the amount of tax paidVoting rightGive boysGeneral electionWill be realized.However, there were restrictions such as not allowing women's suffrage and not allowing the right to vote for the poor.[18]..Universal suffrage was expected to play a role as a safety valve for the "revolution," but at the same time, eight years ago.Russian RevolutionSince there was a possibility that it would become the "ignition point of the revolution" like this, at the same time as the general election lawPublic Security ActIs established, and "National bodyStrict crackdown on banning activities aimed at "transformation of private property" and "denial of private property" and joining such associations[19]..In addition, Royal Decree No. 1751925 (Taisho 14)May 5ByKorea,Taiwan,KarafutoThe Peace Preservation Law will also be enforced.However, the realization of universal suffrage paved the way for proletarian parties to advance into parliament, and in 1926 (Taisho 15)Labor Peasant PartyWas launched.Also in the same yearSecurity police lawArticle 17 was also abolished.On the diplomatic side,Soviet-Japanese Basic TreatyThe first socialist nation in the history of the worldSoviet UnionEstablished diplomatic relations with[16].

On December 12, the same year, Emperor Taisho died at the age of 25, and his eldest son, Prince Hirohito, practiced at the age of 47. The Taisho era, which lasted about 25 years, ended for 15 years.ShowaEntered the era of.

World War I and the economy

1914 (Taisho 3)World War IBroke out.ElderlyJun InoueCalled the opportunity "Tenyu" and entered the war because of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.Although the mainland and colonies were not damaged,AlliesAs a result of sending troops to Europe and causing a large number of deaths in the war, he became a member of the victorious country.

Immediately after the outbreak, it was temporarily due to the confusion over the expansion to the global scale.panicIt fell to the verge of death, but eventually replaced Japan with the European powers that were shaken by the war.AmericaBoth emerging nations are accelerating trade as production bases for goods,Japanese economyIs unprecedentedBoomAnd greatly developed the economy.Especially due to the global shortage of goodsfiber(spinningindustry·Fishing netManufacturing industry) etc.light industry,Shipbuilding-Steel industryな どHeavy industryWas a backward underdeveloped industry with dramatic developmentChemical industryIs also the largest輸入Due to the previous battle with Germany, production by the home country was required, and at onceModernizationHas advanced.Under these circumstances, many "Money"Appears.Also, government financesRusso-Japanese WarSucceeded in overcoming the financial difficulties that have continued since then[20].

But,1918 When the war ended in (Taisho 7), a reactionary recession occurred due to excessive capital investment and inventory retention.Furthermore, the lifting of the gold export ban that had been suspended during the war (so-called ""Gold ban”) Because I missed the timeBank of JapanIn large quantitiesFriStayedGold standardLost the function of currency adjustment by.Furthermore, due to the Great Kanto EarthquakeKeihin Industrial AreaFurther expansion of inventories due to the destruction ofEarthquake billAnd itsBad debtDue to the occurrence of the problem of economic recovery, the outlook for economic recovery remains completely uncertain.Showa financial crisis-World DepressionWill be welcomed.

Paris peace conferenceThen,Racial discrimination elimination planInsisted and gained the support of the majority of countries, but the United States,United Kingdom,AustraliaIt was rejected by the opposition such as.at that timeAsiaFew inIndependent countryJapan wasLeague of NationsJoined the United States, United Kingdom,France-ItalyAs the world's first-class country alongside the five countries ofLeague of Nations OfPermanent memberWill be.To the Deputy Secretary-General of the League of NationsNitobe InazoHas been inaugurated.But it was a German colonyマ ー ャ ル ル(Japan isSouthern Ocean IslandsToSouth Sea AgencyWas set up in Japan)MandateAs a result of being done, JapanThe Pacific OceanAdvance into the region,フィリピン,Hawaiian IslandsDirectly with the United States that ownsterritory-WatersThe border between Japan and the United States has deepened, and the pressure of the United States has deepened the conflict between Japan and the United States.Japan-UK AllianceIs resolved, etc.Pacific War(Great East Asian War) Was also foreshadowed.

Earthquake reconstruction

1923 (Taisho 12) On December 9thGreat Kanto EarthquakeOccurred[21]..The capital city for this unprecedented catastropheTokyoWill suffer enormous damage[21]..After the earthquake, former Prime Minister Gonbei Yamamoto regained power,Second Yamamoto CabinetWas established.Of the new cabinetInterior MinisterBecameShinpei GotoWent up to a large-scale city plan for reconstruction after the earthquake.Taking advantage of the destruction caused by the earthquake, the city of Tokyo has been significantly improved since the Edo period, and road expansion and land readjustment have been carried out.InfrastructureHas been improved and has undergone a major transformation.

The streets that inherit the tradition of Edo were destroyed, leaving a part of it, and Tokyo becameSewerMaintenanceradioIt has undergone a major evolution into a modern city, with broadcasting beginning in earnest.But partly plannedParis,UKDue to various reasons, the construction of ring roads and radial roads was not carried out with reference to.The experience cultivated by this is after the warMetropolitan ExpresswayIt leads to the construction of.

culture

Performing arts culture

Japan's firstrecordHit withPopular songIt is assumedSumiko Matsuiof"Headband songA number of popular songs such as "" were born.jazzWas introduced to Japan in this era and developed as it was.Rakugo-Talk-can-Bunraku-kabuki-New school-New national dramaIntroducing Western theater to traditional Japanese theater such asShingeki movement(Art theater-Tsukiji small theater) Became popular[22],Showa periodDevelop intoEntertainment worldIs the basis ofAn actor-actress-singerNew professions such asPopular cultureThe prototype was born.Activity photo(Currentmovies) AndGirl opera(CurrentTakarazuka Revue) Appeared[23].

Urban culture

Russo-Japanese WarSince that time, it has been the center of economic cultureOsaka-KobePopular culture was established against the backdrop of the city (Hanshin Modernism), Spread all over the country.Many of the Japanese lifestyles that continue today are required to have roots in this era.On the other hand, in Tokyo in 1915 (Taisho 4)Ukiyo-eWhile reprinting the prints, newTraditional woodblock printsWas trying to createShozaburo WatanabeBy the initiative ofFriedrich Capelari Of水彩画TheNishiki-eOf windwoodblock printTaking advantage ofHashiguchi Goyo,Ito Shinsui,Kawase Hasui,Hiroshi Yoshida,Natori ShunsenByNew printActivities have started.This movement1923 (12th year of Taisho)Great Kanto EarthquakeLater, it spread nationwide, involving many emerging publishers, and continued until the Showa period.

道路,TransportationHas been maintained.Tram,Blue bus (Tokyo shared car),Entaro Bus[24]Such asShared busTraveled in the city.From the late Taisho era to the early Showa eraGreat Osaka eraToOsakaThen,TokyoA large number of private railway nets were completed earlier than before, especiallyKobayashi IchizoLed byHanshin Express RailwayBy skillful management technique ofBetween HanshinManyResidential satellite citiesHas appeared.

on the other hand,Sino-Japanese war(1894 ~1895 [Meiji 27-Meiji 28]), the best in the OrientTrading portHad becomeKobe PortThe latest Western culture, which has flowed into the city, was accepted and spread by the wealthy people in the satellite city, and modern art, culture, and lifestyle were born.After the Great Kanto Earthquake, Osaka and Kobe became more culturally prosperous due to the migration of cultural figures from Tokyo.Introduced Western-style life in urban areas in the middle of the Taisho eraCultural housingBecame popular as a general-purpose house.

Tokyo(Tokyo city) Then, in the Great Kanto Earthquake火災Due to the enormous damage caused byDowntown Edo PeriodWhile losing the cityscape of, the impact of the earthquake was generally smallMarunouchi,OtemachiBuildings with elevators were built one after another in the district, and a large office district for large companies and foreign-affiliated companies was established.People burned out in the downtown area moved to Setagaya, Suginami, and other areas that were purely rural areas, and moved Shinjuku and Shibuya from a mere red-light district.FukutoshinI grew up to.

1918 (Taisho 7nd year)Vocational schoolsIn the form of being promoted fromPrivate universitiesAroundOld universityTo authorizeUniversity decreeとHigh school decreeWas promulgatedHigher educationThe institution is in placeTokyo Imperial UniversityHalf of the graduates of the university are now working in private companies, and the university graduates who work for large companies and foreign-affiliated companiesOffice workerBecame the main character of the masses.

Until the Meiji eraKimonoWas a shopLong-established store"One after anotherDepartment storeTransformed intoGinza TheDepartment storeIt has transformed into a city.wellUse of Kamado by YamakiMeiji Era OfoillampIs obsoleteWater supply-gas-ElectricalBecomes widespread.Shinzen marriage,Oomoto,Reiyukaiな どNew religionBecomes popular.For household appliancesFan-Electric stove・ Electric iron ・Electric stoveBecame popular[25].Tinplate,celluloidMade oftoyNew material toys have appeared.

Start of sports

Hakone Ekiden Tournament Shinzo KanaguriStarted with the efforts ofOlympic competitionBecame popular.1920 (9th year of Taisho)Antwerp olympicThen, in tennis as the first Japanese medalsilver medalWas won.Asahi ShimbunとMainichi ShimbunbySecondary school baseballSports such as have started.Meiji JinguTo the outer gardenJingu Gaien Baseball StadiumWas created1926 In (Taisho 15), "Tokyo Roku University Baseball"Will become extremely prosperous.

Media development

Based in Tokyo, "Current news], [National newspaper], [Man morning reportThe main paper of 』declined due to the Great Kanto Earthquake and replacedOsakaHeadquartered inOsaka Asahi Shimbun], [Osaka Mainichi NewspaperHas surpassed 100 million copies and advanced to Tokyo, and countered it with "Yoritsu ShimbunHas also grown and laid the foundation for the newspaper industry, which is now known as the "three major papers."

1925 (Taisho 14) In March, in the three major cities of Tokyo, Osaka, and NagoyaradiobroadcastBegins, and new mass media will inspire society.

According to an article written about newspapers in the early Taisho era, Kensei Kashiwa said, "Newspapers are so useful." Together with the precious one, it has a terrifying magical power that influences the psychology of the crowd. "Also, in "The back side of the newspaper" in Etsaburo Mitsumoto's "Saddle and Desk: Sequel Tokyo Mamai Guri" (December XNUMX [Taisho XNUMX], Museijin Monosho) Without knowing, I don't know anything more than just the letters that appear on the surface. "The newspapers of the Taisho era had a great influence on people.

The appearance of automobiles

Because the railway was damaged by the earthquake, "Automobile"Was on the stage of urban transportation, and"Yen Taku"SuchTaxiWith the advent of, it will occupy a large position as a means of land transportation regardless of whether it is passenger or freight.In addition, not only the upper class and the wealthy class as before, but also the middle classAustinMainly imported cars such asPrivate carHas also begun to spread.

Food culture:

In urban areas, focusing on the newly emerging middle class,Western food"Was widespread"Café""RestaurantsHas grown and revolutionized the way restaurants should be.Curry and rice-Pork cutlet-croquette TheTaisho's three western foodsWas called[26][27][28][29][30][31][32]..Especially croquettesTaro Masuda Crowner[33]Of the song of the lyricsCroquette song (1917 (Taisho 6nd year)hit) Appeared, which affected the dining table of ordinary people who had nothing to do with Western food.Due to rice riotsRice priceAs a measure against soaring pricesHara Takashi CabinetAggressivelyBread OfSubstitute foodThe movement was developed.Bread became popular in the postwar period of the Showa period, but it became a Japanese-made Western food.Rice OfriceThe mainstream Japanese diet after the war was established in the Taisho era,Chinese cuisine OfChinese noodlesThe spread ofJapanese OfRehabilitationThere was exercise[34].Russian bread Russian RevolutionI came to Japan in exileWhite RussianIntroduced and spread by[35].1919 (Taisho 8)May 7 For the first time in JapanLactic acid bacteria drinkCalpisWill be released.Artificial ice has developed.ice cream·Bread·chicken rice-coffee-Ramune-Black tea-Cider-beer-キ ャ ラ メ ル-チ ョ コ レ ー トWestern foods became popular[36].A coffee shop,Restaurantsincreased.Showa single digitOvernoodles,canningSimple foods such as kind have developed[37].

Fashion

Western hair became popular among women, and seventy-three divisions and hair hiding were performed.Uniforms were used for schoolgirls.Boys are in the cellHakamaWas often used."Western style" that was not related to ordinary people until the Meiji eraBeauty salon","dance hallIs no longer rare in the cityModern boy / modern girlMen's men and women (Mobo Moga)DressIt was also in this era that[38]..On the other hand, the working class in rural areas (especially agricultural and fishing villages) rarely benefited from such modern culture, and the gap between urban and rural areas did not close.[39].

Academic research history

Kitaro NishidaSuch asKyoto SchoolWas the mainstream of scholarship.Oriental historyThen.Konan NaitoChantedTang Song TransformationThe argument was actively discussed. 1915 (Taisho 4nd year)Kitasato Shiba SaburoOf establishmentKitasato InstituteWas established.1917 (Taisho 6nd year)Business worldWith donations fromNational treasury subsidy, Etc. as financial resources,Semi-public and semi-private OfFoundationAsRIKENWas established.OtherAviation Research Institute(Researching aviation science at the Institute of Tokyo Imperial University)Institute for Materials Research(Kotaro HondaAt the suggestion ofTohoku Imperial UniversityEstablished in) ・Earthquake Research Institute(Earthquake and earthquake prediction research based on the lessons learned from the Great Kanto Earthquake) was established in the Taisho era.

Taisho literary history

In the literary worldNeorealism OfRyunosuke Ayukawa,Aestheticism OfJunichiro Tanizaki,furtherWarrior alley-Naoya ShigaEt al.Humanitarianism(Humanism) was the idealBirch schoolHas emerged.Modern by this timeJapaneseWas formed by the efforts of many writers.Poetry-WakaThen.Sakutaro HagiwaraCompleted the rhythm of a new colloquial free verse, and the style of Japanese writing that continues today is completed, in addition to the above,Nakazato Uesanof"OisoAnd '文藝 春秋』I also hit the managementHiroshi KikuchiLiterary works such as[40].

1 book in the publishing industryYenof"Yen bookSold explosively[41].1921 (Taisho 10)Komaki OmiBy the magazine "SowerWas first published, until the early Showa periodProletarian literatureIt developed into a movement.Also1924 (Taisho 13)Kaoru Oyamauchi Tsukiji small theaterFounded,New playWas established.Newspapers, doujinshi, etc. gradually became popular, and new paintings, music, photographs and "Activity photoWas calledmoviesEntertainment such as was gradually enhanced.At the podium, "Hototogisu』Builded a great force and boasted prosperity as the most influential magazine of conservative haidan.Soetsu YanagiRecommends Korean artFolk art movementAdvocated[42].

At the end of the Taisho eraKiyokata KaburagiFor "exhibition art" etc.PrintEtc.Desktop artWas advocated as.

社会 問題

Social work

At that timeUrbanizationByGangsterIt was the time when the early organization of was formed.Discussions on social projects became active, and the first national management policyCensus 1920 It was carried out in (Taisho 9).After the rice riot, in the government and local areasSocial bureauandArea committee systemWas created one after another, and by those institutions, the city's poverty survey andPublic marketWas being installed.

Medical hygiene issues

Tokyo-OsakaIn urban areas such asWater supplyHas become widespread.It was very common until the Meiji eraInfant mortalityDecreased in the Taisho era.All over the worldPandemicCausedSpanish coldInfected 2380 million people in Japan (ratio to the population at that time: about 43%),Shimamura Hogetsu,Mt. Ooyama, In the royal familyTsunehisa TakedaDied, and about 39 Japanese died[43]

Educational total mobilization movement

In addition,1919 (Taisho 8)World War IUnder the initiative of the Ministry of Interior for the purpose of coping with changes in people's thoughts and lives triggered byCivil power development movementHas been started and laterEducational total mobilization movementFrom this time on, the nation's tendency to control every corner of the people's lives, which is a precursor to the situation, began to be seen.

Labor movement

The reason why social work became active in the Taisho era wasPeasant disputeFrequentlyLabor movementLarge-scale, etc.Local improvement movementIt has been pointed out that problems that cannot be solved by the conventional production expansion policy as seen in the above have become more serious.

Bunji SuzukiByFriendshipWas established,World War IDuring the periodInflationBy the progress ofRice riotThere has occurred.MoneyWas born, but the gap between rich and poor widened, causing a rapid increase.Labor disputeThe labor union such as the fraternity association was deeply involved in[44].

Buraku Liberation Movement

Taisho democracyVarious social movements were carried out by.

In the Meiji eraFour people equalityEven after that, discrimination against Buraku people remained.Meiji governmentPoverty alleviation, inadequate liberation policy, and dedicated to the peopleleatherIndustry etc.LivelihoodLosePoorThere was a prejudice from the peasant class of the former peasant status.Mankichi Saikou,Seiichiro SakamotoPlay a central role1922 (Taisho 11nd year)Nationwide companyWas formed[45].

Women's liberation movement

The liberation of women is shouted,Waitress-Department storeClerkbusGirlTelephone operator-theaterGuide ・Hairdresser-clerk-Japanese,English Oftypist-Interpreter-Babysitter-Caretaker-DoctorWork in societyOccupational ladyincreased.

General electionSince the target of the exercise was only men, female activists aiming to improve the status of women appeared.[46],New Women's AssociationWas established. Also,High school,UniversityThe number of female students going on to higher education has increased[10].

Korea annexation issue

Third movementByGovernor-General of KoreaSo farConstitutional police systembyMartial ruleReview,OnenessとKorean Peninsula OfModernizationWith the goalCultural politicsIt was changed to.Koreans to escape povertyForeign landからInlandStowaway toKoreans in JapanConflicts with indigenous people and social unrest have become social problems due to the increase in the number of people.

Taisho Buddhist Movement

Buddhism was modernized under the influence of Western thought, and it became Buddhist thought.Western philosophyA Buddhist modernization policy was implemented to integrate the two.There was a monk's suffrage movement from the end of the Meiji era to the Taisho era.Political activity of monks is activeGiro Senoo New Buddhist Youth AllianceWas formed.Buddhist political groups actively engage in social movements, but they were suppressed by the military in the prewar period of the Showa period.At Tokyo Imperial UniversityIndian philosophySpecialized department1917 It was established in (Taisho 6).Inoue EnryōBuddhistsuperstitionDenyApparitionThere was research.1924 (Taisho 13nd year)Taisho Shinshu OkurakyoThe compilation of is started. [47]

Chronological Table

1912 (Taisho first year)
May 7,Emperor Meijidemise,Crown Prince YoshihitoIs practiced by the 123rd emperor.It was changed from the Meiji era to the Taisho era.Emperor MeijiGreat funeral ceremony.Nori NogiArmy generalCouple Martial deathTo do.Keitaro,3st Katsura CabinetEstablished.Constitutional Advocacy Association formed.Thermal power generationPull outHydropowerThe amount is number one.FriendshipFormation[48].. This yearRepublic of ChinaIn the year whenRepublic of ChinaIt is the same year as the first year of the Republic of China.
1913 (Taisho 2th year)
Taisho Political Change(First Katsura CabinetResignation),The 1st Yamamoto Gonnohye CabinetEstablished.The United States of America OfCaliforniaでImmigration Land LawEstablished.Takarazuka Revue (laterTakarazuka Revue)birth.
1914 (Taisho 3th year)
Kagoshima OfSakurajimaIs largeeruptiondo itOsumi PeninsulaAnd land continuation.By external powerSiemens scandalDiscovered.Emperor Taisho's coronation celebration "Tokyo Taisho Expo"Begin. "Headband song"Fashion.Japan's firstDomestic carDebut.World War Ioutbreak,Japan-UK AllianceBecause ofGerman EmpireToDeclaration of war,AlliesJoin a member.Tokyo StationOpening of business.MitsukoshiKimono store is the first in JapanDepartment storeDeclared and built a modern store with elevators and escalators.
1915 (Taisho 4th year)
Japan Republic of China OfYuka ShikaiTo the administration21 articles against ChinaRequest.12th House of Representatives general electionでRuling partyIs overwhelming[49]..Election interference occurs.1th National Secondary School Championship Baseball TournamentHeld.Emperor TaishoCoronation.Tokyo Stock ExchangeAnd unprecedented volume.
1916 (Taisho 5th year)
Yoshino SakuzoBut"Central public opinion"so"democracyProposed.Natsume SosekiDied.
1917 (Taisho 6th year)
May 4,13th House of Representatives general election(165 seats of Seiyukai, 121 seats of Kenseikai, 35 seats of Kuomintang, 60 seats of independents).Russian Revolution..With the United States on Japanese interests in ChinaIshii-Lansing AgreementConclusion.
1918 (Taisho 7th year)
Siberian troops.1918 US uproar.Konosuke Matsushita Bifurcated socketFor sale.Suzuki MiyoshiBut"Red BirdFirst issue.World War IThe end.Spanish coldEpidemic expansion (first wave).Warrior alley Miyazaki"New village"Constructed.University decreePromulgation.Tokio Marine Buildingcarry out.
1919 (Taisho 8th year)
Paris peace conferenceHeld.May 3ToKorean PeninsulaでThird movement.
May 5ToRepublic of ChinaでMay Fourth Movement.MoscowでCominternFounding competition.May 7,Kanjoko case.CalpisReleased.Election law amendment.Held a national universal suffrage tournament. "Painopainopai(Tokyo section) ”fashion.
1920 (Taisho 9th year)
League of NationsEstablished.Amako Port Incident.New Women's AssociationEstablished.The first medical condition of Emperor Taisho is announced.Ueno ParkThe first in Japanmay Day.May 5,14th House of Representatives general election(278 seats of Seiyukai, 110 seats of Kenseikai,KMT29 seats ,, 47 independent seats), 1stCensus(Total population 7698, inland 8379).Meiji JinguConstruction work is done.May 11, Yukio Ozaki, Tsuyoshi Inukai, Saburo Shimada and others formed the Universal Suffrage Alliance for Political Innovation.
1921 (Taisho 10th year)
Zenjiro Yasudaassassination.Takashi Hara assassination case.Prince Hirohito's visit to EuropeImplementation andregentInauguration to.Motoko Hani OfJiyu GakuenWas founded.Spanish coldThe end of infection.
1922 (Taisho 11th year)
Washington ConferenceHeld, (Four-Power Treaty,Nine-Power Treaty,Washington Navy Disarmament Treaty).
Yamagata Yuho-Mori OgaiDied.Osaka-Nagoya city-YawataPublic sectorWorker demo.
Soviet UnionEstablished.
CominternAs Japan branchToshihiko Sakai-Yamakawa Hitoshi Japan Communist PartyFormed.
ア イ ン シ ュ タ イ ンCome to Japan.
1923 (Taisho 12th year)
Great Kanto Earthquake,National Spirit Promotion Niseki Suru Rescript] Is promulgated. "Boatman song"Fashion.Marunouchi Buildingcarry out.Kameido Incident.Gansu incident.Toranomon Incident.
1924 (Taisho 13th year)
Japanese Immigration Law US CongressEstablished with.Prince HirohitoKunimiyaQueen Yoshiko (laterEmpress Kasumi) And married, Queen YoshikoCrown PrincessBecomes15th House of Representatives general election(Three guardiansBig win,Constitutional society151 seats,Seiyukai105 seats,Innovation club30 seats,Seiyuhonto Party109 seats,Independent69 seats),Metric systemImplementation.Koshien Stadiumcarry out.Women's suffrageThe acquisition period formation alliance is formed.Second Constitutional Movement.
1925 (Taisho 14th year)
Public Security ActEnactment.
Common election lawEnactment.
Soviet-Japanese Basic TreatyConclusion.
The Japanese governmentSoviet UnionIs nationally recognized.
Japan's first radio broadcast.
1926 (Taisho 15 / Showa XNUMX)
May 11st Wakatsuki Cabinet(Reijiro WakatsukiPrime Minister,Constitutional societyCabinet) established.Labor Peasant PartyFormed.KoreaでJune 6th Movement.Japan Broadcasting CorporationEstablished.May 12, Emperor Taisho demise, and along with that, Prince Hirohito practiced as the 124th emperor.Kobun incident.. Same dayShowaChanged to.

Comparison table with the Christian era

TaishoFirst year2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
AD1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921
Zodiac signsRenziYin Water OxJia YinMaidenBingchenYin Fire SnakeNoonYin Earth GoatComplaintRooster
Taisho11 12 13 14 15
AD1922 1923 1924 1925 1926
Zodiac signsSkyGuihaiKoshiOtsuyuBing Yin
First year and last year period
First year of the Taisho era (1912): July 7-December 30 <12 days>
Taisho 15 (1926): January 1st-December 1th <12 days>

Evaluation of the Taisho era

The one that bears the Taisho era

Company

Place name (public facility)

Theme park

Cultural work name

Products

Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Northern and Northern Dynasties OfNorth morningIncluding the era name of.When excluded, it is the 229th.In addition, it is the 238th when excluding the era name only for the Southern Court.

Source

  1. ^ World Encyclopedia XNUMXnd Edition "Taisho Era"
  2. ^ "July 45 | Taisho and Kaigen: History of Japan". 2020/8/30Browse.
  3. ^ "Meiji" is the XNUMXth honesty = the original era that was not selected, the most is XNUMX times, Jiji.com, February 2019, 02, 02:15.
  4. ^ "The man who invented "Showa" and Ogai Mori's obsession that influenced "Reiwa"". Contemporary businessKodansha (January 2019, 5). 2021/2/10Browse.
  5. ^ The first is1912 (Taisho 12st year) From December to the following year3st Katsura CabinetThe overthrow movement was held in various places around Tokyo.The second is1924 (Taisho 13) AprilKiyoura CabinetHe launched a movement to overthrow and demanded reform of the party cabinet, universal suffrage, and the House of Lords.
  6. ^ These two people who are the fighting spirit of the political party sideRepublic of ChinaHe affirmed Japan's privilege in the "21 demands" against. (Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959, page 15)
  7. ^ Translation of democracy (Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959, p. 14)
  8. ^ "Meiji Jingu Shrine and Postwar Reconstruction”. Meiji Jingu Respect Society. 2020/11/29Browse.
  9. ^ Yoshihisa Saraki "Visit the Taisho Era, the Original Scenery of Heisei Japan" "Taisho Generation" (Sankei Shimbun, 2002, pp. 178-181, Meiji People and Death Items
  10. ^ a b c "Cosmetic Culture" No. 8 "Taisho Modern" Paula Research Institute of Beauty and Culture, 2015
  11. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 190 pages
  12. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 193 pages
  13. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 196 pages
  14. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 202 pages
  15. ^ Shigeki Toyama, Seiichi Imai, Akira Fujiwara "Showa History" [New Edition] Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 355> 1959 Page 16
  16. ^ a b c d "World Encyclopedia" (Heibonsha) "Taisho" item
  17. ^ "Illustrated Japanese History Handbook" p. 253
  18. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 225 pages
  19. ^ 1925 The newspaper (Taisho 14) published a critical commentary on the Peace Preservation Law and opposed it head-on in the editorial. In the "editorial" the law is "Human rights violationHe argued that it was "human rights suppression" and that even the lives and ideas of the people would be subject to crackdowns, leading to no freedom of assembly and association.The background to the enactment of the law was that it was considered as a policy to curb the rise of social movements and socialist movements after World War I and the Russian Revolution.AmericaIt is believed that the movement of global security legislation, including the Anarchist Control Law, had an effect. (Narita) Ryuichi "Taisho Democracy" Series Modern History of Japan ④ Iwanami Shoten <Iwanami Shinsho 1045> 2007 pp. 210-211
  20. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 200 pages
  21. ^ a b "9% of human damage is concentrated in Tokyo and Yokohama: Looking back on the Great Kanto Earthquake". Nippon Tocom (September 2019, 8). 2020/11/29Browse.
  22. ^ From Taisho to Showa Boys and Girls Japanese History Pages 202-207
  23. ^ Japanese History (Kadokawa Manga Learning Series) Taisho 71 pages
  24. ^ "Meiji / Taisho / Showa Life (14) Taisho Life and Culture", page XNUMX, Shiobunsha
  25. ^ Shueisha Learning Manga Japanese History Taisho Era Taisho Democracy Page 125
  26. ^ Ayako Ehara-Hiroko Ishikawa"Commercial Study of Cooking Education from the Viewpoint of Home Economics Textbooks (Part 2) -Taisho Period-", Home Economics Magazine, Vol. 37, No. 1, Japan Home Economics Society, 1986, pp. 67-75.(From page 72)
  27. ^ Kenichi Shindo "What kind of fried food do you like?" Immoral gourmet "that makes you feel uncomfortable"Asahi ShimbunMorning edition dated August 2014, 8,Weekend be2 page
  28. ^ Naoki Hashimoto (October 2016, 4). “Changing Japanese food 6 "Western food" story". Food Education for Adults Dr. Food Education Dry Lecture.As of August 2017, 3オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2017/3/20Browse.
  29. ^ Makiko Nagatomo. “Western food". Kyoto City Tourism Association. 2020/8/9Browse.
  30. ^ "Chapter 5 Modern (Meiji to Showa Prewar) -Western and Japanese food". 2013 Faculty of Economics Seminar Conference Report Paper History of Japanese Food Culture. Matsuyama University.As of August 2016, 8オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2017/3/20Browse.
  31. ^ Tomohiko Kimura (May 2011, 5). “History of our school No. 8 Taisho era and old junior high school". Naniwa High School / Junior High School.As of August 2016, 8オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2017/3/20Browse.
  32. ^ "Croquette test”. Japan Croquette Association. As of June 2016, 6オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2017/3/20Browse.
  33. ^ [1]
  34. ^ Yoshihisa Saraki "I visited the Taisho era, the original view of Heisei Japan" "Taisho generation" (Sankei Shimbun, 2002, pp. 148-151, 3 Taisho era foods-Items of the era when "Tomorrow is also croquette"
  35. ^ "Prewar Japan not listed in textbooks" p. 55
  36. ^ Japanese History (Kadokawa Manga Learning Series) Taisho 74 pages
  37. ^ Boys and Girls Japanese History From Taisho to Showa 224 pages
  38. ^ Japanese History (Kadokawa Manga Learning Series) Taisho 152 pages
  39. ^ From Taisho to Showa Boys and Girls Japanese History Pages 224-225
  40. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 228 pages
  41. ^ Living in the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa eras (37) XNUMX pages of living and culture in the Taisho era.Shiobunsha is the publisher
  42. ^ Japanese History (Kadokawa Manga Learning Series) Taisho 153 pages
  43. ^ "Record of the "Spanish flu" epidemic", Heibonsha Toyo Bunko, 2008, p.104. Diet Digital Library "Cold fashion"
  44. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 212 pages
  45. ^ World and Japan (new edition, junior edition, history of Japan) 215 pages
  46. ^ Takayoshi Matsuo, "History of Japan, Vol. 17, Taisho Era-Taisho Democracy," pages 118-120, items for the advancement of cities and women
  47. ^ "Illustrated Buddhism in One Book", page 73, published by Narumi-do
  48. ^ Manga Japanese History Modern Edition War and Democracy.200 pages written by Shotaro Ishinomori
  49. ^ Comrade Association153 seats, Seiyukai 108 seats,Chuseikai33 seats, Kuomintang 27 seats,Okuma Haku Supporters Association12 seats, 48 ​​independent seats
  50. ^ Takayoshi Matsuo "History of Japan Vol. 17 Taisho Era-Taisho Democracy" Page 15 Upper 2 frames Shueisha
  51. ^ Yoshihisa Saraki "I visited the original scenery of Heisei Japan in the Taisho era" Page 216, lines 10 to 17

References

  • Yoshihisa Saraki "I visited the original scenery of Heisei Japan in the Taisho era"
  • Takayoshi Matsuo"History of Japan Vol. 17 Taisho Era-Taisho Democracy"
  • Ryuichi Narita "Taisho Democracy"
  • Gakushuin University Museum "Taisho era to read with postcards"
  • Kazuo Higo"History of Boys and Girls in Japan From Taisho to Showa"

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