Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

🍴 | [Basic] Thorough explanation of the types of miso!Classification by origin


写真 

[Basic] Thorough explanation of the types of miso!Classification by origin

 
If you write the contents roughly
The areas around Ehime, Yamaguchi, and Hiroshima across the Seto Inland Sea are where the rice miso area and the wheat miso area intersect.
 

The ingredients for miso are soybeans, jiuqu, and salt, which are very simple, but there are many types of miso in a bite.original… → Continue reading

 Japan Miso Press

It is the only miso specialty paper in Japan that conveys the splendor of the traditional Japanese food culture, Miso. In cooperation with the WEB, we are disseminating the people, things, and things that we meet in "Miso Kado 365 days" to the next generation and to the world.


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

miso

Characters contained in this item"bass'It is,operating system,ブ ラ ウ ザThe display varies depending on the environment such as.

miso(Miso) issoy,Rice,wheatEtc.穀物TosaltmaltIn additionfermentationLet me makeFermented foodIt is one of the traditional Japanese foods.Japanese cuisineIt is also known outside Japan as a representative ingredient of (Japanese food)[1].PasteOften in the form of a liquid seasoningSoy sauceIt is more viscous than.

Overview

Food science,AnthropologyIn general, Japanese miso isSoy sauceAs well asSoy sauceOut of (Hishio/Jean)Grain sauceIt is classified as (Kokusho). General miso is unique to Japan,East Asia,Southeast AsiaBecause of its similarity, soybean paste, which is a paste-like fermented seasoning made from soybeans and other beans and grains existing in various parts of Japan, may be included in miso. For example, in ChinaPea soy sauce, South Korea OfGochujangOften in JapanChili misoAnd so on.

The main raw material is soybeans, but there are many different types due to differences in grains and koji. On grainAspergillus oryzaeOf soybeans by mixing and fermenting koji and salt in which koji molds such asproteinIs easily digested and decomposed,TasteIs the origin ofamino acidIs released in large quantities. When the koji derived from grains increasesStarch sugarThe sweetness increases and the soybeans increase the taste of amino acids. Depending on the region and type, such as bean miso, rice miso, and barley miso depending on the raw materialRed miso,White miso, Combined miso (Mixed miso) Etc.

Since ancient times, it has been the mainproteinIs the source. AlsoNon-staple foodNowadays, with abundant ingredients, it may be considered as a seasoning,Edo PeriodBefore the middle stage, it was treated like a "side dish". Even today, "Okamiso", "Negiso Miso", and "Peanut Miso"Kanayama Temple Miso・Pork miso (Andan Soo)・Fish miso・Magnolia misoThere are many processed miso products such as this, and it is one of the essential ingredients for Japanese cuisine. Especially in recent yearsSlow foodWith the Japanese food boom, the goodness of miso is being reviewed again.

Many years of experience show that miso is a versatile food product during the Edo period.Book breakfast bookIt is described in theMiso SoupWas said to have killed a doctor since then[2][3].. Research on health effects has been conducted since the latter half of the 20th century.

原料

  • soy
  • salt
  • malt -Add rice malt to soybeanRicemiso, Added malted rice to soybeanswheatmisoFerment with soybean maltbeansmisoVarious depending on the area穀物Koji made from is used.

  Rice miso is generally distributed.

ingredient

Reference value of the nutritional value of miso

The actual nutritional value is a reference value because it varies depending on many factors such as the growing environment of the raw material soybean, the variety, the strains participating in fermentation, and the amount of auxiliary material added.

Miso contains the following ingredients[6].

History

起源

There are two theories about the origin of miso[7].

  • Chinese tradition
    Ancient chineseSoy sauceIs the rootEnvoyThe theory that it is said that it came through China by[8].
The etymology also changed from unsoy sauce, which means "things that have not yet become soy sauce," to miso, miso, and miso in the Heian period.
In the 701 Taiho Ritsu, unsoy sauce appears as a taxable object, and there is also a description of the title of "main soy sauce" that manages soy sauce.[7].
  • Japan's original theory
    The prototype of Japanese miso has a long historyYayoi PeriodThere is a theory that it is different from the current miso that uses beans, but it is similar to fish sauce[9]. In JapanJomon PeriodからSalt makingIt is believed that salted foods such as soy sauce were made. From the late Jomon periodYayoi PeriodTraces of salted grains were found from the ruins[7].Kofun periodFrom now on, the technology of koji fermentation is added.
The first thing that goes on to the origin of the current misoNara periodIs. There is a record of a food called "Misau" (Misau / Misho: meaning soybeans with beans still remaining) in the literature at that time. It is also written as "Suesho" and "Great treasure"(Great treasureNew Year (701 ))of"DaizenIn the article, it is written as "Suesho". You can already see the characters of miso and miso.Kyo FujiwaraFrom the ruins (around 700 years)DormitoryAssuming that (the government office in charge of breeding official horses, etc.) requested soy sauce and soy sauce from the food official, the front is "Shokei Imamata Useful Jiàng" and the back is "Oisue Soy Sauce. A wooden tablet with the words "Moryo" has been excavated.[10].. It is said that this unsoy sauce or soy sauce changed to miso, miso, and miso.Japanese name"(Around 934) and"Dust bag"(Around 1264-1287) is written in the dictionary. Miso at this time was preserved with beans and other grains, rather than seasoning.Preserved FoodsIt was picked up and eaten.Natural grassIt is in,Hojo TokiyoriHojo NobutokiHowever, the anecdote that only the miso left in the kitchen was used as a side dish to drink sake is due to this historical background. As a seasoning made from soybeans, at that timeSalted nattoWas mainly used.

Muromachi Period

Muromachi PeriodAt that time, miso developed in various places.Sengoku periodMainly toBranWas used as a raw material,Military resources(Food), Which is useful as a processed productPotato ropeIt was a valuable source of nutrition for soldiers, including[11].. The remnants areMagnolia misoIt is also transmitted as such. Each placeSengoku warlordMiso making has come to be seen as one of the important economic policies.

Edo Period

A variety of miso was produced with different material ratios and different aging methods, reflecting the climate and climate of each region.

Meiji Era

Meiji EraTypical miso brewing period was about 1-3 years. The Japanese dictionary of the Meiji era, "Sea of ​​words] Lists the following three types of miso. According to the description, the beans and koji of the material were different between red miso and white miso at that time.

  • White miso-Peel the beans and make them with white jiuqu. The color is white and sweet.
  • Red miso-made from white soybeans. The color is red.
  • Tama miso-Do not crush the beans with a mortar, chop them with a kitchen knife, wrap them in straw and let them age. It was said to be inferior.

Steamed or boiled soybeans are crushed into dumplings, wrapped in straw and hung as miso balls under the eaves, and then aged with Bacillus subtilis, natto bacterium and mold, and then mixed with salt water. But it remains in various parts of the region. Also, the method of making miso balls and preparing miso is on the Korean Peninsula.DoenjangSee also in. Already in the Edo periodBook breakfast book"There is something called Tamami miso. Boiled soybeans are half-boiled and crushed with a kitchen knife to make them coarse and fine. Connect this to the bottom of the eaves and use it over the years. This is a low quality product. Or use boiled soybeans and mix it with koji and salt to make rice bran. This is the lowest quality product. Store for a long time. I like the people below because it doesn't rot. "[Annotation 1] a.

At the end of the Meiji eraJapanese ArmyGoro Kawamura (founder), who worked at the brewery, devised a miso fast brewing method that controls the function of the jiuqu by controlling the temperature. The brewing time can be reduced to several months. At that time, it became popular throughout the country along with the Sendai miso brewing method that was mainstream in Tokyo.[12].

Until the end of the Meiji era, tools for crushing miso's raw beansMortarBecause it was a pestle and could not be completely crushed, the beans and fragments remained in the shipped miso before use.MortarI crushed the grains with and strained them with "Misokoshi" before using them. Eventually, when miso production was mechanized, miso was machined before shipping, and "strained miso" and "strained miso" were sold, which saves the trouble of straining and straining each at home. It was after the introduction of the miso straining machine that the smooth paste-like miso that came to be sold today was introduced, but the custom of using miso in a mortar remained after the war. It is argued that the strained miso is inferior in taste, and even now, "grain miso" that is not strained is on sale,Kagoshima OfAmami cuisineThere are some areas that use it as it is.

Taisho era

In 1926 (Taisho 15), "The latest soy sauce miso brewing method" by Kenjiro Tsugano, Brewing Criticism Company was published. This book is available in the Digital Library of the National Diet Library. Understand how to make soy sauce miso at that time[13].

Showa period

In prewar Tokyo, early-made Sendai miso (Hayasen) based on the miso fast-brewing method developed by Kawamura became popular.Second World WarSome have developed into a national miso union system (all taste system) under food control.distributionIt became the standard manufacturing method for miso[12].. In addition, as a result of trying the brewing method focusing on temperature in various places, during the war1944 (19th year of Showa) Eizo Nakata (Maruman (Miso production)The founder) developed the Nakata-style rapid brewing method, which promoted the optimization of temperature control during brewing. It has become possible to set the brewing time to 20 days. This fast brewing method, along with Nakata's Shinshu miso brewing method, became widespread throughout the country after the war.

Until the latter half of the Showa 30's, many farmers made their own miso at home in rural areas, and the number of homemade miso decreased with the period of high economic growth in the 40's.[14].. However, for the next 20 years, I bought a miso called "Miso" and fermented and aged at home.[14].

1970 eraUntil the 40s, a grocery store (Liquor store,Mikawaya)EtcSoy sauceAnd miso were sold by weight from barrels, but due to changes in distribution, the sales by weight have disappeared and are replaced by those in packages such as bags and plastic containers.Conventionally, when packing in a bagAdditiveAsPotassium sorbateWas used, but nowalcohol(Ethyl alcohol) Is added in 2-3%. This sterilizes salt-tolerant yeast and produces it by fermentation.carbon dioxideIt is possible to prevent expansion due to. The one that has not been adjusted is called raw miso, and salt-tolerant yeast is still active.

In the skill test system, which is a national qualification from the latter half of 1979 (Showa 54)[15],Miso manufacturing technicianLevel 1 and Level 2 exams have begun[16].. It ensures the transfer of miso manufacturing skills. Level 1 has 7 years or more of work experience, or 2 years or more of work experience after passing Level 2, and Level 2 has 2 years or more of work experience. The subjects are miso manufacturing method, microorganisms and enzymes, general chemistry, electricity, related regulations, safety and health, and there is a practical test.

modern

Today in HokkaidoOtoko FumuraFrom OkinawaYonaguni TownUntil then, there are manufacturers in all regions of Japan. It can be inferred that it can be manufactured without such advanced technology and large capital investment.[Source required]..Even within the same grain soy sauce, it is concentrated in a specific areaSoy sauceIt is also a difference from manufacturing. There are many manufacturers, and like other foods, products are becoming more multifunctional and differentiating.[Source required]..Not just the difference in materialssoup stockIncludedcalciumWe sell products with the addition of such as. Miso that is placed on the table, such as "Take Miso Kake Miso," is also popular. Since 2000 (12), the shipment volume of Miso has decreased monotonically, and in 2015 (27) it has fallen by nearly 2000% compared to 12 (2).[17].. Since 2000 (Heisei 12), the shipment has been less than a quarter only at department stores.[18].

August 2009 Miso sommelier system established[19], The basis for the spread of Miso has been established, but the decrease in consumption has not been stopped.

Currently, "miso" ismiso,Miso Soup TheMiso SoupAs a result, people outside Japan are familiar with it as Japanese.[20].

Kind of miso

Miso isYESIs referred to as "miso" and is classified as follows depending on the main material.

  • Miso
    • Rice miso-Fermented and aged soybean and rice.
    • Miso-Miso-Fermented and aged soybeans and barley or barley.
    • Bean miso-Fermented and aged soybeans.
    • Mixed miso-A mixture of the above miso. Or other miso.

In addition, it is also classified into red miso, white miso, and light-colored miso according to the difference in color due to the manufacturing method.

Red miso and white miso

Depends on soybean and koji protein and sugarMaillard reactionCauses the miso to be colored. When a lot of strongly steamed soybeans are used and aged at high temperature for a long period of time, the color becomes darker and becomes red miso. On the other hand, soybeans that have been boiled and flushed with sugar and protein are mixed with a large amount of pearled rice and uncolored jiuqu, and aged for a short period of time to make white miso. Since the aging period of white miso is short, some of the white miso has white particles such as wheat. Red miso, which has a long aging period, tends to have a high salt concentration for storage, but Edo sweet miso, which is a red miso that finishes aging at high temperature in a very short period of time, has a low salt concentration and is sweet.[21].. In the middle, there is light-colored miso represented by Shinshu miso, which is popular nationwide.

In general, red miso has a high salt concentration and is salty, and has a long aging period, so it is rich. White miso has a low salt concentration and is made from jiuqu.SugarMore sweet. Red misoTohoku region(Rice and beans) ・Chukyo areaIt is made mainly of (beans). Beans are mainly made of red miso, because beans have a low sugar content and a large amount of protein, which is a material of amino acids. In some parts of the Chukyo area, including black Hatcho Miso, it is called red miso, and the miso soup is called.It's redCall it.

Characteristics and regions of rice miso, soybean miso, and wheat miso

Nationally, the common miso is rice miso, and soybean miso (red) is made only in the Chukyo area. The color of rice miso is diverse, including yellow, yellowish white, and red. When the rice miso is light-colored, boiled soybeans are generally used, but steamed soybeans are used for rice miso that is fairly reddish. In addition, miso, which uses more rice jiuqu, tends to have a shorter aging period. With white miso of riceShinshu Miso-Saikyo MisoIs typical of rice with red misoTsugaru miso,Sendai misoIs typical.Saikyo miso has a strong sweetness, and Sendai miso has a strong spiciness.Tsugaru miso has a unique umami taste, and Shinshu miso has various characteristics such as a light taste.Areas where rice miso is consumed a lot are the Kanto Koshinetsu Tohoku region and Hokkaido (entire eastern Japan).Hokuriku region,KinkiIs. In addition, among the prefectures of Japan, the number one household consumption of miso isNaganoIn addition, Nagano Prefecture is by far the best in terms of production volume.OyakiThere are also local specialty products.

Miso miso accounts for about 11% of the production,Kyusyu,ChugokuWestern,ShikokuIn the west, wheat miso is mainly made. In northern Kanto, red miso made from barley is also made.[22].

Red miso of beans is steamed soybeans (or boiled soybeans)Bean JiuquSince it has a longer ripening period than red miso of rice, its color is dark reddish brown with a stronger reddish color and a blackish tint than red miso of rice. Compared to rice miso and wheat miso, it has less sweetness, astringency and umami, which is a major feature. Mainly consuming soybean misoChukyo areaAichi prefecture, Gifu prefectureMino regionLimited to the central and southern parts of the prefecture, the northern, middle and southern parts of Mie prefecture, and the western part of Shizuoka prefecture.In soybean miso,Hatcho MisoIs typical.

Miso nationwide

Miso is made in various parts of Japan, but each region has its own characteristics in ingredients, flavor, and color, and it is also an ingredient with a strong regional color.

Rice miso

Fermented and aged soybeans and rice. It is made in a wide area from Hokkaido to Honshu and Shikoku.

Main rice miso

Barley miso

Fermented and aged soybeans and barley or barley.It is mainly built in the Kyushu region and parts of the northern Kanto region.Wheat miso shipments have fallen below soybean miso since 2007[23].

Main wheat miso

  • - Nagasaki Prefecture
  • - Kagoshima prefecture

Bean miso

Fermented and aged soybeans only. Mainly made in Aichi prefecture.

Main soybean miso

Sotetsu Miso

With soybeans and brown riceCycadFermented and aged starch of Nori (in dialect).Nansei IslandsSpecial product.

Compounded miso

A mixture of the above miso. Or, miso with other seasonings. In particular, Koshu miso is a rare miso that spans the Kanto and central regions and uses both rice and wheat, which is rare in Japan.

Moromi miso

Fermentation of soybeans, rice, and wheat with solids remaining.Kanayamaji miso is salted in addition to the above ingredientsCucumber,eggplant,GingerIt is fermented for a short time by mixing vegetables such as.

An example of how to make handmade miso

In recent years, it has become rare to make miso at home, but it was once made by many households. Miso is relatively easy to make by yourself, and anyone can make a decent workmanship. In the Middle Ages, the expression "front miso" was born, boasting of one's own work and skill.

An example of how to make handmade miso at home is shown below.[6][Reliability required verification].

  1. Mix 1kg of rice jiuqu and 430g of salt. This is called "Shiri-kiri" and the mixture with salt is called "Shiori-kiri-koji." By saltNeisseria gonorrhoeaeIs inactivated at this pointmaltProduced by酵素group(Protease,amylase,LipaseEtc.) remain as it is, due to the action of the enzyme groupprotein,Starch,LipidAre eachamino acid,glucose,fatty acidIs decomposed into. Amino acids are delicious, glucose is sweet and salt resistantyeastDecomposes glucose to produceethanolBecomes part of the scent and is salt tolerantLactic acid bacteriaProduces a faint acidity from glucose. Insufficient salt causes germs to grow.
  2. Soak 1 kg of soybeans in water overnight, boil until soft enough, drain, crush boiled beans thoroughly, add cold to human skin to salted jiuqu and mix well. If soybeans are still hot, the enzyme loses its activity due to heat. If the boiled beans are not crushed sufficiently and mixed well with the jiuqu, the soybean protein and the enzyme of the jiuqu will not contact and react, and the amino acid decomposition will not proceed and the taste will not be obtained.
  3. Mix wellzipperAttachedpolyethylenePacked in a bag空 気(=oxygen) Well pulled out. Especially if you don't deflateNatto bacteria,MoldEtc.Miscellaneous bacteriaCauses breeding. Although barrels may be used, polyethylene bags are easier to vent and easier to manage at home. If it is a transparent polyethylene bag, it can be easily sealed and the inside condition can be confirmed. You can also stir the beans in the sealed state, or crush the uncrushed beans and jiuqu with your fingers from the top of the bag. Since aging of miso is centered on the contact reaction between the enzyme produced by koji and soybean protein, the more it is stirred and the more the beans and koji are crushed, the faster the decomposition into amino acids. Also, salt resistanceyeastbyfermentationAlong withcarbon dioxideIt is necessary to remove the gas as appropriate. When space is created, the possibility of mold growth increases. Even if mold grows, it is usually a koji mold grown from spores, so unless there is an extreme difference in color tone, it can be mixed with miso as it is in the usual case. As shown in the photo at the top of this article, the reason why the miso manufacturer piles up stone weights like mountains in miso barrels is to remove gas (air (= oxygen) and carbon dioxide generated by fermentation) by the weight of the stones. Is. When the fermentation has progressed to some extent, "turn it upside down" about once to stir. Amino acids react with glucose as fermentation progressesMaillard reactionThe color of miso gradually changes to brown. This change in color indicates the degree of amino acid production and the degree of umami.
  4. Miso is ready over the summer. Since the enzyme reaction rate depends on the temperature, if the temperature does not rise sufficiently, the enzyme cannot sufficiently decompose proteins and other substances into amino acids, and the umami is not sufficiently produced.

Health effects of miso

Presence or absence of carcinogenicity due to kojic acid

Kojic acid (Kojic acid/ Kojic acid) is in 7Food Sanitation ActWith revisionExisting additivesIs approved for use asFood additiveIs. This kojic acid is a raw material with antibacterial activity produced by aspergillus (genus Aspergillus, etc.) used in the production of miso and soy sauce.corruptionIt is an important substance that has the effect of preventing. However, to the kojic acidLiver cancerSince the danger of inducing such substances has been pointed out, the carcinogenicity of miso and soy sauce has become a problem. However, the concentration in food is very small compared to the concentration in animal tests (1 to 3% mixed diet administration). After that, a cosmetic manufacturer conducted an additional test to confirm the safety of kojic acid, and proved that the use of kojic acid as a cosmetic product had no safety problem. Miso is a food that has been ingested for a long time, and since the concentration in the food is very small, the toxicity of kojic acid is not considered to be a problem.

Lack of toxicity as Aspergillus in Jiuqu

Aspergillus(Jiuqu) is Aspergillus ( Aspergillus ) Ordinary genusImperfect bacteriaIt is a group of. this house,Japanese Aspergillus(Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus oryzae), etc.Neisseria gonorrhoeaeAs misoSoy sauce,SakeHas been used to make.Fermented foodWhile being used in the production of Aspergillus, it is a member of Aspergillus.infectionWhen it grows on food or something that causes illnessMycotoxinSome molds produce (mycotoxins) and are medically important.熱 帯からSubtropicalAspergillus flavus that inhabits the area (Aspergillus flavus) And other moldsAflatoxinIs generated,UVStronger than the irradiation offluorescenceEmit. In 1960The United KingdomTurkeyAflatoxin was discovered during analysis during mass mortality[25].. In the 1960smaltOf the fungusA. oryzae(Japanese Aspergillus) AndA. sojae(Aspergillus soybean mold) Suspected aflatoxin production, but it has been found that the function to produce aflatoxin is lost.[26].

The health benefits of soybeans

soyIt is,protein,calciumIt is important as a nutrient source because it contains a large amount of. Edible part of soybeansDry weightIn 100g, it has the nutritional value of 417kcal, water 12.5g, protein 35.3g, fat 19.0g, and carbohydrate 28.2g.[27][Reliability required verification].

In addition, it is contained in soybeansGenistein(en),Daidzein(en),Glycitein(en) Etc.IsoflavoneIs generically called soy isoflavone and is weakfemale hormoneBecause it shows actionosteoporosis,MenopauseCan be expected to be reduced[28][29][30].. Due to these effects, some soy productsFood for specified health useSome are designated as.osteoporosisPreventive effect,MenopauseIn addition to mitigationArteriosclerosisThere is also the possibility of action. Also,Breast cancer,Prostate cancerEpidemiological studies have revealed that it is also effective in preventing such diseases, especially for the isoflavone glycoside genistein.tumorIt has been found that it has the effect of suppressing angiogenesis in the body, thereby suppressing the growth of tumors.[31].

Other health benefits of soybeansSoybeans # Health effectschecking ...

The theory that it is useful for health

Made by fermentationfatty acidethyl(carboxylic acidethylester) KindgunThere is a theory that it suppresses the power of mutagens that cause. Studies have shown that people who drink miso soup more often have a lower gastric cancer mortality rate (1981 Cancer Society). In animal experimentsLung cancer,Gastric cancer,Breast cancer,Liver cancer,Colorectal cancerThe effect of suppressing miso was observed, and the higher the maturity of miso, the higher the effect. Included in misoIsoflavoneSuppresses cancer growth,ApoptosisIsoflavones may be induced by the aging of miso.GlycosideからAglyconeIt is said that it may change to a type and the effect of suppressing cancer may be further enhanced, or that bioactive substances including cancer prevention may be produced in healthy miso that is aging. ing.blood pressureIt is said that it also has a lowering effect.[3].

Also, with the aging of misoMaillard reactionOf the brown pigment produced byMelanoidinIt is,vitroThen.antioxidant effect,Active oxygenErasing activity,HeterocycleElimination of amino compounds (carcinogens)MutagenIt is said to have activity etc.[32][Reliability required verification].. Miso has excellent antioxidant capacity, and it is the same as miso.radicalMost of the capture ability is borne by melanoidin, and it is said that the darker the color of miso, the higher the ability.[33].

Skin effect

MarkoTokyo Institute of TechnologyIn collaboration with researchers in Japan, it was discovered that miso has the effect of improving skin moisturization and texture.[34].. This is the miso extract in the stratum corneumCeramideSynthesize酵素Is caused by activating[34].

Harmfulness of salt

saltIntake andGastric cancerPositive for the incidence ofcorrelationI know there is[35].. However, the risk of increasing the incidence of gastric cancer due to the salt content of miso is lower than that of the same amount of salt. Also usuallyHigh blood pressureAlthough it causes salt, miso may not raise blood pressure, which is suggested by animal experiments. Miso soybean protein seems to have a role in lowering blood pressure[36][37].

Foreign matter mixed

1979 ,National Life CenterIt is,TV commercialAnnounced that foreign substances were detected in miso from major companies that are also being used.A survey of 30 randomly purchased miso brands, from 16 brandsTick,昆虫One piece,A mouseI found some hair.Mites are easy to get on the jiuqu, insects are easy to get on the raw materialsWeevilIt was thought to be the origin.About miceSalmonellaThere is a risk of transmitting bacteria, and it is a problem considering the possibility of eating raw, and warns that sufficient consideration is required for hygiene management.[38].

Ingredients and dishes with miso

Proverbs that use miso and are associated with miso, idiomatic phrases

  • Front Miso-This is where the front side has been devised. After this is changed, it can also mean bragging.
  • The miso is salty and spicy-I'm proud of it, but it doesn't look like it to others.
  • The miso smell of miso can't be eaten-pride is something that no one else can eat.
  • Three-year miso and hibari soup-The parable of poor food and jerkiness because three-year miso is salty[42].
  • Add miso-fail and lose reputation. Lose face.
  • Miso Doctor Killing-A good source of nutrition.
  • Pay miso-ya rather than doctors
  • Miso and doctors should be old-the ones that have passed a long time are precious and good parables.
  • The older the wife and the miso, the better-the ones that have passed a long time have a smooth taste without any quarrels.
  • The salt in miso doesn't go away-it's just like miso-made salt, and even if it's invisible, it's useful and useful.
  • The house where you buy miso is not built-Miso is something you make yourself.
  • People with lots of salt and miso-excellent people with lots of precious things.
  • Stupid Three-Cup Juice-Saying that good things are too much.
  • Mine soup-Miso soup filled with vegetables that is the source of Ieyasu Tokugawa's longevity. Three kinds of roots such as radish, burdock and carrot, and five kinds such as radish leaves / onions, Chinese cabbage, cabbage and horenso.
  • Misokkasu-A person who is not considered a full-fledged person.
  • Miso tooth- Tooth decayKind of.
  • Miso and feces together-Make everything together without distinguishing between different properties.
  • Miso rots-is said to be rice bran miso. A word to mock a singer who has a bad voice or is out of tune.

Gallery

Miso patent

  • 原料 - soy,Rice,wheatBreeding / improvement. Use materials other than those listed on the left.
  • Material- Wed,saltQuality characteristics.
  • Koji- maltFunction is selected and improved.
  • Manufacturing method-Miso manufacturing process improvement.
  • Semi-prepared food- soup stockHow to add,(I.e.Save.
  • Cooked goods- Miso Soup,Miso Ramen,Miso OdenHow to provide and save.
  • Manufacturing machinery-crushing and heating equipment.
  • Offering Machines-Vending Machines.

Facility

組織

  • National Miso Industry Cooperative Association
  • Miso Central Research Institute
  • Miso Sommelier Certification Association
  • Miso soup association

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ "Tama-miso-to-unfu boiled soybeans, half-boiled, smashed, smashed, smashed, squeezed, squeezed rice After that, the binding for the rope is limited, and the connection for the past year is used. Re-most vulgar item Nari no vulgar person Aged Noku Kutsutetsu defeated by Cesarwo

Source

  1. ^ Merriam-Webster, Incorporated (October 2014, 10). “Definition of miso by Merriam-Webster" (English). Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. NovemberBrowse.
  2. ^ This breakfast book (1695)
  3. ^ a b Atsumi Watanabe "Efficacy of miso"The Journal of The Brewing Society of Japan, Vol. 105, No. 11, November 2010, 11. Pages 15-714.
  4. ^ Ministry of education "Japanese Food Standard Ingredient Table 2015 Edition (XNUMXth Edition)'
  5. ^ Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare "Japanese dietary intake standards (2015 version)'
  6. ^ a b Miso Q & A (Yamagata Prefecture Soy Sauce Miso Industry Cooperative)
  7. ^ a b c There are two theories about the origin of miso Marukawa Miso
  8. ^ "History of miso" The origin of miso Yamain Brewery
  9. ^ Japanese fermented food miso Miso history
  10. ^ Fujiwara shrine Nara Institute of Cultural Properties Asuka Museum Club
  11. ^ Takeo Koizumi, "Soy sauce, miso, vinegar is amazing" Yoshimitsu Ohashi, November 2016, 11, pp. 25-85.ISBN 9784121024084.
  12. ^ a b Founding story Hiji Miso Brewery
  13. ^ Latest soy sauce miso brewing method https://dl.ndl.go.jp/info:ndljp/pid/1020909
  14. ^ a b Seiichi Imai "Miso" Agricultural and Fishing Village Cultural Association, 2002. Page 10.
  15. ^ Proficiency test job classification and grade classification (jobs conducted by prefectural governors) Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare
  16. ^ Kazuo Miyaji,About miso manufacturing skill test Vol.75, (1980) No. 4, p.248-250. two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1915.75.248
  17. ^ Shipment quantity by type of miso
  18. ^ Shipment quantity of miso by customer (Total monthly report[Broken link]
  19. ^ Miso Sommelier Certification Association
  20. ^ Japanese food spread around the world "Miso export" (PDF)
  21. ^ Hiroshi Ito,Smell of miso Vol.71, (1976) No. 7, p.500-504. two:10.6013 / jbrewsocjapan1915.71.500
  22. ^ Miso guidebook Gunma (PDF)
  23. ^ Shipment quantity by type of miso <total of all tastes> (PDF)
  24. ^ http://yamagomiso.com/kou/
  25. ^ From the occurrence of turkey X disease to the discovery of aflatoxin Bulletin of Yamawaki Gakuen Junior College 35, 37-61, 1997-12-21,NOT 110000218344
  26. ^ Proof of non-production of aflatoxin Kikkoman HP
  27. ^ Bean nutrition table (Japan Bean Foundation Association) The data is "Japan Food Standard Table 2010".
  28. ^ Nagata, C., Takatsuka, N., et al. (2001). “Soy Product Intake and Hot Flashes in Japanese Women: Results from a Community-based Prospective Study” (Pdf). Am. J. Epidemiol. 153 (8): pp790-793. two:10.1093 / aje / 153.8.790. ISSN 0002-9262 . http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/153/8/790 NovemberBrowse.. 
  29. ^ Kronenberg, F., Fugh-Berman, A. (2002). “Complementary and alternative medicine for menopausal symptoms: a review of randomized, controlled trials.”. Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (10): pp805-813. PMID 12435217. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12435217 NovemberBrowse.. 
  30. ^ Chen Rui EastHow to use and choose supplements: Menopause: Focusing on hot flashes"Pharmacy, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2004, pp1848-4853, ISSN 0044-0035 ,NovemberBrowse.
  31. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2008, 5オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.NovemberBrowse.
  32. ^ Meiji University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Chemistry Food Functional Science Laboratory Research Outline Archived August 2012, 11, at the Wayback Machine.
  33. ^ Norio Takeuchi, Taeko Inari, Hitomi Morimoto, Mitsuyuki Mori, "Study on DPPH radical scavenging ability of misoGifu Women's University Bulletin 33,2004, 03-30-115, 122-XNUMX,NOT 110000146309
  34. ^ a b Mynavi Corporation. “Marikome announces research with Tokyo Institute of Technology Life My Navi News-". NovemberBrowse.
  35. ^ Relationship between salt and salt food intake and gastric cancer National Cancer Research Center Cancer Prevention and Screening Research Center
  36. ^ Hecker KD: Curr. Atheroscler. Rep., 3 471–478 (2001)
  37. ^ Effects of Miso Salt on Blood Pressure and Gastric Cancer (PDF) Miso Science and Technology 54(6), 327-339, 2006-11
  38. ^ Mite and insect fragments on the market "Asahi Shimbun", June 1979, 54, morning edition, 6th edition, page 12
  39. ^ Kojien5th edition
  40. ^ "Four seasons of Japanese cuisine winter" Kodansha ISBN-4 06-267454-8
  41. ^ "Seasonal ingredients Autumn/Winter vegetables" Kodansha ISBN-4 06-270136-7
  42. ^ MISO σ Miso sommelier communication Late January 2012 issue
  43. ^ Hatcho Miso Head Office/Kura (Historical Museum) Cultural Property Navi Aichi

Related item

外部 リンク

Seto Inland Sea

Seto Inland Sea(Setonaikai) isHonshuWestern,Shikoku,KyusyuSurrounded byJapanBiggestInland sea(Area is 2square kilometer). There are more than 700 islandsTeshikaiThe total length of the coastline is about 7,230km.[1],Yamaguchi ,Hiroshima,Okayama,Hyogo,Osaka,Wakayama,Tokushima,Kagawa,Ehime,Oita,FukuokaEach has a coastline.Including coastal areasSetouchiIt is also called (Setouchi), but it is not the name of the Seto Inland Sea, and the Seto Inland Sea means "Seto Inland Sea."Since ancient timesKinaiConnecting Kyushu withWest JapanProspered as the main route of.Surroundingclimate TheSeto Inland Sea climateIt is called, and it is warm and has little rainfall.

450 km east-west, 15-55 km north-south, average water depth: about 38 m[1], Maximum water depth: Approximately 105m (Toyo StraitandNaruto Strait).The Seto Inland Sea, which is the inland sea, has multiple island groups and is rich.EcosystemKnown for having.Was a doctor and a naturalistSieboldIt is a scenic spot that has been highly evaluated by many Westerners, includingSeto Inland Sea National ParkIs specified in[2].

Late 19th century1860 ,in JapanMeiji RestorationImmediately after visiting the Seto Inland Sea,Silk roadIs also the name ofGermanyPeopleGeographyA personFerdinand von Richthofen(Ferdinand Freiherr von Richthofen, 1833–1905) introduced to the world in his China Travel Diary that "there is nothing better than this in the world."[3]..It is still an area that is acclaimed as a scenic landscape.[4][5].

海域

Range defined by IHO

International Hydrographic OrganizationIn "The Boundary between the Ocean and the Sea" published by (IHO) in 1953, the Seto Inland SeaEnglishIn versionSeto Naikai or Inland Sea,FrenchIn versionMer Intérieure (Seto Naikai)The range is defined as follows:[6][7].

Range stipulated by law

The waters of the Seto Inland Sea are treated differently depending on the purpose of the decree, and the scope is defined by multiple decree.

In the following quotes, some Chinese numerals are converted to arithmetic numerals.

Watersas well as the Connected water areaLaw Enforcement Ordinance (Territorial Waters Law Enforcement Ordinance) Article 1
  • Kii Hinomisaki Lighthouse(north latitude33 degrees 52 minutes 55 seconds,east longitudeFrom 135 degrees 3 minutes 40 seconds)Cape Kamoda LighthouseLine drawn to (33 degrees 50 minutes 3 seconds north latitude, 134 degrees 44 minutes 58 seconds east longitude)
  • two Sadamisaki LighthouseFrom (33 degrees 20 minutes 35 seconds north latitude, 132 degrees 54 seconds east longitude)Sekizaki LighthouseLine drawn to (33 degrees 16 minutes north latitude, 131 degrees 54 minutes 8 seconds east longitude)
  • three Takenoko IslandFrom (33 degrees 57 minutes 2 seconds north latitude, 130 degrees 52 minutes 18 seconds east longitude)WakamatsuDokai BayLine drawn to the mouth breakwater lighthouse (33 degrees 56 minutes 28 seconds north latitude, 130 degrees 51 minutes 2 seconds east longitude)
* Internationally, this range is considered to be the Seto Inland Sea.
* At the western endKanmon StraitIt is the western end of.The entire Kanmon Straits and Dokai Bay are included in the Seto Inland Sea.
Setouchi Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law (Setouchi Law) Article 2, Paragraph 1
The following sea levels surrounded by straight lines and shores, and sea levels adjacent to them, as specified by Cabinet Order.
  • Ichi Wakayama Prefecture Kii Station from Misaki Lighthouse Tokushima PrefectureIjimaas well as the MaejimaThroughCape GamotaStraight line leading to
  • Ehime prefectureCape SadaStraight line from Sekizaki Lighthouse, Oita Prefecture
  • Yamaguchi PrefectureHinoyamaStraight line from the lower lighthouse to the Fukuoka lighthouse
* "Cabinet Order" means the following "Ordinance for Enforcement of the Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law".
* The western end is the narrowest part of the Kanmon Strait (close to the eastern end).Most of the Kanmon Straits and Dokai Bay are not included in the range of one to three.
Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law Enforcement Ordinance Article 1
  • XNUMX (Omitted) From Ehime prefecture to Oita prefectureCape TsurumiSea level surrounded by straight lines leading to
  • XNUMX (Omitted) From Yamaguchi Prefecture Lighthouse to the same prefectureTsunoshimaThe straight line leading to, the straight line from the same Sai to Fukuoka Prefecture Lighthouse, and the sea surface surrounded by the shore
* Added to the range of XNUMX to XNUMX of the Setouchi method.
Early sucking SetoAnd a considerable area outside the Kanmon Straits is included in the Seto Inland Sea.
Maritime Traffic Safety Act Enforcement Ordinance Article 1
紀伊日ノ御埼灯台(北緯33度52分55秒、東経135度3分40秒)から蒲生田岬灯台(北緯33度50分3秒、東経134度44分58秒)まで引いた線及び佐田岬灯台(北緯33度20分35秒、東経132度54秒)から関埼灯台(北緯33度16分、東経131度54分8秒)まで引いた線
* The western end is not mentioned.
Fisheries Law Enforcement Ordinance Article 27
  • A straight line from Kii Hinomisaki Lighthouse in Wakayama Prefecture to Cape Kamoda Lighthouse via Ishima and Maejima in Tokushima Prefecture
  • A straight line from Sadamisaki Lighthouse in Ehime Prefecture to Sekizaki Lighthouse in Oita Prefecture
  • A straight line from Hinoyamashita Current Signal Station in Yamaguchi Prefecture to Fukuoka Prefecture
* Almost the same as XNUMX-XNUMX of the Setouchi method.

Classification

The waters of the Seto Inland Sea

The Seto Inland Sea is composed of multiple sea areas.

"Law on territorial waters and connected waters], It is composed of the following 10 divided sea areas in order from the east side.

  1. Kii Channel
  2. Osaka Bay
  3. Harima Nada
  4. Bisan Seto
  5. Bingo Nada
  6. Hitanada
  7. Akinada
  8. Hiroshima Bay
  9. Iyo Nada
  10. Suo Nada

"Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law] Is composed of a total of 10 categories, including the following 12 categories plus the following sea areas.

  1. Bungo ChannelNorth
  2. Hibiki Nada

There is no clear baseline (boundary) that indicates the individual sea areas of the above 12 divisions.

Biota

Natural treasureIsArthropod OfHorseshoe crab, SmallWhale OfSunameli,Long-beaked dolphin(In recent yearsIse bay,Omura BayIn addition to the Seto Inland Sea, re-establishment of this species has been confirmed in various sea areas known as habitats for finless porpoises.SweetfishOver 400-500 types includingFishesInhabits.Many types are designated as natural monuments, and in addition to the horseshoe crab mentioned above, Hiroshima PrefectureMiharaUryu Island TheCephalochordateAs a habitat for the prefectureTakeharaTakasakiAwa IslandThe surrounding area was registered in 1930 as "Finless porpoise whale migratory sea level".

  • The sea sand collection business of the amphioxus became active.ShowaIt showed a significant decrease from the 30s, and was not confirmed around 60.However, it was rediscovered in the 1990s, and a smooth natural recovery has begun to be seen, probably because of improved protection measures.[8].
  • Awajima used finless porpoises rather than finless porpoises themselvesJapanese sea bassThe traditional fishing method of Japan is designated as a memorial, and it is the only example of cetacean-related designation in Japan (Marine mammalAs relatedNansei Islands OfdugongAnd only two of this example).As of 2015, this fishing method has been abolished due to the decrease in the number of finless porpoises.Finless porpoises have decreased significantly throughout the Seto Inland Sea, but in recent years large-scale herds have been reconfirmed.Osaka Bay OfKIXThe population is increasing in the surrounding area (terminalArtificial reef(Functions as)[9]..Also, Okayama prefectureUshimado Town[10] ,KitakyushuAijima[11] So, this kind of protection andObservation businessHas been enforced.

Especially for birdsJapanese MurreletIs attracting attention,NagashimaIt can be confirmed in a relatively wide range even now.

RichEelgrassThe place is also an important part of the original Seto Inland Sea ecosystem, 1960 in the 20,000s.HaA colony area exceeding the above was widely seen in this area, but as of 1978, it decreased to about 7,000 hectares.Due to various factors such as environmental pollution, no significant increase has been seen since then.[12]..In recent years, in various placesSeaweed bedIn addition to the restoration movementGeiyo IslandsHas a relatively good distribution.

In January 2015, it was a new speciesEndemic species Ofsnails"Akira gypsy moth" has been discovered[13].

Large creatures

It's hard to imagine from the current situation, but onceJapanese sea lion,A whale,ウ ミ ガ メ,sharkIt is also a major habitat of the kind and is coastal.Gray whale[14] ,Right whale,Shark,Whale shark,Great White Shark,Onite mackerel,SunfishLarge fish such as[15] ,Leatherback turtleAnd nowEndangered speciesIt is said that many large creatures have become.For exampleSuo Nada,Beppu BayThere is also an opinion that such things were a child-rearing area for cetaceans.[16]..Small scale in various parts of the Seto Inland SeawhalingThe company is established, etc.huntingFishery:Pressure andHigh economic growthRapidly expanded during the periodrevetmentCoastal development and environmental destruction, includingMarine pollutionAfter that, these animals are from the Seto Inland SeaEdo PeriodからShowa periodDecrease or region in the early daysPopulationIt has reached extinction.The endangered species mentioned above have almost disappeared, but whales of other species, for example, can still rarely enter.

  • Tosa BaySettle inBryde's whale(Balaenoptera) Was onceBungo Channel,Osaka Bay, It is said that it normally inhabited the Seto Inland Sea, and even in recent years the Geiyo Islands[17][18] ,Uwa Sea[19] There are examples that have been established for a short period of time (old stories related to many cetaceans around the Seto Inland Sea)Whale moundRemains, and in the Geiyo Islands, "Manga Japan Old Story』Introduced in the folk tale" Whale thank you "[20], The Bungo Channel has a story called "comparison of whales", which is reminiscent of the breeding behavior of whales on the sea surface.[21] However, it is unclear to what extent the past ecology of large cetaceans in these areas was).
  • Also often seen in Tosa Bay and Bungo ChannelBottlenose dolphin,Oki GondoEtc. have also been witnessed relatively frequently.Bungo Channel currently has at least bottlenose dolphins,Southern hand dolphin,Long-beaked dolphinAre believed to be settled seasonally or throughout the year[22]..Also, in recent years with the recovery of the populationHumpback whale,Minke whaleConfirmation and small stays are increasing, albeit weakly.Sperm whaleConfirmation is also especially inside the strait that connects the Pacific Ocean in both east and west.Genpei War (Responsibility and Rebellion of Toshinaga), There is also an anecdote that the auspicious sign of the battle record was foreseen using the direction of travel of the dolphin herd traveling in the Seto Inland Sea.[21].
  • In 1957, with the Akashi StraitHarima NadaTo the coupleOrcasesIt has been established for about two months until it is exterminated in consideration of the conflict with the fishery, and it is possible that there was a flock that once established in the Seto Inland Sea.[23][24] There are no observations of surviving individuals in Osaka Bay,Fin whaleIs washed ashore one after another.It is clear that whales, which seem to be large fin whales even on old records, were frequently witnessed from the ferry in the same area.blue whaleAlsoSecond World WarPreviously it was confirmed.As an aside, it is the only modern period in Japan.Bowhead whaleAn example of a stray has occurred in Osaka Bay.Omura's whaleWas certified as a new species near the waters of the Seto Inland SeaTsunoshimaAt.

Besides whalesJapanese sea lionUntil the beginning of the 20th centuryNaruto Strait[25] Found in various parts of the Seto Inland Sea, including[26],Japanese otterWas confirmed to live until 1975[27]..Also, although it is terrestrialSika deer,Japanese wild boarSince ancient times, the sight of a person swimming in the Seto Inland Sea and crossing it has been seen.

Loggerhead turtle,Green turtle[28] Although it decreased sharply, the migration is still continuing.Akashi CityBokai beach[29] Such spawning grounds are the most famous, but before the war there were such spawning grounds in various parts of the Seto Inland Sea, and even in recent years, the coast of Osaka Prefecture andAwaji IslandIt has also been confirmed[30]..However, only the Akashi coast still functions as a regular breeding ground.Leatherback turtleIs 2002[31] And 2003[32][33] Has been found in. There is information that the confirmation in 2002 was spawning, but so far the only confirmed example of spawning in Japan isAmami OshimaOnly.

Geography

terrain

Approximately 450 km east-west, 15-55 km north-south, total coastline length 7,230 km, area 23,203 km2, Average depth 38.0m, volume 8,815 billionkm3Is[1].TeshikaiThere are 0.1 islands with an outer circumference of 727 km or more.[34].Less than thatIf you include up to, it is said to be thousands, but it is not clear because it depends on the standard of "island".

The overall tendency is shallower toward the east.It has a complex structure in which wide areas called Nada and Bay are connected by narrow waterways called Seto and Straits.The waterway part is strongtrendBy the bottom of the seaerosionHas been done.The deepest part is thought to be about 195m in the Hoyo Strait (Hayasui Seto) and about 200m in the Naruto Strait.

Strong tide

The Seto Inland SeaThe tide differenceKnown for being big.This becomes more noticeable as you go deeper, and in the innermost partHitanadaIn the surrounding area, the tidal range is more than 2m.For this reason, the tides of the Seto Inland Sea are extremely strong, and in some places they flow like rivers.Due to this strong current, "Naruto Whirlpools"Has occurred.In addition, this strong current constantly winds up nutrients on the seabed,PhytoplanktonIt is believed that it promotes the growth of.In other words, the Seto Inland Sea is richFishing groundOne of the reasons for this is this large tidal range.

Major islands

There are 3,000 large and small islands in the Seto Inland Sea, including uninhabited islands and small islands with a circumference of only a few meters.

The main islands of the Seto Inland Sea are shown below.

Major inflow rivers

Basin area 1,000 km2The above inflow water system (river) is as follows

Major coastal cities

bridge

Honshu and Shikoku道路-TrainOn the Seto Inland Sea as a bridge or road connecting withHonshu-Shikoku connecting bridgeThere are the following three routes.

Route


The main islands of the Seto Inland Sea
Island names <,> on the map indicate their location
Full screen view with detailed location and links to articles Marks indicate the location of the island or the location near the center of the island

History

Prehistoric

Setouchi Ward, which is a geological province that extends almost parallel to the Sanin and Hokuriku Wards, is mainlyMiddle and NewMainly belonging toQuaternaryIt is roughly divided into those belonging to, and there is an inconsistent surface between the two groups.This suggests that there were two predecessor seas in the Seto Inland Sea, the former beingFirst Seto Inland Sea, The latter isSecond Seto Inland SeaIs called[35].

Neogene

The first Seto Inland SeaCenozoicNeogeneMid-termMioceneFormed around[35]..This sea is the presentHiroshimaFrom the northNaganoIt extends to the south, about 500km east-west and about 80km north-south, and is thought to have been the same archipelago as the current Seto Inland Sea.[36]..The first Setouchi Group produces fossil communities consisting of terrestrial mammals and marine mammals.For the Hirata fauna(English edition(Rhinoceros) AndGomphotherium(Proboscideans) And other large herbivores are included, and the existence of large carnivores that preyed on them is also certain.Tokari animalsDesmostylus(Desmostylia) AndYurino Delphis(A whale)andpinnipedIs included.It is suggested that terrestrial mammals have a high degree of commonality with European and Asian fauna, and that warm and water-rich forests have spread.On the other hand, marine mammals are composed of northern animals.[37].

The first Setouchi Sea landed and disappeared at the end of the Miocene (about 1000 million years ago) due to the uplift of the entire Setouchi Ward.In the land eraPlioceneIt lasted more than 500 million years until the beginning[36]..During this period, there was a remarkable change in structural movement.It became difficult to distinguish the four sub-districts that were clear during the time of the First Seto Inland Sea, and the wave-like movement in the north-south direction became dominant instead of the structural movement in the direction of Honshu that had been predominant until then.[35]..In response to this structural movement, Southwest Japan began to subside again, and lakes and marshes began to form.[36].

Quaternary

About 150 million years ago, seawater from the Pacific Ocean flowed into the Kinki region through the Kii Channel, and the second transgression about 130 million years ago created the Second Seto Inland Sea.Osaka UniversityDiscovered on Toyonaka CampusToyotamaphimeiaThe fossil of (Toyota Mahimeia Machicanensis) dates back about 100 million years after the birth of the Second Seto Inland Sea.[36].

Also, the earth around this timeIce ageInterglacialCycle repeatsIce ageIn the second Seto Inland Sea, it was in the middle ofCoastal terraceWill be formed in large numbers.From such terracesNaumann ElephantFossil is produced.EventuallyUlm glacial periodWhen the sea level began, the sea level became 130-140 meters lower than it is now, and the Seto Inland Sea became land again.At the end of the glacial period, sea level rose (Jomon Kaishin).About 9000 years ago, sea level was about 20-25 meters lower than it is today.[36], About 7000 years ago, above current sea levelOkayama UniversityThe coastline was approaching near the Tsushima campus[38]..The current Seto Inland Sea is generally a reduced version of the Second Seto Inland Sea.[35].

Early Jomon periodShell moundIs produced in Okayama Prefecture, and it is suggested that the Jomon people at that time used the marine resources of the Seto Inland Sea to live their lives.[38].Setouchi CityOf the shell mound excavated fromYamato Shijimi The14CIt is suggested that it is about 8500 years old from the XNUMXs, and it is speculated that the sea began to spread on the plains at that time.In addition, the upper part of the shell mound inhabits more offshore than Yamato Shijimi.Oyster,Blood clamIt can be read that the dietary habits of the Jomon people were changing as the transgression progressed.[39]..The number of shell mounds has decreased since the middle of the Jomon period, but from this time on, micro-highlands have been formed by earth and sand, and the land will be used as a settlement later.[38].

Recorded history

Ancient times

Since ancient times, the Seto Inland Sea has functioned as a major transportation artery.The thing is"Wei Zhajin”And“Japanese calligraphy"ofDomestic productionAt the stageIzanamiIt can be inferred from the fact that the islands produced by the islands are lined up along the Seto Inland Sea route.

In ancient timesSettsu OfSumiyoshi TaishaOf the ancient port under the jurisdiction ofSumiyoshitsuWas the starting pointEnvoy,EnvoyThe Seto Inland Sea is the god of the sea because it was the route ofSumiyoshi OkamiSumiyoshi Shrine, which enshrines Sumiyoshi God, was built in various places under the influence of Sumiyoshi Taisha.Also around this time alreadyTomonouraBecause it is located in the center of the Seto Inland Sea, it prospered as a port town waiting for Shio.

Nara periodOn land transportation route (Sanyo road,Nankaido) Has been improved, but there are records that foreign envoys passed through the Seto Inland Sea, and it seems that the Seto Inland Sea route was still being used.

Heian periodIn the medium termGen Saga OfWatanabe TsunaAs a builderSettsu OfWatanabe PartyIs in the Seto Inland SeaNaval forceBecame a builder of a clanMr. WatanabeIs the generalstream ofHizen country OfMatsuuraIs the Kyushu NavyMatsuura PartyIt becomes a territory of.

Jun FujiwaraRebelled as a pirate builder in the Seto Inland Sea (Johei Tenkei no Ran), The Seto Inland Sea will be the stage for Sumitomo's activities.Iyo countryOf the guardianTachibana TohoCaptures Juntomo.

At the end of the Heian periodKiyomori TairaEstablished the Seto Inland Sea routeSeto of OndoDoing excavation business,Itsukushima shrineI proceeded with the maintenance of.

中 世

Kamakura PeriodからSengoku periodIn Iyo ProvinceOchi,Mr. KonoIn coastal areas and islandssamuraiBegan to gain power on the Seto Inland Sea route.Mr. KonoMurakamiThey call themselves pirate generalsPirates(Navy) was organized and the Seto Inland Sea route was put under control.At the end of the Warring States periodOrito administrationMiyoshi,Ishiyama Honganji,Mr. Mouri,Mr. NagasokabeIt was also the stage of the conflict withThe First Battle of Kizugawaguchi,Second Battle of Kizugawaguchi,Shikoku attackSuch).

The early modern period

Hideyoshi ToyotomibyPirate suspension orderThroughEdo PeriodNavy forces are eliminated inCruise shipBy merchantsWest RoutePart of (Kanmon Straits ~Osaka), The Seto Inland Sea played a leading role in distribution.BakumatsuIsNagasaki PortA foreign ship departing via the Seto Inland SeaYokohama portWas sailing to[40].. 1864 (MotoharuIn the first year)ShimonosekiThe Seto Inland Sea was blocked by the bombardment of a foreign ship on the battery, which caused it.Shimonoseki War(Choshu clanThe battle between the battery and the British, French, Dutch, and American fleets) is taking place.

Modern

After the Meiji eraTrainDevelopment of Honshu-Shikoku transportation network such as opening, between Honshu and ShikokuSeto Ohashi BridgeAlthough it became less important as a transportation route than before, the tourist route was opened between Hanshin and Beppu in the Taisho era, and many tourist routes were established after the war.Cruise linerWas back and forth and was bustling.After that, the leading role of the routeferryI moved toHeiseiEven after entering, many regular routes continue to exist.Attempts are also being made to reconsider the Seto Inland Sea as a place for cultural exchange from the perspective of the Kan Setouchi Cultural Area.

Birth of the concept of "Seto Inland Sea"

The concept of the Seto Inland Sea was bornEdo PeriodIt is said to be late.Until thenIzumi Nada,Harima Nada,Bingo Nada,AkinadaEtc., narrower海域There was no point of view to grasp the entire Seto Inland Sea as one, only the concept of.That said, the "Setouchi" of the Edo period does not necessarily overlap with the current "Seto Inland Sea."1813 Written inSado OfCruise shipIn the merchant's travel diary "Sea and Land Directions Diary"OnomichiShimonosekiThe space is called "Setouchi".

It was the opportunity for the concept of "Seto Inland Sea" to be established as it is today.MeijiThis is because Westerners called this area The Inland Sea during the period.Japanese geographers translated the sea area called by Westerners as "Seto Inland Sea" from around 1872, and this became widespread in the latter half of the Meiji era (however, "Seto Inland Sea" at this time). IsAkashi StraitからKanmon StraitIt often took more time to extend the concept of the "Seto Inland Sea" to the wider waters as it is today).

The first cohesive discussion by the JapaneseKazu Konishi"Seto Inland Sea Theory" (1911).In this paper, Konishi pointed out the necessity of considering the Seto Inland Sea as one of the major themes, and positively evaluated the beauty of the islands of the Seto Inland Sea.In addition, Konishi said, "National parkI also pointed out the necessity of making "" in Japan, and laterImperial AssemblyProposed the establishment of a national park in Japan.Accept this proposalNational Park LawWas enacted in 1931,1934 The Seto Inland Sea is Unzen (currently the current one) on March 3th.Unzen Amakusa National Park), Kirishima (currentlyKirishima Kinko Bay National Park) And Japan's first national park "Seto Inland Sea National ParkBecame[41].

Tourism

Utamakura land

Since ancient times, the Seto Inland Sea has been known as a scenic sea, and on the coast, "Manyoshu''Old and modern Wakashu''Shinko Kon Wakashu』And appear inSong pillowAre scattered (Sumiyoshi,Namba,Suma,Akashi,Takasago,Nunobiki,Ikuta

Medieval Japanese Literature and the Seto Inland Sea

In the Middle AgesIse story''Tosa Diary''The Tale of Genji''Yamakeshu』And other literary works have taken up the Seto Inland Sea, and the land that appears in the work becomes a famous place.

At temples and shrines

In the early modern period, when tourist trips for the common people became common,Heike story''Genpei Morishiki''TaihekiThe old battlefield that appears inYajima,Dannoura,Ushimado,FujiyaEtc.) will be attracting attention as a tourist attraction.AlsoKonpira shrine,Mount Ishizuchi,Sumiyoshi Taisha,Itsukushima shrine,Usa Hachimangu,Mt. Ooyama Gion ShrineWorship at such places will also be popular.Famous places in the Seto Inland Sea include ""Ukiyo-eIt also appears frequently.In addition, the tourism industry (main customers are tourists visiting these temples and shrines)A basket of lizards,Chaya, Souvenir shop, etc.)Marugame,Tadotsu,Shimotsui,MiyajimaAnd so on, and it came to show prosperity.

Also at this timeKorean communication ambassador TomonouraThere is a record that praised "Nitto Daiichi Scenic Spot (the best scenery in Japan)".

To the destination of modern tourism

19st centuryTo become and,SieboldAcclaimed the scenery of the Seto Inland Sea.Also in the Meiji eraThomas Cook,Ulysses GrantWesterners such as, came to Japan, and modern "tourist eyes" (about this conceptJohn urryThe Seto Inland Sea was reorganized by (see).In other words, while sightseeing in the Seto Inland Sea before the early modern period had the form of visiting "famous places" through literary works and worshiping at historical shrines and temples, Westerners seemed to be commonplace in various parts of the Seto Inland Sea (at that time). Scenery seen in (Tajima Sea,Terraced fields,White sand blue pine, Go and goJapanese boatEtc.), and gave them value as tourism resources.In other words, with the arrival of modern times, tourism in the Seto Inland Sea has changed from tourism that seeks "meaning" to tourism that uses "vision."[42]. Ferdinand von RichthofenThe Baron left behind the "China Travel Diary" (1943, 18) and praised the Seto Inland Sea as "a world of beauty that weaves between islands and the ocean, which is remarkable in the world." I'm doing[43][44][45]Many Westerners who arrived here were fascinated by the beauty of the archipelago, the calm scenery where nature and people's lives were fused, and the sequence scenery (moving scenery seen from the ship), and praised the Seto Inland Sea. doing[46].

Furthermore, in May 1912 (Meiji 45),Osaka Merchant Marine Beppu hot springMade in Germany on the Hanshin-Beppu route for the purpose of tourism developmentFreighter"Red pillThe cruise, which was purely for sightseeing, became very popular. In 1934 (Showa 9), it became one of Japan's first national parks as mentioned above.

Also, after the war, the Hanshin-Beppu route was taken over.Kansai SteamshipHowever, in 1960 (Showa 35), "MarumaruIn service, then 3,000 ton classCruise linerThe Beppu route (Setouchi route), which had a maximum of six vessels, carried many honeymooners to Beppu Onsen as a sightseeing route connecting Hanshin and Kyushu.

Bubble economy and overdevelopment

1987'sGeneral Recreation Area Improvement ActThe resort development rush of the Japanese archipelago accompanying the enactment was no exception to the Seto Inland Sea, and golf courses and marina were built one after another along the coast.However, such overdevelopment also destroyed the historic landscape of the Seto Inland Sea.Also,Bubble burstAfter that, the development of these resorts was suspended, and some land was abandoned during development.

Current Seto Inland Sea Tourism

In 1996 in Hiroshima CityAtomic bomb domeAnd HatsukaichiItsukushima shrine UNESCO Ofworld HeritageWas registered in.In 1999, when all the four bridges were completed, the Onomichi / Imabari route would be "Shimanami KaidoIt has come to attract attention as a tourist route. In 2016, we will manage tourist destinations in the Seto Inland Sea area.Setouchi Tourism Promotion OrganizationWas established.

industry

12 km, which is 4% of the total area of ​​Japan2About a quarter of Japan's total population, 4 million people live in the coastal area of ​​the Seto Inland Sea.Heavy industry,petrochemistryMany industries are located here.The value of manufactured products shipped nationwideSteel industry46%, petrochemical industry 40%,Chemical industry35%,pulp-paperIt is an area where industrialization is progressing with 30% of the industry, but theseSecondary industryThe ratio of to the total production value is decreasing year by year.The highest ratio was 1970% in 42.6, but dropped to 2002% in 25.4.Agriculture and forestry-Fishing industryな どPrimary industryWas 1965% in 7.4, but was 2002% in 0.8.The ratio is increasingtransportation-communication,Wholesale-retail,金融-insuranceWork,Service industrySuch asTertiary industryIn 1965, it was 52.6%, but in 2002 it was 73.8%.Since ancient times due to population density and large number of industriesShippingWas well developed.Fishery:However, in the 2000s, the catch (weight) decreased by about 1980% compared to the 35s.[47].

In each placeLandfillIs done,Seaweed bed,Tidal flat, Etc. are decreasing, becauseSewer,Oil spill accidentDue to the influence ofred tideOccurrence etc.Water pollutionIs worried[47].

The Seto Inland Sea is an important waterway, and many ships operate in shipping and fishing. In recent years, the number of leisure boats has increased, and in multi-island areas and narrow water areas.Marine accidentIs also occurring frequently[48].

Fishery:

Pre-Edo fishery

The Seto Inland SeaJomon PeriodFrom to today, it has become a place for diverse fishing.Yayoi PeriodAlready inOctopus trapbyOctopusThe excavated material also reveals that fishing was taking place.

In the Edo periodfertilizerUsed forイ ワ シTo catchSeine netAnd fishing became popular.Alsosquid,Congridae,sillaginoid,shrimp,Sea cucumberFishing aiming for such things, even nowSea bream net fishing in Tomonoura, Various net fishing such as fishing by pulling a net while sailing was carried out.These fishing methods are not limited to the Seto Inland SeaBoso PeninsulaIt also propagated to.Also inside the Seto Inland SeaKishuThe sardine burlak fishing method devised inManabe Island,UwajimaIt is known that it has spread to various places.

Aim for the big gameSingle-hook Fishing:Fishing is also a fishing method developed during the Edo period.This is a fishing method mainly conducted in Seto, where the tide is fast.Red snapper,Hamachi,Flounder,Japanese Spanish mackerelEtc. were targeted.It was the natural products that came to be imported from China that promoted the development of single fishing.TegusIs the existence of.The first one to use this for single fishing is in what is now Naruto City.DouraWas a fisherman, but this fishing method was introduced in the latter half of the 17th century.Suo Oshima TownIt is inOkikamuro IslandOkikamuro Island prospered as one of the leading single fishing bases in the Seto Inland Sea.Even now, the basic design of fishing hooks for big fish hooks, "", was devised in Okikamuro Island.Other,Saganoseki,Otodo, Mitsuhama, Ushimado,SaikazakiIs a fishing village famous for single-line fishing.

The high-class fish caught in this way are on boardCageIt was carried to Osaka with it in the box and sold at a high price.Gion FestivalThe season comes aroundSpider TheIkejimeToKyotoWas carried to.Hiroshima oystersIn the Edo periodKansaiWas widely distributed in.

Seto Inland Sea fishermen go abroad

After the Meiji Restoration, there were an increasing number of cases where fishermen in the Seto Inland Sea went out of Japan in search of fishing grounds.Single fishing fishermen in Yamaguchi and Hiroshima prefecturesTaiwan,HawaiiFishermen who use Utase netsフィリピンI went fishing.Takashi Morimoto reveals that the fishermen of Okikamuro Island played a key role in the Hawaiian fishery.[49]..Also in Japan, there are cases where fishermen from Suo-Oshima built a village in Tsushima and migrated.Tsuneichi MiyamotoReported by[50].

House ship

The Seto Inland Sea until the latter half of the 20th centuryHouse shipIt is also known that the fishermen who got on (Ebune) were active.A houseboat is a small wooden fishing boat equipped with a simple roof and loaded with living utensils such as futons and cooking utensils.[51]..Many fishermen in the Seto Inland Sea boarded these boats as a couple and lived on the sea for the rest of their lives.[52]..There is also a theory that their origin may be the descendants of the Murakami Suigun, which was dismantled by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.[53].

Beppu hot springThen, while sleeping in a boatHamawaki OnsenGo to Beppu OnsenHot springThe custom has been seen for a long time and continued for some time after the war.Nearly 100 boats moored at the wharf in springHot spring boatCalledSeason wordsBeppu's springTraditional poetryIt was.

Overfishing and reduction of fish stocks

After World War II, the catch in the Seto Inland Sea increased explosively, reaching a peak in 1982, four times that of the early Showa period.However, after that, the amount of resources decreased due to environmental destruction and overfishing, and sardines, sea breams, Spanish mackerels, etc.TroughThe stock of major fish species is far from recovering.ClamsAlsoLandfillThe number has decreased sharply because the growing environment was destroyed due to such reasons.ClamIs almost extinct.

Oyster, yellowtail, sea bream,Wakame,SeaweedAquaculture is also popular.Oyster farming in HiroshimaMuromachi PeriodGo back to.

Branded products

Of the Seto Inland SeaHorse mackerelEtc.GreeneryIs known for the fact that there are many "setsuki" that do not migrate, especially in Saganoseki.Seki Aji""Seki mackerelIs famous.In addition, in each coastal areaRed snapper,octopus,(EspeciallyKarei Castle),Fish,Puffer fish(EspeciallyShimonoseki) And other items that are branded nationwide, they exist in the Seto Inland Sea.

Agriculture:

Terraced fields

Since the remote islands in the Seto Inland Sea have few cultivable flatlands, the residents have cleared the mountains.Terraced fieldsWas often made.However, the terraced fields that were cleared in this way often had thin soil, so farmers were forced to use lower fertilizer.SeaweedWas manually carried up and fertilized to improve the soil.In general,ClearingIt was said that it would take 10 years before a decent crop could be harvested.This terraced fieldMandarin orangeSuitable for cultivation, especiallyEhime mandarin orangeIs famous.

Birth

After clearing all the mountains on the island, he sometimes went to a nearby island and cleared it there.Having farmland on another island in this way was called "departure", "departure", or "migratory".The farmers got a small wooden boat (farm boat), which went to and from the island with farmland.

Citrus cultivation

Many of the terraced fields that were cleared in this way were found after World War II.citrusIt was diverted to the cultivation of.The terraced fields with excellent sunlight and drainagesugar contentIt was suitable for growing high citrus fruits.However, since it takes a lot of time and effort to farm in terraced fields, in recent yearsAbandoned landIs increasing.

Cotton cultivation

The climate of the Seto Inland Sea coastCottonSince it was also suitable for cultivation, cotton was cultivated in various places during the Edo period.Especially in the Kawachi region, cotton cultivation was popular.HarimaRegion,Okayama Plain,FukuyamaSurroundings, around Hiroshima,TemplePeripheral etc.However, due to the import of high-quality cotton from overseas during the Meiji era, cotton cultivation in these areas declined.

Pyrethrum cultivation

Transferred to Japan at the end of the 18th centuryDalmatian pyrethrum(Pyrethrum) began to be actively cultivated in Hiroshima Prefecture in the 20th century, and pyrethrum cultivation became the center of agriculture until after World War II, including the islands.

Salt industry

The coast of the Seto Inland Sea has a warm climate with little rain since ancient times.Salt makingHas been actively practiced.Yayoi PeriodToKibiIn the countrysideEarthenwareSalt production begins by adding seawater to the beach and boiling it, and in the Nara period, it shifts to the "Shiojiri method" that uses sandy beaches.In the Middle Ages, the seawater pumped up was sprinkled on a sandy beach to evaporate the water and then boiled down.ShiodaTransition to, further17st centuryIn the first halfHimeji DomaintidalThe Irihama salt farm was devised, and the Seto Inland Sea became the center of salt production.The salt from the Seto Inland Sea during this period was also called "Jushu salt".this isHarima country,Bizen country,China,Bingo country,Aki country,Suo,Nagato country,Awakuni,Sanuki country,Iyo countryIt means salt produced in 10 countries.

It was a salt industry that took advantage of the climate of Setouchi, but it is not affected by the weather or climate.Ion exchange membraneDue to the development of the salt-making method, it was temporarily cut off in 1972.However, when the sale of salt was completely liberalized in 2002,SensuijimaAlthough it was a small scale, the salt industry was revived.

Salt industry and white sand blue pine

The salt industry is an industry that consumes a large amount of fuel.Since salt production was active along the coast of the Seto Inland Sea, the satoyama that supplied wood as fuel was cut down one after another.Bald mountain(For details, see "SatoyamaSee).In the Seto Inland SeaWhite sand blue pineOne of the reasons why there were many was from Satoyama, which became a bald mountain in this way.graniteIt has been pointed out that erosion caused the spillage to flow down the river, enter the Seto Inland Sea, and become "white sand."

Industrial

Pacific beltPlaying a part of the industrial areaSetouchi Industrial AreaAnd accounts for about 9% of the total shipment value of all industrial areas.In the westKitakyushu Industrial AreaThe eastern part is one of the three major industrial areasHanshin Industrial AreaIs formed.

Also, taking advantage of being a remote island in the sea,Sulfurous acid gasWas criticized for smoke damagecoppersmeltingThe business has advanced to the Seto Inland Sea.Mitsubishi Materials OfNaoshima,Sumitomo Metal Mining OfShisakajimaetc.

Environment issues

red tide

1970 From (Showa 45)1976 (Showa 51)red tideThe number of cases increased from about 80 to about 300.The Seto Inland Sea contaminated with factory wastewater and domestic wastewater was temporarily called the "Sea of ​​Death," and in 1973 the "Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law" (Setouchi Law) was enacted.[54]..Although it has been gradually decreasing since then, about 2002 cases have been confirmed in 14 (100).The sea areas that occurred in the same year were Osaka Bay, Kii Channel, the opposite shore of Awaji Island in Harima Nada, Ehime Prefecture in Nada, Hiroshima Bay, Bōyo Islands, and Suo Nada.The outbreak of red tide has caused damage to the fishery of farmed yellowtail, sea bream, true oysters, and natural seafood.

March 1992, 4Environment AgencyAccording to Notification No. 67, in seawaternitrogen,phosphorus(Lin) is designated as a closed sea area as a sea area where (phosphorus) affects marine plankton and causes remarkable proliferation, and in 2004 (16) and 2005 (17) including red tide. Algae of unknown cause are damaging the catch.

Seto Inland Sea nutrient problem

The Seto Inland Sea1960 eraから1970 eraOvereutrophicationRed tide is occurring due to1973 ToSeto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Temporary Measures LawWas enacted,2001 ToCODIn addition, restrictions on the total amount of nitrogen and phosphorus have been introduced.Along with this, the occurrence of red tide in the Seto Inland Sea has decreased and the transparency of the sea has increased.On the other handCultured seaweedFrequent discoloration.Catch of sardines that feed on plankton and Spanish mackerel that prey on them is also sluggish.These causes are "the sea is thin", that isNutrientsExcessive decrease in[54], So to speakeutrophicationThere are also researchers who seek the opposite of "oligotroph".[55]..Small fish that feed on seafoodZooplanktonUnderPrimary productionBear theAlgae-PhytoplanktonThis is because nitrogen and phosphorus are required.However, as a counterargument, the decrease in catchoverfishingThere is also an opinion that is the main cause.Decrease in nutrients to the Seto Inland SeaShellfishCauses a decrease in catchTidal flatDecreasedamNutrients from the construction of concrete and the maintenance of rivers with concreteSedimentIt is also pointed out that the cause is the decrease in the outflow to the Seto Inland Sea.[56].2015 The Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law was revised on October 10.[57] In February of the same year, the Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Basic Plan was changed.[58] Then, the conventional idea of ​​"preserving water quality" in the Seto Inland Sea will be changed to "conserving and managing water quality (managing water quality according to regional and seasonal characteristics)", and tidal flats and seaweed beds will be regenerated. By improving the environment surrounding the Seto Inland Seabiodiversity・ Culturally "rich sea (satoumi)[59]) ”Will be investigated, researched, and countermeasures will be taken.

In 2018, Hyogo Prefecture presented a new standard draft to set a lower limit of nitrogen concentration at a subcommittee of the Prefectural Environmental Council.It was a turning point in the administration that aimed to reduce the nitrogen concentration.Takenori Fujiwara (Kyoto UniversityHonorary professor) Is transparent enough for diving when the nitrogen concentration is 0.2 mg / l or less (presented as the lower limit).He commented that in the Seto Inland Sea, not only seaweed but also clams and small fish are affected.[60].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c Overview of the Seto Inland Sea Ministry of the Environment(Retrieved September 2020, 8)
  2. ^ Seto Inland Sea National Park Ministry of the Environment (browsed on July 2020, 8)
  3. ^ "Seto Inland Sea Road Concept" Table of Contents and Concept Philosophy (PDF) Hiroshima Prefecture, 2011
  4. ^ For example, it passed through the Seto Inland Sea in May 2007.HawaiiVoyageCanoe"HokureaIn the official report, the crew expresses the beauty of the Seto Inland Sea as follows. "The scenery of the Seto Inland Sea was like a dream. We passed countless islands that were soft and rounded and covered with greenery. Waves were rising around the islands. I was dreaming. Of course I also enjoyed Fukuoka, but the beauty of this wilderness is exceptional. No, the excitement of this voyage today cannot be described simply by the beauty of the wilderness. "Excerpt from Hokule'a Voyage Blog "May 5 <Iwaishima and Oshima>"
  5. ^ Masanori Nishida "Admiration of the scenery of the Seto Inland Sea by modern Westerners"Landscape Studies," 1995, Vol. 59, No. 4, p.298-309, two:10.5632 / jila.59.298.
  6. ^ Limits of Oceans and Seas (3 ed.). International Hydrographic Organization. (1953). P. 23. http://www.iho-ohi.net/iho_pubs/standard/S-23/S23_1953.pdf NovemberBrowse. 
  7. ^ Limites des Océans et des Mers (3 ed.). Organization hydrographique internationale. (1953). P. 32. http://www.iho.int/iho_pubs/standard/S-23/S-23_Ed3_1953_FR.pdf NovemberBrowse. 
  8. ^ "Part 14 Hometown of Life ―― XNUMX.Cephalochordate regeneration Sea sand ban, breathe back"."Shikoku Shimbun(1999). NovemberBrowse.
  9. ^ "Finless porpoise paradise off the coast of Kansai, abundant food with no fishing," miraculous "". Asahi Shimbun digital(2012). http://www.asahi.com/eco/news/OSK201209050063.html NovemberBrowse. 
  10. ^ "Meeting to watch over the finless porpoise of Ushimado". NovemberBrowse.
  11. ^ "Finless porpoise watching”. Settle ferry, New Daiyomaru. NovemberBrowse.
  12. ^ "Seagrass beds on Iwagi Island, Ikina Island, Akahone Island, and Tsuba Island --The eelgrass beds that are disappearing from the Seto Inland Sea”. Iwaki Seimei Fisheries Cooperative. NovemberBrowse.
  13. ^ Yuji Harada (2015). “New snail:“ Akiramaimai ”found in the Seto Inland Sea”. ""Mainichi Newspapers". http://mainichi.jp/select/news/20150115k0000m040182000c.html NovemberBrowse. 
  14. ^ Yoshikazu Uni (2004). “Record collection and transit strait of the western group Gray Whale Eschrictius robustus”. Uni Natural History Institute, Tokyo University of Agriculture-Faculty of Biological Industry. NovemberBrowse.
  15. ^ "Setouchi Fish Catalog”. Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Association. NovemberBrowse.
  16. ^ "Part 3 Hometown of Life ―― 2. There was a whale (middle)"."Shikoku Shimbun(1999). NovemberBrowse.
  17. ^ "Fishing Information 2001.6.8 Washer, Bikkura Koitagar ... Whale Witness Atsugu". Iwaki VillageGovernment Office Industry Promotion Division (2001). NovemberBrowse.
  18. ^ ""Recent status of Ichirokukai members / Gekisha"”. Iwaki Village Office Industrial Promotion Division (2001). NovemberBrowse.
  19. ^ Tadasu Yamada: “Witness of an unknown baleen whale off the coast of Uwajima City, Ehime Prefecture". National Science Museum. p. Marine Mammal Information Database (2005). NovemberBrowse.
  20. ^ "Thank you for the whale”. Ichirokukai (2008). NovemberBrowse.
  21. ^ a b Kazuto Miyawaki "The Japanese Heart Seen from the Whale Mound-Following the Memories of Whales in the Bungo Suido Sea"
  22. ^ Bungo Channel Katsura Maru. “Dolphin migration information". NovemberBrowse.
  23. ^ "Killer whale uproar". Osaka ECO Animal and Marine College (2011). NovemberBrowse.
  24. ^ "Transition Database (1901-2012), Hyogo Prefecture”. Shimonoseki Cetacean Laboratory (2014). NovemberBrowse.
  25. ^ "Mermaid Legend History Expedition Recorded in Naruto in the middle of the Edo period". Hometown History Expedition. ""Tokushima newspaper(July 2010, 1). NovemberBrowse.
  26. ^ Tetsuro Ito,Kazue Nakamura"Free Meeting Report (Report of the 1995 Meeting of the Japanese Society of Mammals), 1995 Japanese Sea Lion Dialogue"Mammalian Science, Vol. 35, No. 2,"Mammalogical Society of Japan, 1996, pp.176-179, two:10.11238 / mamanlianscience.35.176,NovemberBrowse.
  27. ^ Nobuo Ishii. “Endangered Species Information (Animal) -Japanese River Otters (Populace South of Honshu)-”. General Incorporated FoundationNatural Environment Research Center. NovemberBrowse.
  28. ^ Naoki Kamezaki (2012). “The Seto Inland Sea and the future from the perspective of large marine animals” (PDF). Central Environment Council Seto Inland Sea Subcommittee Planning Expert Committee Local Hearing (Eastern) February 2012, 23 (Kobe City Suma Beach Aquarium, Japan Sea Turtle Council, a non-profit organization, The University of Tokyo Graduate School of Agriculture and Life Sciences / Faculty of Agriculture). http://www.env.go.jp/council/former2013/11seto/y111-hearing03b/mat03_3.pdf. NovemberBrowse.. 
  29. ^ Hiroshi Takamatsu (2014). “Sea turtles spawn in the Seto Inland Sea for the first time in 6 years, confirmed in Akashi, Hyogo”. Asahi Shimbun Digital. http://www.asahi.com/articles/ASG6K4QVJG6KPIHB01H.html NovemberBrowse. 
  30. ^ "Part 3 Hometown of Life ―― 15. Sea Turtle Return Artificial sandy beach is a spawning ground". Shikoku Shimbun (1999). NovemberBrowse.
  31. ^ "Basic knowledge of leatherback turtles". Specified nonprofit corporationCaretta Isumi, Isumi Community Group that protects and nurtures nature, Boso's Natural Environment Association. NovemberBrowse.
  32. ^ ( Leatherback turtle. Kyotango City. (2004). http://www.city.kyotango.lg.jp/cms/shisei/singikai/kekka/bunkazaihogo/documents/h170306.pdf. NovemberBrowse.. 
  33. ^ "Activity report-collecting materials”. (2003). NovemberBrowse.
  34. ^ How many islands are there in the Seto Inland Sea? Japan Coast Guard(Retrieved September 2020, 8)
  35. ^ a b c d Southwest Japan Cenozoic Research Group "Cenozoic history of Southwest Japan (<Special feature> History of structural development of the Japanese archipelago-especially focusing on the Grin Tough era (Part 1)-)"Earth Science" 50-51, 1960, pp. 56-65, two:10.15080 / abcjchikyukagaku.1960.50-51_56.Open access
  36. ^ a b c d e Sadaki Hashimoto "Kinki region once upon a time --Natural history after the Cenozoic Neogene-- (<Special feature 3> Kinki region once upon a time)"Earth Science Education and Science Movement," Vol. 10, 1981, pp. 73-80, two:10.15080 / chitoka.10.0_73.Free to browse
  37. ^ Yoshihiko Okazaki "Miocene Mammals in Japan: Proceedings of the Natural History Study Group V"Plant Classification, Geography," Vol. 29, 1-5, 1978, pp. 138-144, two:10.18942 / bunruichiri.KJ00001078294.Free to browse
  38. ^ a b c Kentaro Minami "Memories of exchanges created by the Seto Inland Sea"Buried Cultural Property Research Center Bulletin" No. 59, January 2018, 1.
  39. ^ Kazuo Sugiyama (October 2019, 10). “From the plains to the sea-formation of the Seto Inland Sea”.. NovemberBrowse.
  40. ^ Ernest Sato"Meiji Restoration as seen by a diplomat (above), A diplomat in Japan" Translated by Seiichi Sakata, Iwanami ShotenIwanami library) 1990, p. 116-
  41. ^ "Setouchi Kai Encyclopedia" Nannansha, 2007
  42. ^ Masanori Nishida "Discovery of the Seto Inland Sea"Central public opinion new company,Year 1999
  43. ^ "Seto Inland Sea" discovered by foreigners
  44. ^ Seto Inland Sea P3, which was also praised by foreign geographers
  45. ^ ① Seto Inland Sea World Jewels
  46. ^ World Jewels Oriental Paradise Seto Inland Sea
  47. ^ a b Ministry of the Environment, Setouchi Net "Overview of the Seto Inland Sea"
  48. ^ Japan Coast Guard "Current status of marine accidents and countermeasures (23 edition)"
  49. ^ Morimoto et al. "Okiyamuro Seto Inland Sea Fishing Island" Mizunowa Publishing, 2006
  50. ^ Tsuneichi Miyamoto "Forgotten Japanese" Iwanami Bunko
  51. ^ Similar ships can be found in the Philippines and Indonesia.
  52. ^ Yukichi Habara "Drifting People" Iwanami Shoten, 1963/2002
  53. ^ Kazuteru Okiura"Ethnography of Setouchi" Iwanami Shoten, 1998
  54. ^ a b Seto Inland Sea "Beauty" or "Abundance""Mainichi Shimbun" morning edition July 2020, 7 (living navigation side) Viewed August 21, 2020
  55. ^ Mr. Minoru Tanita, director of the Hyogo Prefectural Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center and Fisheries Technology Center, actually mentions "oligotrophic" in the Seto Inland Sea.
  56. ^ Research on nutrient supply from rivers to coastal waters and utilization of seaweed --Hidezo Takagi
  57. ^ About the law to partially revise the Ministry of the Environment Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Special Measures Law
  58. ^ Regarding the Cabinet decision to change the "Seto Inland Sea Environmental Conservation Basic Plan" by the Ministry of the Environment (Notice)
  59. ^ Satoumi is said to be "a coastal area where bioproductivity and biodiversity have increased due to the addition of human resources."What is Satoumi? | Satoumi Net (Ministry of the Environment)
  60. ^ "Water quality has improved too much and is not caught. For the first time in Japan, the prefecture has a lower limit on nitrogen concentration.". Kobe newspaperNEXT (August 2019, 6). NovemberBrowse.

Related item

外部 リンク

Coordinate: 34°10'N 133°20'E /34.167 degrees north latitude 133.333 degrees east longitude / 34.167; 133.333


 

Back to Top
Close